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1. What is life span?
2. How does the amoeba and Euglena multiply?
3. What are gemmules?
4. Write two pre-fertilization events from the list given below?
Syngamy, Gametogenesis, Embryogenesis, pollination.
5. Write the location and function of sertoli cells in humans?
6. Name the embryonic stage that gets implanted in the uterine wall of human female?
7. State one advantage and one disadvantage of cleistogamy?

8. Draw diagrammatically to represent asexual reproduction in yeast?
9. What are vegetative propagules? Name the vegetative propagules in
Banana, Bryophyllum, Oxalis, Mint
10. Bring out the difference between zoospore and zygote?
11. Which of the following are monecious and dioceious organisms?
Earthworm, chara, marchantia, cockroach
12. What is parthenogenesis? Give two examples from animals?

13. Explain hormonal control in spermatogenesis?
14. What is apomixis? Describe ways of development of apomictic seeds?
15. What is meant by monosporic development of a female gametophyte?
16. Draw the diagram of human sperm and write briefly the functions of various parts in it?


17. What is pollen- pistil interaction? Describe the process of fertilization in flowering
18. Explain the process of spermatogenesis in human male with diagram?
19. Explain the structure of monocot embryo with diagram?


1. Diagram of ovule and label all the parts.

2.Transverse section of young anther, enlarged view of one microsporangium showing wall
3.mature gametophyte ( 7celled and 8 nucleate)
4. L.S. of Pistil showing path of pollen tube growth.
5. stages of embryo development in a dicot.
6.T.S of seminiferous tubule.
7. Human female reproductive system
8. T.S. of sectional view of the ovary.
S.S.J. Pasha ( P.G.T Biology)




2.Write letters to the concerned based on the following subjects

- imparting education in mother tongue in schools.(Editor)

-changes in school education and its impact on the students.(Editor)

- eradication of child labour (official)

-necessity of providing value education in schools.(official)

-Job application for the post of physical education teacher

3.Write 5 each of the following from previous years question papers

Articles, Speech ,Debate and Report.

4.Note making of 5 passages from previous years question papers provided

5.Theme ,central idea and short plot of the literature chapter provided.

