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DESCRIBE THE CARGO CLEARANCE PROCEDURE IN MOMBASA PORT

1. Kenya Customs Clearance Procedure


Imports into Kenya undergo various tasks through Kenyan customs and Kenya Port Authority during
clearance of freights and cargo in Kenya. All this are procedures that freights and cargo undergo and
carried out by Kenya clearing agents and Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) Customs officials.
1.1 Customs Declaration
All going well, prior to actual vessel arrival date in Mombasa, the shipping line lodges its online
manifest with customs (into Simba Tradex system) and the port authorities (port KWATOS system).
The manifest number pertaining to the concerned shipment on board of the vessel is advised by the
shipping line. Special attention has to be given to the place of clearance (port / CFS (Container Freight
Station) as this may differ depending on special nature of the cargo (dangerous cargo) or special request
from the importer as stated on the bill of lading or granted by the ports authorities (see point 1.3 –
Container Freight Station consigning above).
Against the uploaded manifest, a customs entry is prepared on the Simba Tradex online system by the
importers clearing agent.
Parallel to this, once the manifest is uploaded by the shipping line, the original Bill of Lading duly
endorsed by the consignee (or the telex release) is submitted to the shipping line for issuance and release
of a delivery order. This is done after settlement of the local shipping line charges. The shipping line has
to ensure the delivery order is also uploaded online.
Uploaded entries are passed after either payment of duties or confirmation of exemption by means of the
exemption letter code in the customs system.
1.2 Customs Long Room Formalities
A customs folder is prepared by the clearing agents declaration team, and a set of documents is
dispatched to customs long room in Mombasa where the documents are endorsed after being checked by

1
customs. Endorsed documents are dispatched to the point of final clearance, i.e. Port of Mombasa (KPA)
or nominated Container Freight Station to the resident customs officers.
At the point of clearance the mode of verification is assigned by customs and executed i.e. sight and
release, direct release, normal verification, 100% verification, scanning, etc…
1.3 Customs Verification and / or Scanning
For scanning the container is loaded on a truck and passed through the scanning machines either in the
port or at the Container Freight Station. If the scanning image shows any regularities, customs will
usually proceed to do verification.
For customs verification containers have to be placed down, opened and stripped. If verification is to be
performed at a Container Freight Station, all cargo has to be transferred to the respective Container
Freight Station by the Container Freight Station operator.
A verification report, which must tally with the customs declaration, is inserted on the Tradex – Simba
system by the Customs Officer. If the results of the designated verification procedure indicate any
abnormalities then the customs will usually proceed for 100% verification. Any discrepancies on value-
quality-quantity or the finding of any undeclared items will lead to customs raising an offence for which
the outcomes are varied and guided by the customs management act.
If cargo was not verified / scanned or if the results of this was a clean bill, customs can issue a customs
release order once it is confirmed that the delivery order obtained earlier is reflecting online (indicating
the clearing agent for which the cargo was checked by customs is indeed to be released to this clearing
agent).
1.4 KPA Pick Up Order or Container Freight Station Release order
A pick up order is generated via the Kwatos website, on line, for all consignments cleared within the
port of Mombasa. This pick up order is attached to the set of documents (which includes the delivery
order, passed customs entry, customs release order) and presented to CDO (Customs Documentation
Office) at Port.
Port Charges are then paid usually by deducting the clearing agents running account with the port. Cargo
can then be evacuated out of the port premises. Allocated truck and trailer must be booked via kwatos
for loading purposes.
For Container Freight Station clearance, principle is the same in general Container Freight Station
Release Order process though issueing of release orders and payment of Container Freight Station
charges can differ per Container Freight Station (some are manual, some electronic, some require

2
bankers cheques, others can give credit). Once charges are secured and paid, a gate pass is issued to the
clearing agent for collection of cargo and loading purposes.

