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# Summary of Annotations

Page 3

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Every body of matter in the universe attracts every other body

with a certain force that is called gravitation

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The term gravity is

used to refer to the force that tends to draw all bodies toward
the center of the earth

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

The weight of a body is the result of gravitational force acting on the body

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

The CG might be defined as the point at which all the weight of a body can be considered concentrated

Page 5

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## the CG of a freely suspended

body will always be vertically beneath the point of support when
the body is supported at a single point

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

A lever, in general, is essentially a rigid rod free to turn about a point called the fulcrum

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## the study of weight and

balance is principally interested in the type known as a firstclass lever

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

first class lever has the fulcrum between the applied effort

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

The product of a force and its lever arm is called the moment of the force

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The general law of the lever is as follows:

"if a lever is in
balance, the sum of the moments tending to turn the lever in
one direction (sense) about an axis equals the sum of the
moments tending to turn it in the opposite direction (sense)"

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

The tendency of a force to produce rotation around a given axis is called the moment of the force with respect to that axis

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The perpendicular distance from the axis to the line of the

force is called the arm
#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

Moments tending to produce a clockwise rotation are called positive and those tending to produce counterclockwise rotation are called negative

Page 8

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The lift produced by the wing is concentrated at a point

approximately one-third of the way back from the leading edge

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

to provide stability, the center of gravity is located slightly ahead of this center of lift

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

- the CG being slightly ahead of center of lift results in a moment that tries to pitch the nose of the
aircraft down,
- but this nose-down moment is balanced by a tail
moment, which pulls the nose up

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The magnitude of tail moment is determined by the airspeed,

and it drops off when the airplane slows down

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## - If CG is allowed to get too far aft, the stall characteristics

- if CG is too far forward, there will
be difficulty in slowing the airplane for landing
#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

The weight and balance information is furnished with the aircraft as part of its operations manual

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## It is the responsibility of the pilot to know before each flight that

Page 9

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

The product of the weight and the arm is the moment of the
force and is expressed in pound-feet, pound-inches, or in gram or kilogram-meters

Page 10

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Some aircraft manufacturers place the datum a given distance

ahead of the aircraft so all of the moments will be positive

Page 14

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

we sometimes need to add ballast to the aircraft to move the center of gravity into the allowable range

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

Ballast = (Total weight X distance needed to shift balance point) divided by (Arm of ballast - arm of desired balance point)

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The first-class lever is in balance only when the CG is at the

fulcrum

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

An aircraft can be balanced in flight anywhere within certain specified forward and aft limits, if the
pilot operates the trim tabs or elevators to exert an aerodynamic
force sufficient to overcome any static unbalance

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

The CG
range usually extends forward and rearward from a point about
one-fourth the chord of the wing, back from the leading edge,
provided that the wing has no sweepback

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The exact location of CG is always shown in the Aircraft Specifications

or the Type Certificate Data Sheet

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

the CG must be to the rear of the forward limit and forward of the aft limit

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## CG limits may be expressed in terms of a percentage of the

mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) or in inches forward or to the
rear of the datum line
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The CG with the aircraft loaded is allowed to range fore

and aft within certain limits that are determined during the flight
tests for type certification

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Normally, an aircraft will have acceptable flight characteristics if

the CG is located somewhere near the 25% average chord
point.
- This means the CG is located one-fourth of the total
distance back from the leading edge of the average wing
section

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) is established by the manufacturer

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If the wing has a constant

chord, the straight line distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge (the chord) would also be the MAC

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The MAC established by the

manufacturer defines its leading edge (LEMAC) and trailing
edge (TEMAC) in terms of inches from the datum

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The MAC is the chord of an

imaginary airfoil, which has the same aerodynamic
characteristics as the actual airfoil
#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## CG is forward of the aerodynamic

center for most airfoils

#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The CG location and various limits are then expressed in

percentages of the chord

## The MAC is usually given in the

aircraft's Type Certificate Data Sheet

## For simplicity purposes, most

light-aircraft manufacturers express the CG range in inches
from the datum, while transport-category aircraft are expressed
in terms of percentages of the MAC

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The arm is the horizontal distance in inches from the datum to

the center of gravity of the item
- The algebraic sign is plus (+) if
measured aft of the datum and minus (-) if measured forward of
the datum

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The arm of a weight ahead of

the datum is a negative (-) arm and that behind the datum is a
positive (+) arm
#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## When weight is added to the aircraft, it is a positive (+) arm

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

When weight is added to the aircraft, it is a positive (+) weight, but when weight is removed, it is negative (-)

