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ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm
ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm 2018
2018

Manufacturing
Manufacturing of of hybrid
hybrid gears
gears by by incremental
incremental sheet-bulk
sheet-bulk
Manufacturing Engineering Society metal forming
International
metal forming Conference 2017, MESIC 2017, 28-30 June
2017, Vigo (Pontevedra), Spain
a* a a
S.
S. Wernicke
Wernickea*,, S.
S. Gies
Giesa,, A.
A. E.
E. Tekkaya
Tekkayaa
Costing
a models for capacity optimization in Industry 4.0: Trade-off
Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Components, TU Dortmund University, Baroper Str. 303, Dortmund 44227,Germany
a
Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Components, TU Dortmund University, Baroper Str. 303, Dortmund 44227,Germany
between used capacity and operational efficiency
Abstract
Abstract
A. Santanaa, P. Afonsoa,*, A. Zaninb, R. Wernkeb
The weight of automotive components has to be reduced and additionally a higher integration of functions is aspired. In the case of
The weight of automotive components has a to be reduced and additionally a higher integration of functions is aspired. In the case of
University of Minho,
geared components, the incremental sheet-bulk metal forming4800-058 Guimarães,
technology enablesPortugal
the manufacturing of load- and weight-adapted
geared components, the incremental sheet-bulk b metal forming
Unochapecó, technology
89809-000 Chapecó,enables the manufacturing of load- and weight-adapted
SC, Brazil
functional parts. Due to locally adapted mechanical properties by strain hardening, the subsequent conventional hardening and heat
functional parts. Due to locally adapted mechanical properties by strain hardening, the subsequent conventional hardening and heat
treatment can be avoided for certain cases. However, with the application of high strength steels, the strain hardening reduces the
treatment can be avoided for certain cases. However, with the application of high strength steels, the strain hardening reduces the
tool-lifetime of the filigree gear forming tools. One possibility to increase the tool-lifetime and also the possible gradient of the
tool-lifetime of the filigree gear forming tools. One possibility to increase the tool-lifetime and also the possible gradient of the
mechanical properties can be provided by the manufacturing of hybrid gears. In this case, a stack of aluminum and steel sheets with
Abstract
mechanical properties can be provided by the manufacturing of hybrid gears. In this case, a stack of aluminum and steel sheets with
different initial diameters is joined by the combination of a consecutive edge-thickening and gear forming process. This paper
different initial diameters is joined by the combination of a consecutive edge-thickening and gear forming process. This paper
presents the experimental results. A reduction of the tool-load by 20-30% compared to the monolithic process was achieved.
Under
presents the
the concept
Furthermore the of "Industry
experimental 4.0", proves
results. A reduction
metallographic investigation production processes
of the tool-load
the coexistence of awill
by 20-30% be pushed
compared
form-fit and
totothebemonolithic
force-fit as theincreasingly interconnected,
process was achieved.
resulting joining-principle.
Furthermore the
information metallographic
based on a real investigation
time basis and,proves the coexistence
necessarily, muchof amore
form-fit and force-fit
efficient. as the
In this resulting
context, joining-principle.
capacity optimization
goes
© 2018beyond
2019 the traditional
The Authors. Publishedaim
by of capacity
B.V.maximization, contributing also for organization’s profitability and value.
© 2018
Indeed, The Authors.
lean management by Elsevier
Publishedand Elsevier B.V.
B.V. improvement approaches suggest capacity optimization instead of
continuous
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
maximization. The studyunder
Selection and peer-review of capacity optimization
responsibility and costing
of the scientific models
committee is an important research
of ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm topic that deserves
2018.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm 2018.
contributions from both the practical and theoretical perspectives. This paper presents and discusses a mathematical
Keywords:
model forSheet-Bulk
capacityMetal Forming, Joining
management basedby Forming, Hybrid Gears models (ABC and TDABC). A generic model has been
Keywords: Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming, Joining byon different
Forming, costing
Hybrid Gears
developed and it was used to analyze idle capacity and to design strategies towards the maximization of organization’s
value. The trade-off capacity maximization vs operational efficiency is highlighted and it is shown that capacity
1. Introduction
optimization might hide operational inefficiency.
1. Introduction
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
One option
Peer-review underto reduce fuel of
consumption
the scientific of cars andofaircrafts is the reduction of the moving mass, which can be
One option toresponsibility
reduce fuel consumption committee
of the Manufacturing
cars and aircrafts Engineering
is the reduction Society
of the International
moving Conference
mass, which can be
achieved by a substitution of parts with a load-adapted shape for massive parts [1]. Demonstrative examples are
2017.
achieved by a substitution of parts with a load-adapted shape for massive parts [1]. Demonstrative examples are
components like seat-adjusters and starter gears (fig. 1a) featuring functional elements like gears. These elements
components like seat-adjusters and starter gears (fig. 1a) featuring functional elements like gears. These elements
require a Cost
Keywords: localModels;
adjustment of mechanical
ABC; TDABC; properties due
Capacity Management; to the high
Idle Capacity; loads in
Operational the later
use.
Efficiency Especially in the case of an
require a local adjustment of mechanical properties due to the high loads in the later use. Especially in the case of an