IDENTIFY VARIOUS CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND HOW THEY SHOULD BE


HANDLED
Class 1: Explosives
 substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor
projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
 Substances and articles which present no significant hazard
 Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard

Class 2: Gases
Flammable gases
Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Toxic gases
Class 3: Flammable liquids
There are no sub-divisions for Class 3 flammable liquids. Class 4: Flammable solids; substances liable
to spontaneous combustion; substances which, on contact with water, emit flammable gases
 Division 4.1: Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitised explosives
 Division 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
 Division 4.3: Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases

Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides


 Division 5.1: Oxidizing substances
 Division 5.2: Organic peroxides

3
Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances
 Division 6.1: Toxic substances
 Division 6.2: Infectious substances
Class 7: Radioactive material
There are no sub-divisions for Class 7 Radioactive Material
Class 8: Corrosive substances
There are no sub-divisions for Class 8 Corrosive Substances
Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
There are no subdivisions for Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
Now, let's go into a little more detail by looking at the definitions of each class of dangerous goods as
per the relevant Australian standard per class;
Class 1: Explosives

According to section 2.1.1.1 of the Australian Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1 dangerous goods can be
defined in a more detailed manner as:
 Explosive substances (a substance which is not itself an explosive but which can form an
explosive atmosphere of gas, vapour or dust is not included in Class 1), except those that are too
dangerous to transport or those where the predominant hazard is appropriate to another class; and
 Explosive articles, except devices containing explosive substances in such quantity or of such a
character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition or initiation during transport will not cause
any effect external to the device either by projection, fire, smoke, heat or loud noise; and
 Substances and articles not mentioned under (a) and (b) which are manufactured with a view to
producing a practical, explosive or pyrotechnic effect.
Class 2: Gases
According to section 2.2.1.1 of the Australian dangerous goods code, A gas is a substance which:
At 50 °C has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa; or is completely gaseous at 20 °C at a standard
pressure of 101.3 kPa.
 Division 2.1 Flammable gases - Gases which at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa: (i)
are ignitable when in a mixture of 13 per cent or less by volume with air; or (ii) have a

4
flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage points regardless of the lower flammable
limit.
 Division 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gases - Gases which: (i) are asphyxiant – gases which
dilute or replace the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or (ii) are oxidizing – gases which may,
generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more
than air does; or (iii) do not come under the other divisions;
 Division 2.3 Toxic gases - Gases which: (i) are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to
pose a hazard to health; or (ii) are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because they
have an LC50 value (as defined in 2.6.2.1) equal to or less than 5,000 ml/m3 (ppm).
Class 3: flammable liquids
Most people would know what flammable liquids are; they are liquids that will burn in the presents of an
ignition source. They are used to run commonly used equipment such as:
 Vehicles
 Generators
 Brush cutters

The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines Class 3 Flammable Liquids as;
Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or
suspension (for example, paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc., but not including substances otherwise
classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at

5
temperatures of not more than 60 °C, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.6 °C, open-cup test, normally
referred to as the flash point. This class also includes:
 Liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above their flash point; and
 Substances that are transported or offered for transport at elevated temperatures in a liquid state
and which give off a flammable vapour at a temperature at or below the maximum transport
temperature.
It’s important to note that in the presence of any impurity, the flash point of a flammable substance may
vary.
Class 4: flammable solids
Flammable solids are substances liable to spontaneous combustion and/or substances which, in contact
with water, emit flammable gases. When flammable solids combust, they often emit toxic gases.
Class 4 dangerous goods are divided into three divisions as follows:
 Division 4.1 Flammable solids are solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are
readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances
which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which
may explode if not diluted sufficiently;
 Division 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion are substances which are liable to
spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in
contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire;
 Division 4.3 Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases Substances which, by
interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable
gases in dangerous quantities.
Class 5: Oxidizing Substances & Organic Peroxides
The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines Class 5 dangerous goods as:
 Division 5.1 Oxidizing substances are substances which, while in themselves not necessarily
combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other
material. Such substances may be contained in an article;
 Division 5.2 Organic peroxides Organic substances which contain the bivalent -0-0- structure
and may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen
atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable
substances, which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition. In addition, they

6
may have one or more of the following properties: (i) be liable to explosive decomposition; (ii)
burn rapidly; (iii) be sensitive to impact or friction; (iv) react dangerously with other substances;
(v) cause damage to the eyes.
Class 6: toxic and infectious substances
Class 6 is divided into two divisions. These definitions for each sub-division according to the ADG code
are outlined blow:
 Division 6.1 Toxic substances These are substances liable either to cause death or serious injury
or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact;
 Division 6.2 Infectious substances These are substances known or reasonably expected to
contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses,
rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans
or animals.

