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LATE HELLENISTIC

TO MEDIAEVAL FINE WARES


OF THE AEGEAN COAST OF ANATOLIA
PRACE INSTYTUTU KULTUR ŚRÓDZIEMNOMORSKICH I ORIENTALNYCH
POLSKIEJ AKADEMII NAUK
TOM 1

CERAMIKA STOŁOWA
EGEJSKIEGO WYBRZEŻA ANATOLII
OD OKRESU PÓŹNOHELLENISTYCZNEGO
DO ŚREDNIOWIECZA
PRODUKCJA, NAŚLADOWNICTWA I ZASTOSOWANIE

pod redakcją
HENRYKA MEYZA

przy współpracy
KRZYSZTOFA DOMŻALSKIEGO

WYDAWNICTWO NERITON

Warszawa 2014
TRAVAUX DE L’INSTITUT DES CULTURES MÉDITERRANÉENNES ET ORIENTALES
DE L’ACADÉMIE POLONAISE DES SCIENCES
TOME 1

LATE HELLENISTIC
TO MEDIAEVAL FINE WARES
OF THE AEGEAN COAST OF ANATOLIA
THEIR PRODUCTION, IMITATION AND USE

édité par
HENRYK MEYZA

avec la collaboration de
KRZYSZTOF DOMŻALSKI

ÉDITIONS NERITON

Varsovie 2014
Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

PART I: Production at Pergamon and its region


Sigillata of Pergamon – Eastern Sigillata C. Problems of classiication and chronology
– by S. Japp, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
La production des ateliers de céramique de Pergame (Vallée de Ketios) : un aperçu général
– by O. Bounegru, Catedra de Istorie Veche şi Arheologie Facultatea de Istorie.
Universitatea „Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Statistical interpretation of elemental concentration data and the origin of Pergamene pottery
– by H. Mommsen, Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Rheinische Friedrich-
Wilhelms-Universität Bonn & S. Japp, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin . . . . . . 31
A Pergamene (?) modiolus in the National Museum of Denmark
– by J. Lund, Antiksamlingen, Nationalmuseet, København . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

PART II: Other production sites of western Anatolia


Ephesus – local vs import: he Early Byzantine ine ware
– by A. Waldner, Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike, Österreichische
Akademie der Wissenschaten & S. Ladstätter, Österreichisches Archäologisches
Institut, Wien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Microstructural characteristics of appliqué wares from Ephesus
– by L. Peloschek, Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, Wien & A. Laetzer-Lasar,
Internationales Kolleg Morphomata, Universität zu Köln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Aspects of ine ware consumption in Aeolic Kyme (I-VI AD)
– by V. Di Giovanni, Missione Archeologica Italiana a Kyme Eolica, Università
degli Studi di Napoli Federico II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
From Hellenistic to Roman Imperial in Pisidian tableware: the genesis of Sagalassos
Red Slip Ware
– by M. Van der Enden, University of Leicester, J. Poblome, Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven & Ph. Bes, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Zur Neuentdeckung eines Töpfereizentrums der Cypriot Red Slip Ware/Late Roman D Ware
im südlichen Pisidien
– by M. Zelle, Lippisches Landesmuseum, Detmold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Long-term pottery production and chemical reference groups: examples from Medieval Western
Turkey
– by S.Y. Waksman, Laboratoire de Archéométrie et Archéologie, CNRS UMR 5138,
Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, Lyon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6 Contents

PART III: Consumption and distribution


Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region
– by D. Zhuravlev, Gosudarstvennyj Istoričeskij Muzej, Moskva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
he Pitane workshop and the most successful export of Eastern Sigillata C
– by K. Domżalski, Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa. . . 151
Eastern sigillatas (ESA, „Pergamene“ and others) in the Delos houses : proportions and uses
– by A. Peignard-Giros, HiSoMA (Histoire et Sources des Mondes Antiques), CNRS UMR
5189, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, Lyon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
So-called Pergamenian Sigillata from Delos: post-analysis review of evidence
– by H. Meyza, Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych, Polska Akademia
Nauk, Warszawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Late Roman Light Coloured Ware from Parion
– by H.E. Ergürer, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi, Karaman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
LRC (Phocaean) ware pottery in the urban context of Hippos – Susita
– by J. Młynarczyk, Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych, Polska Akademia
Nauk, Warszawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware
in the northern Black Sea region*