1. Introduction
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 231 7429; fax: +49 231 2489
* The
Corresponding
cost author.
of idle Tel.: +49
capacity is 231 7429; fax: +49information
a fundamental 231 2489 for companies and their management of extreme importance
E-mail address: sebastian.wernicke@iul.tu-dortmund.de
E-mail address: sebastian.wernicke@iul.tu-dortmund.de
in modern production systems. In general, it is defined as unused capacity or production potential and can be measured
in several©ways:
2351-9789 tons
2018 The of production,
Authors. available
Published by Elsevier B.V.hours of manufacturing, etc. The management of the idle capacity
2351-9789 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This is an Afonso.
* Paulo open access
Tel.:article under
+351 253 510the761;
CC BY-NC-ND
+351 253license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
This is an open access article under the CC fax:
BY-NC-ND 604 741
license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection
E-mail and peer-review
address: under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm 2018.
psafonso@dps.uminho.pt
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm 2018.

2351-9789 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Peer-review
2351-9789 © under
2019responsibility
The Authors. of the scientificbycommittee
Published Elsevier of the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference 2017.
B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAFT/SFU/AutoMetForm 2018.
10.1016/j.promfg.2018.12.058
S. Wernicke et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 27 (2019) 152–157 153
2 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

accident the elements need a high ductility while during the common use a high surface hardness is required to decrease
wear. Conventionally, those parts are manufactured by blanking where an adaption of the sheet thickness is not
possible. In contrast, planar parts with a load adapted shape can be manufactured by bulk forming processes. In this
case, the requirements on the capacity of the forming press rises significantly. Thus, a large number of load-adapted
parts are manufactured by metal cutting processes. This increases the process-time compared to bulk-forming processes
while the material utilization decreases exceedingly. Furthermore, a subsequent heat treatment is necessary to satisfy
the mechanical requirements. This increases the production costs and reduces the process efficiency. In the case of
sheet-like parts, the Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming (SBMF) technology offers a new opportunity to manufacture load-
adapted near net-shape components without any need for metal cutting processes [2]. Furthermore, the incremental
Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming (iSBMF) offers a significantly reduced tool load due to small forming zones compared to
the dimensions of the final part. This enables the manufacturing of load-adapted components on presses with less
capacity [3]. Manufacturing of functional elements by iSBMF improves the mechanical properties due to a high plastic
strain above φ = 2 and offers continuous material fibers. In addition, the hardness distribution can be graded by a
variation of the process kinematic. This allows an adaption of the component properties according to the later use of the
component.
Especialy the strain hardening of high strength steels decreases the tool-liftetime because of dimensional restrictions
of the forming tools due to the need of a chambering to control the material flow (fig. 1b). To avoid the limitation in the
grading of the hardness distribution due to a monolithic structure and the challenge of high tool loads, the combination
of different materials to so-called hybrid components can be a solution. La Berge et al. [5] manufactured hybrid gears
by joining a dissimilar sheet to a previously milled bull gear. Politis et al. [6] and Chavdar et al. [7] investigated bi-
material gears manufactured by forging of a telescoped cylinder made of copper and a ring made of steel into a geared
cavity. This material combination enables the manufacturing of gears with significantly graded mechanical properties,
while the load requirements of the machine are still high. The possible joining principles for joining by forming and the
requirements for a metallurgical bond of dissimilar materials are presented in [8].
In this paper, a new incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming strategy for the manufacturing of hybrid gears is
presented and investigated focusing the possible load reduction and the resulting joining principle.