Class 7: Radioactive material


According to section 2.7.1.1 of the ADG code, Radioactive materials are defined as:
Any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the
consignment exceed the values specified in the relevant Australian standard, (AUST ST. FOR CLASS 7)
For more detailed information, check with your supplier, the relevant MSDS, or a professional
Dangerous Goods Consultant.
Class 8: Corrosive Substances
The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines corrosive substances as:
Class 8 substances (corrosive substances) are substances which, by chemical action, will cause severe
damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even
destroy, other goods, substances, or objects.
Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
According to the Australian Dangerous Goods Code, Class 9 dangerous goods are defined as:
Class 9 substances and articles (miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles) are substances and
articles which, during transport present a danger not covered by other classes. This includes:
 Environmentally hazardous substances which are not covered by other classes;
 Elevated temperature substances (i.e. substances that are transported or offered for transport at
temperatures equal to or exceeding 100 °C in a liquid state or at temperatures equal or exceeding

7
240 °C in a solid state); (c) GMMOs or GMOs which do not meet the definition of infectious
substances (see Section 2.6.3) but which are capable of altering animals, plants or
microbiological substances in a way not normally the result of natural reproduction

HOW DANGEROUS GOODS CAN BE HANDLED

Dangerous Goods are substances that present an immediate risk to people, property and the
environment. These substances can be explosive, flammable, oxidising, toxic, radioactive or corrosive.
As dangerous goods present a number of risks to people, property and the environment, it is very
important that you handle them in a safe and compliant manner to minimise the risks that they may have
upon your workplace.
The requirements for the storage and handling of dangerous goods can be found in the Australian
Standards. The Australian Standards are documents that outline the best practices for the storage and
handling of dangerous goods in the workplace. Each dangerous goods class poses different risks upon
the workplace and therefore Standards Australia have developed a different standard for each dangerous
goods class. Below we will outline some important factors that must be considered when handling
dangerous goods in the workplace.
Handling large packages of dangerous goods
With the increased use of dangerous goods in the last century, chemical manufacturers now package
their dangerous goods in much larger packages. In this day and age, it is not uncommon to see
dangerous goods such as acids and flammable liquids in packages as large as 205L drums and 1000L
Intermediate Bulk Containers. Failure to handle these large packages with the right equipment can result
in severe damage to people and property.
If your organization procures their dangerous goods in 1000L intermediate bulk containers (IBC’s), a
forklift must be used to lift these IBC’s in and out of chemical storage containers. 205L drums have a
rounded shape and they are a lot harder to handle. When these drums are lifted in and out of chemical
storage containers, forklift attachments must be used. If your organization does not have a forklift

8
attachment for lifting 205L drums, these drums can be safely lifted in and out of chemical storage
containers on a pallet.

