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University of Perpetual Help System Dalta - Las Piñas

THE INFLUENCE

OF POP MUSIC TOWARDS A

STUDENTS’ LEVEL OF OPTIMISM

S.Y. 2019 – 2020

A research proposal presented to

The Senior High School Department

University of Perpetual Help System DALTA

For the requirement of Practical Research 2

Submitted by:

Adrian Veron

Alexi Aquilino

Ayessa Valdez

Lorelai Dequito

Jecylin Sy

November, 2019
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INTRODUCTION

The Problem and Its Background

The researchers chose to study the influence of pop music towards a senior high

school student’s level of optimism because it is a contemporary subject in our

generation. This study focuses on the population of senior high school students

because they are the perfect type of people to conduct this research on, being that they

are the type of people who accumulate overtime.

Alongside the targeted respondents, the researchers settled with pop music as the

independent variable of the study and levels of optimism as the dependent variable.

These variables are the best materials for the research because music in general

affected the world in various elements of human psychology. The researchers chose

levels of optimism as a benchmark to determine a senior high school student’s

optimism. In order to evaluate these levels, the researchers used Likert’s Method as a

tool to measure the levels of optimism.

The researchers categorized their study as a descriptive research because it

meddles with a senior high school student’s optimism which is a subsection of human

emotion. The researchers will be configuring with the optimistic state of the senior high

school students. The researchers chose The University of Perpetual Help System Dalta

as their location to conduct the interview because it has a vast population of senior high

school students.
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The researchers’s general objective is to assess a senior high school student’s level

of optimism when they are listening to pop music. The researchers will examine the

level of optimism related to their motives for listening to pop music and evaluate the

influence of pop music among the senior high school students.

Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the following:

Educators

As this research will measure the level of optimism a student has in listening pop

music, it will be beneficial to teachers, professors, and educators alike in order to further

understand a student’s attitude and personality which can help them in choosing a

teaching method that can be effective.

Psychologists, Counselors

This research will benefit psychologists and councelors by providing data that can

help them in determining whether listening to pop music can change the level of

optimism a student has. In addition to that, since listening to music can affect

someone’s behavior, this study can help them decipher the reasons why.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to identify whether pop music has an effect on the level of optimism

of the SHS students in University of Perpetual Help System Dalta. In this study, the

dependent variable is the level of optimism, while the independent variable is the pop

music, length of time listening to music per week and pop music genre as dummy
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variable. We will conduct the research at The University of Perpetual Help System Dalta

on January 2020

This study will address the following questions:

1. What is the effect of pop music to the SHS students?

2. How often do students listen to pop music?

3. What level of optimism will be observed when a SHS student listens to pop

music?

Research Paradigm

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

- Senior high school - a tailored questionnaire - to compile a study


that consists of the OP
students that listens about a SHS
attitude scale in
to pop music students’ level of
determining the optimism

level of respondent, optimism when

stylized in a Likert's listening to pop


method format that has music
four choices: strongly

agree, agree, disagree,

and strongly disagree.


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Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

LEONARD MEYER’S MELODIC EXPECTATION THEORY

Stated in “A Model of Melodic Expectation” (Margulis, 2005), Meyer proposed that in

music, more specifically, “affect . . . is aroused when an expectation—a tendency to

respond—activated by the musical stimulus situation, is temporarily inhibited or

permanently blocked” (Meyer, 1956, p. 31). This proposal has profound ramifications.

According to Meyer, it suggests that “granted listeners who have developed reaction

patterns appropriate to the work in question, the structure of the affective response to a

piece of music can be studied by examining the music itself.... the study of the affective

content of a work... can be made without continual and explicit reference to the

responses of the listener or critic. That is, subjective content can be discussed

objectively” (Meyer, 1956, p. 32).

The said theory can serve as a foundation to this study as it tackles the likelihood

that a song or any type of music can affect the emotion of its listerner through its beats.

And as pop music has generally lively beats, we can keep this theory in mind when

levelling a student’s optimism.

Scope and Delimitations

The aim of this study is to measure the level of optimism of the student listening to

pop music and to examine the level of optimism related to their motives for listening in

music. The data collection will be conducted to the senior high school students of the

University of Perpetual Help System Dalta year 2019-2020. This study also evaluates

the influence of pop music among students’ levels of optimism. This study will not cover
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the teaching style of the teacher in class, how does the teacher effect student, how they

interact to school environment. This would be done through the utilization questionairres

and interview as the reference to out study. The researchers will be able to know

whether pop music has effect to the student level of optimsm.

Definition of Terms

 Pop Music - a type of music, usually played on electronic instruments, that is

popular with many people because it consists of short songs with a strong beat

and simple tunes that are easy to remember.

