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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING OF


BUCHAREST

Faculty of Railways, Roads and Bridges

THESIS

Abstract

STREET NETWORK PATTERN BASED ON THE


PERFORMANCE CRITERIA OF URBAN TRAFFIC

PhD Student: Ing. Urb. Tărîţă Cîmpeanu Elena Otilia

PhD supervisor: Prof. Dr. Ing. Mihai Dicu

BUCHAREST
2016

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Current state of research in the field

The rapid development of the economy has entailed a considerable increase in


traffic.[Mătăsaru Tr., 1966]. The necessity imposed by life itself, to establish links and
relationships between people or between groups of people, has led to requirements of shorter
or longer trips in order to overcome spatial distances. And as these trips were targeting only
certain streets and as the frequency of trips increased in every sense of motion, the
phenomenon which we know today as the general term "circulation" has evidenced. The
phenomenon is manifested as clearly over long distances in large territories and in small
areas (towns or settlements), too. As society has become more complex, as technological
progress has gained breadth, as travelling by the own vehicle has become comfortable and
economic, the perception to this event called "circulation" is, at the first impression, of bustle,
of anarchic motion in its content, hard to organise and rule. In another train of thoughts, the
circulation is part of the physical structure of the city, in the patterns of street network. Since
always, this physical structure of the city was made up of groups of buildingswith streets
between them. By developing it has resulted a street texture that we call today "road network"
or "street network", which has overtaken all the motion that gives birth to the "urban road
traffic" phenomenon [Mărgărit N., 1967]. Urban theorists of the twentieth century and the
topics on which they wrote various treaties are listed in Table 1, depending on the years in
which they wrote and studied the topic.

Table 1 - urban theorists of the twentieth century. Source: Adapted [Asem Inam 2014]

Analysis of urban mobility has direct implications in the analysis of street networks,
with all its components (streets, sidewalks, bridges, passages, urban furniture, road signs,
etc.).
A particular interest from local governments has been currently remarked. It refers
to the analysis, elaboration and implementation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for the
local and regional level where non-motorized shifting plays a key role.

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

At European level, there have been established and adopted a set of principles
regarding city planning in order to increase the living standards and individual comfort,
environmental protection and the improvement of urban mobility:

 Carta de la Atena (2003) [CEU, 2003].

 European Urban Charter


 Charter of Athens (2003) [CEU, 2003].
 European Charter for Regional/Spatial Planning [CEU 1983]
 The Leipzig Charter for Sustainable European Cities [CEU 2007]
 European Transport White Charter[EC, 2011]
 Declaration of Toledo, 2010 [CE 2014]
 • Eltis - The concept of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan and Integrated
(SUMPs) [ALEA 2014]

1.2. The necessity and opportunity of the research topic

In the two interwar decades engineer Cincinat Sfintescu put the theoretical
foundations of a new branch with a scientific character and the application called
"superurbanism" using and integrating principles of precursor schools: the British school, the
German school and French school. In the same period, Dimitrie Gusti and Henri H. Stahl
were studying rural sociology and geography of settlements in extensive research studies of
territory and human settlements. It was only after the regime change of 1947, when the socio-
economic and political context led to ideological subordination of principles scientifically
grounded and therefore to their distortion, the theoretical and experimental earnings research
of this period began to generate significant territorial development actions. The decades of
communism constituted a favorable framework for planning, which, at the disposal of a single
ruling authority, was ideal for the extensive reorganization objectives, rebuilding, reshaping
the country's economy and reconfiguring the social structure. The seventh and eighth decades
were perhaps the most prolific in terms of urban research with all the related sciences.
The new tendency of urbanism is to change this paradigm. The human, due to his
knowledge in continuous progress, is in perpetual search for the living environment that suits
him. The city is no longer a simple framework determined physically, but it results from a
whole complex of elements tangible and intangible, all linked in a structure that is becoming
increasingly complicated, a structure whose evolution towards coherent transformation
happens daily. The urbanists desire more beautiful cities, towns where sidewalks would not be
occupied by cars and where any walk, of recreation or of specific purpose, to be made safe.
They want cities connected with nature, providing a clean and healthy environment. Sounds
utopian, but Jan Gehl, through his studies "Life between buildings", "Cities for People", "How
to study urban life" has the ambition to provide a comprehensive understanding of urban life
study as a discipline, tracing its literary history and summarizing the first and important
research describing the basic methods. Gehl, in his research about the city, is directly
informed of its progress by its physical location in the middle of town. For a long time there
has been no attention given to how people use the city, while abstract concepts,
megastructures, traffic problems and other amorphous issues have dominated urban planning.
Even less developed cities have been affected by the rapid growth of motorized traffic
volumes and related infrastructure, which obstructs pedestrians, causes noise and pollutes the
air and even the daily life of the population in general[J. Gehl, 2015].
Places and streets that have passed the time test are those where traffic and other
activities were successfully integrated, those where buildings and spaces, together with

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people's needs, not only their vehicles’, were built as well and they generated routes.
Experience suggests that many of the street network models built today will last for hundreds
of years. We ought to offer future generations well-designed places, adapted to the needs of
the local community.
Urban planning is a tool that helps us best in this endeavor. By integrating
engineering of roads, transport and traffic in urban studies, this could be the starting point for
achieving this objective.
Urban road network scheme results from the general form of urban design from
which the need of transport to the locality develops and this depends on:
- The position of the administrative center of the locality;
- Corridors allocated to road transit
- Location of industrial, commercial, cultural, sport and residential areas;
- Landforms in the locality;
- The planning of bouts to the road network and intersections;
- Technical class allocated to each street, depending on the related traffic and the
destination within the network
The transport infrastructure changes the land use, affects the traffic and the
distribution of activities in the area of influence. Thus, it influences the local, regional and
supra-regional development.

The urban mobility is defined by the behaviour of travelling. The travelling


behaviour is in turn strongly correlated with the urban spatial structure, with the individual
socioeconomic characteristics and performance parameters of the chosen way of travelling.
The motivation of travelling is also important towards sustainability in the sense that we have
to make the difference bewteen mandatory movements (residence - work, home - school) and
voluntary movements (residence – relaxation place, home - shopping, etc.). In terms of
people’s travelling, transport is a decisive factor in choosing the method of movement, whose
aim is to meet the demand of mobility. Thus, the development of transport and accessibility
are influenced by the urban mobility. The ransport mode influences directly the infrastructure
development, which in turn can influence the travelling behaviour. We can say that a road
network may be influenced by the behavior of travelling, but also that the movement option is
influenced by the existing infrastructure and transport modes. All of these are in a relationship
of mutual influence.