Dispense dangerous goods away from other incompatible chemicals


When dangerous goods are dispensed from their containers, there is an increased risk that they will mix
with other incompatible classes of dangerous goods. When incompatible classes of dangerous goods
mix, it can result in violent chemical reactions that can easily harm people and property. To avoid harm
to people and property, dangerous goods must be dispensed in an area that is isolated from other
incompatible classes of dangerous goods. If you have separate dangerous goods storage facilities for
each dangerous goods class, a safe location for dispensing dangerous goods would be inside the facility
where the specific dangerous goods class is being stored. This location will be away from ignition
sources and other incompatible chemicals.
When dangerous goods are being dispensed, it is important to do so in a bunded area to ensure that any
spills are safely contained. It is also essential to have a spill response kit available in the area where the
dangerous goods are being dispensed. This will allow any spills that may occur to be safely cleaned up.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is another control measure that can be used to protect people and property
from the risks associated with dangerous goods. It is particularly important to use personal protective
equipment when dispensing and handling toxic and corrosive substances.
Toxic substances are substances that will cause harm to human health if they enter the body. The means
by which toxic substances enter your body are called the routes of exposure. There are 3 main routes of
exposure. These include:
 Ingestion
 Skin contact
 Inhalation
Of the three routes of exposure, inhalation is the most common form. To reduce the risk of exposure to
toxic substances, it is important to use the correct personal protective equipment such as respiratory
equipment and gloves while handling and dispensing toxic substance. Many substances such as

9
flammable liquids, organic peroxides and oxidizing agents are also toxic and the correct PPE must be
used while handling these substances as well.
Another dangerous substance that often requires the use of personal protective equipment is corrosive
substances. Corrosive substances are substances that will dissolve other materials such as stone, metal
and human flesh. To reduce the risk of acid burns, corrosive resistant gloves must always be worn when
handling corrosive substances
To ensure that everyone in the workplace has access to the correct personal protective equipment, all the
relevant personal protective equipment must be kept in a hi-visibility personal protective equipment
cabinet that is close to the dangerous goods storage location.
Safety Data Sheets
To ensure that everyone in the workplace is aware of the specific risks associated with the dangerous
substances that they are handling, it is very important to have a copy of the safety data sheets for each
dangerous substance. Safety data sheets are documents that outline the specific reactivity, fire, health
and environmental hazards associated with a particular substance. The safety data sheet will also outline
the basic storage and handling requirements for the particular substance. Before a dangerous substance
is dispensed or used, the safety data sheet for the substance must be consulted to ensure that the
dangerous substance is handled in the safest manner. The safety data sheets for each substance must be
kept in a secure document storage box, close to the area where the dangerous goods are being stored.
This allows the safety data sheets to be easily accessed in the event of an emergency.

10
DESCRIBE THE CARGO CLEARANCE PROCEDURE IN MOMBASA PORT

1. Kenya Customs Clearance Procedure


Imports into Kenya undergo various tasks through Kenyan customs and Kenya Port Authority during
clearance of freights and cargo in Kenya. All this are procedures that freights and cargo undergo and
carried out by Kenya clearing agents and Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) Customs officials.
1.1 Customs Declaration
All going well, prior to actual vessel arrival date in Mombasa, the shipping line lodges its online
manifest with customs (into Simba Tradex system) and the port authorities (port KWATOS system).
The manifest number pertaining to the concerned shipment on board of the vessel is advised by the
shipping line. Special attention has to be given to the place of clearance (port / CFS (Container Freight
Station) as this may differ depending on special nature of the cargo (dangerous cargo) or special request
from the importer as stated on the bill of lading or granted by the ports authorities (see point 1.3 –
Container Freight Station consigning above).
Against the uploaded manifest, a customs entry is prepared on the Simba Tradex online system by the
importers clearing agent.
Parallel to this, once the manifest is uploaded by the shipping line, the original Bill of Lading duly
endorsed by the consignee (or the telex release) is submitted to the shipping line for issuance and release
of a delivery order. This is done after settlement of the local shipping line charges. The shipping line has
to ensure the delivery order is also uploaded online.
Uploaded entries are passed after either payment of duties or confirmation of exemption by means of the
exemption letter code in the customs system.
1.2 Customs Long Room Formalities
A customs folder is prepared by the clearing agents declaration team, and a set of documents is
dispatched to customs long room in Mombasa where the documents are endorsed after being checked by