Denis Zhuravlev

Introduction Pliny’s record that Pergamon was a major pot-


tery production center in Asia (N.H. XXXV.160)
Hellenistic Pergamon was one of the most impor- was supported in the 20th century by the discovery
tant trade partners for the cities of the Black Sea of several pottery kilns near the town. Some of
littoral and table ware was always an object of them are dated to the Hellenistic time,4 other ones
trade. Pergamene pottery has been studied by to the Roman period.5 he recently conducted
Russian and Ukrainian scholars more than other archaeometric analyses allowed to establish chem-
types of ceramics. he irst notes about this group ical composition of the clay of Pergamene vessels.6
of pottery were written by T. Knipovič. Following But there are no clear criteria for distinguish-
the point of view of R. Zahn,1 she described two ing the “real” Pergamene table ware for all the
main groups of Late Hellenistic and Roman ine groups of this pottery, and this issue is still being
ware imports in Olbia as Pergamene and Samian.2 debated. According to archaeometric studies, the
She also distinguished and described Hellenistic local production of appliqué pottery, which was
Pergamene table ware basing on the materials believed for a long time to be a characteristic
from the Bosporan Kingdom and Olbia.3 hese feature of the Pergamene style, was conirmed
conclusions were accepted by many scholars, who also in Ephesos.7
wishfully considered the pottery as Pergamene, At present, Pergamene table ware found in
without paying any attention to the details. the northern Black Sea region is not in the focus
According to some old Russian and Ukrainian of interest of researchers. here are some publi-
publications at least half of the ine pottery dis- cations of this pottery but they are not suicient
covered in the Black Sea region was produced to present an accurate picture of its distribution.
in Pergamon. According to the long-lasting tradition cher-
Later on, it was established that the pottery ished by the former Soviet, and now Russian and
from the cites of the northern Black Sea basin Ukrainian specialists, little attention is paid to the
difered from the pottery found in the Eastern mass amounts of fragmented vessels. he main
Mediterranean, and identiication of some ves- part of pottery shards has never been published.
sels as Pergamene was wrong as the criteria for here are no detailed publications of Hellenistic
distinguishing Pergamene ceramic production pottery even from the main centers of the region
were not always exact. hat is why the scope of as Olbia, Pantikapaion, Phanagoria, Chersonesos,
Pergamene import in the north Pontic area was etc. Important information has already been lost,
considerably overestimated. Now it is obvious because in many expeditions there are no spe-
that the discussed imports were less numerous cialists in the ield of pottery studies, and sta-
than Knipovič and her followers assumed, but tistical analyses are carried out by students. he
still the amount of this pottery found on the Black main part of the pottery, which was not interest-
Sea coast is large. ing enough for storing in museum deposits, has

* his article was prepared in frame of the work on the 4


Hepding 1952, 49–60; Bounegru & Erdemgil 1998,
project under the inancial support of the Alexander von 263–77; Bounegru & Erdemgil 2000, 285–95.
Humboldt Stitung. 5
Loeschcke 1912, 344–407.
1
Zahn 1904, 447. 6
Schneider 2000, 532; Japp 2009, 193–268; Mommsen
2
Knipowitsch 1929, 12f; Knipovič 1952, 292–4. & Japp 2009, 269-86; Schneider & Japp 2009, 287–306.
3
Knipovič 1949, 271–84, ig. 1. 7
Zabehlicky-Schefenegger & Schneider 2000, 105–12.
130 Denis Zhuravlev