1.3. Training program development

During the training program I attended specialized courses at the University of


Construction - Doctoral School, Bucharest, I conducted a series of articles on the topic, I
participated in numerous national and international conferences, I attended two training
courses organized by the Ministry of Development on integrated sustainable urban
development, I conducted together with colleagues from the Hall Pantelimon and those from
local police polls, traffic surveys and measurements of traffic, I was part of the team working
for "Traffic study of the Pantelimon '' Circulation study of City Pantelimon related to PUG, ""
Intersection study DN3- Cernica Road, Mioriţei Street in terms of traffic volume, existing and
planned - microsimulare Synchro "," Estimating the volume of traffic for Pantelimon city and
traffic forecast – macrosimulation Vissum "
As the title of the thesis suggests, in the first theoretical part of the study the criteria
of urban traffic performance are identified and defined, together with a description of the
concept of "urban traffic". In the second theoretical part of the paper there are described the

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

street network, its development history and the third part underlines how the urban traffic
parameters affect morphology and typology of streets.
This paper seeks to find the answer to two questions:
1. What are the performance criteria for urban traffic?
2. How does it influence the development of a street network?

2. URBAN TRAFFIC AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

2.1. About urban traffic and its performance parameters

Urban traffic is viewed as an urban space in addition to housing, social and


economic buildings, green spaces, recreational facilities, shopping complexes etc. By
organizing the economic and social life in urban settlements, the existence of buildings with
various destinations (houses, commerce, industry, offices etc.) the need for an infrastructure
was conditioned implicitly – for roads - to ensure the mobility of the population [FDOT,
2002]. The sizes, means, its structure, all of them changed constantly depending on various
factors of social development in order to keep pace with the needs of its members, with the
technological trend of the means of transport and to carry out trips for its members, cargo and
last but not least, in order to meet the requirements of urban habitation [IHT, 2000]
This "composition" of mobility - expressed by "all the means of people or cargo
transport carried out on a particular technological path with certain means of transport in a
specified time interval and conditions" - was called "traffic". Thus defined, traffic was a
decisive factor in the evolution of urban communities. From a historical perspective, it has
suffered permanent changes by correcting malfunctions that occurred along the way,
especially in the central areas of localities because of the contradictions between:
- Population mobility
- The number and type of the means of transport
- The population density
- The ability to overtake all persons that travel by public transport on certain routes in a time
interval [Luca O., 2010].
The ever increasing road traffic continues to be an important social and economic
problem. There are many considerations for passenger and cargo traffic shows a growing
interest, urban road traffic continues to be one of the dominant forms of urban transport. The
traffic itself refers to the movement of vehicles. This perspective mplies that travel is
performed using a motor vehicle (car), and the movement actually means moving by vehicle.
Referring to urban traffic, we have to relate to its components: the traffic users, the land use,
the problems of transportation and the solutions.
The vehicle traffic is relatively easy to measure. At national level there is a database
with the registration number of vehicles, driving licenses and vehicle’s tachometer. These
data can provide information about: traffic volume, average traffic speed, road maintenance,
delays caused by traffic jams, parking possibilities, vehicle costs and accident rates.

2.2. Circulation flows

The movement of vehicles on a road or thoroughfare is a complex process.


Traffic flows can be characterized, depending on the characteristics of the road
infrastructure and the traffic environment in two main categories:

- Uninterrupted \circulation flows


- Interrupted circulation flows

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

In the road traffic analysis the necessary framework is important to be defined and
this can be:
- Macroscopic
- Microscopic
The three features of traffic: flow, speed and density can be described in analyzes
made at macro and micro scale by using a matrix as shown in Table 2:

Table 2 - The fundamental characteristics of traffic flows

Traffic characteristics Microscopic Macroscopic


(Individual units) (Group of units)

Flow Sequence interval [seconds] traffic intensity

Speed Individual speed [m / sec] Average speed

Density Sequence interval [m] Average density

2.3. Parameters traffic flows

- Sequence Interval
- Speed

2.4. Sizes that characterize traffic flow

- - Binomial distribution
- - Poisson distribution
- - Repartition laws adjustment

2.5. Performance parameters

- - Level of Service
- The capacity of a thoroughfare
- Drive speed
- Measuring traffic characteristics
- Repeated stops
- Traffic modes
- Traffic congestion on thoroughfare
- Energy consumption associated with road traffic
- Traffic safety

3. Street network - ELEMENTS, HISTORY, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

3.1. Elements of street network

In urbanism the phrase "street network" is used to define the network of roads, either
main or insignificant, from a locality or an area of it. The street network analysis of an urban
or rural area cannot be done without analyzing the report of other urban components such as
the built fund, which includes all the buildings located on the administrative range of the

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locality; landforms; demographical aspects; functions; points of conflict; road infrastructure


and so on.
The urban road network scheme results from the general form of urban conception
from which the need for transportof the locality develops, which depends on: the position, the
administrative center of the locality; color assigned to road transit; location of industrial,
commercial, cultural, sports andresidential areas; the landforms in the range of the locality;
the fitting way of accesses to the road network and intersections; technical class assigned to
each street, depending on traffic and the destination within the network.

3.2. History of street network

The rectangular shape of a road network is often used in many large cities in the
world. The city networks represented in figure 4 have in common that the network model is
perpendicular and the streets are conducted in both directions parallel to each other.

New York Paris San Francisco Toronto


Figure 2 - Examples of rectangular street networks from major cities

Observing Romanian urban system evolution over the last century can be traced both
in terms of quantitative and hierarchical changes, as well as spatial – territorial changes
[Brătuleanu A., N. Lascu, 2000]. The components and constant tendencies of this evolution
are relevant. During the formation and consolidation of centralized states (until the second
half of the XVI century) appeared royal courts, sometimes decisive in organizing
communities. At that point, there was also a leap toward urbanism and the intervention of the
power plant is suggested by some coherent street structures (linear: Suceava, Roman,
Targovishte, fusiform - Pitesti, Campulung square - Iasi).

Figure 3 – Street networks of Suceava, Campulung, Iaşi Cities

Until the early century. XIX the interest of the ruler for developing the cities is low.
Consequently, a spontaneous city growth happens, mainly by adapting to the site and to
directions of territorial interest. Urban renewal lies with eligible local governments; the main
control instrument of the urban development is represented by the urban and architectural
regulations, immediately after the 1900, by the plans of systematization (Timisoara, Brasov,
Bucharest). The urban models applied are the western ones, in the Old Kingdom, and the
central european ones (as before), in Transylvania. Then it follows a period of radical

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reorganization of the existing cities: the Danube ports, from the legal period until the 50s.
New cities appear (Turnu Magurele, Turnu Severin, Oltenita etc.) and there are restructured
the former raiale (Giurgiu, Braila).