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## A moment that causes the airplane nose to pitch down is a

negative (-) moment, while one that causes a nose to pitch up is
a positive (+) moment

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## When the signs of the arm and the

weight are alike, both either plus or minus, the moment will be
positive, but if the signs are different, moment will be negative

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The plus and minus convention assigned to numbers, are used in

weight and balance computations

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

The
balance point and the center of gravity are physically the same
point.
- But the location of the center of gravity is normally
measured from the datum while the location of the balance point
is measured from one of the weighing points

#9 Highlight (Shabbir)
Ballast is the weight that is installed on an aircraft for the purpose of bringing
the center of gravity into the desired range
#10 Highlight (Shabbir)

Permanent ballast
must not be removed without changing the aircraft's empty-weight
center of gravity as recorded in the aircraft weight and balance
records

## Temporary ballast may be added, removed, or moved

within the aircraft, to bring the center of gravity into the desired
range for a specific flight condition

## The CG is a point about which the nose-heavy and tail-heavy

moments are exactly equal in magnitude

## distance of CG from the reference datum is found by dividing the total

moment by the total weight of the airplane

## CG limits are established by the designer of the

aircraft and are approved by the Federal Aviation

## it is the responsibility of the pilot

to see that CG limits are never exceeded in flight

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## CG limits are indicated on pertinent Aircraft Type Certificate

Data Sheet or in aircraft weight-and-balance
records

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The datum is an imaginary vertical plane or line from which all

horizontal measurements of arm are taken

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

The
datum is established by the manufacturer

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The location of the datum may be found in the

aircraft's Type Certificate Data Sheet

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

For aircraft
certificated under FAR Part 23, the empty weight also includes
unusable fuel and full-operating fluids necessary for normal
operation of aircraft systems, such as oil and hydraulic fluid

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The empty weight of an aircraft includes the weight of the

airframe, power plant, and required equipment that has a fixed
location and is normally carried in the airplane

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)
For
older aircraft not certificated under FAR Part 23, in place of full
oil, only the undrainable oil is included in the empty weight
#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The empty weight CG (EWCG) is the CG of the aircraft in its empty

condition

#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The fleet empty weight is used by air carriers as an average

basic empty weight, which may be used for a fleet or group of
aircraft of the same model and configuration

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Leveling means are the reference points used by the aircraft

technician to insure that the aircraft is level for weight-and-balance purposes

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Leveling is usually accomplished along both the longitudinal and

lateral axis

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Leveling means are given in the Type Certificate

Data Sheet

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

weight and center of gravity that define the limits beyond which
#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

The MWCL (Main wheel center line) is a vertical line passing through the center of the
axle of the main landing-gear wheel

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The maximum gross weight is the maximum authorized weight

of the aircraft and its contents as listed in the Type Certificate
Data Sheet

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The maximum landing weight is the maximum weight at which

the aircraft may normally be landed

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Maximum landing weight is usually

less than the maximum takeoff weight, because the stresses
during a landing are greater than those during takeoff

Page 24

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

Maximum ramp weight is the maximum allowable weight of an aircraft while it is on the
ramp.
- it differs from the allowable takeoff weight by the weight of
the fuel that will be consumed in taxiing to the point of take off

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

Maximum take off weight is the maximum allowable weight for an aircraft at the beginning
of the takeoff roll
#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The cord of an imaginary airfoil that has the same aerodynamic

characteristics as the actual wing

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

minimum fuel is the minimum amount of fuel considered to be in the tanks when

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## We can go directly to pounds by simply dividing the

METO horsepower by two

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

Minimum fuel is no more that the quantity of fuel necessary for one-half hour
of operation at rated maximum–except takeoff (METO) horsepower of the engines by 12 to get the number of gallons
required
- Then, multiply the gallons by six to convert them into
pounds

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## For turbine aircraft, the minimum fuel for these computations is

specified by the aircraft manufacturer

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Moments are expressed in pound-inches (Ib-in)

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by

its arm

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The total moment of an aircraft is the weight of the aircraft multiplied

by the distance between the datum and the CG

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The moment index is a moment divided by a constant, such as

100, 1000, or 10000

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

The purpose of using a moment index is to simplify weight-and-balance computations of large aircraft
where heavy items and long arms result in large, unmanageable
numbers

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Net weight is the scale reading, less the tare weight

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

"Normal category" is the category of aircraft certificated under FAR Part 23, which is limited to airplanes intended for non-acrobatic operation