-Justify the title of the chapters taught




Solve the following questions

A) All Practical problems from Double entry bookkeeping T.S. Grewal book (page no. 2.80 to 2.97)
B) All theory questions from Double entry bookkeeping T.S. Grewal book (page no.2.78 to 2.80)
1. X, Y and Z are partners in a firm ,their capital as on April 1 ,2013 were Rs.5,00,000, Rs.4,00,000
and Rs.3,00,000 respectively. On July 1, 2013 they individual further capitals of
Rs.1,00,000, Rs. 80,000 and Rs.50,000 respectively. On February 1, 2014. Interest is to be
allowed @ 8% p.a on the capitals. Compute interest on capitals for the year ending March
2. On March 31 ,2006 after the close of account ,the capitals of Mountain ,Hill and Rock stood in
the books of the firm at Rs.4,00,000, Rs.3,00,000 and Rs. 2,00,000 respectively.Subsequently, it
was discovered that the interest on capital @ 10% p.a has been omitted . The profit for the year
amounted to Rs.1,50,000 and the partner’s drawing has been Mountain: Rs.20,000; Hill:
Rs.15,000 and Rock Rs.10,000.
3. X and Y are partner’s with capitals of Rs.1,00,000 and Rs.80,000 respectively on 1 April,2013 and
their profit sharing ratio is 2:1. Interest on capital is agreed @12% p.a Y is allowed an annual
salary of Rs.6,000. The profit for the year ended 31 March ,2014 amounted to Rs.50,000.
Manager is entitled to a commission of 10% of the profits.Prepare Profit and Loss Appropriation
A/C and Capital A/C.
4. Gupta is a partner in a firm. He drew regularly Rs.800 at the beginning of every month for the six
months ending 20 September, 2013. Calculate interest on drawing at 15% p.a.
5. On 1 April, 1996 X,Y and Z started a business in partnership . X contributes Rs.90,000 at first but
withdraws Rs.30,000 at the end of six months. Y introduces Rs.75,000 at first and increase it to
Rs.90,000 at the end of four months , but withdraws Rs.30,000 at the end of eight months . Z
brings in Rs.75,000 at first but increases it by Rs.60,000 at the end of seven months.
During the year ended 31 March, 1997, they make a net profit of Rs.42, 000. Show
how the partners should divide this amount on the basis of effective capital employed by each
6. Menon and Thomas are partners in a firm. They share profits equally. Their monthly drawings
are 2,000 each. Interest on drawings is to be charged @ 10% p.a. Calculate interest on Menon’s
drawings for the year 2012, assuming that money is withdrawn:
(i) In the beginning of every month,
(ii) In the middle of every month, and
(iii) At the end of every month.
7. Sunflower and Pink Rose started partnership business on April 01, 2012 with capitals of 2,50,000
and 1,50,000, respectively. On October 01, 2012, they decided that their capitals should be
2,00,000 each. The necessary adjustments in the capitals are made by introducing or
withdrawing cash. Interest on capital is to be allowed @ 10% p.a. Calculate interest on capital as
on March 31, 2013.
8. Radha, Mary and Fatima are partners sharing profits in the ratio of 5:4:1. Fatima is given a
guarantee that her share of profit, in any year will not be less than 5,000. The profits for the year
ending March 31, 2012 amounts to 35,000. Shortfall if any, in the profits guaranteed to Fatima is
to be borne by Radha and Mary in the ratio of 3:2. Record necessary journal entry to show
distribution of profit among partner.
9. Harshad and Dhiman are in partnership since April 01, 2012. No Partnership agreement was
made. They contributed 4,00,000 and 1,00,000 respectively as capital. In addition, Harshad
advanced an amount of 1,00,000 to the firm, on October 01, 2012. Due to long illness, Harshad
could not participate in business activities from August 1, to September 30, 2012. The profits for
the year ended March 31, 2012 amounted to 1,80,000. Dispute has arisen between Harshad and
Dhiman. Harshad Claims:
(i) he should be given interest @ 10% per annum on capital and loan;
(ii) Profit should be distributed in proportion of capital;
Dhiman Claims:
(i) Profits should be distributed equally;
(ii) He should be allowed 2,000 p.m. as remuneration for the period he managed the
business, in the absence of Harshad;
(iii) Interest on Capital and loan should be allowed @ 6% p.a. You are required to settle
the dispute between Harshad and Dhiman.
Also prepare Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
10. Anubha and Kajal are partners of a firm sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2:1. Their
capital, were 90,000 and 60,000. The profit during the year were 45,000. According to
partnership deed, both partners are allowed salary, 700 per month to Anubha and 500 per
month to Kajal. Interest allowed on capital @ 5%p.a. The drawings at the end of the period were
8,500 for Anubha and 6,500 for Kajal. Interest is to be charged @ 5% p.a. on drawings. Prepare
Profit & Loss Appropriation A/c and Partners Capital A/cs, assuming that the capital accounts are
11. The partnership agreement between Maneesh and Girish provides that: (i) Profits will be shared
equally; (ii) Maneesh will be allowed a salary of 400 p.m; (iii) Girish who manages the sales
department will be allowed a commission equal to 10% of the net profits, after allowing
Maneesh’s salary; (iv) 7% interest will be allowed on partner’s fixed capital; (v) 5% interest will
be charged on partner’s annual drawings; (vi) The fixed capitals of Maneesh and Girish are
1,00,000 and Rs. 80,000, respectively. Their annual drawings were 16,000 and 14,000,
respectively. The net profit for the year ending March 31, 2012 amounted to 40,000; Prepare
firm’s Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
12. Simmi and Sonu are partners in a firm, sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:1. The profit
and loss account of the firm for the year ending March 31, 2012 shows a net profit of 1,50,000.
Prepare the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account by taking into consideration the following
(i) Partners capital on April 1, 2011; Simmi, 30,000; Sonu, 60,000;
(ii) Current accounts balances on April 1, 2011; Simmi, 30,000 (cr.); Sonu, 15,000 (cr.);
(iii) Partners drawings during the year amounted to Simmi, 20,000; Sonu, 15,000;
(iv) Interest on capital was allowed @ 5% p.a.;
(v) Interest on drawing was to be charged @ 6% p.a. at an average of six months;
(vi) Partners’ salaries : Simmi 12,000 and Sonu 9,000. Also show the partners’ current


