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Faculty of Science and Engineering

Department of Architecture and Built Environment

Assessment Brief

Module 6CV005 Transport Technologies and Planning

Module Leader Dr. Panagiotis Georgakis
Semester 1
Year 2019 – 20
Assessment Number 1
% of module mark 50
Due Date 10/12/2019 (before 23:59pm)
Hand-in – what? A pdf document of the technical report. This should include your efforts
for all parts and tasks. You should also include the spreadsheet(s) that
contain(s) the application of the different methods.
Hand-in- where? The assignment must be uploaded on CANVAS
Pass mark 40%
Method of retrieval Resubmission of the assignment
Feedback Electronic feedback will be provided
Collection of N/A
marked work

Learning outcomes
Learning Outcome 2
 ID1: Be aware of business, customer and user needs, including considerations such as the
wider engineering context, public perception and aesthetics.
 ID3: Work with information that may be incomplete or uncertain and be aware that this
may affect the design of transportation solutions.
 ID5: Manage the design process of transportation projects, including cost drivers, and
evaluate outcomes.
Learning Outcome 3
 IELS2: Knowledge and understanding of the commercial, economic and social context of
transport engineering processes.

Marking Criteria

Task A: Application of the 4-step planning model (65%)

Task B: Critical review of ITS (35%)

Submission of work
Your completed work for assignments must be handed in on or before the due date. You must keep a copy or
backup of any assessed work that you submit. Failure to do so may result in your having to repeat that piece
of work.

Electronic submission
This is normally done via CANVAS. Any special instructions will be available on the upload tag or within the
assessment brief.

Penalties for late submission of coursework

Standard University arrangements apply. ANY late submission will result in the grade 0 NS being allocated to
the coursework.

Procedure for requesting extensions / mitigating circumstances

This is done via eVision. Further information can be found at

Retrieval of Failure
Where a student fails a module (less than 40% for undergraduate modules, less than 50% for postgraduate
modules) they have the right to attempt the failed assessment(s) once, at the next resit opportunity
(normally July resit period). If a student fails assessment for a second time they have a right to repeat the


Cheating is any attempt to gain unfair advantage by dishonest means and includes plagiarism and collusion.
Cheating is a serious offence. You are advised to check the nature of each assessment. You must work
individually unless it is a group assessment.

Cheating is defined as any attempt by a candidate to gain unfair advantage in an assessment by dishonest
means, and includes e.g. all breaches of examination room rules, impersonating another candidate, falsifying
data, and obtaining an examination paper in advance of its authorised release.

Plagiarism is defined as incorporating a significant amount of un-attributed direct quotation from, or un-
attributed substantial paraphrasing of, the work of another.

Collusion occurs when two or more students collaborate to produce a piece of work to be submitted (in whole
or part) for assessment and the work is presented as the work of one student alone.

For further details see:

Assignment Brief

Task A: Application of the 4-step planning model

Your task is to perform transport planning analysis using different techniques of the 4-step
planning model.

i) Trip Generation (20% of the assignment grade)

Using the data from the households provided in Table 1 below, apply regression analysis for
the following cases:

 Case 1: Univariate regression for predicting the number of trips made by a

household based on the distance from the city centre. You need to select 5 out of
the 30 households presented on the table and apply the method using the least
square equations. You can also employ the Regression analysis tool in Excel in order
to evaluate your answers.
 Case 2: Multivariate regression for predicting the number of trips made by a
household based on both the cars owned and the distance of the household from
the city centre. You need to use the Regression analysis tool in Excel and 20
(randomly selected) out of 30 households as part of your analysis.
 Case 3: Multivariate regression, with the normalisation1 of the values, for predicting
the number of trips made by a household based on both the cars owned and the
distance of the household from the city centre. You need to use the same 20
households as those in Case 2.

Note: You need to post the lists with the households that you are planning to use as part
of the Trip Generation task on Canvas. These would have to be approved prior to the
commencement of the analysis.

Table 1 : Number of trips per household based on cars owned and distance from the city
Household Distance from city Cars Owned Number of
centre (in miles) business trips
1 5 1 3
2 14 3 1
3 20 2 1
4 5 4 4
5 14 1 1
6 14 1 1
7 26 2 3
8 17 2 4
9 7 3 5
10 8 1 2
11 3 2 2
12 2 3 4

You can use any normalisation range you see fit.

13 8 1 1
14 11 2 3
15 5 1 2
16 12 2 3
17 22 3 5
18 34 1 1
19 6 2 2
20 11 1 1
21 14 2 2
22 18 2 3
23 9 1 2
24 4 2 3
25 7 3 1
26 12 1 2
27 16 2 3
28 5 2 1
29 8 1 0
30 21 3 2

Calculate both the Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Mean Absolute Percentage Error
(MAPE) for Cases 2 and 3 described above and comment on the results.

Use an equation that results from the regression analysis and calculate the number of trips
that will be generated by five areas with household information as show in Table 2 below.

Table 2 : Household information for five areas

Number of Distance from city Cars Owned

Households centre (in miles)
52 18 1
Area A 48 24 2
66 30 1
50 16 3
Area B 60 24 3
38 15 2
34 6 0
Area C 49 14 1
48 19 1
32 21 3
Area D 28 12 4
24 18 4
53 11 2
Area E 60 21 1
58 19 1

ii) Trip Distribution (30% of the assignment grade)

a) Application of Growth factor methods

Based on the trip generation data from the previous step of the analysis and using the
present trip distribution as shown in Figure 1, develop an O/D matrix for the current

Figure 1 : Present trip distribution

Assuming that the future production and attraction of trips for each zone will be increased
based on the percentages shown in Table 3, perform the following tasks:

 Generate the O/D matrix for the future demand using the average factor method.
 Generate the O/D matrix for the future demand using the Furness method.
 Compare the results from the two methods and discuss the findings.

