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MASTER OF EDUCATION

JANUARY 2019 SEMESTER

HMEF5123

MODELS AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING

NO. MATRIKULASI : CGS01681106

NO. KAD PENGNEALAN : 800125075010

NO. TELEFON : 012-561651

E-MEL : leela1980@oum.edu.my
/leelagal@hotmail.com

PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN : SUNGAI PETANI LEARNING CENTRE

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Content Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHAT IS MEANT BY TEACHING AND LEARNING?
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1.2 TEACHER CENTERED LEARNING
1.3 STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING

2.0 TEACHING MODELS


2.1 ROBERT GLAZER MODEL
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2.2 SIM MODEL
2.3 TABA MODEL
2.4 INQUIRY MODEL

3.0 SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL


3.1 IMPLICATIONS OF THE SOCIAL THEORY TO
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TEACHING AND LEARNING

4.0 COOPERATIVE LEARNING


4.1 GROUP INVESTIGATION
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4.2 ROLE PLAYING
4.3 JURISPRUNDENTIAL INQUIRY MODEL

5.0 IMPLICATION OF TEACHING AND LEARNING 16-17

6.0 CONCLUSION 18-19

REFERENCES 20-21

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

In Malaysia the Education Ministry of Malaysia has identified 21st century skills that are
relevant to the local context and can provide Malaysians to compete internationally. Therefore,
the national curriculum aims to produce balanced, resilient, passionate, compassionate pupils,
informative, patriotic, and communicative thinking skills, and teamwork where it is focus on
student centered learning.

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Appearances and forms of education appropriate to the 21st century generation have been
widely discussed and many writing materials are commenting on education that can meet the
needs of todays and future education. Average education experts agree that the methods of
teaching and learning need to change in line with the curriculum development of cyber
technology and access to the internet that is increasingly advanced. Conventional teaching
methods such as "chalk and talk" are unsuccessful in attracting students but require more
dynamic and creative methods with relevant teaching content in line with current developments.

All parties who are directly involved with the education world should be aware that there
is no room for non-participation in education transformation. Even the changes in education
should always be in line with the development of the ages or one step forward. Teachers need to
be prepared to accept changes and to manage the change efficiently and effectively so that
teaching and learning become fresher and meet the needs of students

Recognizing the importance of teachers understanding and being willing to make changes
in teaching and learning in accordance with the 21st century learning, the Ministry of Education
has launched a 21st century learning initiative in 2014 and extends nationwide implementation
from 2015. Hence the will discuss the 21st century learning and share information on the 21st
century class layout model in line with the Ministry of Education's efforts to transform education
through the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025.

1.1 What is meant by teaching and learning?

Teaching can be defined as engagement with learners to enable their understanding and
application of knowledge, concepts and processes. It includes design, content selection, delivery,
assessment and reflection. To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of
getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. A teacher requires not only
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knowledge of subject matter, but knowledge of how students learn and how to transform them
into active learners. Good teaching, then, requires a commitment to systematic understanding of
learning.

The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students
from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and
others' knowledge. The teacher cannot transform without the student's active participation, of
course. Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions
under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively.

In formal education, the teaching and learning process must be given due emphasis. The
process that is synonymous with classroom teaching and learning involving teachers and students
necessitates a continuous effort towards providing comprehensive and effective education to all
the lessons learned. Ust Saidi (2009) stated that the process of teaching and learning in schools
involves two parties namely teachers and students. Therefore, the ideal lesson should be to give
full attention to the learning process. According to Ang Chai Thin (2016), a good lesson is to
refer to teachers who can bring students to the final learning outcome they want. This involves a
structured teaching pattern in terms of classroom organization and emphasize lesson content. In
addition, it also refers to the teaching of teachers who focus more on their students so that they
are interested in pursuing learning activities. Thus, the formation of effective teaching processes
has varying values but is still aimed at seeing the outcome of the lesson content
delivered.Learning is a continuous process which can conduct formally or informally. The
formal education will conduct through school which focuses on reading, writing and counting.
The informal education will happen through peers, family, mass media and environment
sustainability.

1.2 Teacher- centered learning

Teacher centered learning is a teaching method where the teacher is in actively involved
in teaching while the learners are in a passive, receptive mode listening as the teacher teaches.
Teaching focus or activity is monopolized by teachers. Teachers are fully responsible for
determining the learning objectives, drawing up learning tasks and selecting learning resources
for their students. According to Ive Ameliana 2017, this approach is an easily designed and
managed approach.

The teacher centering strategy is also known as explicit. This strategy is practiced in the
classroom where the teacher is in the middle of classroom activity. In this strategy the teacher
controls all learning activities. In teaching and learning activities, teachers play an important role
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while pupils play as spectators. Communication and interaction between teacher and student is
one way. Many teachers talk and students hear a lot. Consequently, under the strategy of
concentrating the pupils of the students becomes less creative and initiative. This strategy uses
material presentations in small and systematic steps with a stop to check the students'
understanding. Teacher centering strategies contain lessons that have small steps that emphasize
student practical training after each step. The role of the teacher is to deliver materials, guide
students at an early practice session, and provide each student with higher and more frequent
practical exercises.

1.3 Student -centered learning

The term of student-centered learning refers to a wide variety of educational programs,


learning experiences, instructional approaches, and academic-support strategies that are intended
to address the distinct learning needs, interests, a of individual students and groups of students.
Student-centered learning moves students from passive to active participants in their own
discovery process. What students learn how they learn it and how their learning is assessed are
all driven by each individual student’s needs and abilities.

Student-centered learning has subtle but profound implications for instructors. To move
toward this new model, instructors must be willing to emphasize learning while sharing power
with learners in the classroom (Barr & Tagg, 1995). This can be done in a thoughtful way
through planning and the use of incremental steps. First, instructors can help learners set goals
for themselves and can offer self-directed activities through which learners can build both their
self-confidence and their learning skills. As a result, learners become motivated to take greater
control of their learning, and instructors gain confidence in managing the new environment. At
the system level, this requires implementing curriculum planning practices, pedagogy and
assessment methods that support a student-centric approach. In the classroom, teachers craft
instruction and apply technology in a way that best serves each student’s learning journey.

