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English for Engineering

Compiled by team for internal use only


UNIT 1

Reading Strategies

A. Previewing and Predicting

Previewing and Predicting are two essential skills for a good reader. Pre means before. View
means to look at. Before you read something, it's important to look it over, or preview it.
When you gather information about a book by examining the title and the cover, you are
previewing. The purpose of previewing is to help you to predict or make some “educated
guesses” on what the book is about.

Previewing and Predicting help you to get more ideas on what you read so that you can
begin processing the information far more quickly. You will also able to follow the writer’s
idea better.

Three Important Things 1) You identify the topic.


in 2) You think about what you already know about the topic.
Previewing and Predicting 3) You ask yourself questions about the topic.

Exercise 1
Look at the title of the paragraph below. (Don't read the paragraph.) Based on the title only,
what do you think the paragraph is about?

E-Books
The book of the future will be made with radio paper and electronic ink. Radio
paper has a coating of millions of tiny capsules. Inside each capsule, there is
a dark liquid and hundreds of white balls. An electrical charge can make the
white balls move to the top of the capsule. This makes the "ink" Iook white. An
electrical charge can also make the white balls move to the bottom of the
capsule. This makes the "ink" Iook black. When the capsules are charged in a
pattern, they form letters on the page.

Key words are words that appear several times in a paragraph. In the paragraph above, the
key words are underlined. Based on the key words only, what do you think the paragraph is
about?

a. the history of radio paper and electronic ink


b. how radio paper and electronic ink work
c. how to use an e-book
B. Scanning

What is Scanning?

Scanning is very high speed reading. Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up
a word in the telephone book or dictionary. In most cases; you know what you are looking
for, so you are concentrating on finding a particular answer.

Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words or
phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will
answer your questions.

• Have a question in mind


• Do not read every word, only read the words that answer your
question
How • Look for the author’s use of organizers such as numbers, letters,
to steps or the words: first, second, or next
scan • Look for words that are boldfaced, italics, or in a different font size,
style or color
• Sometimes the author will put key idea in the margin.

Exercise 2
Look at the list of art exhibits below. Will you be able to see the exhibition of Leonardo da
Vinci’s drawing in March?

Picasso Leonardo da Vinci: The Anatomy of Man


through January 10 through February 21

The Grand Tour: European and Master European Paintings from the
American Views of Italy National Gallery of Ireland: Mantegna to
through January 17 Goya
January 12 – March 28

Joel Sternfeld: Photographs of the Building a Collection: The Department


Roman Campagagna of Contemporary Art, Part I
through January 17 January 28 – July 3

*Late 20th Century Prints * Photography: Close-Up/ Still Life


through January 31 February 10 – May 23

On Kawara: Data Paintings in 89 Cities


through February 7
* Closed Thursday and Friday evenings

Did you read the whole list of exhibition to find out? No! You knew what to look for. You
scanned the list to find the information that you needed.
Exercise 3
In this exercise, you will scan supermarket ads. Read each question. Then scan
advertisement to locate the correct answer. Work quickly!

1. How many different beverages are advertised?


2. What is the price of a 9” Pie?
3. How many ounces (oz.) of vegetables can you buy for .79?
4. How many Eggo Waffles are in a package (pkg.)?
5. What is the name of the company which sells frozen carrots?
6. Which juice is 100% natural?
7. How many pieces of pizza can you buy for $2.39?
8. Which pizza is cheaper?
9. What is the weight of the frozen bread dough?
10. Is pink lemonade on sale?

TIMESAVING FROZEN FOODS


Minute Maid OJ Birds Eye Deluxe
Calcium Fortified, Country Style or .99 Microwaveable Vegetables. Baby .79
Regular, 12 Oz Can. Or Reduced Acid Whole Carrots, Broccoli Florets, Sugar
10 Oz Can. Frozen Snap Peas, Tendersweet Corn, Baby
Broccoli Spears, Whole Green Beans
or Tiny Tender Peas. 8 Oz Pkg.
Frozen

Seneca Juice Shop & Go Carrots


100% Natural Grape, Granny Smith 1.29 Whole Baby 16 Oz or Crinkle Cut 20 .89
Apple or Apple. 12 Oz. Can. Frozen Oz Bag. Fozen

Lemonade Ellio’s Pizza


Shop & Go. Regular or Pink. 12 Oz 2for$1 6 Slice Double Cheese 19 Oz Pkg. 2.39
Can. Frozen Frozen

Large Crispy Bagels Cheese Ravioli


Sgop & Go. Assorted Varieties 15.6 .69 Shop & Go. 16 Oz Pkg. of 36. Frozen 1.39
Oz Pkg. of 5. Frozen