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

is that portion of the useful load of an aircraft from which revenue
may be derived.
- Payload includes passengers and baggage
#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The number that the moment is divided by to get the moment

index is called reduction factor

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

Standard weights are used for computing the weight of fuel, oil,
crew, water, and baggage

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## For general weight and balance

purposes, the following weights are considered standard:
- Avgas 6 pounds per gallon
- Turbine fuel 6.7 pounds per gallon
- Lubricating oil 7.5 pounds per gallon
- Water 10 pounds per gallon
- Crew & Passengers 170 pounds per person &190 pounds for utility/aerobatic aircraft

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## FAR 135 cover air taxi operators and commercial operators of

small aircraft. This regulation has added the following standard
weights:
 Adults (summer) 170 pounds per person
 Adults (winter) 175 pounds per person
 Flight crew (male) 170 pounds per person
 Flight crew (female) 150 pounds per person
 Female flight attendants 130 pounds per person
 Male flight attendants 150 pounds per person
 Check-in baggage 23.5 pounds per item
 Carry-on baggage 10 pound per item
#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## A station is a location along the, airplane fuselage given in

terms of distance in inches from the reference datum

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

The
datum is identified as station zero

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

Tare weight is the weight of all items such as chocks or blocks that are used
to hold the aircraft on the scales while it is being weighed

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The station and arm are usually identical

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## That portion of the oil in an aircraft lubricating system that will

not drain from the engine with the aircraft in a level attitude is
called the undrainable oil

#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Undrainable oil is considered a part of the

empty weight of the aircraft

engine

## #11 Highlight (Shabbir)

The amount and location of the unusable fuel may be
found in the Type Certificate Data Sheet
#12 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Unusable fuel is a part of the aircraft’s empty weight

Page 27

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Fuel available for flight planning is called usable fuel

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The useful load is the weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers,

baggage, and usable fuel and drainable oil

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Useful load is equal to the empty

weight subtracted from the maximum weight

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The weighing points of an airplane are those points by which

the airplane is supported at the time it is weighed

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

In any event, it is
essential to define the weighing points clearly in the weight-and-balance record

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The operational weight of the aircraft including the payload, but

excluding the fuel load is called zero-fuel weight
#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

Usually the
main landing gear and the nose or tail wheel are the weighing
points

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Basic Empty Weight + Payload = Zero Fuel Weight

Zero Fuel Weight + Usable Fuel = Ramp Weight
Ramp Weight - Fuel Used for Start, Taxi, and Engine Run-up
= Takeoff Weight
Takeoff Weight - Fuel Used During Flight = Landing Weight

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The document that covers the legal requirements of an aircraft’s

mass and balance is ‘JAR-OPS 1 Subpart J’

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

An aircraft
operator must specify in the Operations Manual the principles
used

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Methods for calculating crew and passenger mass values are

laid down in JAR-OPS

Page 30
#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Computerised systems are commonly used to generate the

mass and balance documentation

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

The
integrity of computerised system (which generate Mass and balance documentation) must be continually verified by
the operator, at intervals not exceeding six months

Page 31

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

- The aircraft
must also be re-weighed within four years from the date of
manufacture, if individual mass is used, or
- within nine years
from the date of manufacture, if fleet masses are used

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## the mass and CG position should be re-established

either by weighing or calculation when the cumulative changes
in the:
- Dry Operating Mass exceed ± 0.5%
- CG position exceeds ± 0.5% of the MAC

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If one aircraft exceeds these specified limits, it must be removed

from the fleet calculations and individual mass restrictions will
apply

Page 32
#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## A manufacturer is required to weigh one aircraft out of

each 10 produced

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Privately owned and operated aircraft are not required by

regulation to be weighed periodically because they are usually
weighed when originally certificated

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Aircraft may also be required to be weighed:

- after they are
painted
- when major modifications or repairs are made
- when
the pilot reports unsatisfactory flight characteristics, such as
nose or tail heavines, and
- when recorded weight-and-balance
data are suspected to be in error

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The exact interval for weighing varies from operator to operator,

but is typically done on an annual basis

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#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The three types of scales used for weighing aircraft are

1. platform scales
2.
3. electronic load cells used in conjunction with jacks
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Light aircraft are often weighed on beam-type platform scales

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Platform scales require the

use of jacks or ramps to position the aircraft on the scales

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## A portable electronic weighing system makes it possible to find

the weight and balance of large and small aircraft without
jacking

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

Each scale
consists of a platform supported by strain gauge transducers,
usually no more than 3 in [7.62 cm] in height

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## For larger aircraft the weighing pads may be recessed so that

they are level with the floor to facilitate locating the aircraft on
the scales

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Another method used to weigh large aircraft is to use electronic