21st century skill is a learning skill which is essential and highly needed by students to be
competitive in this century. 21st century skills can be attributed to various elements which are
needed in this technological age, which includes skills communicating, science and technology
skills, and thinking skills, interpersonal and intrapersonal skills and so on. By the author
Padmaja Nasipur in article 21st Century Skills for Our Children stated that Learning and
Innovation Skills included Creativity and Innovation, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving,
Communication and Collaboration (the “4 Cs”).

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In student-centered learning, students are the focus and they play the center role where
they are actively engaged in their learning process in a collaborative nature along with their peers
and under the guidance of their teacher. Students turn into active learners where they learn by
doing, engaging, and interacting. The teacher takes a back seat and students come out taking
challenges and exploring new aspects of their learning.

According to the author Priyanka Guptha (2016), one major aspect of student centered
learning is interaction. Be it between students or students and the teacher. If students are actively
communicate with the students they will they will learn more. Student-focused teaching provides
wide opportunities for students to discuss and share their ideas in small groups. Students –
teacher conversation may happen less in a student-focused classroom but teachers work as the
guide on the side.

“Brain research has found that the brain searches for patterns and connections as its way
of building meaning,” if students are not actively engaged in their learning, then they are unable
to make the connections necessary to make learning meaningful (Elizabeth Ann Graves. May,
2008) found that social studies content should be in depth with lessons and activities.

Lesson Design and Implementation by the teacher also very important to conduct student
centered teaching by an innovative and creative teacher. When learning is going to place with
maximum involvement by students then the lesson design by a teacher needs to be upgraded
according to the students’ ability. And that lesson would be something that is organized to
explicitly engage students with their existing ideas and actively explores new concepts through
authentic inquiry can help students to change what they already know, make connections, and
integrate this new knowledge.

Technology Integration in teaching and learning process is needed for the students and
teacher to successfully full fill the student centered learning. It doesn’t really matter if the class is
filled with all latest technology. What really means is how well the teacher and the learners’
class is using that technology and how effective it is being proved in the classroom activities.
There are many tasks that students can do with technology. There are so many web tools that can
aid teaching in wonderful ways. Also, students always love to try their hand at new technologies
so integrating tech makes them eager to actively participate in class activities.

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2.0 Teaching Models

Learning theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire,
retain, and recall knowledge. By studying and knowing the different learning theories, we can
better understand how learning occurs. The principles of the theories can be used as guidelines to
help select instructional tools, techniques and strategies that promote learning.

2.1 Robert Glazer model

Robert Glaser presented his teaching model with divide the teaching process into four
components the main objective of teaching, the existing knowledge of the students, method of
teaching and evaluation. He also emphasized student feedback is an important aspect of the
process teaching and learning. According to him, the objective is teaching must be determined
according to available knowledge there is a student. Then, the method of teaching must be
chosen based on existing teaching and knowledge objectives students. Next, the assessment
should be carried out on everything the teaching process with the aim of detecting weaknesses,
so that teachers can modify their teaching process, for the sake of improving the effectiveness of
future teaching. In conclusion, Robert Glaser's Teaching Model was built based on the concept
of teaching as a process emphasizing the teaching steps of planning, implementation, assessment
and feedback.

2.2 Sim Model

Model Teaching Sim also explained that the process the applicable teaching is through
the interaction between some elements are teachers, students, subject matter and also objective.
This model is built on the concept of teaching as a field of communication, the interaction
between teachers and students with the objectives and contents of the lessons in a specific
environment. Based on this model, the lesson objective must be determined explicitly and
according to the ability of student disciples. What distinguishes this model with the Glaser
Model is Model Sim emphasizing good relationship between teachers with students to create
healthy interactions and the atmosphere of effective teaching and learning. This model also
emphasizes elements environment like conducive classroom conditions are appropriate with the
socio-economic and cultural condition of students. In conclusion, with these considerations,
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interaction between teacher, student, objective, content lesson and environment can be created
effectively. Next, the effectiveness of the teaching process can be achieved to the level optimum.

2.3 Taba Model

Teaching Taba Model also emphasizes the preparation of teaching materials in a suitable
system that can improve student thinking skills. Compilation of information in the process of
teaching and learning are prioritized in this model. This model explains that someone students
perform cognitive operations on teaching materials or the selection of a concept must be made
through four levels as follows; compiling data or facts by observing the characteristics of
similarities and differences, to sort and wipe the facts into categories and label it, make
generalization or the conclusions on the relationships between the categories that, and apply the
generalized gain. The summary, with reference to this model, teachers can plan teaching by
dividing the topic into generalizations, concepts and facts that are useful to determine appropriate
teaching methods.

2.4 Inquiry Model

The Inquiry model covers all questionnaires for get answers or conclusions from
questions, or of the problems raised. This questionnaire activity requires students to identify
problematic questions, form hypotheses, designing research activities, conducting study or
investigation and then get answers and make a summary. In teaching and learning activities
learning, there are two kinds of inquiry techniques that are 'inquiry guided 'and' open inquiry '.
Guided inquiry requires teachers guide students to conducting all the research process. This type
of inquiry is appropriate at the school level low and medium. In an open inquiry, students do not
given any guidance. All study processes are conducted by students themselves. Therefore, it is
appropriate to be implemented on higher levels of study like in universities. In conclusion, this
inquiry model is very useful for acquire new information and knowledge in a variety of ways
especially in education.

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3.0 THE SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL

If reviewed from the aspect of social learning theory, it is an extension of the traditional
behavioral learning theory (behavioristic). This social learning theory was developed by Albert
Bandura (1986). This theory receives most of the principles of behavioral learning theories. Each
student individually (and social) builds an example as he learns to build meaning for learning.