11
customs. Endorsed documents are dispatched to the point of final clearance, i.e. Port of Mombasa (KPA)
or nominated Container Freight Station to the resident customs officers.
At the point of clearance the mode of verification is assigned by customs and executed i.e. sight and
release, direct release, normal verification, 100% verification, scanning, etc…
1.3 Customs Verification and / or Scanning
For scanning the container is loaded on a truck and passed through the scanning machines either in the
port or at the Container Freight Station. If the scanning image shows any regularities, customs will
usually proceed to do verification.
For customs verification containers have to be placed down, opened and stripped. If verification is to be
performed at a Container Freight Station, all cargo has to be transferred to the respective Container
Freight Station by the Container Freight Station operator.
A verification report, which must tally with the customs declaration, is inserted on the Tradex – Simba
system by the Customs Officer. If the results of the designated verification procedure indicate any
abnormalities then the customs will usually proceed for 100% verification. Any discrepancies on value-
quality-quantity or the finding of any undeclared items will lead to customs raising an offence for which
the outcomes are varied and guided by the customs management act.
If cargo was not verified / scanned or if the results of this was a clean bill, customs can issue a customs
release order once it is confirmed that the delivery order obtained earlier is reflecting online (indicating
the clearing agent for which the cargo was checked by customs is indeed to be released to this clearing
agent).
1.4 KPA Pick Up Order or Container Freight Station Release order
A pick up order is generated via the Kwatos website, on line, for all consignments cleared within the
port of Mombasa. This pick up order is attached to the set of documents (which includes the delivery
order, passed customs entry, customs release order) and presented to CDO (Customs Documentation
Office) at Port.
Port Charges are then paid usually by deducting the clearing agents running account with the port. Cargo
can then be evacuated out of the port premises. Allocated truck and trailer must be booked via kwatos
for loading purposes.
For Container Freight Station clearance, principle is the same in general Container Freight Station
Release Order process though issueing of release orders and payment of Container Freight Station
charges can differ per Container Freight Station (some are manual, some electronic, some require

12
bankers cheques, others can give credit). Once charges are secured and paid, a gate pass is issued to the
clearing agent for collection of cargo and loading purposes.

IDENTIFY VARIOUS CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND HOW THEY SHOULD BE


HANDLED
Class 1: Explosives
 substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor
projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
 Substances and articles which present no significant hazard
 Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard

Class 2: Gases
Flammable gases
Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Toxic gases
Class 3: Flammable liquids
There are no sub-divisions for Class 3 flammable liquids. Class 4: Flammable solids; substances liable
to spontaneous combustion; substances which, on contact with water, emit flammable gases
 Division 4.1: Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitised explosives
 Division 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
 Division 4.3: Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases

Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides


 Division 5.1: Oxidizing substances
 Division 5.2: Organic peroxides

13
Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances
 Division 6.1: Toxic substances
 Division 6.2: Infectious substances
Class 7: Radioactive material
There are no sub-divisions for Class 7 Radioactive Material
Class 8: Corrosive substances
There are no sub-divisions for Class 8 Corrosive Substances
Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
There are no subdivisions for Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
Now, let's go into a little more detail by looking at the definitions of each class of dangerous goods as
per the relevant Australian standard per class;
Class 1: Explosives

According to section 2.1.1.1 of the Australian Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1 dangerous goods can be
defined in a more detailed manner as:
 Explosive substances (a substance which is not itself an explosive but which can form an
explosive atmosphere of gas, vapour or dust is not included in Class 1), except those that are too
dangerous to transport or those where the predominant hazard is appropriate to another class; and
 Explosive articles, except devices containing explosive substances in such quantity or of such a
character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition or initiation during transport will not cause
any effect external to the device either by projection, fire, smoke, heat or loud noise; and
 Substances and articles not mentioned under (a) and (b) which are manufactured with a view to
producing a practical, explosive or pyrotechnic effect.
Class 2: Gases
According to section 2.2.1.1 of the Australian dangerous goods code, A gas is a substance which:
At 50 °C has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa; or is completely gaseous at 20 °C at a standard
pressure of 101.3 kPa.
 Division 2.1 Flammable gases - Gases which at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa: (i)
are ignitable when in a mixture of 13 per cent or less by volume with air; or (ii) have a