 Level of optimism - refers to an emotional and psychological perspective on life.

It is a positive frame of mind and means that a person takes the view of

expecting the best outcome from any given situation.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Even from the beginning, music has played a role in the development of the

cognitive abilities of babies. As stated in a 2016 study from the University of

Washington’s Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, babies who were part of music

sessions instead of just play sessions were found to have stronger responses in the

auditory cortex and the prefrontal cortex, which takes charge of attention and detects

pattern (Brettingen, 2019).

As we grow and start to have our own tastes on what genre we prefer to listen to,

music in general also starts to create more impact to our everyday lives. According to

Taylor (2017), especially to adolescents, the influence of music is huge as it not only

affects certain parts of our lives, but almost majority of it. Pop music in particular, which
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often has lyrics that gives us positive outlooks in life, can offer us “triggering happiness

and excitement, instilling confidence”

In addition to that, the reaction and interpretation of each song varies depending on

someone’s age, culture, and ethnicity. In the question whether lyrics matter in what

music we listen to, some say that youth would listen to music mostly for leisure and not

focus much on how the lyrics are constructed in a song. However, a group of

researchers say that even though younger listeners may not comprehend the lyrics

through and through, they can still at least understand the message it gives (Librado,

2016).

From the study of Aksoy (2014), since long ago, the emphasis that music had a

psychological effect on humans has been widespread. Not only in humans, but also in

other species as well. It was also believed that it can even be used for medical

purposes concerning psychiatric and other kinds of illnesses such as epilepsy,

depression, homesickness, melancholy, mania, insanity, somnambulism, lethargy,

catatonia, hysteria, paralysis, aphasia, tarantism, chorea, gout, inflammatory diseases,

rheumatism, aches, plague, measles, rabies, and so on as found from the data

indicated from ancient Greece.

In the thoughts of Rohrmeier (2013) regarding the theory of musical expectancy

music indeed offers side effects whenever you listen to it. It heightens the experience of

music listening and gives us different types of emotions as well as reactions depending

on how the tune or beat sounds in a certain song.


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Now in modern times, it can be proven that music is an inseparable part of our lives.

The influence it can have on people is not something that can by dully noted as namely,

it affects how a person’s personality might be and how someone generally perceives the

world (Pumpic, 2016).

A study of Mikko Ketovuori (July, 2018), states that pop music can influence a

person’s optimism in a very spectacular margin. The researchers of this study created a

sample by using the song “Wannabe” by the spice girls, and measured it with variables

depending on how high or how low the statistics affect the person’s mood. The study

showed that this particular pop song gave an average of 8.5, which means that the

people who was listening to this sample of pop song was very optimistic, mood rising,

and hopeful.

According to a study on how music affects a person’s brain by Penn State

University (September, 2015), pop music in general are repetitive and bothersome.

Even though the song gives an uplifting experience and catchy, it makes it easier to get

into your head, unlike classical music that most people have to process to understand.

Due to the easy access of pop music to our mental state, along with its upbeat, it

causes people to create high endorphins, therefore making people more optimistic, yet

care-free.

According to a study based on emotions in pop music by emery Schubert

(December, 2013) pop music can cause a “dissociation” or distance oneself from reality.

This can only conclude that pop music can also affect a person’s optimism in a negative
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way. Explained by the negative effects of pop music, it gives an analysis that people’s

pain circuits are turned off when they are listening to pop music.

As stated from a summary of a study on the effects of different genres of music in

one’s life, it gives a brief explanation that listening to pop music can give you an extra

boost of endurance and overall physical activity. All of these motivations from music can

be derived from the endorphins that alleviates through he beat and fruitful sound of pop

music. Optimism is a big factor when it comes to increasing productivity because it

gives them that perimeter of happiness that associates people with their activities.

From the related literature we gathered that tackles music and mood from different

genres that affect the brain, it gives an abridgement that pop music can “give you an

extra push needed when doing some important all in fitness” due to the tempo and

instruments that the pop music conveys to the people who listen to it, they trigger

endorphins that flips and switch strains in a person’s mental health.

As claimed by the study of influence of music on mental effort and driving

performance, the researchers of that study concluded that music affects a person’s

optimism in a variety of ways. Depending on the genre of the music, let that be pop,

classical, rock and etc. Steg L., and Epstude K. (September 2012) concurred that it can

affect a person’s driving and cognitive functions.

When a student listening to music the mood can change and help to relieves anxiety

and 9reate a pleasant and relaxing environment that will help to have an achievement

and to grow their fear (Castro & Dolev, 2013).