According to Bandura theory (1963), learning through observation is a basic form of


human behavior (Mok Soon Sang, 2010). According to Bandura, human beings are capable of
thinking about choosing their own course (Lee Shok Mee, 1995). Therefore, this theory has
prioritized the method of modeling and observation in the learning process.

3.1 IMPLICATIONS OF THE SOCIAL THEORY TO TEACHING AND LEARNING

Among the implications that are closely linked to the Social Learning Theory of the first
teaching and learning is that as a teacher, it is important for us to give every student an
opportunity to observe and emulate the different types of models that demonstrate the desired
behavior. Teachers are role models for the students (Mok Soon Sang, 2010). The teacher should
ensure that he / she has positive behaviors and skills as highly regarded, competent, well in line
with the modeling goal to be modeled in the classroom.

In addition, in concept of behavior modification teachers can demonstrate a good


example of courtesy and do not raise voice in the classroom. If the teacher wishes to change the
behavior of the disadvantaged student to the acceptable, the teacher should show them the best
examples of indirect imitation. Due to the widespread influence of mass media and the internet
on students rather than straightforward models, teachers can advise them on the types of
programs to be chosen and which should be rejected.

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If examined in more depth, teachers need to make their peers a model. Teachers can use
popular or successful students to show model behavior in the classroom. Demonstrate a good
example of the attitude, beliefs and habits that the teacher wants to instill in the student. Teachers
should be compassionate to meet the needs of love and should share feelings, ideas and thoughts
with students.

Social learning theory is the learning that happens when one observes and imitates the
behavior of others. In other words, information is obtained by observing events in the
environment. In the Bobo puppet experiment, Bandura illustrates how social learning can occur
even by witnessing a model that is not reinforced or punished. In the experiment, the children
mimic like the aggressive behavior of the adults around her. The experiment also shows the
difference in learning and performance. The Albert Bandura's reciprocal learning determinism
model includes three key factors as person, cognition, behavior, and environment. The person
(cognitive) factor that Bandura emphasizes recently is self-efficacy, the belief that one can
master and produce positive results. (Moh Arif Andrian 2014)

It can concluded that with the theory of social learning proposed by Albert Bandura is
expected by an individual in the impersonation process, choose a positive thing because imitating
it does not mean to be the same. Self-esteem should be improved to address and solve problems
effectively. Individuals with high self-esteem will have a strong commitment in solving the
problem and will not give up when it finds that the strategy being used is unsuccessful.
Therefore, self-elimination is very important.

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4.0 Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is a general term for a set of teaching strategies designed to educate
group cooperation and interaction between students. The aim of cooperative learning includes at
least three learning objectives, namely academic learning outcomes, acceptance of diversity, and
development of social skills. It is also supported by Pons, sharon, serrano, Lomeli & Buchs
(2013) which states that the Cooperative Approach is a form of systematic teaching system
consisting of different levels of lQ. Everything slay depends on each other and teachers which is
specific to the cooperative method.

Whereas according to (Agus Suprijono, 2010). Cooperative Learning is a broader concept


covering all types of Group Work including forms that are more led by the teacher or directed by
the teacher. In general, Cooperative Learning is considered more directed by the teacher, where
the teacher determines assignments and questions and provides materials and information
designed to help students solve the intended problem.

According to Isjoni (2010), cooperative teaching and learning has five special features.
The first is the goal of the group, the goals of the group are related to the group's final outcome,
the student should have the group's goals and make it an encouragement and motivation as long
as the cooperative teaching and learning process takes place so that the tasks are non-essential
from the goals to be achieved.

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The second feature is the role of a member, every member in the group is required have
certain roles and responsibilities in order not to have a "overlapping" or parasitic group term. The
members of this group are irresponsible and self-centered groups. Group goals will be difficult if
group members do not play a role each one well.

Sources or materials are the third attributes, sources and instructional materials in
cooperative learning should be shared, each group may have their own materials, but should be
shared with everyone can be fully utilized by all members of the group without any missed. Co-
operative interaction in co-operative teaching and learning is that each member of the group
should have face-to-face interactions and intermediaries. All members of the group need to
interact with each other for discussion to solve the problem and the assignment given by the
teacher.

The last feature is the individual's responsibility, each member of the group responsible
for the success of the group. Each member should work with each other to ensure that all
members of the group understand their duties and are prepared to sit for any assessment will be
given the teacher at the end of the teaching and learning sessions.

Learning with the method of cooperative learning is based on Cognitive theory because
according to this theory interaction can support learning. This theory holds that human beings
basically have differences, with that difference humans sharpen each other, care (educate each
other). The expectation to be achieved by applying cooperative learning is the existence of
interactions that are sharp, compassionate, fostering so as to create a learning community.
Students are not only focused on learning from the teacher, but also with fellow students.
Cooperative learning is learning that consciously and intentionally develops upbringing
interactions to avoid offense and misunderstandings that can lead to hostility, as an exercise in
living in society.

In fact, the study conducted by Mohaffyza (2008) proves that this cooperative method
encourages students to teach and learn each other. They have the opportunity to share their
opinions with teachers and friends. They will build friendships in the group. They also train
readers to listen to their friends' opinions on their academic performance and train them to be
more mature and confident.

Hence, researchers find that cooperative learning benefits provide an opportunity for
student-centered learning. This means that teachers need to have the skills to act as facilitators in
the classroom. However, the title with regard to time factor affects the plates of this method.
Therefore, teachers are encouraged to hold a program of knowledge, for example, a lesson study
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among them so that the proliferation of ideas and the reinforcement of teaching techniques can
be considered together

This is supported by the opinion of Shahabuddin Hashim et at (2007) and Ahamad bin
Rahim (2013) to encourage the active participation of students, the movement (the troupe held
by the students to interact with each other during discussions conducted), the investigators have
interventions necessary to engage themselves to interact throughout the discussion.

4.1 Group investigation

Group Investigation is students form interest groups within which to plan and implement
an investigation, and synthesize the findings into a group presentation for the class (Daniel
Zingaro, 2008). Moreover, According to Robert E. Slavin (2005:24) Group Investigation (GI) is
planning of common class setting where the students work in small group using cooperative
question, group discussion, planning, and project cooperative.