14
flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage points regardless of the lower flammable
limit.
 Division 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gases - Gases which: (i) are asphyxiant – gases which
dilute or replace the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or (ii) are oxidizing – gases which may,
generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more
than air does; or (iii) do not come under the other divisions;
 Division 2.3 Toxic gases - Gases which: (i) are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to
pose a hazard to health; or (ii) are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because they
have an LC50 value (as defined in 2.6.2.1) equal to or less than 5,000 ml/m3 (ppm).
Class 3: flammable liquids
Most people would know what flammable liquids are; they are liquids that will burn in the presents of an
ignition source. They are used to run commonly used equipment such as:
 Vehicles
 Generators
 Brush cutters

The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines Class 3 Flammable Liquids as;
Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or
suspension (for example, paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc., but not including substances otherwise
classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at

15
temperatures of not more than 60 °C, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.6 °C, open-cup test, normally
referred to as the flash point. This class also includes:
 Liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above their flash point; and
 Substances that are transported or offered for transport at elevated temperatures in a liquid state
and which give off a flammable vapour at a temperature at or below the maximum transport
temperature.
It’s important to note that in the presence of any impurity, the flash point of a flammable substance may
vary.
Class 4: flammable solids
Flammable solids are substances liable to spontaneous combustion and/or substances which, in contact
with water, emit flammable gases. When flammable solids combust, they often emit toxic gases.
Class 4 dangerous goods are divided into three divisions as follows:
 Division 4.1 Flammable solids are solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are
readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances
which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which
may explode if not diluted sufficiently;
 Division 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion are substances which are liable to
spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in
contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire;
 Division 4.3 Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases Substances which, by
interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable
gases in dangerous quantities.
Class 5: Oxidizing Substances & Organic Peroxides
The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines Class 5 dangerous goods as:
 Division 5.1 Oxidizing substances are substances which, while in themselves not necessarily
combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other
material. Such substances may be contained in an article;
 Division 5.2 Organic peroxides Organic substances which contain the bivalent -0-0- structure
and may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen
atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable
substances, which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition. In addition, they

16
may have one or more of the following properties: (i) be liable to explosive decomposition; (ii)
burn rapidly; (iii) be sensitive to impact or friction; (iv) react dangerously with other substances;
(v) cause damage to the eyes.
Class 6: toxic and infectious substances
Class 6 is divided into two divisions. These definitions for each sub-division according to the ADG code
are outlined blow:
 Division 6.1 Toxic substances These are substances liable either to cause death or serious injury
or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact;
 Division 6.2 Infectious substances These are substances known or reasonably expected to
contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses,
rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans
or animals.

Class 7: Radioactive material


According to section 2.7.1.1 of the ADG code, Radioactive materials are defined as:
Any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the
consignment exceed the values specified in the relevant Australian standard, (AUST ST. FOR CLASS 7)
For more detailed information, check with your supplier, the relevant MSDS, or a professional
Dangerous Goods Consultant.
Class 8: Corrosive Substances
The Australian Dangerous Goods Code defines corrosive substances as:
Class 8 substances (corrosive substances) are substances which, by chemical action, will cause severe
damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even
destroy, other goods, substances, or objects.
Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
According to the Australian Dangerous Goods Code, Class 9 dangerous goods are defined as:
Class 9 substances and articles (miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles) are substances and
articles which, during transport present a danger not covered by other classes. This includes:
 Environmentally hazardous substances which are not covered by other classes;
 Elevated temperature substances (i.e. substances that are transported or offered for transport at
temperatures equal to or exceeding 100 °C in a liquid state or at temperatures equal or exceeding

17
240 °C in a solid state); (c) GMMOs or GMOs which do not meet the definition of infectious
substances (see Section 2.6.3) but which are capable of altering animals, plants or
microbiological substances in a way not normally the result of natural reproduction