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Everyday people intend is to lessen their stress and to regulate their mood they use

music to create a desired atmosphere and the music lightened them to think positively

(Ziv & Dolev, 2013).

Music can affect a long-lasting impact on the brain and helps the brain to focus

relaxation, retain information, memorize and help exert brain cognition. This study also

shows that there’s a influence base on the variety of learners. (Leguto & Trissler, 2012).

Music can really affect the brain and create a long-lasting positive effect and help the

brain function for every situation that the person need to react. (Kuzmich,2010). It can

have an impact on the moods, emotions, and behavior of groups of people, as well as

individuals background music can be used to create a positive atmosphere. Background

music can influence student behavior, as well as physiological, emotional and cognitive

processes (Hallam & Price, 1998). Music can improve memory, increase attention,

focus concentration, and release tension and music into the classroom can be beneficial

to the students. Whether the music is mixed into the background noise or is within an

active part of learning a new definition or phrase, music has been proven to help

increase retention of information, and fuel brain cognition. (Brewer 1995).

Synthesis

The influence of pop music in the way of living of a student is to help the student to

decrease the stress level by listening through their favorite music, it affects the mood

and create positive vibes. According to Schubert (2013), it gives a brief explanation that

listening to pop music can give you extra boost of endurance in overall physical

activities. The influence of pop music has created an impact for the development of
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babies as stated in a 2016 study from the University of Washington Institute (Brittingen,

2019) for learning and brain sciences. Nowadays, pop music is a trend not just for

adults but also with students who are very stressed in their academic and physical

activities in school and overall environment. It helps them to define the mood whether if

they are happy or sad. As a student goes through his everyday life, music continues to

create a lot of impact especially as he starts becoming an adult and accomplishing the

role of being a person of the society (Taylor, 2017).

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The researchers chose Descriptive-Survey Design as their research design because

their goal for this study is to commence in creating a survey for the population to answer

specific questions towards their level of optimism towards pop music. Descriptive-

Survey research design dabbles on accuracy and can be statistically analyzed for

numerical data.

It determines the psychological and social sets of research. For this design to work, it

must meet the preceding criteria. There are some variations in Descriptive-Survey, but

that variation arrives in the time that the survey is created with a proper foundation. This

is the best research design for our study because it is the best component for our topic.

Research Locale

This study is conducted in the University of Perpetual Help System-Dalta located in

Alabang–Zapote Road, Almanza Uno, Las Pinas, 1740 Metro Manila. The researchers
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chose this location as this is where their respondents are which are the senior high

school students of this university. The researchers are going to be giving a set of

questionnaires to the respondents in their classrooms. This study takes place in the

academic year 2019-2020.

Sampling and Population

The sampling used for this study is the purposive sampling technique wherein the

respondents will be coming from the academic strands of the senior high school

department. The estimated total population of the whole SHS department is 500, a

sample group of 100 selected students were chosen to do the survey. The researchers

will first ask a student whether he/she listens to pop music in order to determine if the

student’s answers can be used for the study before providing the questionnaire.

Data Gathering Tool

For this study, the instrument that the researchers will be using are a set of

questionnaires used for collecting data in our research. The researchers will use an OP

attitude scale in determining the optimism level of respondent, stylized in a Likert's

method format that has four choices: strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly

disagree. The questions include a set of standardized questions to collect information

about opinions and attitudes of the respondents.

Data Gathering Procedure

In the first phase of the data gathering procedure, the researchers prepared a set of

questionnaires that will be answered by the senior high school students studying in the
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University of Perpetual Help System-Dalta. 100 respondents were chosen to take part in

this study—2 sections from STEM, 3 sections from HUMSS, 3 sections from GAS, and

2 sections from ABM. Each section had 10 randomly chosen respondents and were

given an allotted time to answer the survey provided inside their own classrooms. They

were required to at least state their name on the survey forms to determine whether

they have already answered previously or not. Once done, the researchers then

collected their now answered questionnaires.

After gathering the surveys, the researchers analyzed and reviewed the answers of

the respondents. There they got the information that is essential for their study and

concluded the results received.

Statistical Treatment

The statistical treatment used for this study is One sample median test. The

researchers decided to go through with this method to determine the opinions of their

respondents in a Likert-style scale with four choices: strongly agree, agree, disagree,

and strongly disagree. This kind of statistical treatment is suitable for this study as this

treatment allows us to test whether a sample median differs significantly from a

hypothesized value (“UCLA”, n.d.). A hypothesized value may be that pop music

increases the level of optimism a student has in listening to pop music. Through the

data gathered and by applying this statistical treatment, we can determine whether that

is true or not.
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