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Summary of Annotations

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A bearing is any surface that supports or is supported by

another surface

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It is a part in which a journal, pivot, pin or

similar device turns or revolves

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The bearings used in aircraft

engines are designed to produce a minimum of friction and a

maximum of wear resistance

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Bearings are, broadly, classified by the type of rolling element

used in their construction.

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Ball bearings employ steel balls,

which rotate in grooved raceways,

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Roller bearings utilise

cylindrical, tapered and spherical rollers running in suitably

shaped raceways

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Ball bearings and tapered roller bearings accept both radial and

axial loads,

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the other types of roller bearings may accept

only radial loads.

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Those bearings, which are contained in cages, are, in general,

used for engine and gearbox applications with rotational speeds

in excess of approximately 100 rpm

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Ball Bearing is divided into 3 main groups

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This is the most common type of rolling bearing and is found in

all forms of transmission assemblies such as shafts, gears and

control-rod end fittings

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Radial ball

bearings are designed to carry primarily a radial load

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points of contact created within the bearing will be

perpendicular to the shaft

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These bearings are capable of accepting radial

loads, and axial loads in one direction

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The axial loading capacity of an

angular contact bearing depends to a large extent on the

contact angle

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Angular contact bearings are designed to operate with an

internal contact angle of 15°, 30° or 40° from the standard 90°

angle to the shaft

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These bearings are designed for the balls to ride high on the

edge of the raceways

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The balls make contact

with two separate raceways in each ring, and one essential

condition of operation is that the bearing should never run


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The bearings are not adjustable, and radial loads

should always be lighter than axial loads

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This is a most efficient

form of thrust bearing

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Thrust Ball Bearings are designed to carry a pure form of thrust

(axial) loads

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When a load is properly applied to this bearing,

the internal contact points are aligned on a plane parallel to the


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Roller bearings may be divided into three main groups,

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A slight misalignment will cause the rollers to skew and get out

of line. For this reason, the retainer must be heavy

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These bearings are capable of carrying greater radial loads than

ball bearings of similar external dimensions, due to the greater

contact area of the rolling elements

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The type of Straight roller bearing most commonly used is that

in which the diameter and length of the rollers are equal

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These will not of cause

take thrust loads

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of cause

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Bearings having rollers of a length greater than their diameter

are also used for special applications

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needle roller

bearing, in which the length of the rollers is several times

greater than their diameter

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These bearings are designed for

pure radial loads and are often used in locations where the

movement is oscillatory rather than rotary, such as universal

couplings and control-rod ends

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For continuous rotation, needle bearings are usually suitable

where the loading is intermittent and variable so that the

needles will be frequently unloaded and thus tend to return to

their proper locations

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They are capable of accepting

simultaneous radial loads and axial loads in one direction

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proportions of the loads determining the taper angle

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These can be mounted with the cone backs

facing each other, in the configuration called direct Mounting

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with the cone fronts facing each other, in what is called indirect

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The bearing is capable of

withstanding heavy radial loads, and moderate axial loads from

either direction

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Thrust bearings can be constructed by the use

of straight or tapered rollers

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Roller bearings are usually made

of casehardened steels

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The carburized case or exterior should

have a hardness of 58-63 Rc

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The core is softer with a hardness

of 25-40 Rc

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The maximum

temperature is limited to about 350° F

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the internal

clearance is measured in terms of the direction of the load

(radial internal clearance and axial internal clearance)

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manufactured and not yet shaft mounted, the bearing is

measured in terms of its un-mounted internal clearance.

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Group 2 bearings have the smallest radial internal clearance

and are, normally, used in precision work, where minimum axial

and radial movement is required

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These bearings should not be

used in applications where high temperatures could reduce the

internal clearance and are not suitable as thrust bearings nor for

high-speed situations
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Normal Group bearings are used for most general applications,

where only one ring, of the bearing race, is an interference fit

and where no appreciable amount of heat, is likely to be

transferred to the bearing

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Group 3 bearings have greater internal clearance than Normal

Group bearings and are employed where both race rings are

interference fits, or where one ring is an interference fit, and

some transfer of heat must be accepted

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These bearings are

also used for high speed and in applications where axial

loadings are predominant.

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Group 4 bearings have the greatest internal clearance and are

found where both rings are interference fits and where the
transfer of heat reduces internal clearances

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Standard bearings are produced in all four groups while

instrument precision bearings are supplied only in the first three


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Roller bearings are more satisfactory under shock or

impact loading than ball bearings

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Ball bearings are the less expensive choice in the

smaller sizes and under lighter loads

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bearings are less expensive for larger sizes and heavier


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Ball-thrust bearings are for pure thrust loading only

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high speeds, a deep-groove or angular-contact ball

bearing usually will be a better choice, even for pure

thrust loads

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Self-aligning ball bearings and cylindrical roller bearings

have very low friction coefficients

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Deep-groove ball bearings are available with seals built

into the bearing so that the bearing can be pre lubricated

to operate for long periods without attention

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The most frequently encountered mounting

problem is that which requires one bearing at each end of a


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most bearings, used in airframe

applications, are shielded (sealed) to prevent the entry of dirt or

fluids, which could affect bearing life

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brinelling is the indentation of the

surfaces of the bearing races

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a grease

nipple will be provided to permit recharging with fresh grease

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Bearings are

usually inspected without removing them from the component

(in situ)