3.3. Road network and classification of urban areas based on its components

3.3.1. Components of the road network

The road network represents the totality of streets and thoroughfares situated in the
territory of a settlement, forming an entire texture organically linked. According to the
engineer Mărgărit [Mărgărit N., 1967] the composition of a road network (a street network)
has a number of components, such as parking lots, gas stations, public transport stations,
stabling stations, private garages, dispatchers, etc., but also all the elements that form the very
structure of streets and thoroughfares, such as: sidewalks, roads, paths, special public
transport, open area for stations and halts, trestles, tunnels, pedestrian passages and nodes of
road network.

Figure 6 - Elements of a road network (configuration and equipment)

A classification of street networks from cities cannot be done without a preliminary


classification of cities. Also, the classification of cities can be accurate and close enough to
reality, only using a multi-criteria analysis.

3.3.2. Classification of urban areas based on road network components

The crucial link that exists between urban and rural areas and elements that relate to
road traffic requires a brief overview of how the locality, with the variety which it has from
one case to another, intervenes in specifying the structure and size of these items. Experience
has shown how the size, shape, configuration and the character of the locality influence the
road network, its components and how the circulation unfolds.

Figure 4 – Map of Figure 5 – Map of Brăila City Figure 6 – Map of Bucharest


Drobeta Turnu Severin City

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City
The streets that make up the network of a locality are public roads regardless of how
they are named (street, path, quay, embankment, road, alley, dead end street, narrow streets
etc.) and depending on the place and role that they have in the network they can be part of the
following categories: category I (arteries); Category II (of link); Category III (collectors);
Category IV (local).
Framing streets from localities is done by local
administrations based on studies of traffic development. National roads (DN), County roads
(DJ) or Communal roads (DC) retain their functional category, being considered without
interruption, thus serving as streets. The sectors which are classified as route on the streets of
a locality are in the administration of the Local Councils.

3.4. The concept of accessibility

The accessibility plays a key role in transports and regional development, because it is
the direct expression of mobility. Well-developed and efficient transport systems offer high levels
of accessibility, while less developed systems show low levels of accessibility. Thus, accessibility
is the key element for developing a wide range of economic and social opportunities [Rodrigue,
J.P. 2013].

3.5. Urban mobility

The rapid urban development that appeared in the most parts of the world involves an
increased number of passengers and amount of cargo moving within urban areas. Movements
also tend to involve longer distances, but in terms of travel time it remains almost unchanged
in the 20th century, about 1.2 hours per day. This shows that the shuttle has changed gradually
to types of transport faster and therefore longer distances could be traveled in the same period.
Different transport technologies and infrastructures were executed, resulting a variety of
urban transport systems all over the globe.
3.6. Sustainable urban development

"Sustainable development is the process of development which answers to the current


needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. [.....]In
order to achieve the desire for a sustainable development, the environmental protection shall
constitute an integrated part of the development process and cannot be approached
irrespective of it." [Cervero, R., 1998]. The concept of sustainable development was set in
1987 in the Brundtland report, in the context of reducing the promotion of human ecological
footprint, of equity between generations, individuals and nations, and of maintaining
economic efficiency. Later the concept was promoted at the World Conference for
Sustainable Development, organized by the United Nations in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro.

3.7. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans

A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a strategic plan, designed to meet the mobility
needs of individuals and businesses in cities and their suburbs for a better life quality. This
plan is based on existing planning practices and takes into consideration the principles of
integration, participation and evaluation.
A complete cycle of SUMPs includes four main steps:
1. Preparation phase for the planning process

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2. Transparent and rational establishment of objectives


3. Strategy development
4. Plan implementation

Figure 7 - The realization phases of a SUMP

4. URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND CIRCULATION FLOWS - URBAN


TRAFFIC NETWORK

4.1. Public transport as an alternative to urban traffic

4.1.1. Public transport dimensions

The main reason people use public transport is because they cannot effectively park
their own car. The shifting with own vehicles dominate urban transport, especially in large
conurbations. There are three dimensions of the impact that public transport has on land use,
particularly on access points, which are influenced by the level of transport:
• Accessibility.
• Convergence.
• Integration.
• The performance associated with public transport

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A more comprehensive set of performance indicators that take into account a wider
range of transport modes and their impact can be used to assess the quality of the public
transport system.

4.1.2. From the request of transport to traffic flows

The requests of transport, as potential travel needs, are those that give rise to transport
flows, which, in turn, on the elements of the transport infrastructure, generate traffic flows.
This chapter refers to the three concepts of the title:
- Transport demand
- Transport flows
- Traffic flows

 Transport demand
.
The transport demand is a derived demand, an economic term that does not refer to the
demand for a single good or service. Transport users are consumers who primarily want to
access other services. Transport demand refers to the circulation of people and goods in order
to satisfy a need (labor, education, recreation, etc.) while the need for freight transport is part
of the global economic activity. Whatever the type of demanded transport, there should exist a
differnce between the request of "need", representing the aspirations of customers and the
satisfied demand for the actual transport system.
The link between the two types of transport demands is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 8 - The link between the request of need and the satisfied demand of the transport
system.
The correlation between request-offer, due to its dynamic character, brings nearer the two
types of transport demands, by stimulation or inhibition.

 Transport flow

The transport demand is transformed into transport flow, at which is assigned as relative
measure the number of cargo units per unit time.
As in the case of transport request, the transport flow is characterized by:
a) Physical characteristics
b) Technological characteristics (functional)

 Traffic Flow

The conjugated and varied overlapping of transport flows and of other flows of
transport on infrastructure elements (arcs andnodes) produce traffic flows. As shown in the
figure below, we must distinguish between transit traffic flows corresponding to network arcs
and entry and exit traffic flows corresponding to nodes.

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Figure 9 - The appearance of traffic flows

4.2. Formalizing traffic networks

The traffic networks can be described in terms of structure using one of the five main
properties:
- Connections - describes the dealing of any system element with network;
- Connectivity – property expressing the multitude of connections insured by network;
- Homogeneity - indicates the dependence degree of the relationship between elements
with given particular characteristics;
- Isotropy – characterizes the links equivalence between different elements;
- Nodality - allows prioritizing network elements according to the multitude of links
offered
There are also other network properties that can be defined, such as:
- Density - the ratio of its length and the area of the serviced territory
- Closed or open character of network – corresponding to the network access through
any point of a link or through network nodes only
- Reserved character of the network - when the infrastructure is dedicated
- Space consumtion required for the infrastructure
The association of the five main properties is essential in describing the network as part of
a territorial system operation. Further, there are presented specific features of each property,
separately.

4.3. Topological relationships in networks and their typology

The network topology represents the physical layout of the elements that make up the
network (topology = graph). By making an analogy to communication networks and by
relating to graph theory we can define the topological relationships of road networks as
follows:
a. point-to-point;
b. artery;
c. ring;
d. star;
e. net;
f. mixed.
There are three main models in approaching a network of urban infrastructure, by
generating three distinct criteria groups: the geometric model, the topological model and the
hierarchical model [Marshall, 2004].