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

The electronic load cells are strain gauges whose resistance changes in
accordance with the pressure applied to them
#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

placed between a jack and a jack point on the aircraft, with
particular attention paid to locating the cell so that no side loads
will be applied

## When weight readings are taken,

the entire airplane weight must be supported on the load cells

Page 35

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Most electronic scales require a specified warm-up

period

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The aircraft should be weighed inside a closed building to avoid

errors that may be caused by wind

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## All fans, air conditioning, and ventilating systems should be

turned off during weighing of aircraft

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Hangar doors and windows should be kept closed during the

weighing process
#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The floor where aircraft is weighed, should be level

Page 36

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## - The aircraft should be dry before it is weighed;

- an
aircraft should never be weighed immediately after it is
washed

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Items that should be

filled to operating capacity before weighing include lubricating oil,
hydraulic fluid, APU oil, oxygen bottles, and fire
extinguishers

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If equipped with a water and waste system the water

tank(s) and the waste tank(s) must be drained, before weighing

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## before weighing, Fuel should be drained with the

aircraft in the level position to make sure that the tanks
are as empty as possible

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

after draining the fuel in level position, The amount of fuel remaining
in the aircraft tanks, lines, and engine is termed
unusable fuel, and its weight is included in the empty
weight of the aircraft
Page 37

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If the main wheels are

used as reaction points, the brakes should not be set because
the resultant side loads on the scales or weighing units may

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

Tare weight
must be subtracted from the scale readings

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If the wheels are used as weighing points, it is advisable to use

chocks on the scales both fore and aft

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## An airplane must be level to obtain accurate weighing

information

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The leveling means are given in

the Type Certificate Data Sheet

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The leveling means are the

reference points used by the aircraft technician to insure that
the aircraft is level for weight-and-balance purposes
#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Some aircraft use a plumb bob an a target to establish the level

on both axes

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The inclinometer indicates degrees of roll or pitch

#9 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The level attitude of the airplane is established by the

location of the plumb bob in relation to the grid-plate markings

levels are used

## #11 Highlight (Shabbir)

The two sets of brackets provided in the nose-gear wheel well are used to support the levels in both
longitudinal and lateral axes

Page 39

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The scale reading should be given a period of a few minutes to

stabilize

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The location of the datum is provided in the Type Certificate

Data Sheet
#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## For aircraft where the datum passes through the

aircraft, a plumb bob is dropped from that point to the floor

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

For
aircraft where the datum is located ahead of the aircraft, a
reference point should be located on the aircraft from which a
plumb bob can be dropped to locate the datum

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Once the datum

is located on the floor, the plumb bob is suspended from each of
the weighing points

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## To project these points to the hangar floor, a plumb bob may be

suspended so that it is approximately one-half inch above the
floor

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Verification may be made by comparing results with a previous

weighing of an aircraft of the same model

Page 41

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## After the necessary dimensions and weights have been

obtained, the empty weight and the empty weight CG can be
calculated
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

- The average
location of these weights can, therefore, be obtained by dividing
the total moment (weight X arm) by the total weight.
- The
process then involves multiplying each measured weight by its
arm to obtain a moment and then adding the moments

Page 43

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

A set of formulas used quite extensively today, for calculation of weight, is contained in

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

(not so important)
In the first diagram of Figure a, the datum is at the nose of the
airplane, and since the airplane is of the tricycle-gear type, the
CG must be forward of the MWCL. The part of the formula F X L
/ W gives the distance of the CG forward of the MWCL. This
distance must then be subtracted from the distance D to find the
distance of the CG from the datum

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

(not so important)
In the second diagram, the airplane is of conventional tail-wheel
type, and so the CG must be to the rear of the MWCL. With the
datum at the nose of the airplane, it is necessary to add the
datum-line distance, D, to the R X L / W distance to find the
EWCG from the datum line
#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

(not so important)
In the third diagram, the CG and the MWCL is both forward of
the datum line; therefore, both distances are negative. For this
reason the CG distance from the MWCL and the datum
distance from the MWCL are added together, and the total is
given a negative sign

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

(not so important)
The fourth diagram shows a condition where the CG is positive
from the MWCL but negative from the datum line. The datum to
the MWCL is a negative distance, and the CG from the MWCL
is a positive distance. Therefore, the EWCG from the datum line
is the difference between the two distances and, in this case,
carries a negative sign

Page 45

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

EWCG = (sum of moment of all weight scales) divided by (sum of weights on all scales)
the result obtained is the distance of CG from datum (reference point)

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## To calculate the CG as a percentage of the MAC, the following

formula can be used:
CG as % of MAC = (distance of CG from LEMAC * 100) / MAC length

Page 47
#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Larger aircraft having several rows of seats and with both

forward and aft baggage compartments do not have an empty-weight center of gravity range, but on their Type Certificate Data Sheets they have a
center of gravity graph

Page 49

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

When the CG of an
aircraft falls outside of the limits, it can usually be brought back
by using ballast

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If ballast is needed, it should be installed with

as long an arm as possible so the weight will be minimum

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

permanent
"Permanent Ballast - Do Not Remove."