Every method or strategy certainly has advantages and disadvantages. According to


Slavin (2010:214-229) the group investigation method allows students to use inquiry skills that
many educators believe will better prepare learners for the future than will more traditional
teaching learning strategies. It also provides opportunities for more intensive investigation of a
study or problem. The group investigation strategy is conducive to developing student
leadership in teaching the skill of discussion and group processes where it enables the teacher to
give more individual attention to teaching pupil’s learning needs. It allows pupils to become
more actively involved in their own learning and to participate more freely in this discussion.
Furthermore students also tend to participate more actively in small group situations. The method
can be used in schools employing a variety of the class arrangements, groupings, and schedules
where it provides opportunities to develop respect for other students whose work helps the group
progress in reaching its goals. Moreover, according to Salvin (2010) there are some
disadvantages of group investigation method such as just some of the students are active in the
class showing how it can’t attract all students to actively participate. It also can create situation
where there are some clashes among students which are hard to deal with. Some of the students
will find it is hard to find new things because they are not accustomed doing so.

As a result, group investigation giving more opportunity to all students to interact


actively in doing any project and group work. There will stay together to solve the problem
given. This method is very appropriate for 21st teaching and learning.

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4.2 Role playing

Role-playing is being used as a pedagogical approach for many years, predominantly in


sports education, theater, history and other social science disciplines. Utilizing the techniques of
drama, role-playing teaching is a holistic teaching method that inculcates the process of critical
thinking, instigates emotions and moral values, and informs about factual data. It has been found
that role-playing teaching increases the efficacy of the learning experience and makes it more
grounded in reality (Pierce & Middendorf, 2008).

Though roleplaying is not a popular pedagogical approach adopted in education, it has


major benefits and potentials for improving students‟ learning (Bhattacharjee & Ghosh, 2013).
Due to the involvement of group of students in class, role-playing teaching method that
replicates the real life scenario by assigning different roles to the students can prove to be very
effective in education. If role based teaching is incorporated along with problem-based teaching,
the students get an opportunity to replicate a real situation that help the students to solve the
problem effectively. Role-playing teaching also has added merits when combined with team-
based teaching in the disciplines where the students come together to work in groups.

One main advantage of role-playing teaching is that it encourages individuals, while


acting in the role, to reflect upon their knowledge of a subject and act accordingly. Thus, when
adopted in teaching and learning , role-playing teaching will provide the students rehearsal of
reflecting upon their knowledge on a subject to make effective and good decisions.

According the articles role playing meets the needs of educators who are attempting to
offer students an active learning environment that balances theory and practice while equipping
students with skills necessary to make decisions. Problem based learning if adopted with role
playing for analyzing real life cases will allow students to develop critical thinking and logical
reasoning skills. The results from this study illustrate that student’s demonstrated improved
learning outcome and broader perspective on the attitude towards the profession as a result of
participating in the role-playing activities.

4.4 Jurisprudential Inquiry Model

Prudential Jurisdiction Inquiry Model used to find the truth and accuracy of issues such
as learning Science is more useful than literate learning. This inquiry process is based on debate
activities. In teaching and learning activities, there are two types of inquiry techniques namely
guided inquiries and open inquiries. Guided inquiry requires the teacher to guide the students to
conduct all the research process. This type of inquiry is suitable for use at primary and secondary

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schools. In open inquiry, the pupils were not given any guidance. All study process is conducted
by the student himself. This type of inquiry is suitable for use at high school level and higher.

The results of implementation of jurisprudential inquiry learning model in teaching


paragraph writing of analytical exposition text in the academic year of 2016/2017 (Farikah 2017)
was effective. It can be seen in two aspects. They are the students’ learning motivation and
whether or not there is significant difference of the students’ competence in developing the
paragraph before and after the implementation jurisprudential inquiry learning model.

5.0 Implication of teaching and learning

21st century class education focuses on three key components, namely technology
knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge or curriculum. Active,
communicative and collaborative all teachers are always the dream of every student in this
mainstream because this three component is the determining factor in student centered learning.
Now, 21st century learning has become a hot issue in the education world as it is seen to meet
current educational needs, as well as bringing new changes in the education world. 21st century
learning is mainly focus on student-centered learning process. There are 6C’s elements applied,
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namely communication, collaborative, critical thinking, creativity character and country. These
elements are also referred to as the basic standards of 21st century learning.
This 21st century class which is focused on student centered learning is most appropriate
because it has a lot of positive impacts on the student. With the existence of this student centered
learning, pupils will be trained to possess skills that can be used in the future, such as good
communication skills, able to collaborate and solve problems based on the reality of life. In
addition, pupils are also prepared to take the exam, where the exam is now applied to the
elements of higher thinking skills (HOTS).
It is not a problem for the students themselves because their thinking is always
challenged during the learning session in the classroom. Student centered learning approach
helps students to get ready to work. Employers are particularly concerned with some aspects,
such as communication skills, capable of solving problems and critical thinking and creativity to
enable individuals interviewed to work in their company. These impacts are seen to have a
positive impact on the students themselves, schools and countries,.
Communication
In general, communication is an exchange of information from individuals to other
individuals. In the context of education, communication refers to the conversation between
teacher and student or pupil and student to share knowledge that is understood with other friends.
This is said to be a student-centered communication. However, if a teacher does not play well,
effective communication will not result in the learning process.

Dr Charles Kivunja1 (PhD) from the article Teaching Students to Learn and to Work
Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New
Learning Paradigm (2016) clearly explained that social and cross-cultural skills for success in
the 21st century workplace require participants to be able to interact effectively with people that
they work with or come in contact with, diverse teams, not only in their own physical workplace,
but also in the virtual community of the Digital Economy in which they are immersed.

Collaborative
Collaborative refers to something that is done together or in groups. Collaborative in the
education world is an active collaboration between teachers and pupils or students and students
actively and thoroughly, in which case it involves the exchange of ideas, opinions or knowledge
among pupils. For this element, the teacher needs to understand the student's learning style.