Table 3 : Future growth of trips

Zones Increase in trips production Increase in trips attraction
A 45% 38%
B 35% 46%
C 29% 65%
D 42% 36%
E 56% 45%

b) Application of synthetic methods

Using the future trip productions and attractions for each zone (based on the output from
the Trip Generation step and the growth given in Table 3 above) and the travel times and
friction factors shown in Table 4 and Table 5 respectively, determine the number of zone-to-
zone trips using the Gravity Model (Assume 𝐾𝑖𝑗 = 1).

Please note that minor manual adjustments may be required in order for the developed matrix to be balanced.

Table 4 : Travel time between zones
Zone A B C D E
A 4 4 7 5 6
B 7 5 3 4 5
C 6 4 8 3 7
D 3 5 3 5 5
E 5 4 2 4 8

Table 5 : Friction factors for travel time

Time (min) F
1 69
2 62
3 57
4 44
5 41
6 29
7 24
8 19

iii) Modal Choice/Traffic Assignment (15% of the assignment grade)

a) application of logit model

The utility function for travelling between zones B and C is given by the following equation.

𝑈𝑖 = 𝑏(𝐼𝑉𝑇𝑇) + 𝑐(𝑂𝑉𝑇𝑇) + 𝑑(𝐶𝑂𝑆𝑇)

𝑈𝑖 = utility function for mode i
IVTT = in-vehicle travel time (min)
OVTT = out-vehicle travel time (min)
COST = out-of-pocket cost (pence)

The cost coefficient d is computed as follows:

𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
𝑇𝑉𝑃 = ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑙𝑦 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑜𝑦𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒
AI = average annual household income (£)

Note that for the estimation of TVP and AI you need to use information (any statistic from
national or international sources will be accepted) found in the literature.

If 𝑏 = −0.030 and 𝑐 = −0.020 and using the times and cost details for three modes as
shown in Table 6, determine the share (proportion) of trips by each mode using the logit

Table 6 : Values for times and cost for each mode
Parameter Bus Train Car
IVTT (min) 24 18 16
OVIT (min) 6 9 1
COST (pence) 216 350 428

b) application of Dijkstra’s algorithm

The routes for a new train line that will service 8 areas are shown in Figure 2 below.
Calculate the fastest route from zone O to zone T using the Dijkstra’s algorithm. The values
on the edges represent the distance between the areas.

Figure 2 : Graph displaying train routes

Task B: Critical review of ITS (35%)

ITS involve the application of computing, telecommunication, sensory and control

systems and technologies for the alleviation of long-term transportation problems such as
congestion and increased travel times, high accident rates, environmental pollution and
inefficiency of transport operations.
You need to carry out a critical review3 of an integrated travel information ITS that
can be used to support public transport services. This should include critical discussion of
relevant systems, implementation approaches, user needs analysis and organizational
requirements for the operation of the selected technologies (Word limits – min:1500 –

You should provide a minimum of 8 references, 4 of which should be journal papers.

University Performance Descriptors

The minimum pass mark at levels 6 = 40%.

L6 (Graduate level)
90-100% Exceptional level of analysis, showing deep critical engagement with a comprehensive
range of contextual material. Demonstration of independent thought resulting in highly
original or creative responses to the assignment. Provision of clear evidence of
understanding of current scholarship and research based on an extensive range of relevant
sources. Extreme clarity of structure demonstrating complete focus of argument. No obvious
errors in referencing or grammar or syntax as appropriate.
80-89% Excellent links between relevant ideas, theories and practice. Evidence of clearly
independent scholarship and the ability to engage critically and analytically with a wide
range of contextually relevant resource material. Demonstration of original insights,
supported by extremely well structured overall argument. Very few errors in referencing or
grammar or syntax as appropriate.
70-79% Very good links between a range of different ideas and theories. Places issues in a wider
context. Evidence of clear understanding of a range of relevant theories and application of
these appropriately. Independent ideas, well argued and supported. Few errors in referencing
or grammar or syntax as appropriate.
60-69% Clear links between theory and practice. Good coverage of assignment issues. Full
understanding of core issues. Evidenced level of understanding of appropriate theory and
concepts. Some small repeated errors in referencing or grammar or syntax as appropriate

50-59% Identifies main issues and relevant theory. Coverage of most of assignment issues.
Competent application of relevant theory and states obvious links to practice. Some repeated
errors in referencing or grammar or syntax as appropriate.
40-49% Demonstration that the learning outcomes have been met. Makes few links between theory
and practice. Answers question in a very basic way. Describes relevant theory accurately,
and some relevant ideas offered. Limited coherence of structure. Several repeated errors in
referencing or grammar or syntax as appropriate.
30-39% Some learning outcomes and / or assessment criteria not met.
Inadequate content with issues not addressed; insufficient evidence of understanding of
Compensatable relevant theory and concepts and only partial understanding shown. Very limited application
Fail of theory. Use of extensive quoted passages is evident. Evidence of sufficient grasp of
learning outcomes to suggest that the student will be able to retrieve the module on
20-29% No learning outcomes fully met. No demonstration of adequate knowledge or understanding
of key concepts or theories. There is no recognition of the complexity of the subject.
10-19% Little attempt to engage with assignment brief and has not met learning outcomes.
Inadequate demonstration of knowledge or understanding of key concepts, theories or
Fail practice.
0-9% No real attempt to address the assignment brief or learning outcomes.