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Figură 1 - Urban infrastructure models

4.4. Correlations between urban traffic performance indicators and specific


indicators of the urban networks

The increased mobility caused by process of enhancing the effects of transport was
acutely transformed into an unsustainable feature of world nowadays. However, it can be
considered that, by improving urban transport planning there could be provided additional
benefits to the environment and sustainable to the development of cities. Thus, to guide urban
development towards a sustainable direction, an improved urban planning process is taken
into account. First, there should be taken into consideration all the interconnected elements of
the urban system: population, economics, urban form and land use, environmental protection
and transportation. The composition analysis in terms of urban transport is a more practical
view in the planning process. Recently, it has been proved that the model of the modern city is
no longer valid and that the urban structure is defined more appropriately based on the main
mode of mobility, as a tripartite city: "Pedestrian-City ", "Public Transport-City" and "Car-
City" [Kosonen L., 2015]

Figură 2 - The new perspective of the city

As long as transport occupies a central position in the urban tissue of today, planning the
transport is a very important tool in changing the perspective of urban planning.

Figure 12 - Sketch representing the influence of infrastructure on the urban structure and
infrastructure

There are three dimensions of the mobility impact and, hence, transport on land use:
accessibility, convergence and integration.

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The interdependence between the shape of the city and the transit is shown in figure 16.
Thus, we face three situations:

• Cities adapted to transit. The urban transit is the dominant element of mobility and
the urban landscape has been adapted to serve the general needs of mobility. These
cities have a high level of density and centrality, where development was done along
transit lines.
• Transit adapted to the cities structure. The car is the dominant element of
mobility, while transit systems have been adapted to special needs services. They have
a low level of density.
• Mixed. The transit systems and the number of cars are in a slight balance. They
represent a level of compromise between transit mobility requirements and cars.

Figure 13 - Transit and urban shape

The main conclusion that emerges from linking various parameters that were taken into
account is that there is a close link between the urban shape and the transport system that is in
various stages of development and, in a particular case, between the urban shape, the transport
network and movements (mobility) .

5. MODELING THE MOBILITY IN PANTELIMON CITY AND PLANNING


SCENARIOS OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY. CASE STUDY

5.1. About the mathematical models used in the analysis, estimation and
forecasting of urban mobility

From the mathematical point of view, a city is viewed as non-dynamic system in a


state of balance. In the previous chapters there were reffered some models to assess the
interaction between the use of space and transports, which were developed in the early 1960s.
The urban evolution, as well as the increasing motorization, led to the attempt to formulate
new mathematical models based on micro-simulation activities in urban areas [Batty, 2007;
Heppenstall, 2009]. The modeling of transport demand and its interactions with the supply
exceeds five decades of existence and has continuously adapted to the new traffic conditions.
The concepts have evolved, the models and methodologies have substantially modified over
time, while the analysis has become increasingly complex.
Modelling urban mobility must meet several key aspects, independently or jointly:
- - To allow the identification and understanding of the evolution space dynamism
(explanatory model);
- To have the ability to forecast the impact of new transport infrastructure
development, of new technologies implementation or of economic and social policy
(predictive model);
- To be a reliable tool easily accessible to decision makers (decisional model).

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5.2. The need and steps of the study presented

This separate part of the thesis shows the applicability and personal contributions to
approaching the theme "Conception of street network on urban traffic performance criteria"
on a case study developed in Pantelimon city, town located in the suburbs of Bucharest.
Here it is treated not only the analysis of organised circulation from the point of view of
urban traffic development, but also the insurance of transport to Bucharest Municipality, by
highlighting the existing transit traffic on the national road DN 3 (Victory Avenue).
The information will be announced as follows:
• Transport system - public and private networks
• Road System
• Trip characteristics
• Public transport data
• Traffic Safety
• Investigations of traffic transport
• Surveys on travel time for vehicles
For the case study, PhD student opted for an algorithm with which to analyze the
impact on road transport infrastructure charging. The development and implementation of a
model that contains all the specific steps of a transport demand modeling can be achieved at
such a town only packed with numerous physical, monetary and informational resources.
However, with the working model of the Master Plan for Bucharest Transport 2008, using
media software provided by PTV-Visum and Synchro (variants dedicated to students), the
paper examines the correlations between the level of the infrastructure request for urban
transport and induced effects of the new residential areas development and other activities in
the north of Pantelimon city. The four steps model has been decided for the case study.

5.3. Establishing the study area and the context in which the analysis is done

For studies presented in this chapter, study areas were chosen as follows:
- for the territorial and contextual analysis the entire city was chosen as study
area;
- for the street network analysis a representative area for the locality of about 400
hectares located in the north of the city was chosen as a study area, since it is an
area with high potential for urban development (expansion of residential
neighborhoods and areas of services and commerce);
- For microscopic analysis the intersection DN3 - Cernica Road - Mioriţei Street
was chosen
In this case study the intention is to clarify the following issues:
- -The area of residences;
- The mixed zone, but without pollutant industry;
- The street network with the role to link both the city and the territory of influence;
- Expansion and modernization of utilities;
- Expansion and modernization of transport infrastructure and its adaptation to the new
traffic conditions imposed by the suggested urban developments;
- Lawn protection and recreation.

These functions will be developed on territorial reference units (UTR), for which
urban indicators will be established (POT and CUT), indicators that will highlight the