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Therefore, teachers need to draw their attention to these group students, so that group
assignments or task look more fun in their view. Some students enjoy being given group
assignments because they do not have to brainstorm to think of brilliant ideas, instead let friends
just finish the assignment given.
In this case, the teacher is responsible for solving such problems because if this element
can be implemented effectively, it will help the pupils in improving their achievements from
time to time.
This scenario clearly explained by Dr Charles Kivunja1 (PhD) 2014 where the
leadership involves a high level of interpersonal skills that can be applied to influence the
behaviors and actions of others. The role of leadership carries with it the responsibility for
others, not only to exert intentional influence to guide and structure how activities are to be
completed, but to also facilitate those activities and the relationships in the organization that
promote harmonious relations in the workplace, and increase effectiveness, efficiency and
productivity (Yukl, 2006).

Critical thinking
Some people are often confused with the term critical and creative thinking. These are
two different terms. In general, critical thinking refers to the individual's ability to evaluate
something, including its advantages and disadvantages. From an educational perspective, critical
thinking occurs when pupils start exploring their thinking to evaluate ideas that are rationally
acceptable and make judgments about the idea through the use of reasonable grounds. Helping
students understand and monitor the thinking processes they are using by including
metacognitive activities that ask students to reflect on their use of thinking structures and the
effectiveness of the thinking strategies they employed.( Sue Z. Beers 2013)
Then, effective critical thinking can result if the teacher does not limit the ideas and
opinions of his students. In the 21st century class, teachers should encourage students to give
their views on a topic being discussed. An invisible view of the discussion topic should be
accepted by the teacher so that the students feel comfortable and happy to express their ideas.
From there, teachers can assess the level of their students' thinking on something. Do they see
things from different angles? If so, this means the student has been thinking critically.
The 21st century skills required to work effectively with diverse teams extend beyond
being able to work with several people in a group that might be a homogeneous team to working
with people of different ethnicities, races, social and cultural backgrounds. It has clearly
explained by Dr Charles Kivunja1 (PhD) (2014) in her article.

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Critical minded students are open-minded students, where, they are easy to accept the
views or ideas put forth by other colleagues as well as not to undermine the accepted ideas. With
this, teachers need to recognize each student so that these elements are easier to apply during the
teaching and learning process.

Creativity
Creativity refers to a process that occurs, where it involves the creation of something
new, useful and also of quality. This element is also one of the important elements to be applied
in the student for their best future. This is because creativity is widespread involving a project as
well as the student's own thinking. They need to think outside the box to create something new
and useful.
In the 21st century class, teachers can ask their students to produce a unique product,
which is a product other than an existing product. This is particularly relevant to the
characteristics of the 21st century class, which is student-centered learning. However, pupils still
need guidance from a teacher. Teachers need to evaluate whether the product produced by a
student is a new or existing product, as well as researching the uniqueness and originality of the
product itself. Practical comments need to be given so students can make improvements to their
product.

Character and Country


Character is a pattern of behavior, thoughts and feelings based on the principles of moral
strength and integrity. Country refers to the attitude of self-patriotism that is love of the country
and has a national identity.

Pure values can be defined as good behavior, civilized and guarded, while, ethics refers
to one's personality or character. In the education world, this element is very important to be
applied in the pupils so that it can build a high identity. Teachers are the closest people to the
students when they are in school. Therefore, teachers should strive to apply positive values in
pupils during the teaching and learning session.

This 21st century class is most appropriate because it has many positive impacts on the
student. With the existence of this 21st-century class, pupils will be trained to possess skills that
can be used in the future, such as good communication skills, able to collaborate and solve
problems based on the reality of life. Additionally, students are also prepared to take the exam,
where the exam is now applied to the elements of higher thinking skills (HOTS).

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It is not a problem for the pupils themselves because their thinking is always challenged
during the teaching and learning session in the classroom. The 21st century class also helps
students to get ready to work. Employers are particularly concerned about some aspects, such as
communication skills, capable of solving problems and critical thinking and creative to enable
individuals interviewed to work in their company. These impacts are seen to have a positive
impact on the students themselves, schools and countries, in line with the desire to make
education in Malaysia a world-class education.

20
6.0 Conclusion

In the face of the current globalization in education, teachers need to be prepared with
knowledge and diversify their teaching strategies and methods to make the classroom more
attractive and thus produce effective teaching and learning based on 21st century learning
classroom.

The student-centered teaching strategy needs to be given priority when conducting


teaching and learning. So that students can actively engage. The models of discussion in this
journal review are very appropriate as this method involves all students to give their views and
ideas a constructive social relationship among students.

In addition, cooperative teaching strategies are also not to be ignored. This is because
these strategies can give students the opportunity to apply what they learn with others. The group
investigation method needs to be implemented by the teacher to give students the opportunity to
perform according to the situation almost the same as the actual situation. In addition, the role
playing method can generate students' thinking creativity and improve language skills.

The 21st century education challenge is to provide learning geared towards Higher Level
Thinking Skills (HOTS) and managing a more dynamic classroom or learning space. But the
main challenge is how teachers use a variety of technology support and information resources to
deliver effective and quality teaching and learning and are relevant to current developments. To
address these challenges, teachers are constantly updating knowledge on curriculum content and
competence to stay relevant to current and future needs

Social skills should be applied from school to school so students do not face problems
when walking to institutions of higher learning and going to work. Thus, educators should bring
appropriate teaching approaches that dominate activities learning involving students. This is
clearly based on the research and experience that has been proved. Student-centered learning
(SCL) is one of the many approaches proposed to be implemented in the classroom.

In conclusion, an exchange of Student-centered learning (SCL) approaches in school


allows students to play active role in learning process by working teamwork, using various
sources and learn how to solve problems. More importantly, students are capable be independent
in making analysis, synthesis and assessment. 21 st century student-centered learning (SCL) if

21
implemented properly can change the pattern of education to the lifelong learning process. This
is because students capable of solving problems that arise without relying entirely on teachers.