(A) 1mark question
1. Management is an exact science like physics or chemistry. Do you agree?
2. Give any one point which justifies management as an art.
3. Give any one point that denies management to be regarded as profession.
4. Principles of management are not exact as principles, vocabulary of terms and concepts. Which feature of science
is justified by management here?
5. Anyone can be called a manager irrespective of the educational qualification possessed. Why?
6. Divisional heads and operational managers come under which level of management?
7. Name the levels of management engaged in: a)Overseeing the activities of workers b)Taking key decisions
8. At which level of management, the managers are responsible of the welfare and survival of the organization?
9. Name the level of management at which the managers are responsible for implementing and controlling the plans
and strategies of the organization?

1 Your father wants you to do M.B.A before joining family business. What does this show about the 1
nature of management?
2 What do you mean by efficiency? 1
3 Name the level of management involved in: 1
a) Overseeing the activities of workers.
b) Taking key decisions.
4 Bhuvan argues that management is required in all kinds of organizations whereas Piyush feels that 1
management is not required in non-business organizations such as school, club, hospitals, etc. who is
5 Dominos Pizza’s keep introducing new variety of Pizzas in its menu. Which characteristics of 1
management are highlighted in this?
6 Name the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together 1
in groups efficiently accomplishing selecting aims?
7 Which function of management ensures issuing of instructions and orders and also motivates the 1
8 Name the framework within which managerial and operational activities are performed. 1
9 Which function of management establishes authority/responsibility relationship? 1
10 The task of management is to make people work towards achieving the organizational goals by 1
making their strengths effective and their weakness irrelevant. Identify the dimension of
11 Name the process by which a manager synchronizes the activities of different departments? 1
12 Identify the nature of management when it is practiced as personalized application of existing 1
knowledge to achieve desired result.
13 An educational institution, the business organization, hospitals, clubs , etc. all needed to be 1
 Which characteristic of management is highlighted here?
14 Directors of Bhuvan Ltd. assigned the task of implementing the plans and policies framed by the 1
board to all the departmental heads. Departmental heads appointed supervisors, superintendent,
executives, etc. so that work can be assigned to workers as per the plan supervisors kept a check on
workers as per the plan.
Identify the feature of management highlighted in above paragraph.
15 At what level of management, managers are responsible for the welfare and survival of the 1

3 /4 marks questions

10. Why it is said that management principles have universal applicability?

11. Explain how management is multi-dimensional.
12. How management is a group activity? Explain.
13. ‘Management is neither as precise nor as comprehensive as the natural and pure sciences.’ Why? Explain.
14. ‘Art is concerned with personal application of knowledge.’ In the light of this statement compare the feature of art
with management to prove that it is an art.
15. Ritu is the manager of the northern division of a large cooperate house. At what level does she work in the
organization? What are her basic functions?

5/6 marks questions

16. “Management is not a pure profession rather it is going to be a profession.” Do you agree with this statement?
Give reason in support of your answer.
17. Explain the constituents and functions of the following:-
a. Top level management
b. Middle level management
c. Lower level management
18. “Coordination is the essence of management.” Explain the above statement with suitable reasons.
19. Explain the importance of coordination.
20. Management is the combination of many functions. Explain those functions.
21. Explain the following features of management
a. Pervasive
b. Continuous process
c. Goal oriented process
d. Multidimensional
e. Group activity
f. Dynamic functions
g. Intangible

B. Solve All the case studies in the text book chapter – 1 from Business studies book (VK Publication-Poonam


1. Ashutosh Goenka was working in ‘Axe Ltd.’, a company manufacturing air purifiers. He found that the
profits has started declining from the last six months. Profit has an implication for the survival of the firm,
so he analysed the business environment to find out the reasons for this decline.
A. Identify the level of management at which Ashutosh Goenka was working.
B. State three other functions being performed by Ashutosh Goenka.
2. Rishitosh Mukerjee has recently joined AMV Ltd, a company manufacturing refrigerators. He found that
his department was under-staffed and other departments were not cooperating with his deparment for
smooth functioning of the organisation. Therefore, he ensured that his department has the required
number of employees and its cooperation with other deparments is improved.

