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Intersymbol interference (ISI)

(ISI)

it is a signal-dependent form of interference that arises because of deviations in the frequency response of a channel from the ideal channel.

– Example: Bandlimited channel
Time
Bandlimited
Domain
channel
Frequency domain

BT.33

Intersymbol interference (ISI)

This non-ideal communication channel is also called dispersive channel

The result of these deviation is that the received pulse corresponding to a particular data symbol is affected by the previous symbols and subsequent symbols.

BT.34

Example

1
0
1
Waveform of ‘101’
t
t

BT.35

Intersymbol interference (ISI)

Two scenarios

I. The effect of ISI is negligible in comparison to that of channel noise.

use a matched filter, which is the optimum linear time- invariant filter for maximizing the peak pulse signal- to-noise ratio.

II. The received S/N ratio is high enough to ignore the effect of channel noise (For example, a telephone system)

control the shape of the received pulse.

BT.36

ISI
Consider a binary system, the incoming binary sequence
{}
b
consists of symbols 1 and 0, each of duration
T
. The
k
b
pulse amplitude modulator modifies this binary sequence
into a new sequence of short pulses (approximating a unit
impulse), whose amplitude
form
a
is represented in the polar
k
+
1
if
b
=
1
k
a
=
k
1
if
b
=
0
k
{} k
Pulse-
{
a
}
s(t)
x (t)
x(t)
b
k
o
Transmit
amplitude
Channel
filter
g(t)
modulator
h(t)
w(t) White noise
BT.37
ISI
Example:{
b
}= 1101
k
a
δ (t
kT )
k
b
k
{
a
}:
k
t
T
b
BT.38

ISI

The short pulses are applied to a transmit filter of impulse response g(t), producing the transmitted signal

s(t)

=

k

a g(t

k

kT )

b

The signal

the channel of impulse response adds random noise to the signal.

s(t)

is modified as a result of transmission through

h(t)

x(t)
= ∑
a g(t
kT )
h(t)
+
n(t)
k
b
k
Pulse- {
a
}
s(t)
{} b k
x (t)
x(t)
k
o
Transmit
amplitude
Channel
filter
g(t)
modulator
h(t)
w(t) White noise
BT.39
ISI
The noisy signal is then passed through a receive filter
x(t)
of impulse response
c(t)
.The resulting output
y(t)
is sampled
and reconstruced by means of a decision device.
x(t)
y(t)
1if
y
>
λ
Decision
filter
c(t)
device
0 if
y
<
λ
Sample at t i = iT b
λ
y(t)
=
µ ∑ a p(t
kT )
+
n(t)
k
b
k
where
µp(t) = g(t) ⊗ h(t) ⊗ c(t)
and µ is a constant.
BT.40
ISI
Example:
{
b
}= 1101
k
{
a
}:
a δ
k
( )
t
1
a δ
(
t −T )
2
b
t
T
b
y(t)
assume n(t) = 0
t
µa p t
( )
1
µa p t −T )
(
y(t)
=
µ
a p(t
kT )
+
n(t)
2
b
k
b
k
BT.41
ISI
The sampled output is
y t
(
)
=
µ
a
p
[(
i
k T
)
]
+
n t
(
)
i
k
b
i
k
=
µ
a
+
µ
a
p
[(
i
k T
)
]
+
n t
(
)
i
k
b
i
k
k
i
µa
: contribution of the i th transmitted bit.
i
µ
a p[(i
k)T ]
:
k
b
k
k
≠ i
The residual effect of all other transmitted bits.
(This effect is called intersymbol interference)
BT.42
ISI
Example:{
b
}= 1101
y t
(
µ
a
+ µ
p
[(
i − k T
)
]
+ n t
(
i ) =
k
a k
i )
i
b
T
k
b
k
≠ i
y(t)
assume n(t) = 0
t
µa
2
y t
( ) =
µ ∑
a
p t
(
kT
)
+
n t
( )
k
b
k
µ
a
1 p (
T
)
(
i
= 2,
k = 1)
b
µ
a
p ( − =
T )
0
( i = 2,
k =
3)
3
b
t = t
2 (i.e.
i =
2)
BT.43

Distortionless Transmission

In a digital transmission system, the frequency response of

the channel

We need to determine the frequency responses of the

h(t)

is specified.

transmit
g(t)
c(t)
so as to reconstruct the
original binary data sequence
{
b
k }
.
Pulse- {
a
}
s(t)
{} b k
x (t)
x(t)
k
o
Transmit
amplitude
Channel
filter
g(t)
modulator
h(t)
x(t)
y(t)
filter
c(t)
Decision
device