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potential of generating or attracting traffic flows (car and pedestrian) in relation to Pantelimon
city or the territory of influence. The main purpose is providing development operations of the
city Pantelimon, in conjunction with the national spatial plan, but also with the development
strategy of Ilfov - HORIZON 2020. The city has a well structured network of streets, created
and developed randomly and on "packages", with different configurations, which lie on
streets that have short shorts sections with widths that can be reassembled in the transversal
plane. In this regard, the configuration of a network of coherent streets that should make the
link between the core locality and the expansion and modernization area of Pantelimon. This
is made possible by setting up a masterplan covering new and existing elements, but with
proper geometric elements to be structured as a road structure .
The suggested elements are shown in the situation plan and are consisted of:
- the realization of a road to bypass the town and emerge from DN 3 (Road node over
the railway), to be held parallel to DNCB (in the east), going farther parallel to the
railway to the north until it reaches the administrative border which separates the
locality from Dobroeşti and should continue with a road built on this limit until it gets
to Viilor street and the breakthrough should achieve the connection with Vasilescu
Street up to DN3;
- the realization of a connection point in the north with CB (Bucharest beltway);
- Extending and profiling Rascoalei Street until the roundabout;
- Extending Tractorului Streets, St. George and Station Road to the expansion and
modernization areas (PUZ), which are connected by the Mioriţei and George
Călinescu streets;
- Modernization of Campului Street, Campului Entry, Rascoalei Entry and the
realization of links between Rascoalei Street, which would allow a dispersal of traffic
flows;
- As a system of organizing the circulation in the studied area, the streets from the
major network will run both ways, whereas on the streets that make up packages
which have rectangular configuration and a width of 4.00 m, there will be established
a system of one-way roads that will link the major streets.
The reconfiguration and modernization of the road network on the entire surface of
Pantelimon city will have the effect of functional balance on the locality, much better
relationships between functional areas and, furthermore, with the territory of influence,
including Bucharest, and the realisation of a public transport network passenger transport
which the connection between centers of local interest, and other localities, in particular
Bucharest.
The network of streets in the new configuration is made up of road sections and
intersections that, depending on the shape and space allocated, will have a solution that will
ensure the distribution of traffic flow fluently and safely. The solutions will be determined in
the topographic plan which must outline the homes and property regimes. To better underline
the relationships that will be established between current and future functional areas and their
potentials, the proposals of the Local Urbanism Regulation (RLU) which, in fact, is similar to
PUG drawn up for Pantelimon city, were taken into account. Relationships between
functional areas generate/attract traffic flows, which were highlighted for the current situation
by measurements at eight (8) intersections at rush hours in the morning (AM) and afternoon
(PM).

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

5.4. The modeling of mobility in Pantelimon city - macrosimulation (four-step


model)

5.4.1. The base year 2015

Pantelimon areas of transport were adopted based on the model of JICA study. The
determining areas or traffic sectors and the network route verification within a traffic model is
based on the analysis of the existing situation major functional areas of the city. Thus there
are obtained multiple "traffic areas" with similar characteristics and a correspondent in the
"functional areas" of an urban planning documentation. Also, there were made estimations of
population size and the number of jobs based on functional areas suggested in this study in the
expansion of the incorporated area and by taking into account the appropriate POT and CUT
UTR of each separately. They are represented in Figure 14.

Figure 14 - Estimations of population and number of jobs in the study area

For this purpose there were used socio-economic parameters within the GUP
Pantelimon (total population and number of jobs) and were carried out circulation censuses in
major intersections at the rush hours mentioned. The results of these parameters analysis are
presented in Chapter 5.4.2.

5.4.2. Data required to generate trips (step 1)

To centralize have consulted a statistical basis, as follows:


- Socio – economic data
- Data based on industrial areas and important economic units
- Data based on the major shopping areas
- Data based on administrative and public institutions
- Data based on the road network

5.4.3. Trip Distribution (step 2)

The pie chart below shows the distribution of daily trip types in Pantelimon. The main

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

types are: by private car (60%), by walking (10%), by bus (30%).

5.4.4. Modal trip distribution (step 3)

The modal trip distribution was established in O-D surveys and the suggested
questionnaire provided this information. Thus, for long distances the own car is preffered,
public transport is an option for medium distances, and walking by foot or by bicycle is
chosen for the shortest distances.

5.4.5. Affecting trips on the network graph (step 4)

The problem of affecting the traffic network is related to the issue of trip distribution
on the transport network, assuming the travel demand between different locations, as well as
the network capacity offer. Methods of affectation distribute the traffic values according to a
set of constraints that includes:
• The transport capacity
• Travel Time
• Actual (or generalized) cost of the trip
PROCEDURES OF AFFECTATION:
• Incremental (of growth)
• Of balance
• Dynamic
• Heuristic (of forecast)
• "All or Nothing"

5.4.6. SWOT analysis and establishing dysfunctionalities of traffic

SWOT analysis is a method used in the business branch in order to help at


designing an overall vision of the company. It functions as an X-ray of the company or of
the business idea and evaluates, at the same time, the influencing internal and external
factors of an organization, as well as its position on the market or in relation to other
competitors in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of a company related to the
opportunities and threats which exist on the market at any given time.

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

Table 3 - SWOT Analysis City Pantelimon

Strong points Weaknesses

The close distance to - Correspondences - poor service integration


the capital city’s - Overcrowded correspondences
downtown - There is no integrated ticket system
- Absent / limited priority for Maxi taxi minibuses
- Uncontrolled parking disturbes traffic
- Frequent stops of minibuses, not only in arranged stations
- Bad quality of stations infrastructure
- Traffic congestion leads to an increased travel time and reduced
service reliability
- The Pantelimon subway is far from the locality
-The metro services from this station operate at a low frequency
- No local authority to coordinate the whole network
- The high cost of minibus tickets 2.5 lei/travel

Opportunities Threats

- An improved flux of - Increasing number of cars


income (that allows the - Unpleasant conditions of travelling by public transport during rush
sequel of investments) hours
- Review the network - Public transport does not currently have or has only in a small
and the operation to extent advantages over private cars
lower the operating - Lack of demand management approaches in any policy landscaping
costs or transmission is not in favor of public transport
- The parking system
of personal cars and
taking a means of
transport
- Integrated network
nodes - links (based on
a complete OD -
origin-destination) and
a clear role for each
mean of transport
- Responsible local
authority
A number of dysfunctionalities at the level of street network and traffic were identified at
the end of a multi-criteria analysis, both from the urban point of view and from the mobility
point of view. Thus, in figure 15 there are represented the following problems:
• There are numerous streets with poor accessibility (dead ends, very small width,

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

obstacles, cars parked on public land);


• There have been identified five overcrowded areas, both in terms of building density and
in terms of the number of cars and the amount of population;
• There is still a large number of unpaved roads;
• Two main arteries in the locality, although with a high degree of utilization, are not
modernized (paved) leading to hinder traffic. Moreover, the lack of sidewalks raises huge
issues regarding pedestrian’s safety;
• There are many streets with high traffic flow which would require widening (where
existing buildings allow) or their transformation into one-way streets;
• Many of the existing intersections raise traffic problems, because of their overcapacity,
not sized or properly marked;
• Crossing the railway is made at level, this is what leads to increased risk of accidents due
to the lack of a passage.

Figure 15 – Existing situation analysis (dysfunctions) of the Pantelimon city.

5.5. 2025 Forecast

A. Scenario without improvements / enhancements


The forecast of the transport demand and circulation flows was based on socio-
economic indicators, namely population and promising jobs according to PUG Pantelimon
provisions and was made after the discussions with the local authority representatives.