c)

Fig. 1. a) Edge thickened starter gear with milled gears manufactured by Winkelmann WPC, b) iSBMF-gearing process with and without
thickening [4] and c) thickening and gearing of a seat-adjuster

2. Experimental Setup

Sheet materials offer different possibilities to manufacture hybrid components. From the basic idea of hybrid
components by incremental sheet-bulk metal forming, four different processes are conceivable (fig. 2). Process a-1 uses
a previously edge thickened sheet (grey) and a solid surrounding ring (red). The surrounding ring can feature functional
elements like gearings at the outer radii. At the inner radii, the ring contains a cavity, to provide an undercut. By the
radial (process a-1) or a combined radial and axial (process a-2) tool movement, the previously thickened edge of the
sheet is formed into the cavity of the surrounding ring to realize a form-fit joint. A fundamental disadvantage of these
strategies is the wasting of the workpiece material inside the surrounding ring if the ring is not produced by a forming
process like ring rolling. As a second disadvantage, the plastification of the sheet occurs next to the tool surface, which
means that a controlled material flow inside the far away located cavity is difficult to realize.
The idea of process b is based on the combination of a previously edge thickened sheet with a small surrounding
ring. The ring can be obtained from thin walled tubes. The joining can be realized by a further thickening or by the
154 S. Wernicke et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 27 (2019) 152–157
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000 3

incremental gear forming of the compound. While this idea reduces the waste of the workpiece material, the major
challenge is the circumferential elongation of the surrounding ring during the gear forming process. Here each
indentation of the gearing tool causes a significant circumferential elongation. This elongation causes a material
thinning since the surrounding material cannot flow into the forming zone due to the friction and the high pressure
induced by the forming tool. Thus, pre-trials have not been successful and ended with a cracked ring during the first
indentation of the gearing tool.

Fig. 2. Possible process variants for the manufacturing of hybrid components by incremental sheet-bulk metal forming.

The setup of process c consists of a stack of three sheets (Fig. 2). The sheet with the highest strength (material B),
which later will be the material of the gear flanks is arranged in the center of the sheet-stack and has a bigger initial
radius than the radius of the surrounding sheets (Fig. 3a). This stack rotates around its axis and is thickened by a radial
indenting thickening tool. This thickening step spreads the material of the centered sheet around the surrounding sheets.
During the subsequent incremental gear forming (Fig. 3b), the circumferential material flow is also obstructed like in
process b. However, the remaining material of the centered sheet keeps the gear flanks in their position and avoids the
thinning and crack initiation of process b due to the centered sheet material. Process c offers the most promising
possibility to realize hybrid gears by incremental sheet-bulk metal forming and is subject of the following investigation.
A detailed description of the used five-axis forming press is presented by Sieczkarek et al. [3].

Fig. 3. a), b) Schematical and c) experimental setup of the investigated process.