(6161 WORDS)

22
REFERENCES
 Agus Suprijono (2010) Cooperative Learning
 Ahamad bin Rahim (2013) penerapan potensi murid dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran
 Albert bandura (1986) Social Learning Theory
 Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. A. (2001). Taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing:
A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
 Ang Chai Thin (2016) Instrumen Penilaian Kualiti Untuk Modul Pengajaran Pengujian Ciri
Psikometrik
 Bhattacharjee, S., & Ghosh, S. (2013). Usefulness of Role-Playing Teaching in Construction
Education
 Daniel Zingaro, (2008) Group Investigation: Theory and Practice
 Elizabeth Ann Graves May, (2008) Is Role Playing An Effective Teaching Method?
 Farikah Tidar University (Untidar), Central Java, Indonesia (2017) The Effectiveness of
Jurisprudential Inquiry Learning Model in Developing the Students’ Competence in Writing
Analytical Exposition Texts
 Hafizah Binti Fadzilah Binti Fadzilah (2017) Pelaksanaan Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran
Koperatif Berasaskan Abad ke-21
 Isjoni.( 2010) Pembelajaran Kooperatif. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
 Ive Ameliana (2017) Teacher –Centered Or Student –Centered Learning Approach To
Promote
• Jennifer Pei-Ling Tan, Suzanne S. Choo, Trivina Kang & Gregory Arief D. Liem (2017)
Educating for twenty-first century competencies and future-ready learners: research
perspectives from Singapore
• Kibler,M.E (1999). Classroom Assessment and learning. New York: Longman,
An inprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
 Mishra, Punya, and Kristen Kereluik. (2011) "What Is 21st Century Learning?
 Moh Arif Andrian (2014) The Application of Bandura’s Social Learning Theory in the
Teaching of Academic Writing
 Mok Soon Sang (2010): Psikologi Pendiidkan dan Pedagogi : Murid Dan Alam Belajar
• Nik Nor Ahmarizam Nik Ahmad (2015) Pendidikan Kelas Abad ke -21 Sinar online
• Padmaja Nasipur (2015) 21st Century Skills for Our Children
• Paradigm Dr Charles Kivunja1 (PhD) (2014)Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well
with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New
Learning
23
 Pierce & Middendorf, (2008). Using Role Play Case Studies to Help Promote Effective
Teamwork
 Rasta Elisa Girsang (2010) The Effect of Applying Group Investigation Method On
Students’ Achievement In Reading Comprehension
• Robert B. Barr and John Tagg (1995) A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education
 Rohani aRbaa*, hazRi Jamil & mohammad zohi RahmadI (2017) Integrated Model of
Infusing 21st Century Skills in Teaching and Learning
 Salvin (2010) The Use Of Group investigation Method to improve Students’ reading
Ability In Descriptive Text
 Suchismita Bhattacharjee, PhD (2014) Effectiveness of Role-Playing as a Pedagogical
Approach in Construction Education
• Sue Z. Beers (2013) 21st Century Skills: Preparing Students for Their Future
 Ust Saidi (2009) Proses Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Berkesan

24
ASSIGNMENT 2

Picture-word Inductive Mode

LESSON PLAN REVIEW

1.0 The picture-word inductive model

The Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM) is an inquiry based language arts strategy
that uses pictures of familiar objects or actions to elicit words from student’s listening and
speaking vocabularies. It is designed to teach reading, writing, and the language system. A
major principle of the model is that students have the ability to make generalizations that can
help them master the conventions of language.

Picture word inductive model leads the students to inquire about words and add words to
sight vocabulary and writing vocabulary. It also helps students to discover the phonetic and
structural principles. Finally it will assist the students to use observation and analysis in their
study of reading, writing, comprehending, and composing. This model of information
processing individual learners pursue patterns and use these patterns to ascertain the
comprehensive meaning and its importance of the concept and apply them.

This strategy requires educators to use pictures containing acquainted materials and
movements to provoke words from individual’s listening and speaking vocabulary. This method
is also aimed to exploit on learner’s thinking ability (Walker, 2013). The Picture Word Inductive
Model is an extremely effective tool for teachers to use as they strive to meet this goal for all
students.

25
2.0 Description of learners

The level of learners selected for the lesson is 10 years old which is year 4 including
both male and female students. This lesson is aimed for three different competencies of learners.
They are high, moderate an d low level learners. These learners are who are ready to discover the
resources around them. The selected group of learners expects to receive a managerial support
when they use their intellectual abilities. At this level individuals tends to be exploring and show
more creativity in their work. Therefore, there are certain aspects that are taken in to
consideration when modifying the level of the learners. They are, population, learning style and
learning ability.

At first, the target population selected for the class is a maximum of 30 individuals of
diverse backgrounds. They are expected to have a positive attitude towards the content and the
delivery system. Also, they will probably learn what needs to be learned. These learners prefer
focusing on the process and steps and intend to possess a specific goal. These learners are
performing learners as they prefer to explore the given details of the task. Also, these performing
learners appreciate quality and accuracy, facing challenging tasks and accomplish difficult goals
appropriately and efficiently. At this level, individuals enjoy team work, they prefer to depend on
the availability of resources, environmental influences and interaction. They require a significant
reason to push them towards the learning experiences.

The method that the selected are prefer to acquire the information are through audio,
visual and kinesthetic style of learning. The students are expected to read, write and speak in
English to an appropriate level of year 3. They also are required to understand short and simple
conversations on simple topics. The selected groups of participants are likely to use gestures and
non-verbal cues in their conversation. At this level they shall be able to understand basic
narrative texts and authentic materials. As this is an English language lesson learners must be
able to use basic vocabulary and common language structures in their description in writing
about animals.