Eggo Waffles Weaver Chicken


Homestyle or Buttermilk 11 Oz Pkg. of 1.29 Fried Crispy Dutch Frye 28 Oz Pkg. or 3.49
8. Frozen Batter Dipped or Dutch Frye Breasts.
22 Oz Pkg. Frozen

Cool Whip Totino’s Pizza


Lite, Extra Creamy or Regular 8 Oz .99 Party. Assorted Varieties 9.8 Oz Pkg. 1.39
Container. Frozen Frozen

9” Homestyle Pie Fish Sticks


Sara lee. Assorted Varieties 37 Oz 1.99 Van de Kamp’s Value Pack 26.4 Oz 3.49
Pkg. Frozen Pkg. of 44. Frozen

White Bread Dough


Shop & Go. 5 lb Pkg of %. Frozen 1.89
Exercise 4
Answer the Following Questions as Quickly as Possible Based on the Text Below!
1. Who developed the desktop calculator?
2. Who design an automatic mechanical calculating machine?
3. When Babbage construct “a difference engine”?
4. Did he work for more than 10 years?
5. Did Babbage succeed to accomplish his project on computer?
6. Is calculus useful for the construction of bridge?

Babbage

While Tomas of Colmer was developing the desktop calculator, a series of very
remarkable developments in computers was initiated in Cambridge, England by Charles
Babbage. Babbage realized (1812) that many long computations especially those needed to
prepare mathematical tables, consisted of routine operations that were regularly repeated.
From this he surmised that it ought to be possible to do these operation automatically. He
began to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called “a difference
engine” and by 1822 he had built a small working model for demonstration with financial help
from the British Government, Babbage started construction of a scale difference engine in
1823.

The difference engine, although of limited flexibility and applicability, was conceptually
a great advance. Babbage continued work on it for ten years, but in 1833 he shifted his
attention to what today would be described as a general purpose, fully program-controlled,
automatic mechanical digital computer. Babbage called his machine “an analytical engine”.
The plans for the analytical engine specified a parallel decimal computer operating in numbers
(words) of fifty decimal digits and provided with a storage capacity (memory) of 1,000 such
numbers. Built in operations were to include the all-important “conditional control transfer”
capability which would allow instruction to be executed in any order, not just in numerical
sequences. The analytical engine was to use punched cards which were to be read into the
machine from any of several reading stations.

Babbage’s computers were never completed. Between 1850 and 1900 great advances
were made in mathematical physics, and at came to be understood that most observable
dynamic phenomena can be characterized by differential equations, so that ready means for
their solution and for the solution of other problems of calculus would be helpful. The designing
of railroads and the construction of steamships, textile mills and bridge required differential
calculus to determine such quantities as centers of gravity, centers of buoyancy, moments of
inertia and stress distribution.
C. Skimming

What is Skimming?

Skimming is high speed reading that can save you lots of time. You skim to get the general
sense of a passage or a book.

How do you skim?

You should read only the words that will help you get the sense of the text. Read the first
sentences or paragraph quite carefully. The beginning often contains general information
about the rest of the text. If the text is long, you might also read the second paragraph.
Sometimes the first paragraph is only an introduction and the second paragraph contains the
main idea. You should usually read the last paragraph more carefully.

Exercise 5:
Read the following text quickly and answer the questions.
1. When were X-rays discovered?
2. Who discovered them?
3. What are the four characteristics of X-rays?