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Ballast weight = (Aircraft weight X distance out of limits)

divided by (Distance between ballast and desired CG)

Page 51

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)
Temporary ballast, in the form of lead bars or
heavy canvas bags of sand or lead shot, is often carried in the
baggage compartments to adjust the balance for certain flight

## Summary continued on next page.

conditions

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

The temporary ballast bags are marked "Ballast XX Pounds Removal Requires Weight and Balance Check."

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Temporary ballast must be

secured so it cannot shift its location in flight, and the structural
limits of the baggage compartment must not be exceeded

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## To determine the amount of temporary ballast needed, use this

formula:
Ballast weight needed =
(Total weight x Distance needed to shift CG)
divided by (Distance between ballast location and desired CG)

Page 52

#1 Text (Shabbir)

## formula for shifting CG by moving baggage weight, present in figure b on

pg:7.16-50

Page 53

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## It is essential that whenever equipment is added or

removed from the aircraft, an entry be made in the airplane's
equipment list and permanent weight-and-balance records
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

The formula used to compute the new EWCG after the addition
or subtraction of equipment is
CG = Total moment
(divided by) Total weight

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## In calculating the new EWCG when adding or removing

equipment, it is essential that the correct algebraic sign be
used

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## The weight of an airplane is always positive (+)

Page 55

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## When items of aircraft equipment are added or removed, four

combinations are possible. These are as follows:

## 1. When items are added forward of the datum line, the

signs are (+) weight X (-) arm = (-) moment

2. When items are added to the rear of the datum line, the
signs are (+) weight x (+) arm = (+) moment

3. When items are removed forward of the datum line, the signs are (-) weight X (-) arm = (+) moment

4. When items are removed to the rear of the datum line, the signs are (-) weight X (+) arm = (-) moment
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

Positive
moments are clockwise and cause a tail-heavy force, while
negative moments are counterclockwise and because a noseheavy force

Page 57

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Operators of large aircraft must also account for all probable

weight-and-balance control

Page 59

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)

there are two essential airplane attributes, which may be seriously reduced by improper balance; these are
stability and control

#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

control during flap operation because of the shift in the center of
lift

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Both lateral and longitudinal

balance are important, but the prime concern is longitudinal
balance; that is, the location of the CG along the longitudinal or
lengthwise axis
#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Longitudinal stability is maintained by ensuring

the CG is slightly ahead of the center of lift

#5 Highlight (Shabbir)

## If the CG is too far aft, it will be too near the center

of lift and the airplane will be unstable, and difficult to recover
from a stall

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

If the CG is too far forward, the downward tail load will have to
be increased to maintain level flight

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

## A more serious problem caused by the CG being too far forward

is the lack of sufficient elevator authority.
- At slow takeoff
speeds, the elevator might not produce enough nose-up force to
rotate
- on landing there may not be enough elevator force to
flare the airplane

#8 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Both takeoff and landing runs will

be lengthened if the CG is too far forward

Page 61

#1 Highlight (Shabbir)
The basic aircraft design assumes that lateral symmetry exists
#2 Highlight (Shabbir)

The lateral balance can be upset by uneven fuel loading or burn off

#3 Highlight (Shabbir)

laterally unbalanced condition is corrected by using the aileron trim tab until enough fuel has been used from the tank on the heavy side to balance
the
airplane

#4 Highlight (Shabbir)

## Swept wing airplanes are more critical due to fuel imbalance

because
- as the fuel is used from the outboard tanks the CG
shifts forward
- as it is used from the inboard tanks the CG
shifts aft

#5 Text (Shabbir)

Lateral imbalance causes wing heavines, which may be corrected by aileron deflection

#6 Highlight (Shabbir)

## When the EWCG falls within the EWCG

range (if one is given), it is unnecessary to perform a forward or
rearward weight-and-balance check

#7 Highlight (Shabbir)

it is
impossible to load the aircraft to exceed the CG limits, provided