been lost. What is more, even museum artefacts, phoi and kantharoi of Pergamene origin were dis-
besides a few exceptions, were not a subject of covered in large quantities in Olbia (Fig 1; 2),10
special publications. Pantikapaion, 11 Chersonesos, 12 Phanagoria,
he aim of this short paper is to present some Skythian Neapolis13 and many other Pontic cities.14
inds of Pergamene ine ware from the cites of he most widespread type of table amphorae of
the Black Sea region, as a irst step in a very long the second half of the 2nd – early 1st century BC is
and complicated work. he pottery, illustrated the one with mouldmade long petal decoration on
here, is mainly preserved in the State Historical the lower part of the body (Fig. 3, 1). An amphora
Museum in Moscow where the present author decorated with a garland on the neck and ivy
works as a keeper of the Greek and Roman col- leaves on the shoulders came from the necropolis
lection, or was excavated in Pantikapaion where of Phanagoria15 and a similar one was discovered
I worked as a vice director of the project in 1997- in Tanais.16 A good example of Late Hellenistic
2006. Unfortunately, for the moment we have no West Slope tableware is an amphora from
archaeometric investigations of this pottery. Even Artjuchovskij burial mound, decorated with gar-
looking through the materials in the ield pottery lands on the shoulders.17 Very similar decorations
laboratories of diferent expeditions during the are also known on the vessels from Pergamon.18
excavation seasons, I can conirm that Pergamene Skyphoi of Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Type S6
table ware comes from the Hellenistic strata at all (Fig. 1, 1, 3, 4; 2, 2)19 were found in large quan-
the sites in the region. tity in Olbia,20 the Bosporan Kingdom,21 Scythian
Neapolis,22 etc. hey were usually discovered in
the contexts of the last quarter of the 2nd – irst
Black gloss pottery quarter or irst half of the 1st century BC. Skyphoi
of this group have also been found in Bulgaria23
In the 3rd century BC, Pergamene table ware and Romania24.
imports were represented mainly by the black In the Late Hellenistic period elaborate deco-
gloss pottery. From the second quarter of the 3rd ration of the West Slope style evolved into more
century BC, the amount of Attic vessels decreased modest ornament on the black or red surface of
rapidly, which was connected, according to the the vessel. he majority of the vessels with such
opinion of T. Egorova, with the defeat of Athens ornamentation are skyphoi (Fig. 4, 5; 5, 1,3,4; 6,
by Macedonia in the Chremonidean war (267-261 2; 7, 2). Very oten they are similar in shape to
BC). Ater that, Black Sea market was re-orien- some Pergamene vessels with appliqué decoration
tated towards Asia Minor pottery centers. he
Pergamene table ware dominated among the 10
Levi 1964, ig. 9, 3; Parovič-Pešikan 1974, ig. 77, 79;
imported vessels of non-Attic provenance in the Samojlova 1994, 92–3, etc.
second half of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. his 11
Knipovič 1949, ig. 1; Blavackij 1962, 56, ig. 40; Zabe-
picture is similar for north-western Crimea8 as lina 1984, ig. 3g; 5; Behr 1988, 110– 1; Domżalski 2007,
174–5, ig. 8.
well as for the Kerch Peninsula, where a large 12
Belov & Strželeckij 1953, 44, ig. 12; 60, ig. 29; Belov
group of Pergamene Hellenistic black gloss ves- & Jakobson 1953, 116, ig. 7a.
sels was discovered in the capital of the Bosporan 13
Zajcev 1998, ig, 3, 25.
Kingdom – Pantikapaion.9 14
See also: Michałowski 1958, pl. V–VII; Gajdukevič
1959, 83, fig. 95; Behr 1988, 110; Lungu 2000–2001,
pl. II, 2, 3.
15
Schäfer 1968, 50, ig. 3, 1 (see note 36 with a list of
Pergamene West Slope pottery parallels).
16
Šelov 1961, pl. XXIV, 1.
he characteristic feature of this group of black 17
Maksimova 1979, 112–4, ig. 53.
gloss ware are overpainted ornaments on the neck 18
Schäfer 1968, Taf. 11, D29.
or body of a vessel consisting of garlands, wreaths,
19
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, 67, pl. 8.
20
Slavin 1964, ig. 23, 5; Levi 1964, ig. 9, 3; Parovič-
leaves, palmettes, etc. West Slope amphorae, sky- -Pešikan 1974, ig. 77.
21
Domżalski 2007, 174–5, ig. 8.
8
Egorova 2009, 76–7. 22
Zajcev 1998, ig, 3, 2.
9
Zabelina 1984. 23
Božkova 2012, 30, ig. 3.
24
Popescu 2010, 53, pl. I, 1.
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 131

1 2

3 4

Fig. 1. West Slope kantharoi from Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow (photo: D. Zhuravlev).

1 2

Fig. 2. West Slope kantharoi from Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow (drawings: A. Zhuravlev).
132 Denis Zhuravlev

1 2

Fig. 3. West Slope pottery and white-ground lagynos from Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow (photo: D. Zhuravlev).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 133

1 2 3

4 6

Fig. 4. West Slope pottery from Pantikapaion (photo: D. Zhuravlev).