The Discovery of X-rays

Except for a brief description of the Compton effect, and a few other remarks, we have
postponed the discussion of X-rays until the present chapter because it is particularly
convenient to treat X-ray spectra after treating optical spectra. Although this ordering may have
given the reader a distorted impression of the historical importance of X-rays, this impression
will be corrected shortly as we describe the crucial role played by X-rays in the development
of modern physics.
X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Roentgen while studying the phenomena of
gaseous discharge. Using a cathode ray tube with a high voltage of several tens of kilovolts,
he noticed that salts of barium would fluoresce when brought near the tube, although nothing
visible was emitted by the tube. This effect persisted when the tube was wrapped with a layer
of black cardboard. Roentgen soon established that the agency responsible for the
fluorescence originated at the point at which the stream of energetic electrons struck the glass
wall of the tube. Because of its unknown nature, he gave this agency the name X-rays. He
found that X-rays could manifest themselves by darkening wrapped photographic plates,
discharging charged electroscopes, as well as by causing fluorescence in a number of different
substances. He also found that X-rays can penetrate considerable thicknesses of materials of
low atomic number, whereas substances of high atomic number are relatively opaque.
Roentgen took the first steps in identifying the nature of X-rays by using a system of slits to
show that (1) they travel in straight lines, and that (2) they are uncharged, because they are
not deflected by electric or magnetic fields.
The discovery of X-rays aroused the interest of all physicists, and many joined in the
investigation of their properties. In 1899 Haga and Wind performed a single slit diffraction
experiment with X-rays which showed that (3) X-rays are a wave motion phenomenon, and,
from the size of the diffraction pattern, their wavelength could be estimated to be 10-8 cm. In
1906 Barkla proved that (4) the waves are transverse by showing that they can be polarized
by scattering from many materials.
There is, of course, no longer anything unknown about the nature of X-rays. They are
electromagnetic radiation of exactly the same nature as visible light, except that their
wavelength is several orders of magnitude shorter. This conclusion follows from comparing
properties 1 through 4 with the similar properties of visible light, but it was actually postulated
by Thomson several years before all these properties were known. Thomson argued that X-
rays are electromagnetic radiation because such radiation would be expected to be emitted
from the point at which the electrons strike the wall of a cathode ray tube. At this point, the
electrons suffer very violent accelerations in coming to a stop and, according to classical
electromagnetic theory, all accelerated charged particles emit electromagnetic radiations. We
shall see later that this explanation of the production of X-rays is at least partially correct.
In common with other electromagnetic radiations, X-rays exhibit particle-like aspects
as well as wave-like aspects. The reader will recall that the Compton effect, which is one of
the most convincing demonstrations of the existence of quanta, was originally observed with
electromagnetic radiation in the X-ray region of wavelengths.

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 6

Work with a partner. Fill the gaps in the text with words from the box in their correct form.

characteristic – conductivity – deformation – ductility – fracture – load – magnetic - strength

With regard to mechanical behavior, ceramic materials are relatively stiff and strong.
Their stiffness and ………………………….…………….are comparable to those of the metals.
In addition, ceramics are typically very hard. On the other hand, they are extremely brittle, i.e.
lack………………………….…………….,and are highly susceptible to fracture, which limits
their applicability in comparison to metals. The principal drawback of ceramics is a disposition
to catastrophic………………………….…………….in a brittle manner with very little energy
absorption. At room temperature, both crystalline and non-crystalline ceramics tend to fracture
before plastic ………………………….…………….can occur in response to an applied tensile
………………………….……………. Ceramics typically insulate against the passage of heat
and electricity, i.e. they have low electrical……………………….…………….,and they are more
resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers. With regard
to optical ………………………….…………….,ceramics may be transparent, translucent or
opaque, and some of the oxide ceramics, e.g. Fe3O4,
exhibit………………….…………….behavior.

(from Callister, modified and abridged)


Grammar Review

Subject + V2
Use of the Simple Past

Use the simple past for actions in the past that have no connection to the present and when
the time of the past action is important or shown.

Signal words are yesterday, last Thursday, two weeks ago, in November 1989.

Subject + have/has + Past Participle


Use of the Present Perfect

Use the present perfect for actions in the past with a connection to the present and when the
time of the past actions is not important.

Use the present perfect for recently completed actions and actions beginning in the past and
continuing in the present.

Signal words are: just, never, ever, yet, already, recently, since, for, so far, up to now.

Past Tense Present Perfect Tense

1. Sergey Brin came to the U.S. in 1979 1. Sergey Brin has been in the U.S. since 1979
2. Brin and Page started Google in 1998 2. Google has been populer since 1998

Sentences show a single action in the past. Sentences show the continuation of an action or
This action does not continue. state from the past to the present.

Exercise 7

Fill in the blanks with the simple past or the present perfect of the verb in parentheses.

A: Do you like to surf the internet?

B: Of course, I do. I’ve had (have) my internet connection since 1999, and I love it. A couple
of months ago, I ___________ (buy) a new computer with lots of memory and speed.
And last month I _________ (change) to a better service provider. Now I can surf much
faster.

A: What kind of things do you search for?

B: Lots of things. I ________ (always/want) to learn about the stock market, and with the
Web, I can start to learn. Last week, I __________ (make) my first investment in the
stock market.

A: Do you ever buy products online?

B: Sometimes I do. Last month, I __________ (find) a great Website where I can download
music for one dollar. So far, I ____________ (download) about a hundred songs, and I
_________ (make) several CDs. My old computer _________ (not/have) burner, so I’m
very happy with my new one.

A: __________ (you/sell) your old computer?

B: No. It was about eight years old. I just ________ (remove) the hard drive and
__________ (leave) the computer on top of the garbage dumpster. When I _________
(pass) by a few hours later, it was gone. Someone _______ (take) it.