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Figure 16 - Report Volume / Capacity on street network within the study area and Level
of Service, at the afternoon’s rush hour PM – year 2025
Figure 16 shows the ratio volume/capacity and the Level of Service in intersections at
the afternoon’s rush hour PM. We can observe that the capacity reserve is about 30% on DN3
road sector to the entrance in Bucharest, and the reserve capacity is exceeded or is up to 10%
on DN3 on the road section located between the roundabout at the junction with DJ301 –
Cernica Street and Bucharest Municipality because this sector has limited circulation capacity
owing to DN3 profile, which is of one lane in each direction. The Level of Service at the main
entrance to the Pantelimon city is F, therefore, inadequate, so it is on the edge in the
roundabout at the intersection DN3 with Street Cernica.

B. Scenario with improvements/enhancements

Figure 17 - Report Volume / capacity on the road network within the study area and
level of service, at the afternoon rush hour

Figure 17 shows the ratio volume/capacity and the Level of Service at the afternoon’s
rush hour PM. It is observed that reserve capacity is at least 30% on DN3 road sector to the
entrance in Bucharest and on DN3 on the road section located between the roundabout at the
junction with DJ301 - Road Cernica and the first road of access to Pantelimon city( direction
towards the beltway). Farther until the Bucharest beltway, because this sector’s traffic
capacity is limited byt DN3 profile, which is one-lane in both directions, the reserve capacity
is exceeded. The Level of Service at the main entrance in Pantelimon city is C, therefore an

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

adequate one and E, therefore on the edge in the roundabout at the intersection DN3 with
Street Cernica.

5.6. Final considerations about microsimulation

After the implementation of the suggested measures in Chapter 5.4.7. it is observed an


improvement not only of DN3 reserve capacity, but also of the Level of Service in major
intersections, which are:
 Pantelimon city entrance by Tudor Vladimirescu Street. This intersection was modified by
providing two lanes at the exit onto DN3 and aimed at increasing traffic capacity.

Figure 18 - The intersection of Tudor Vladimirescu- Mioriţei - proposal of two-lane


traffic organization
 Roundabout at the DN3 intersection with Cernica Street. There were provided three lanes
on each side of DN3 at the roundabout entrance, which should be also modified to 3 lanes and
futhermore two lanes at the Mioriţei Street entrance, which becomes an important access
thoroughfare in Pantelimon city after the planned developments. The occurred delays in
morning peak traffic AM are reduced even though the level of service remains F, and
afternoon peak traffic PM, the service level is E in contrast to F in the original situation.

Figure 19 – The DN3 roundabout - Cernica Road - Mioriţei Street - DN3 proposal with
three lane per side until the intersection with Cernica and two lanes until CB

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

 Intersection with Rascoalei Street 1907. This intersection should be modified because
it provides important access to the new planned developments.

Figure 20 - Rascoalei intersection - CB – Rascoalei Street is proposed with a profile of


two lanes per side

 The DN3 road sector located between the roundabout junction with Cernica road and the
Bucharest beltway requires increased capacity by forming two lanes per side.
Inside Pantelimon city there seem to be no capacity problems in intersections, possibly
being occured some capacity issues on Tudor Vladimirescu Street, a street that provides
access to the downtown area. However, several streets with an existing profile of less than 7-9
m are proposed to be converted to one-way streets.

Figure 21 – Reorganized circulation proposal in the studied area

5.7. Microsimulation

Using data collected with the role of measuring and assessing the traffic congestion
and with the support of SYNCHRO STUDIO software, it was developed a detailed model for
the presented intersection as a case study. The microsimulation model was based on an
analysis of the capacity flows of the resulting data obtained from measurements made on the
spot.
The intersection chosen for the case study is the intersection between Cernica Road (a
county road to Cernica), Mioriţei Street (an access street to Pantelimon old town) and DN3
(Bucharest - Branesti Commune direction).

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Figure 22 - The analized intersection - the existing situation


Traffic volume data were provided by analyzing the intersection as a whole and
detailed calibration data collection was focused on three entry lanes in Bucharest: Brăneşti –
Bucharest, Mioriţei – Bucharest and Cernica - Bucharest.
Traffic volume data for the intersection and data related to speed and flow were
collected for the periods 17-22 November 2014 and 4 to 9 March 2015. Initial analyzes were
conducted using data for the peak period (7.00 – 9.00) and they repeated in the same peak
peiod next year to fit to the recent terms of the survey. The peak period was determined for
the intersection as a whole, namely highest traffic volume period of the intersection (AM).

Figure 23 - The distribution of traffic in the analysed intersection at 8.00 - 8.15 a.m.

Once there have been assigned to the vehicle some specific driving characteristics and
the driver characteristics and the vehicle movement throughout the network is determined by
three major algorithms:
- "Car-following"
- Changing lanes
- Goal acceptance
The case study also demonstrated the importance of saturation flows estimation in
overcrowded conditions, where upstream queues interpose to leaving flows. There are
recommended further efforts to investigate saturation flows in order to release the treads and
minimize gridlock effects in the case of an overcrowded intersection.
The intersection reorganization by arranging a roundabout intersection leads to
significant improvements in traffic from an intersection without traffic lights. Thus,
there can be found the following benefits:

• ensuring a uniform distribution of traffic over all the branches;


• increasing the safety of pedestrians;
• lowering the number of accidents;
• traffic abatement;
• increasing the intersection level of service;
• reducing queues.

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6. Integrated Urban Policy Project for Local Administration. Case Study

The phenomenon of urban development is a process that must be considered from the
perspective of the future and the opportunities it can offer. Urban development can be managed
through planning documents, among which we mention the integrated urban policy. In
developing an integrated urban policy, the emphasis is on a visionary approach that should
meet the spatial, economic, cultural, social, environmental, transport dimensions etc. of the
locality in question. An important aspect of creating an integrated urban policy document is the
specification of locality issues. Not all of the localities can develop to the same extent, but
ensuring a minimum balance in development and constant pursuit of a vision are important
aspects in formulating an integrated framework of a successful urban planning. The case study
presented below shows all the necessary guidelines for the actual development, within the
technical apparatus of local public administration or in cooperation with a team of specialists,
of such a document not only theoretically, but also by exemplifying each particularized stage
on the origin of the locality. The integrated diagnosis development aims at starting the
reflection process of the participants regarding the possibilities of spatial development, by
assuming an attitude towards the actual state of Pantelimon city.
For the diagnosis development there were considered areas of analysis, namely:
- Natural environment (landforms, natural risk)
- Connectivity (regional level, county level)
- Economics (rank accoriding to GDP, tendencies)
- Population (number, age group, unemployment rate)
- Access to public services (health, education)
- Administrative Capacity (urbanism / urban development)
Integrated Diagnosis:

Pantelimon city develops in the suburbs of the capital city residential and has a direct
contribution to residential and localization area of the industrial facilities within Bucharest. It
also offers many investment facilities given to its location. The development of public
services represents a challenge for the local administration. In order to achieve the
metropolitan area, cooperation with local administrations in the Ilfov county, but also with
Bucharest, constitutes an important factor for the medium and long term development.
The enunciation purpose of a vision and objectives for Pantelimon city is to propose a
conceptual framework in which the locality can develop in the future, at schematic level,
expressed by targets in the process of being achieved.
Taking into account the four pillars of action (by which the integrated objectives are
explained):

- Competitive city
- Cohesive city
- Sustainable city
- Effectively governed city

Vision development for Pantelimon city:

Vision 2035 aims at transforming Pantelimon city into a pole of regional


development which shall assume the role of local resources management and the one of
economic development generator dominated by productive activities that can be innovated, an
attractive, comfortable and unpolluted residence, an open, connected and accessible city,
which effectively exploits its tourism potential.