(mainly Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Types S3 and S8). decoration of ivy-leaves, garlands and griins are
he question of their origin is still open, but the known from Pergamon itself.30
similarity to Pergamene production is obvious. A cup with a cylindrical body and the
Several vessels were decorated with overpaint- West Slope decoration from the acropolis of
ing on incised motifs of ivy leaves (Fig. 4). Such Pantikapaion (Fig. 5, 2)31 is dated to the 1st cen-
vessels were discovered in Olbia,25 in north-west- tury BC. Despite the fact that there are no direct
ern Crimea,26 and in the Cimmerian Bosporus parallels from Pergamon, the fabric is identical to
as well.27 The completely preserved skyphos that of Pergamene vessels. Another vessel with the
from Olbia (Fig. 6, 1; 7, 1), representing Meyer- West Slope decoration (Fig. 5, 3) is a skyphos of
Schlichtmann’s Type S828 may be dated to the irst Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Type S3, found in cistern
half of the 1st century BC. Some parallels are also N 176 on the Pantikapaion acropolis.32 Similar
known from the territory of Geto-Dacia.29 Many skyphoi come, for example, from Lesbos.33
skyphoi of similar shape decorated with incised An interesting Pergamene (or Pergamene style)
skyphos similar to Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Type S8
came from the settlement of Čajka. It is deco-
25
Zaitseva 2001, ig. 6; Zhuravlev 2002, ig. 35, 2–3.
26
Žuravlev 2007, ig. 4-6. rated with representations of two birds (cocks?)
27
Michałowski 1958, pl. V-VII; Gajdukevič 1959, ig. 95; facing one another (Fig. 5, 1). According to the
Zabelina 1992a, ig. 3, g; 4, a; Sokolova 1984, pl. II, 10–11;
Alekseeva 1997, pl. 214, 1–2; Zhuravlev 2002, ig. 5, 3; Lom- 30
Behr 1988, ig. 9, 30–32; pl. 14, 6–7; Wintermeyer 2004,
tadze & Žuravlev 2004, ig. 2, 3; Žuravlev & Lomtadze 2005, pl. 4; Type Be.1.17; pl. 15, 2–4; ig. 10, 36; pl. 15, 1.
ig. 4, 5; Tolstikov & Zhuravlev 2004, ig. 94, 1; Žuravlev 31
Zhuravlev 2002, ig. 5, 3; Žuravlev & Lomtadze 2005,
2011, ig. 11–12. ig. 4, 5.
28
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, pl. 8; 29. 32
Tolstikov & Zhuravlev 2004, ig. 94, 1.
29
Popescu 2010, ig. 1, 2–8; 2, 9–11. 33
Archontidou-Argyrī 1990, pl. 65, 8063.
134 Denis Zhuravlev

1 2

5 6

Fig. 5. West Slope pottery. 1) settlement Čajka, Museum of Evpatoria; 2–3) Pantikapaion, Kerch Historical and Archaeo-
logical Reserve; 4–6) burial-mound near the Bratskoe cemetery, Museum of Anthropology and Etnography, St. Petersburg.
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 135

Fig. 6. West Slope and appliqué skyphoi from Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow (photo: D. Zhuravlev).
136 Denis Zhuravlev

Fig. 7. West Slope and appliqué skyphoi from Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow (drawings: I. Rukavishnikova).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 137

Fig. 8. White-ground lagynos from Kepoi. State Historical Museum, Moscow (drawing: A. Trifonova).

1 2

Fig. 9. Pergamene lamps from Cimmerian Bosporus. Kerch Historical and Archaeological Reserve (photo: R. Sinenko).
138 Denis Zhuravlev

Fig. 10. Skyphos with appliqué reliefs from necropolis Krasnyj Majak. State Historical Museum, Moscow
(photo: D. Zhuravlev).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 139