26
3.0 LESSON PLAN REVIEW

To begin with, an English language lesson plan on description writing is selected which
is developed for year 3 students of SJK T Mahajothi which is consists with 30 students. The
objectives of the lesson are clearly stated. The objectives include are brainstorming, listing
adjectives, and writing description for the pictures of animals that are provided. The lesson is
followed by an instructional procedure which includes teacher’s and student’s activity with
allocated time for each part. The duration of this lesson is 80 minutes.

As a set induction the teacher will play the video song entitled “Jungle Animals” from
You Tube (https://youtu.be/NNELmTbw9yM). By watching the video the pupils can guess the
topic they going to learn on that day. The pupils will able to guess, that they going to learn
about animals.

At first, learners are exposed to large photographs of elephants, panda and tiger so that all
the students in the class will have a clear site on the picture. (Refer Appendix 3 for sample
pictures). The selecting pictures or photographs must be familiar, tangible, concrete and
attractive. The pictures will help to serve as a focal point for discussion.

By used the pictures of animals asking the students to guess the animal and asking about
the name of animals. This method of introducing the lesson plan describes the picture-word
inductive model.

The next step is students visually read the picture of animals. They will “Shake out” the
words and generate a list of words that identify items or actions found in the picture. Teacher
records the words as students generate about the animals. Teacher invites the students to join her
to share words they know that describe what they see from the picture. As individual students
speak, teacher writes the words on the board on a side of the photo with a line pointing to the
item. Teacher spells and pronounces the word each time she writes it on the board. Students hear
the right sounds and spelling of the words encouraging learners to build up their vocabulary
which is focus on adjectives. Learners emphasize on the sounds as the tutor repeats and take it to
mastery. Equally, after having at least 8 to 10 labels of each item, students go back and review
their version on the picture and label it again.

After generating the word list, begin all following PWIM lessons by reading and
reviewing the chart together. This time they read the words by referring to the picture word set
on the board and write them. Likewise, learners see and hear the words repeatedly. The students
27
try to move the class toward silent practice and individual reading. Pupils will select certain
words for reading or spelling emphasis with their peers.

The next item of the agenda is to categorize the items. At these stage individuals begins
to use the high order thinking skills (HOTS) of classifying. Learners read the words from the
picture again, identify the words they have chosen and group them into at least three to four
categories based on the common attribute of the words. After reading and reviewing the words,
students will need to classify the words. Some examples of classifications are such as physical
characteristics, food sources, plurals, words that begin with the same letter, color words they
might group them as herbivores and carnivores. Once students have generated the original word
list, ask them to find other words that belong to the pictures provided.

Students also can scan other literature about the topic to locate new words to add to the
chart. They include any additional words that might fit into the categories. Learners are free to
use their dictionaries to search for more suitable words.

Subsequently, teacher provides a worksheet of sentences with blanks that share some
ideas from the picture (Refer Appendix 2 for the worksheet). The sentences given in the
worksheet contains of all the level easy, medium and hard. The sentences are constructed in such

away that they can learn new vocabulary words and new information from it. Students are asked
to review the picture again and select a word that correctly fits in to the blank in order to
complete the sentences. Each sentence is related to something in the photograph. Next,
individuals classify the sentences that they have made in to similar groups of same features.
Afterwards, students add up the sentences they developed related to the picture that fits in to the
same categories.

At the final stage, teacher asks the students to work in groups to develop a paragraph by
using the sentences. They become more convenient and use their ability to develop language
areas which include punctuation, grammar and tenses. They combine their writing to complete
short description writing about animals. Teacher use the Traffic Light which is a fast diagnostic
tool that can be used to check whether students feel they can apply (actually “do”) a concept tor
idea. The teacher can immediately see the results and adjust the teaching during the rest of the
class or the following day based on the results provided. Each group takes turn to perform their

28
paragraph writing to class. Finally, students are allowed to write titles for their essay and select
the one that they think best suited for the short the essay.

For post activity in class pupils will provide words search worksheet to find the body
parts of animals. It can recap the adjectives they already learnt. As an assessment teacher upload
some other animals’ pictures in VLE FROG website. Pupils will log in the web and try to
complete the activity given by the teacher and post to teacher to check and give feedback.

29
PICTURE WORD INDUCTIVE MODEL LESSON PLAN
Date: 25 March 2018 Day: Monday Time: 9.15-10.35

Subject: English Year: 4 Merah

Learner High, moderate and low


Level:

Theme:
World of Knowledge

Topic:
Unit 5 : Precious Creatures

Focus skill:
Adjective

Supporting
Writing and reading
Skill:

By the end of the lesson pupils will be able to:


5.1.6 Able to use adjectives correctly and appropriately
3.3.1 Able to create text using a variety of media with guidance
2.2.2 Read and understand phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
Learning

Standard:

By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

a) List down and identify the adjectives based on the pictures given
Learning b) Write and use the adjectives in the sentences correctly to form a paragraph
objectives: c) Read and understand the sentences

1
21st Century
Identifying, Classifying, Creating and Problem Solving
learning and
Thinking
High Order Thinking questions (HOTS)
skills:

Teaching Aids
Pictures of animals, Laptop, Projector, traffic lights, markers, white board,
mahjong papers and activity book.

Web  https://youtu.be/NNELmTbw9yM.
Resources  https://www.tolernenglish.com/exercises (To Learn English .com)

used by

teacher:

External Planned Instructional Learners’ Activities


Instruction Activities
al Event Internal Process

1. Teacher plays music 1. Teacher asks sample of questions.


video ‘ Jungle ‘to  What was the song about?
1. Set 1.Reception
Induction  Ask about the highlighted words in
pupils from You
Video.
Learners pay
Tube.  Do you know what the animals in the
(5 minutes) video are?
attention to the
2. Teacher asks some  Pupils try to guess the animals in the
upcoming video.
questions related to
learning the video and pupils
answer orally.
event.