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SMART system development objectives for Pantelimon city

The formulation of objectives aims to propose a conceptual framework in which the


city can develop in the future, at schematic level, expressed by targets to be achieved. These
objectives are:

OB.1 – Anticipation and satisfaction and meeting of accessibility and mobility requirements;
OB.2 - Anticipation and community requirements satisfaction for a healthy, clean
environment, with effective public services and natural resources preservation;
OB.3 - Integrated urban development and urban system consolidation;
OB.4 - Local economy diversification, by tourism development and knowledge based
economy inclusively, which are based on natural resources and development potential;
OB.5 - Increased capacities of solving the administrative problem.
By implementing measures to the projects (action plan) there is taken into consideration the
put into practice (operationalizing) of strategic directions through integrated projects, clearly
spatialized within the locality.
Development projects:
PR.1 - Improving transport infrastructure by asphalting all the streets;
PR.2 - Improved mobility by the extension of public transport networks and upgraded
minibuses and buses parks;
PR.3 – Increased administrative capacity by building the city hall and hiring qualified
personnel;
PR.4 - Improved life quality by providing a complete sewerage and water supply system;
PR.5 - Cultural development by achieving a cultural center with a library and performances;
PR.6 - Development of tourism by encouraging investments for the development of
recreational theme parks along the shore of Lake Cernica;
PR.7 – Construction of a rugby field and 3 gyms;
PR.8 – Increased level of children education by building a school and a kindergarten together
with a nursery.

This integrated approach allows better correlation of future investments that need to be
made in various sectors of activity, as well as the identification of major projects that shall
ensure the problem solving from different branches. Furthermore, the patterning in an
integrated format of the strategic objectives provides a framework of prioritization over time,
depending on the flows generated by the projects sequence.
At the end of the project, it can be concluded that Pantelimon city can become a pole
of regional development which might overtake the management of local resources and the
role of economic development generator dominated by productive activities that can be
innovated. It also has the potential to be, in the future, an attractive, comfortable and
unpolluted residence, an open, accessible and connected city, which effectively exploits its
tourism potential.

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7. CONCLUSIONS OF RESEARCH DOCUMENTATION AND CASE STUDIES

7.1. Conception of street network on urban traffic performance criteria

While modeling a road network, if operated at close to maximum capacities, small


changes made to the way in which vehicles are generated in the network may lead to
important implications. None of these software packages listed above do not support data
entry regarding arrival times of vehicles, for example, it relies on implicit functions for
generating randomly the vehicles at the ends of the road networks.
For the correct organization of urban street networks we must consider the following:
 The size and shape of the buildings bodies and their interior and exterior organization.
 The open spaces and their distribution.
 Integration of public buildings.
 The nature of the road network, whether a systematic distinction between main and
secondary streets is made or not .

Figure 24 - Mobility system - theoretical model


The measures proposed for the designing a street network will be applied on two
major elements of the street network:
- nodes
- segments
In nodes, measures concerning urban traffic performance parameters that may be applied are:
- Geometry optimization (additional lanes to turn left/right, to go forward, etc, increasing
visibility)
- Traffic control (signaling, priority rules, traffic lights)
Segmental measures regarding urban traffic performance parameters that can apply are:
- Reducing conflicts with local traffic (car parks, strips off, etc.)
- Reducing the number of outputs from the main artery and controled access
- Public transport alveoli, adjacent activities and side obstacles
Suggestions following the conclusions drawn from the case studies presented in chapters 4
and 5 may be included in a sustainable urban mobility plan, whose implementation follows
the steps and structure presented in the case study in chapter 6. Because such a plan covers a
long period of time, it was proposed the achievement of the objectives set out in Chapter 5.6.
in two steps as follows:
PMUD PHASE 1
• Bike trails network proposal - 12.4 km
• New public transport network (simplification + saving time)
PHASE 2 PMUD

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 fast railway - 4,2 km.


 2 multimodal stations
 fitting/upgrading intersections
 above-ground parking
In the example of this paper there are proposed two hypothetical scenarios:
- Scenario 1: Do Nothing
Scenario 1 assumes growth in demand for transport, the need to travel and mobility needs. It is
estimated that the number of 8000 daily commuting on DN3 sector (yaw) to the Bucharest
entrance will reach 12,000 in the upcoming years.
- Scenario 2: Do Something
Scenario 2 involves implementing integrated measures and alignment to the European
requirements, such as the promotion of public transport and cycling.
Specifically, the proposed projects aimed at widening the road segment analyzed with one
more lane for public to be made possible with the help of electric buses (which would lead to
a considerable decrease of pollution and thus to less travel costs).
By implementing this scenario it is intended that the 12,000 trips will be made as follows:
- 2000 – by own car
- 3000 – by bike
- 7000 - by public transport (electric buses) Direct benefits of this scenario are:
- Increased average speed
- Reduced travel time
- Reduced fossil fuels
- Increased health level by encouraging movement
- Lower costs of travel/trips
Increasing the travel speed leads to a gain of 5 min/day.
5 min/day x 220 days x 2,700 vehicles that travel at higher speed = 2,970,000 min / year =
49,500 hours / year
49,500 hours average price x of 12 euros/hour = 594,000 euro/year
Suggested investment cost: 70 euro/sq.m suggested road route
Result: 16.6 km x 3.5 m = 58,100 square meters x 70 euro / sq.m = euro 4.067 million euro
4.067 million / 594,000 euro / year = 6.8 years
The suggested investment will be cushioned over 6.8 years without counting the indirect
benefits such as:
- Reduced pollution
- Increased comfort
- Reduced travel price

Figure 25 - Examples of sustainable organization of some streets

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

7.2. Changing the performance parameters of urban traffic after the


suggestions made

The images presented in this chapter will state the characteristics of streets from the
study area, before and after the reorganization.