Fig. 11. Skyphoi with appliqué reliefs: 1) necropolis Krasnyj Majak. State Historical Museum, Moscow. Drawing:
E. Nazarova; 2) House of Chrysaliskos. State Historical Museum, Moscow (drawing: A. Trifonova).
140 Denis Zhuravlev

author’s opinion, the only one Pergamene vessel (Fig. 3, 3), comparable with the vessel with
with an image of birds from Berlin museums is appliqué reliefs, is preserved in Frankfurt am
not a real parallel.34 he depiction of a bird made Main. According to G. Hübner, it belongs to Type
with white paint can be found on the black gloss III, Form 9.49 his vessel is dated to the last quar-
cup from Olbia35 as well as on a West Slope frag- ter of the 2nd – irst quarter of the 1st century BC.
ment from Pantikapaion.36 Two pairs of birds
are represented on the red slip lagynos P.1903.10
from the necropolis of Pantikapaion.37 Depictions White-ground lagynoi
of birds were also found on cups dated to 50 BC
– 50 AD.38 Bird images also were a part of decora- hese speciic vessels were found at many sites of
tive motif on an unguentarium from Delos.39 his the Mediterranean, especially in the area around
variant of Type S8 is dated to the third quarter Pergamon. he majority of specialists suppose
of the 1st century BC and later. he house where that they were produced in Pergamon or in the
this cup was discovered, was destroyed in a ire nearby area.50 hey were very popular also in
in the early 1st century AD,40 which conirmed the Black Sea region51. A syrinx, a lagynos, an
the late date of this vessel. amphora and four wreaths are represented on
Cups with a conical body and vertical rim, the shoulders of a lagynos from the necropo-
close to the Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Type S241 lis of Kepoi (Fig. 8)52. his lagynos belongs to
decorated with late West Slope ornaments of ivy Form 2 according to S. Rotrof.53 Similar lagynoi
leaves and garlands, came from the barrow near are known from the deposit in cistern М 20:1 at
Bratskoe cemetery situated in the northern part the Athenian Agora,54 which was dated between
of Sevastopol’ (Fig. 5, 5-6)42 and from the necro- 115 and 86 BC. Among the close parallels there
polis of Zolotoe. hese vessels are dated to the 1st is the lagynos from Olbia (former collection of
century BC.43 A similar cup was found during the Vogel, now in the museum in Kassel)55 and from
excavations of the settlement of Bulganak.44 Other Pantikapaion.56 In general, lagynoi from the Black
cups of this type are ornamented with ivy leaves,45 Sea region, usually with rather modest decora-
a wreath46 or small triangles and dots.47 hese tion (Fig. 3, 2) are dated to the mid-2nd – early
skyphoi are dated mainly to the second half of 1st century BC.
the 1st century BC.48 It should be noted here that
the shapes of these vessels are identical to the one
with appliqué reliefs on the bottom (Fig. 19-20) Pergamene mouldmade bowls
and their fabrics are also similar. Nevertheless, and lamps
we should be very careful while speaking about
the centre of their manufacture without archae- Relief pottery of Pergamene manufacture, mostly
ometric studies. the so-called “Megarian bowls” were also found
A large cup with traces of West Slope deco- in all the important centers of the Black Sea
ration on the upper part of the body from Olbia
49
Hübner 1993, 27–9. ig. 13, pl. 13, 88.
34
Schäfer 1968, 57, 60, pl. 11, D29. 50
Schäfer 1968, pl. 45, F11; Rotrof 1997, 226–9, N 1503-
35
Levi 1964, ig. 9, 1-2. 1552; Chatzīdákīs 2000, ig. 69α; Aggelī 2000, ig. 159; Japp
36
Blavackij 1962, 56, ig. 40, 5. 2011, 360; etc.
37
Sokolova 1984, pl. I, 10. 51
Parovič-Pešikan 1974, ig. 88; Kobylina 1956, ig. 14а;
38
Hochuli-Gysel 1977, 98, pl. 38. Cvetaeva 1957, 195, pl. 6, 5–7; Michałowski 1958, 69, ig. 83;
39
Chatzīdakīs 2000, pl. 63β-γ. Zajcev 1998, 53, ig. 1, 8; Grač 1999, pl. 67, 7; 102, 9; Sokolov
40
Popova 1991, 66. 1999, ig. 208; Drevnij gorod, 56–57, cat. no. 121. See also:
41
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, pl. 7. Božkova 1997, 13, ig. 2; Antičnye pamjatniki, 57 (with wrong
42
Guščina 1974, ig. II, 4. attribution as Alexandrian production).
43
Korpusova 1983, 104–105, pl. XXX, 4. 52
Žuravlev et al. 2007, 223–4, ig. 15, 9.
44
Škrob 1991, ig. 1, 1. 53
Rotrof 1997, 228.
45
Arsen’eva 1970: pl. 15, 10; Korpusova 1983, pl. XXXVI, 6. 54
Rotrof 1997, N 1512.
46
Korpusova 1983, pl. XXX, 4. 55
Antike Gefäße, 284, no. 211.
47
Korpusova 1983, pl. XLIII, 10. 56
Otčety imperatorskoj Archeologičeskoj Komissii 1906,
48
Behr 1988, 129. 90, ig. 108, a,b.
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 141