3. Results and Discussion

To evaluate the basic idea of reducing the forming force by hybrid gears, a force comparison to a stack of five
DC04 sheets with a thickness of 1 mm (fig. 4 b) was performed. Here, the forming force F of the hybrid gearing
process decreases by 19.62% (indentation i = 1 mm) and 30.77% (i = 2.5 mm) respectively. This force reduction is
based on the decreasing rim-thickness of the centered material due to the circumferential elongation. The reduction
of the maximum forming force decreases the maximum tool load due to a similar geometry and enables the
manufacturing of hybrid components with flanks of high strength steels or extending the tool life compared to
manufacturing a monolithic part.
S. Wernicke et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 27 (2019) 152–157 155
4 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

40
DC04 (5 x 1 mm)
35
Forming force F in kN

30 AlMg3 (2 x 2 mm) +
25 DC04 (1 x 1 mm)
20
15
10
5
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5
Indentation i in mm

Fig. 4. Comparison of the resulting forming force.

After the evaluation of the forming force reduction the resulting pull-out force and joining principle are
investigated to prevent a separation of both joining partners during the later use of the hybrid gear component. The
hybrid gearing process consists of the edge thickening process and the subsequent gear-forming process. Here it is
important to know which process leads to the joint formation and especially whether the subsequent gear forming
will counteract a joining of the previous edge thickening process. To measure the pull-out force, a uniaxial testing
machine Zwick Z250 was used. The hybrid component was glued on swaging mandrels with a two component
acrylate bond (fig. 5a). To ensure the separation of the part instead of the glued connection, the oxide layer of the
Aluminum sheets was pickled just before the adhesive bond was applied. After the application of the adhesive bond,
the component was axially pressed with 5 kN for a time of 60 minutes. Figure 5b presents the resulting pull-out
force Fp for the just thickened component as well as for the thickened and radial respectively rotating geared
component related to the maximum measured pull-out force of 2.85 kN reached after thickening and rotating
gearing. The results show a significant increase of the relative pull-out force due to booth gearing processes. Here
the pull-out force Fp after the radial gearing process is five times higher and after the rotating gearing process nine
times higher compared to a just edge-thickened component.
During the gearing process the joined surface increases due to the circumferential elongation by the indentation
of the gearing tool. To separate the effect of the increasing joining surface and the joining due to a different material
flow the surface increase can be calculated in a simplified manner. For this calculation the length of the tooth flanks
is added to the length of the tips and the grounds of all teeth corresponding to the previous circumference C1. In this
case the involute of the module of 1.5 mm is approximately a line with an angle of α = 20° and the indentation depth
i is 3.375 mm. This results in a total number n = 62 of formed elements which is defined by the ratio of the pitch
circle diameter dpc = 93 mm to the module m = 1.5 mm. Due of the occurrence of two flanks for each element the
total increase of the surface after gearing can be described by eq. (1) and amounts 250% of the joined surface after
thickening.

C1 2    rAl  t Al 1

  
C2  d pc i  d pc 2 i (1)
2     rAl  2   t Al 1  m  r  cos( )
 m cos( )  Al

1,8
a) b) after thickening thickening & radial gearing
1,6
thickening & radial gearing relative thickening & rotating gearing
relative pull-out

1,4
force Fp/Fp,max

thickening & rotating gearing relative


1,2
1 Fp,max = 2.85 kN (≙ max. average pull-out
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

Fig. 5. a) Pull-out test and b) relative pull-out force for only edge thickened and also geared parts related to the maximum pull-out force Fp,max.
156 S. Wernicke et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 27 (2019) 152–157
Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000 5