2
1. Show a picture of 1. Teacher place the pictures on the
animals feeding on white board.
2. Selecting 1. Pupils Identify plants and other
Pictures animals.( panda and
themes and ideas
tiger)
in the Picture. 2. Teacher asks pupils to list down
3. Label the (5 Learners observe what the can observe from the
pictures the picture pictures of animals.
parts 2. Teacher Select
3.Ask the students to
pictures that are
identify what they see 3. Students Shake out” the words –
familiar, tangible, in the picture.
generate a list of words that
concrete and
4. Students call out identify items or actions found in
attractive
loud what they see the picture
(15 minutes) in the picture

5. Pupils write the


3. The picture can 4. Teacher gives changes to the
names on the board
open an area of and label the parts pupils to write down the
study or serve as a by drawing a line adjectives based on the animal
focal point for from the picture to
pictures.
the word. (e.g. tiger,
discussion
stripes, fierce,
strong, black etc)
5. Students will excite to come in
front to write the words on the
white board.

6. While drawing a
line read the word
out loud with the 6. Teacher records the words as
spelling students generate them.

7. Provide a personal
picture of the 7. Students carefully observe the
photograph to the
teacher and respond.
students

8. Ask them to review mask whiskers


the words from the
picture word chart leaves
on the board and
label their picture

3
nose

gray/ brown

1.Pupils reads the


1. 1. After
words written on the 1. Teacher make sure students able to
generating the
board while teacher pronounce the words listed correctly
word list, begin
4. Read and listen carefully on and able to understand the meaning of
review the all following
their pronunciation. adjectives listed.
picture chart PWIM lessons by
reading and
2. Students read the 2. Move the class toward silent practice
reviewing the
words by referring to and individual reading
chart together.
(15 minutes) the chart if the word is
not in their sight 3. Select certain words for reading or
spelling emphasis.
vocabulary

3.Ask the students to


review the chart again.

(6 In pair pupils check


the spelling of some
selected words.

5.Ask to 1. After reading 1. After reading and 1. Some examples of classifications:


classify the and reviewing reviewing the words physical characteristics, food sources,
words in to the words, students classify the plurals, words that begin with the
several groups
students will words in groups. same letter, color words

4
need to classify
the words1 2. Ask the students to 2. Teacher checks pupils’ answers by
2. .Once students make pairs. Learners walking around the classroom.
6. Read and have generated follow the
review the
the original instruction
word by adding
word list, ask
words
them to find 3. Ask the students to
other words that categorize the words
belong in to groups (at least
two groups)

4. Let them identify the


( 15 minutes)
3. Scan other common attributes
literature about among the words
the topic to and group them in
locate new words accordance with the
to add to the newly identified CRITICAL THINKING
chart concept. •High order thinking questions
(HOTS)
Let pupils think twice before choose
5. Teacher and the adjective listed to classify in
students add extra correct group.
words to the chart
with dictionary
skills

6. Discuss the answers


with the students

1. Pupils Review the


picture again
1. Take the

5
categories from 2. Pupils will provide 1. Teacher guides them by finding the
classifying words worksheet with correct adjectives.
and generate sentences that
shares same ideas 2. Working together in group to finds the
sentences and
with the picture correct adjectives to complete the
paragraphs.
sentences.
3. Ask the students to
choose the most CRITICAL THINKING
2. In this way, appropriate word
students can from the picture •Problem solving for the task given
word set and
understand how
complete the
classifying content sentences in pair.
can help them
organize their
4. In group ask 3. Each group come and presents their
ideas into
the students to sentences according to the animals.
informative prose. Pupils will do group reading.
categorize these
sentences with the
similar characteristics
according to the Cooperative and collaborative learning
3. Classify
7.Generating animals. will take over during group discussion.
sentences into
Sentences and groups that form
5. Make students
the basis for
Paragraphs develop a 4. Pupils will add the sentences they
paragraph paragraph by
development. create their own.
adding the
sentences of the
(17 minutes) same groups

6. Allow enough
time for the learners to
use their high order
thinking skill to create
a thesis statement or a
topic sentences

7. Ask them to
perform their
paragraph forming to
class.

8. Allow enough Teacher use the Traffic Light which is a


time for the learners to
use their high order fast diagnostic tool that can be used to
thinking skill to create check whether students feel they can
a paragraph statement
or a topic sentences. apply (actually “do”) a concept/idea. The
teacher can immediately see the results
9. Ask them to
and adjust the teaching during the rest of
develop an
introduction, a title and the class or the following day based on

6
a conclusion. the results provided.

10. Pupils write the


essay in their exercise
book by draw or paste,
label and colour the
pictures.

1. Teacher recaps the 1. Teacher asks pupils to explore the


lesson by doing websites given to enhance their
some word search learning on the topic of animals.
activity. (Body parts
of animals)  https://kbd3087.1bestarinet.net
(VLE FROG)

9. Post activity

(3 minutes)

7
REFERENCES

 Arends, R. (2001). Learning to Teach. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

 Calhoun, E. F. (1999). Teaching beginning reading and writing. Alexandria, VA:


Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

 Crush, S. (2014). Synectics. Retrieved on November 13, 2014 from


https://prezi.com/v_w59zj4gxt8/synectics/

 Flynn, K. (2013). Models of Teaching: Attaining Concepts. Retrieved on November 13, 2014
from https://prezi.com/bmpqgtsthogw/models-of-teaching-attaining-concepts/

 Galda, L., Cullinan, B., & Strickland, D. S. (1997). Language, literacy and the child (2nd ed.).
Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

 Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2011). Models of Teaching. 8th ed. Boston: Allyn &
Bacon.

 Joyce, B., Calhoun, E., & Hopkins, D. (2002). Models of learning: Tools for teaching (2nd

o ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

 McMurray, S. (2012). Scientific Inquiry and Inquiry Training. Retrieved on November 13, 2014
from https://prezi.com/f7inls9qwbiz/scientific-inquiry-and-inquiry-training/

 Walker, M. (2013). PWIM - Picture Word Inductive Model. Retrieved on November 13, 2014
from https://prezi.com/tquajwtg-kdw/pwim-picture-word-inductive-model/

 Wilson, L., O. (2014). The Second Principle. Retrieved on November 13, 2014 from
http://thesecondprinciple.com/teaching-essentials/models-teaching/