1. Idenfity the level at which Rishitosh Mukerjee was working.

2. Also, state three more functions required to be performed by Rishitosh Mukerjee at
this level.
3. Sridhar’s father is working as a section in-charge in a government office. Identify the level of
management at which he is working? State any five functions that he has to perform at this level.
4. Mega Ltd. manufactured water-heaters. In the first year of its operations, the revenue earned by the
company was just sufficient to meet its costs. To increase the revenue, the company analysed the
reasons behind the less revenues. After analysis, the company decided:

1. To reduce the labour costs by shifting the manufacturing unit to a backward area where
labour was available at a very low rate.
2. To start manufacturing solar water-heaters and reduce the production of electric water-
heaters slowly.

5. XYZ Power Ltd. set up a factory for manufacturing solar lanterns in a remote village as there was no
reliable supply of electricity in rural areas. The revenue earned by the company was sufficient to cover
the costs and the risks. As the demand of lanterns was increasing day- by-day, the company decided to
increase production to generate higher sales. For this/they decided to employ people from a nearby
village as very few job opportunities were available in that area. The company also decided to open
schools and creches for the children of its employees.

1. Identify and explain the objectives of management discussed above.

2. State any two values which the company wanted to communicate to the society.

6. Your grandfather has retired as the Director of a manufacturing company. At what level of management
was he working? What functions do you think he was performing at that level? State any two,
7. Ritu is the manager of the northern division of a large corporate house. At what level does she work in
the organisation what are her basic functions
8. Vaibhav Garments Ltd/s target is to produce 10,000 shirts per month at a cost of ?150 per shirt. The
production manager could achieve this target at the cost of ?160 per shirt. Do you think the production
manager is effective? Give reasons for your answer.
9. Mr. Nitin Singhania’s father has a good business of iron and steel. He wants to go to the USA for his MBA
but his father thinks that he should join the business. On the basis of emerging- trends, do you think that
Mr. Singhania should send his son to the USA? Give any three reasons in support of your answer.
10. Jayant is working as Head Relationship Manager in the wealth management division of a private sector
bank. He has created an internal environment which is conducive to an effective and efficient
performance of his team of ten relationship management executive” A typical day at work in Jay ant’s
life consists of a series of interrelated and continue functions. He decides the targets for his department
which are in line with the objectives of the organization as a whole. The future course of action for his
team members is laid out well in advance. The various resources required by the relationship managers
like an iPad with GPS system, account opening forms, brochures, details of account holders etc. are
made readily available to them. The executives are given sufficient authority to carry out the work
assigned to them. Jayant works in close coordination with the Human Resource Manager in order to
ensure that he is able to create and maintain a satisfactory and satisfied workforce in his
department.Through constant guidance and motivation, Jayant inspires them to realise their full
potential. He offers them various types of incentives from time to time keeping in view their diverse
individual needs.Moreover, he keeps a close watch on their individual performances in order to ensure
that they are in accordance with the standards set and takes corrective actions whenever needed.
In context of the above case:

1. Identify the concept being referred to in the following line, “He has created an internal environment
which is conducive to an effective and efficient performance of his team of ten relationship
management executives.”
2. Identify and describe the various functions of the concept as identified in part (a) of the question by
quoting lines from the paragraph.