The geared parts show a significant increase of the relative pull-out force Fp/Fp,max compared to the just thickened
parts. Considering the ratio ξ of the increased joined surface leads to a distinctly lower area related strength (hatched
bars) close to that of the non-geared parts. This means the most important reason for this increasing joint due to the
subsequent gearing process is the increased circumferential surface C2 compared to the surface C1 after thickening.
Beside a form-fit and force-fit a potential metallic bond is investigated due to the high plastic strain and pressure
in SBMF [9]. Figure 6a presents the microscopic analysis of the resulting material distribution after the edge
thickening of the aluminum-steel-aluminum (Al-St-Al) stack. Here the whole contact area shows a recurring wavy
surface with a large number of micro-undercuts with a height of up to 10 µm (fig. 6b & c). The outer aluminum
material flowed radially into these undercuts and caused an axial form-fit. Additionally it can be expected that a
force-fit results due to the higher springback of the aluminum sheet (E ≈ 70 GPa) compared to the radial
surrounding steel sheet (E ≈ 210 GPa). While there is no gap between both materials next to the axial center of the
stack (b), an increasing gap is observable at the outer surface where the workpiece was in contact with the
chambering tool (fig. 6a). The material around the gap has no form- and force-fit and impairs the joint. Figure 6b
shows the resulting material distribution by analysis over path x with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
(EDX). This analysis shows a smooth transition between the AlMg3- and the DC04 sheet over a total distance of
around 1.5 µm by 9 measured points. While this length might slightly increase the total bond strength, a stationary
area with a coexistence of both materials over several micrometers was not ascertainable.

Fig. 6. a) Cross sectional view of a thickened component and b) EDX-analysis of the joining area. c)-g) thickened and gear formed component.

For the presence of a complete metallic bond the critical pull-out force Fcrit can be approximated with the
assumption of pure shearing based on Tresca criterion by eq. (2). Thus, the critical pull-out force can be calculated
as the half of the product of the yield stress σy of the softer material and the joining area AC. Here the experimental
investigation leads to a pull-out force which is just 1.37% of the analytically predicted force for the thickened and
4.78% for the thickened and rotating geared force respectively. Thus, a metallurgical bond seems not to be present.

 y  AC  y , Al  d pc  2  m  rAl d pc i 
Fcrit
    2    2   t Al (2)
2 2  2 m cos( ) 

The kinematic of the gear forming process also influences the distribution of the steel material at the flanks of the
teeth (fig. 6 e & f). Here, the radial gear forming leads to a symmetric material distribution while the rotational
gearing leads to a unilateral material flow due to the indenting and out moving relative speed of the rotating gearing
tool. This feature can be interesting for gearboxes, where the gears rotate in a preferred direction.
Furthermore, the fraction of the high strength material can be varied by the initial radius ra of the centered steel
sheet which can be seen in fig. 6f and g. This allows for a trade-off between load capacity and mass of the
component.
S. Wernicke et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 27 (2019) 152–157 157
6 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2018) 000–000

Summary and Outlook

Incremental Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming allows to manufacture sheet-like components with a load-adapted shape.
To increase the tool-lifetime or to qualify this technology also for the manufacturing of high strength gears, the
manufacturing of hybrid gears was investigated. Hybrid gears can decrease the forming force by up to 30%
compared to a monolithic component, while the surface of the gear still consists of the high strength material.
To understand the existing joining principle, pull-out tests were performed. Here, the joint strength after the
thickening process increases significantly during the gearing process. This effect is mainly achieved by an increased
joining area. Whereas the experimental pull-out force is just 1-5% of the calculated force for a metallic bond, this
type of bond seems not to be the dominant joining principle. Here, the resulting contact stress, increase of the
surface and temperature in the forming zone during forming has to be investigated by numerical analysis and
compared to the threshold metallurgical Al-St joints.

Nomenclature
A1 area of the contact surface between joining partners after edge thickening
A2 area of the contact surface between joining partners after gearing process of edge thickened parts
Ac circumference contact area of the joining partners
C circumferential surface
dpc pitch circle diameter of the gear
m module of the gear
i indentation
σy yield stress
t thickness of the sheet
ࣈ ratio of the surface increase
x distance perpendicular to the outer diameter of the workpiece

Acknowledgements

We gratefully thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for funding this work within the Collaborative
Research Center SFB Transregio 73 – sub-project A4.

References

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