Exercise 8

Put the tenses in this dialogue in the correct form: Past simple or Present perfect.
1. A: What _______ (do) today?
2. B: I ________ (work) on my project. I ________ (search) the Web for sites on digital
cameras.
3. A: ________ ( find) any good ones?
4. B: I ________(find) several company sites – Sony, Canon... but I ________ (want)
one which ________ (compare) all the models.
5. A: Which search engine ________ (use)?
6. B: Dogpile mostly. ________ (ever use) it?
7. A: Yes, I ________ (try) it but I ________ (have) more luck with Ask Jeeves. Why
don't you try it?
8. B: I ________ (have) enough for one night. I _______ (spend) hours on that project.
9. A: I _______ (not start) on mine yet.
10. B: Yeh? I bet you ________ (do) it all.

Exercise 9

Past Simple Questions


Study this description of a student's first term. What questions might the interviewer
have asked to obtain the information in italics?

In her first term Pauline studied six subjects. She had classes on four days each week. On
Monday morning she had IT and Information Systems. Tuesday was a free day for home
study. On Wednesday she had Systems Analysis in Room 324. She studied Computer took
place once a week on Friday afternoons. She liked Mr. Architecture on Thursdays.
Programming happened on Friday mornings. Communication Blunt's classes most. She had
a 15-minute coffee break each day and a lunch break from 12.00 to 1.00.

Exercise 10

Work with a partner. Fill the gaps in the sentences with the verbs in their correct tense
(present perfect or simple past).

1. Materials …………………………………………... (always play) a major role in the


development of societies.
2. Civilizations ……………………………………….. (designate) by the level of their
materials development.
3. The earliest humans ……………………………………….. (have) access to only a very
limited number of materials.
4. The microstructure of a metal …………………………….……………….. (be) first revealed
in 1864 by the Englishman Henry Sorby who………………………………….. (develop) a
technique for etching the surface layer of a polished metal.
5. Modern techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)…………………………………………..…..
(make) it possible to better understand their characteristics.
6. By now, more than 50,000 materials …………………………………..……………..
(develop). Materials scientists ………………………………………………….. (long envy)
the resilience of certain naturally occurring materials.
7. Past efforts to reproduce the architecture of, e.g. a shell…………………………….. (not
be successful).
8. To copy the microstructure of the shell, the researchers………………………………..
(mix) water with finely ground ceramic powder and polymer binders.

Exercise 11
Read the text below. Then decide whether the statements are true or false. Rewrite the false
statements if necessary.

The discipline of materials science and engineering includes two main tasks.
Materials scientists examine the structure-properties relationships of materials and develop
or synthesize new materials.
Materials engineers design the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set
of properties on the basis of structure-property relationships. They create new products or
systems using existing materials and/or develop techniques for processing materials.
Most graduates in materials programs are trained to be both materials scientists and
materials engineers.
(from Callister, modified and abridged)

1. Materials scientists do research on finished materials.


………………………………………………………………………..………………………………
2. New products are based on new materials only.
………………………………………………………………………..………………………………
3. Materials science can be subdivided because different approaches to materials are
employed.
………………………………………………………………………..………………………………
4. Materials engineers investigate the correlation between structure and property.
………………………………………………………………………..………………………………
PREPOSITIONS

Exercise 12

I. Please add prepositions to the gaps in this passage.

Prepositions of Time Usage Example

on § days of the week § on Monday

in § months / seasons § in August / in winter


§ time of day § in the morning
§ year § in 2006
§ after a certain period of time (when?) § in an hour

at § for night § at night


§ for weekend § at the weekend
§ a certain point of time (when?) § at half past nine

1. Peter is playing tennis ______ Sunday.


2. My brother's birthday is ______ the 5th of November.
3. My birthday is ______ May.
4. We are going to see my parents ______ the weekend.
5. ______ 1666, a great fire broke out in London.
6. I don't like walking alone in the streets ______ night.
7. What are you doing ______ the afternoon?
8. My friend has been living in Canada ______ two years.
9. I have been waiting for you ______ seven o'clock.
10. I will have finished this essay ______Friday.

II. Complete the following sentences using from, with or of.

1. Bronze contains significant amounts ______ copper.


2. Galvanised steel is steel coated ______ zinc.
3. Steel is an alloy derived _____ iron.
4. Pure metals can usually be recovered_____ alloys.
5. To produce stainless steel, iron is mixed _____ other metals.
6. Stainless steel contains quantities _____ chromium and nickel
7. Glass tableware contains traces _____ metals, such as lead.
8. When new metal is extracted _____ ore, the costs can be high.