Fig. 12. Skyphos with appliqué reliefs from House of Chrysaliskos. State Historical Museum, Moscow (photo: I. Seden’kov).

littoral.57 Several fragments from the settle- Pergamenian Sigillata and appliqué
ments of Kara-Tobe58 and Beljaus59 in north- pottery
western Crimea have been recently published.
However, the number of Pergamene mouldmade he most interesting and well represented group
bowls has never been considerable, for exam- of Pergamene tableware are vessels with appliqué
ple, much smaller than that of their equivalents ornaments attached to the body. More seldom,
from Ephesos. Several Pergamene relief lamps ornaments are placed on the bottom of the sky-
are also known from some Bosporan cites60 (Fig. phoi (Fig. 17, 1; 18, 1). A cup from the former
9), but they are much less numerous than the collection of Earl Uvarov (assumed to have been
Ephesian ones. Similar lamps were discovered found in Olbia), similar to Type S2,63 has rep-
in Pergamon61 and elsewhere.62 hey are dated resentations of Eros on both sides of the bottom:
to the second half of the 2nd century BC. on the inside as well as on the outside (Fig. 19-20).
his cup has the same fabric as other Pergamene
vessels, but I could not found any parallels for
this vessel in Pergamon itself.
57
See for example: Gorončarovskij 1983, ig. 5. Some of these vessels imitated metal ones,64 and
58
Vnukov & Kovalenko 1998, ig. 4, 6; 5, 6; 7, 1. some bronze or silver vessels were oten used to
59
Diatroptov 2012, 94, ig. 4. make relief matrixes. Early forms of Pergamenian
60
Korpusova 1983, pl. XXX, 7; Zabelina 1992b, 307,
pl.  V, 1; Žuravlev, Bykovskaja & Želtikova 2010, 37–8,
Sigillata with appliqué motifs had traditional black
N 434–435.
61
Schäfer 1968, pl. 59, Q21.
62
Bernhard 1955, pl. XIX, no. 93; Kassab Tezgör & Sezer 63
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, pl. 7.
1995, nos. 377–8. 64
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, 210–1.
142 Denis Zhuravlev

2 3

4 5 6

Fig. 13. Pottery with appliqué reliefs. Pantikapaion. 1–2, 7) Kerch Historical and Archaeological Reserve; 3–6) Pushkin
Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow (photos: V. Tolstikov, D. Zhuravlev).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 143

2
1

5 6

Fig. 14. Pottery with appliqué reliefs from Pantikapaion. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7) Kerch Historical and Archaeological Reserve; 2–5)
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.
144 Denis Zhuravlev

1 2

Fig. 15. Pottery with appliqué reliefs. 1) Former collection of Earl Uvarov; 2–4) Former collection of Burachkov. State
Historical Museum, Moscow (photo: I. Seden’kov).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 145

Fig. 16. Skyphos with appliqué reliefs. Former collection of Burachkov. State Historical Museum, Moscow
(drawings: I. Rukavishnikova).