Sample at t i = iT b

λ

w(t) White noise

1if

0 if

y

y

>

<

λ

λ

BT.44

Distortionless Transmission
The decoding requires that
y t
(
)
=
µ ∑ a
p
[(
i
k T
)
]
+
n t
(
)
i
k
b
i
Ignore the noise
k
0
=
µ
a
+
µ
a
p
[(
i
k T
)
]
+
n t
(
)
i
k
b
i
k
k
i
1
i
=
p iT
(
kT
)
=
 k
b
b
0
i
 k
y(t)
y(t i ) = µa i
assume n(t) = 0
t
BT.45
Distortionless Transmission
It can be shown that the condition
1
i k
=
p iT
(
kT
)
=
b
b
0
i k
is equivalent to
P( f
n /T )
=
T
b
b
n
=−∞
BT.46

Example

1
0
1
t
p(t)
t
p T
(
)
p(0)
b

Sample points

BT.47

Example
p(t)
p( f )
2
sinc
T
b
1/T
b
f
T
2T
b
b
p( f )
p
(
f −
1/
T
)
p
(
f −
2/
T
)
b
b
p( f
n /T )
=
T
b
b
n
=−∞
f
BT.48
Ideal Nyquist Channel
The simplest way of satisfying
P( f
n /T )
=
T
b
b
n =−∞
is a rectangular function:
1
 
p
( f
) =
 2 W
0
|
f
| >
W
1/ 2W
W = 1/ 2T
b
W = 1/ 2T
b
BT.49

W

<

f

<

W

Ideal Nyquist Channel
p t
( ) =
2
π Wt
The special value of the bit rate
R
= 1/
T
= 2
W
b
b
is called the Nyquist rate, and
W
is
called
the
Nyquist
bandwidth.
This
ideal
baseband
pulse
system
is
called
the
ideal
Nyquist channel
BT.50

sin(2

π Wt

)

Example

Sampling

instants

BT.51

Ideal Nyquist Channel

In practical situation, it is not easy to achieve it due to

The system characteristics of P(f) be flat from -1/2T up to 1/2T and zero elsewhere. This is physically unrealizable because of the transitions at the edges.

The function decreases as 1/|t| for large t, resulting in a slow rate of decay. Therefore, there is practically no margin of error in sampling times in the receiver.

BT.52

Raised Cosine Spectrum
We may overcome the practical difficulties encountered by
increasing the bandwidth of the filter.
1
 
W
<
f
<
W
 2 W
0
|
f
| >
W
we use
1
 
W
<
f
<
W
p
(
f
)
+
p
(
f
2
W
)
+
P f
(
+
2
W
)
=
 2 W
0
|
f
| >
W
BT.53

p

( f

) =

W = 1/ 2T

b

Raised Cosine Spectrum

A particular form is a raised cosine filter

BT.54

Raised Cosine Spectrum

The frequency characteristic consists of a flat amplitude portion and a roll-off portion that has a sinusoidal form. The pulse spectrum p(f) is specified in terms of a roll off factor α as follows:

p

(

f

)

=

1
0 ≤
f
< f
1
2 W
1
π
(
f
− W  
1 − sin
f
f
<
2
W − f
1
1
4 W
2
W −
2
f
1
0
f
>
2
W − f
1

The frequency parameter

f

1

and bandwidth W are related by

1

α= −

f /W

1

BT.55

Raised Cosine Spectrum

where α is the rolloff factor. It indicates the excess bandwidth over the ideal solution (Nyquist channel) where W=1/2T b .

The transmission bandwidth is (1 + α )W

BT.56

Raised Cosine Spectrum

The frequency response of α at 0, 0.5 and 1 are shown in graph below. We observed that α at 1 and 0.5, the function P(f) cutoff gradually as compared with the ideal Nyquist channel and is therefore easier to implement in practice.

BT.57

Raised Cosine Spectrum

The time response p(t) is obtained as

cos(2

πα

Wt

)

 p ( t ) = (sin c (2 Wt ))( ) 2 2

1

16

α

2 W

t

The function p(t) consists of two parts. The first part is a sinc function that is exactly as Nyquist condition but the second part is depended on α. The tails is reduced if α is approaching 1. Thus, it is insensitive to sampling time errors.

BT.58

BT.59

Example

For α = 1, (f 1 = 0) the system is known as the full-cosine rolloff characteristic.

p

( f

) =

1
π
 f  
1 + cos
0 <
f
<
2 W
 4 W
 2 W
 
0
f
>
2 W

BT.60

Example

p ( t ) =

sinc(2
Wt
)
2
2
1
16 W t

BT.61

Example This time response exhibits two interesting properties:

At t = ± T b /2 = ± 1/4W we have p(t) = 0.5; that is, the pulse width measured at half amplitude is exactly equal to the bit duration T b .

t = T b /2

BT.62

Example There are zero crossings at t = ± 3T b /2, ± 5T b /2,

addition to the usual crossings at the sampling times t= ±

in

T b /2, ± 2T b /2,

t = 3T b /2
t = 5T b /2

BT.63

Example These two properties are extremely useful in extracting a timing signal from the received signal for the purpose of synchronization.

However, the price paid for this desirable property is the use of a channel bandwidth double that required for the ideal Nyquist channel corresponding to α = 0.

BT.64