HOW DANGEROUS GOODS CAN BE HANDLED

Dangerous Goods are substances that present an immediate risk to people, property and the
environment. These substances can be explosive, flammable, oxidising, toxic, radioactive or corrosive.
As dangerous goods present a number of risks to people, property and the environment, it is very
important that you handle them in a safe and compliant manner to minimise the risks that they may have
upon your workplace.
The requirements for the storage and handling of dangerous goods can be found in the Australian
Standards. The Australian Standards are documents that outline the best practices for the storage and
handling of dangerous goods in the workplace. Each dangerous goods class poses different risks upon
the workplace and therefore Standards Australia have developed a different standard for each dangerous
goods class. Below we will outline some important factors that must be considered when handling
dangerous goods in the workplace.
Handling large packages of dangerous goods
With the increased use of dangerous goods in the last century, chemical manufacturers now package
their dangerous goods in much larger packages. In this day and age, it is not uncommon to see
dangerous goods such as acids and flammable liquids in packages as large as 205L drums and 1000L
Intermediate Bulk Containers. Failure to handle these large packages with the right equipment can result
in severe damage to people and property.
If your organization procures their dangerous goods in 1000L intermediate bulk containers (IBC’s), a
forklift must be used to lift these IBC’s in and out of chemical storage containers. 205L drums have a
rounded shape and they are a lot harder to handle. When these drums are lifted in and out of chemical
storage containers, forklift attachments must be used. If your organization does not have a forklift

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attachment for lifting 205L drums, these drums can be safely lifted in and out of chemical storage
containers on a pallet.

Dispense dangerous goods away from other incompatible chemicals


When dangerous goods are dispensed from their containers, there is an increased risk that they will mix
with other incompatible classes of dangerous goods. When incompatible classes of dangerous goods
mix, it can result in violent chemical reactions that can easily harm people and property. To avoid harm
to people and property, dangerous goods must be dispensed in an area that is isolated from other
incompatible classes of dangerous goods. If you have separate dangerous goods storage facilities for
each dangerous goods class, a safe location for dispensing dangerous goods would be inside the facility
where the specific dangerous goods class is being stored. This location will be away from ignition
sources and other incompatible chemicals.
When dangerous goods are being dispensed, it is important to do so in a bunded area to ensure that any
spills are safely contained. It is also essential to have a spill response kit available in the area where the
dangerous goods are being dispensed. This will allow any spills that may occur to be safely cleaned up.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is another control measure that can be used to protect people and property
from the risks associated with dangerous goods. It is particularly important to use personal protective
equipment when dispensing and handling toxic and corrosive substances.
Toxic substances are substances that will cause harm to human health if they enter the body. The means
by which toxic substances enter your body are called the routes of exposure. There are 3 main routes of
exposure. These include:
 Ingestion
 Skin contact
 Inhalation
Of the three routes of exposure, inhalation is the most common form. To reduce the risk of exposure to
toxic substances, it is important to use the correct personal protective equipment such as respiratory
equipment and gloves while handling and dispensing toxic substance. Many substances such as

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flammable liquids, organic peroxides and oxidizing agents are also toxic and the correct PPE must be
used while handling these substances as well.
Another dangerous substance that often requires the use of personal protective equipment is corrosive
substances. Corrosive substances are substances that will dissolve other materials such as stone, metal
and human flesh. To reduce the risk of acid burns, corrosive resistant gloves must always be worn when
handling corrosive substances
To ensure that everyone in the workplace has access to the correct personal protective equipment, all the
relevant personal protective equipment must be kept in a hi-visibility personal protective equipment
cabinet that is close to the dangerous goods storage location.
Safety Data Sheets
To ensure that everyone in the workplace is aware of the specific risks associated with the dangerous
substances that they are handling, it is very important to have a copy of the safety data sheets for each
dangerous substance. Safety data sheets are documents that outline the specific reactivity, fire, health
and environmental hazards associated with a particular substance. The safety data sheet will also outline
the basic storage and handling requirements for the particular substance. Before a dangerous substance
is dispensed or used, the safety data sheet for the substance must be consulted to ensure that the
dangerous substance is handled in the safest manner. The safety data sheets for each substance must be
kept in a secure document storage box, close to the area where the dangerous goods are being stored.
This allows the safety data sheets to be easily accessed in the event of an emergency.

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