or brown slip, some of them – red; sometimes the Bosporan Kingdom,69 Olbia,70 Chersonesos,71
these colours co-existed on one vessel (Fig. 12; 17). the fortress of Čajka72 and many others. Another
he majority of the discussed vessels are sky- very popular motif on Pergamene appliqué ves-
phoi of the Meyer-Schlichtmann’s Types S3 and sels were various erotic scenes (Fig. 11, 2; 12; 13,
S865 or Hübner Type I (Forms 1–2),66 and are 2-3, 5–6; 14, 1–2).73 On the walls of vessels from
dated to the last quarter of the 2nd – irst quarter Pantikapaion we can see also frogs (Fig. 14, 7)74
of the 1st centuries BC. hey were usually deco- and grapes (Fig. 14, 4). It is important to note
rated with Dionysiac motifs (Satyros, Menadae that the inds of Pergamenian Sigillata vessels are
etc.) (Fig. 10; 11, 1; 13, 1, 7; 14, 3, 6; 15, 1),
Dionysos and Ariadna67, Satyros and Kallipiga 69
Gajdukevič 1959, ig. 82, 88; Šurgaja 1963, 107–11;
(Fig. 15, 1), mythological scenes68 and ivy leaves
Šurgaja 1965, 41–4;
(Fig. 6, 1; 7, 1; 13, 4). hese vessels were very Domżalski 2007, 175, ig. 10a–b; Žuravlev 2011, ig. 8,
popular in the Black Sea region, for example in 1, 3,5; 9, 3–5.
70
Zhuravlev 2002, ig. 35, 3.
71
Kadeev & Soročan 1989, 14, ig. 1, 1.
65
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, pl. 7–8. 72
Popova & Kovalenko 2005, 91, ig. 143, 14.
66
Hübner 1993, 23–5. ig. 5. 73
Šurgaja 1963: ig. 42, 1–4; Gajdukevič 1959, ig. 83;
67
Kryžickij et al. 1999, 597, ig. 189. Žuravlev 1995, 72–79; Zhuravlev 2000, ig. 138, 3–6; Ljubov’
68
Michałowski 1958, fig. 87, ab; Gajdukevič 1959, i eros, cat. no. 133, 152; Gricik 2009, 223–7, ig. 1.
ig. 84. 74
Cf. Hübner 1993, pl. 15, 91.
146 Denis Zhuravlev

Fig. 17. Pergamenian Sigillata skyphoi. 1) Kepoi, necropolis; 2) Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow
(photo: D. Zhuravlev).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 147

Fig. 18. Pergamenian Sigillata skyphoi. 1) Kepoi, necropolis; 2) Olbia. State Historical Museum, Moscow
(drawings: A. Zhuravlev).
148 Denis Zhuravlev

Fig. 19. Cup with reliefs on the bottom from Olbia (former Earl Uvarov collection). State Historical Museum, Moscow
(photo: D. Zhuravlev).
Hellenistic Pergamene tableware in the northern Black Sea region 149

Fig. 20. Cup with reliefs on the bottom form Olbia (former Earl Uvarov collection). State Historical Museum, Moscow
(drawing: I. Rukavishnikova).

known not only from the Greek sites, but also Pergamene table ware import
from several Barbarian settlements and necropo- and pottery production
leis. A good example is the skyphos with appliqué in the Northern Pontic area
ornaments from the Late Skythian necropolis of
Krasnyj Majak in the Lower Dnepr region (Fig. The influence of Pergamene pottery in the
10; 11, 1). Northern Pontic area is obvious, and it can be
Some plain skyphoi of Pergamenian Sigillata traced in the distribution of the technique of
come from Olbia75 (Fig. 17, 2; 18, 2) and the appliqué reliefs. he local imitations of Pergamene
Bosporan Kingdom.76 Among inds from the appliqué vessels appeared because of the popu-
Black Sea sites it is possible to distinguish several larity of this type of vessels, but their lower qual-
fragments of relief and plain cups with S-shaped ity prevented them from becoming widespread
rim and other plain sigillata vessels77 identical to even at the territory of the Bosporan Kingdom.78
Pergamene ones, but for conirming their origin One exceptional piece may be noted: the upper
we need to conduct clay analyses. part of a jug from Pantikapaion with appliqué
ornament representing a Dionysiac scene – Eros
75
Parovič-Pešikan 1974, ig. 80, 1.
on a panther and two Maenads – one holding
76
Domżalski 2007, 175, ig. 9.
77
Žuravlev, Demidenko & Treister 1997, 420–1, ig. 7
(with a list of parallel inds). 78
Šurgaja 1962, 108–20.
150 Denis Zhuravlev