11. Sooraj works as a salesman in a company selling pet accessories and food. He has been given a target of
selling 1200 units of the food packets in a month by offering a maximum of 10% discount to his
customers. In order to meet his monthly sales target, on the last two days of the month, he offers 15%
discount to his customers. In the context of the above case: Is Sooraj effective in his work? Explain by
giving a suitable reason in support of your answer.
12. Sujata works as a designer in an export house. As per the terms of an order received by the export
house, she has to get 1000 units of denim jackets made in 15 days @ ? 2000 per jacket. She is able to
complete her target production in 20 days because in order to complete the order in 15 days she would
have made the workers work over time. As a result, the cost of production per jacket may have increased
by ? 100.
In the context of the above case:
Is Sujata efficient in her work? Explain by giving a suitable reason in support of your answer.
13. Anju and Manju are good friends. Considering the fact that the activities involved in managing an
enterprise are common to all organizations, after completing their masters in business management,
both of them take up a job at managerial level in different organizations as per their individual areas of
interest. Anju takes up a marketing job in a retail company and strives to increase sales whereas Manju
joins an NGO and works diligently to realize its objective related to providing employment to specially
abled persons. Both of them have to perform a series of continuous, composite, but separate functions.
On some days, Anju may spend more time in planning a future display layout and on another day, she
may spend time in sorting out an employee’s problem. Both Anju and Manju make conscious efforts to
build a feeling of team spirit and coordination among diverse individuals with different needs who work
under them. The effect of their management is noticeable in their respective departments as the targets
are met according to plans, employees are happy and satisfied, and there is orderliness in its functioning
rather than chaos.
In context of the above case:
Identify the various features of management highlighted in the above paragraph by quoting lines from it.
14. Real Alliance Ltd. is a well-known cement company in India. It is able to earn adequate revenues to cover
costs. Its capital base, number of employees and production turnover has increased manifolds over the
years. The rate of profitability of the business is also creditable. The employees of the company are
happy and satisfied with their remuneration, working conditions, promotion policy etc. As a part of its
moral obligation, the company has taken many initiatives for providing employment to specially abled
persons and promoting literacy in the villages adopted by it.
In the context of the above case:

1. Identify and explain the various types of objectives of management being fulfilled by Real Alliance
Ltd by quoting lines from the paragraph.
2. List any two values that Real Alliance Ltd. wants to communicate to the society.

15. Esha works as the cost and risk management head of a company in power sector. As a result of her
excellent managerial competence, the company is able to reduce costs and increase productivity. The
company belongs to infrastructure sector, wherein regular amendments are made in the government
regulations and policies. She holds regular meetings to ensure that people in her department are not
only aware of the related changes but are also able to adapt to these changes effectively. This helps the
company to maintain its competitive edge. She motivates and leads her team in such a manner that
individual members are able to achieve personal goals while contributing to the overall organisational
objective. In the process of fulfilling her duties for the growth of the organisation, she helps in providing
competitive services, adopting new technology, creating more employment opportunities etc. for the
greater good of the people at large. In context of the above case:
Identify the various reasons that have made management so important by quoting lines from the
16. Ramarjuna joins an IT firm as a system analyst after completing his masters in Computer Science. As the
nature of his work demands he has to work in very close coordination with all the departmental heads in
the firm, very soon Ramarjuna realizes that each departmental head has own individual style of working.
They differ greatly in their day-to-day approach to work. They tend to deal with a given situation, an
issue or a problem through a combination of their own experience, creativity, imagination, initiative and
innovation. In the context of the above case:
Identify and explain the nature of management highlighted in the above case.
17. Ajay and Sanjay are childhood friends. Sanjay had lost his right hand in an accident in childhood. They
meet after a long time in a restaurant. On being asked, Sanjay tells Ajay that he feels very discontented
in managing his family business after the death of his father as it doesn’t match with his areas of interest.
Ajay knows that Sanjay possess extraordinary skills in management although he hasn’t acquired any
professional degree in management.
Therefore, he asks Sanjay to wind up his business in India and join him in his hotel business in Dubai as
an Assistant Manager in Sales and Marketing Division.
In context of the above case:

1. Can Sanjay be deployed at the post of Assistant Manager in Sales and Marketing Division though
he hasn’t acquired any professional degree in management? Explain by giving suitable
justifications in support of your answer.
2. List any two values that are reflected in this act of Ajay.