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ANGLE BETWEEN A LINE DRAWN FROM CENTER OF

A CIRCLE AND A LINE INTERSECTS WITH IT AND


CIRCLE AT MOST ONE POINT
Erdem CANAZ

erdemcanaz@metu.edu.tr

29/11/2019

Problem
As shown in figure1, we want to find angle θ where the line intersects with the
circle at most one point, P.
In this paper, I will describe two approaches one is mine, and another one is my
friend Işık Emir Altunkol’s to show θ must be right angle not just intuitively but
also mathematically.

Figure 1

My Approach
Let's say there is two function T(x) and C(x) exist, figure2.

It is obvious T(x) and C(x) intersect at the point P(0,1). We want to find a
value(s) that makes them intersect only at P.
Define a function, f ; Figure 2

At point(s) they intersect f(x)=0 must apply.


Note that T(x) and C(x) are continuous on interval [-1,1] and differentiable on (-1,1). So f(x) also is.
We know that f(0)=0. If there is another x=c provides f(c)=0, the mean value theorem states that
between c & 0 there must be such k ensures;

We want to find value(s) of a that makes f 1(k)=0 impossible,


Define a function, D.
We want to find value(s) of a that out of the range D.

Note that;
𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝐷(𝑘) ⇒ −∞ &
𝑘→−1+

Since D(x) is a continuous function, the intermediate value theorem states that it can take any real
value except 0 (because we defined 0<|k| ).
Therefore, if we take a as 0, f1(k)!=0 for any (c<k<0 or 0<k<c.) .
Note that there is only one such a which proves θ can’t take any value but 90 °

Figure 3

Işık’s Approach
I am citing his ideas here, as I understand. He solved the question more logically and beautifully
rather than dealing with numbers.
Let’s assume angle θ is not and smaller than 90 °.

Then we can draw |AO| which is perpendicular to |PA|.


We know that hypotenuse |PO| must be the greatest edge at the right triangle.
Which is not ;
|AO|>|PO|
Therefore, θ must be 90 °.
Figure 4