Răscoalei Street - existing transversal profile Performance


parameters

- one-lane/side
- low-speed
movement
- No sidewalks
for pedestrians

Figure 26 – Răscoalei Street - existing transversal profile

Răscoalei Street – suggested transversal profile Performance


parameters

- Two
lanes/side
- High-speed
movement
- Sidewalks for
pedestrians
- Bicycle lanes
- Alignment
lawns
- Public lighting

Figure 27 – Rascoalei Street – suggested transversal profile

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

Poet George Țărnea Street – existing transversal profile Performance


parameters
- a lane/side
-without
sidewalks
-without utility
networks

Figure 28 - Poet George Țărnea Street – existing transversal profile

Poet George Țărnea Street - suggested transversal profile Performance


parameters

- a lane/side
-with sidewalks
for pedestrians
-allignment
lawns
- utility
networks

Figure 29 - Poet George Țărnea Street – suggested transversal profile

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

Beltway – existing transversal profile Performance


parameters
-a lane/side
-low speed
- without
sidewalks for
pedestrians
-gridlocks at
rush hours
-CF line is not
framed by
plantations

Figure 30 – Beltway – existing transversal profile

Beltway – suggested transversal profile Performance


parameters

-two
lanes/sides
-high speed
- with
sidewalks for
pedestrians
-bycicle lanes
- alignment
lawns (greeen
corridor for CF
line)
-public
lighting

Figure 31 – Beltway – suggested transversal profile

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

DN3 - Biruinței Avenue - existing transversal profile Performance


parameters

-3 lanes/sides
-congestions at
rush hours
-sidewalks for
pedestrains

Figure 32 – Biruinței Avenue – existing transversal profile

DN3- Biruintei Avenue - suggested transversal profile Performance


parameters
-two
lanes/sides for
vehicles
-higher speed
due to
redistributed
circulation
-special lane
for public
transport
-sidewaks for
pedestrians
-bycicle lanes
-alignment
lawns
-public
lighting

Figure 33 – DN3- Biruintei Avenue - suggested transversal profile

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

Secondary street with profile < 9 m – existing transversal profile Performance


parameters
-one lane/side
-two sides
-low speed
-pedestrian
unsafety

Figure 34 – Secondary street with profile < 9 m – existing transversal profile

Secondary street with profile < 9 m – suggested transversal profile Performance


parameters
-one side
-high speed
-sidewaks for
pedestrians
-alignment
lawns
-public lighting

Figure 35 - Secondary street with profile < 9m – suggested transveral profile

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7.3. Personal contributions

The main contribution of this thesis is to highlight the close link between
traffic engineering and urbanism, two extremely complex disciplines, whose
symbiosis is possible only by involving many other subjects: geography,
demography, sociology, architecture, environmental science, etc.
The study references in the field, participation in different working groups for
projects in urban planning and traffic engineering, as well as the realization and
presentation of papers during internal and international scientific meetings and the
publishing of articles in scientific bulletins and speciality journals entitle me to list
the following contributions:

1. Making a summary of research that was done in the past three decades all over the
world divided into thematic groups targeting interdisciplinary connections between
the urbanism, the street network development in cities, the road networks typology
and topology, the traffic elements, the performance parameters of urban traffic and
the way all of these interact and influence each other.
2. Clarification of urban traffic performance parameters and providing a synthesis of
urban road infrastructure in relation to the time evolution, aiming for the connections
between cities size and configuration and the mobility needs and their correlation
tourban infrastructure networks and road arteries typology .
3. Identification of some street networks development examples which meet the
requirements of transport and sustainable mobility in the literature studied in relation
to the specific size, shape, structure and characteristics of the city's population
4. Conducting two case studies, the first linked to a traffic study for a city with less
than 50,000 inhabitants, to a macrosimulation with the help of a specialized
software, the improvement of existing traffic conditions and the traffic forecast and
the second related to the implementation of integrated urban development policies,
closely connected to sustainable traffic policies.
5. The correlation between spatia /urban planning and transport leads to the decision
of travel execution. To identify the type and size of transport demand, we conducted
surveys at home about the origin and destination of travel, travel mode and hours on
a sample of about 3% of the population in Pantelimon.
6. The identification of problems linked to traffic at times with the help of local
police by conducting a traffic survey in a busy intersection (Cernica and Brăneşti -
DN3 - Bucharest) and the proposal of retrieval solutions, solutions that can be
applied by extension to other similar intersections.
7. Methodological clarifications and practical recommendations for implementing a
sustainable development policy based on systematic thinking and an overview of the
author.
8. Practical exploitation of the envisaged solutions by submitting them to the
Pantelimon Hall, the Investment Department, in order to start the infrastructure
projects.

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7.4. Future research directions

The future research direction will be represented by the way in which urban traffic
performance parameters influence the characteristics of an existing or suggested street
network. This element is new in Romania, although many of the complex links between
urbanism and traffic engineering were pretty much approached in the studies. The complex
the relationships of the territory and of the actual urban practice become, the more problems
that ask for research occur.
Trying to summarize, I will enumerate some ways that we consider to be useful for
further research:
1. Achieving a sustainable urban mobility plan linked to PMUD Bucharest-Ilfov based on
extensive data collection (O-D surveys on DN3, detailed home interviews on 5-6% of the total
population).
2. Establishment of a regular data collecting system concerning the mobility of people and
cargo.
3. Regular analysis of the performance transport system (3-6 months) within a specialized
department of the City Hall as follows:

-monitoring performance indicators;


-congestions;
-pedestrian accidents;
-car accidents;
-new urban developments;
-bikers;
-the state of the road surface.
4. This paper, by the presented case studies, can be an example of tool for other localities and
local administrations.

The life quality of a community in general is closely linked to how sustainable the
mobility is, in particular the sustainable transport. Therefore, the investigation initiation which
aims at clarifying the dependencies between the use of space - planning - need for mobility -
transport infrastructure, is essential in maintaining the quality of life.
Eventually, I reckon that the cooperation, consultation, working relationships between
traffic engineers, roads and urbanists must exist and represent the foundation that underpins
sustainable development of urban areas, exactly how every solid and functional building has a
well calculated foundation is properly set up.

35
Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 2
2. URBAN TRAFFIC AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS .............. 5
3. STREET NETWORK - ELEMENTS, HISTORY, SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT ........................................................................................... 6
4. URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND CIRCULATION FLOWS -
URBAN TRAFFIC NETWORK .................................................................. 10
5. MODELING THE MOBILITY IN PANTELIMON CITY AND
PLANNING SCENARIOS OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY. CASE
STUDY ........................................................................................................... 14
6. INTEGRATED URBAN POLICY PROJECT FOR LOCAL ADMINISTRATION.
CASE STUDY.................................................................................................... 25
7. CONCLUSIONS OF RESEARCH DOCUMENTATION AND CASE
STUDIES ....................................................................................................... 27

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Concepția tramei stradale pe criterii de performanță a traficului urban

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