a tympanos in her hand.79 here are no close type are lat miniature projecting handles situated
parallels for this piece, however similar scenes on both sides of the lamps.
were very popular in both Hellenistic and Roman Similar projections were typical of lamps from
art. he clay (reddish-brown with limestone diferent centers of manufacture and irst of all
inclusions) as well as the brown slip of average of lamps from Pergamon.83 We may suppose that
quality undoubtedly prove that it was produced Pergamene lighting equipment from the 1st cen-
in a Bosporan workshop as an imitation of a tury BC could have served as a possible prototype
Mediterranean (Pergamene?) original. for Bosporan lamps.84 As a result, a peculiar group
It can be stated without any doubt that the of single- and multi-nozzled lamps appeared in
Pergamene pottery tradition had later on an inlu- Cimmerian Bosporus and was popular during
ence on the Pontic Sigillata, like it was proba- the Late Hellenistic and Early Roman periods85.
bly earlier the case of the Italian Sigillata.80 For To sum up, Pergamene pottery imports
example, the decoration of the handles of Pontic developed in the Northern Black Sea littoral
kantharoi Form 34, dated to the 2nd and early 3rd from the second quarter of the 3rd century BC.
centuries AD, imitates the one on the handles of From the mid-2nd century BC, the amount of
Hellenistic Pergamene kantharoi.81 Pergamene pottery increased. Mass production
Hellenistic Pergamene relief lamps had a of table ware in Pergamon was connected with
strong impact on the Bosporan ones. In the initial the strong Roman inluence ater Pergamon had
stage, Bosporan cratsmen just copied imported become part of the Roman Republic in 129 BC.
lamps, including the Pergamene ones.82 Later on, he highest peak of Pergamene table ware import
around the mid-1st century BC, they reinterpreted to the Northern Black Sea region is dated to the
the shape of the lamps and used only several ele- last quarter of the 2nd and irst half of the 1st cen-
ments of decoration. hus, the distinctive pecu- tury BC.
liarity of one of the most popular Bosporan lamp
83
Schäfer 1968, 129–30; pl. 55, P1–P2; Kassab-Tezgör
& Sezer 1995, 144, nos. 375–6; Bailey 1975, 203, Q474; Hei-
79
Tolstikov 2004, 73; Žuravlev & Žuravleva 2009, 139, merl 2001, 97; Beil. 3; pl. 1, 1–2; Hübinger 1993, 49, no. 79,
ig. 2; Žuravlev 2011, ig. 16. pl. 10; Lyon-Caen 1986, 54–5, no. 122; etc.
80
Meyer-Schlichtmann 1988, 194. 84
Cf. Schäfer 1968, 143; pl. 66, Q62.
81
Žuravlev 2010, 64. 85
Žuravlev 2001, 131–49; Zhuravlev & Zhuravleva 2002,
82
Schäfer 1968, 143, pl. 66, Q62. 1–12; Žuravlev, Bykovskaja & Želtikova 2010, 139–69.
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riko-kul’turnogo zapovednika II, Kiev. kapeja,’ in: Bospor Kimmerijskij i varvarskij mir v period
Žuravlev D.V., S.V. Demidenko & M.Ju. Treister 1997, antičnosti i srednevekov’ja. Materialy IV  Bosporskich
‘»Kruglij Kurgan«. Eine Gesamtvorlage des Materials čtenij, V.N. Zin’ko (ed.), Kerč’, 135–139.
Index

Aegean 35, 77, 92, 110, 119, 154, 157, 159, 176 Blizency 156
Aegean markets 75 Bonn 15 n 43, 31, 32, 33, 34, 110
Aegyssus 177 Boscoreale 44
Africa 78, 159, 177 Bosporan workshop 150
African Red Slip (Ware) (ARS) 28, 49, 49 (Fig. 1 ), 50– 53, Bosporan cities 141
57 (Plate 4), 104, 154, 177 Bosporan Kingdom 129, 130, 149
Ağlasun Valley 85 Bratskoe cemetery 134, 140
Aiolis 39 Brjanskoe 156
Aizanoi 177, 179 Bulgaria 130
Akko region 195 Bulganak 140
Akrai 157 Burachkov 144 (Fig. 15), 145 (Fig. 16)
Alexandria 140 n. 51
Allianoi 176 Caesarea 156
Alma Kermen 156 Çajka 133, 134 (Fig. 5), 145
Anaia 107 Calabria 78
Anemurium 177 Cami Yikiği (Akçapinar Köyü) 95, 96, 99 (Abb. 4), 101
Antandros 176, 176 n. 19 (Abb. 9 + 10), 104 (Abb. 13)
Antioch 90, 91 Campana 168, 169, 170
Antioch-on-the-Orontes 175 Çanakkale 107, 175
Antiocheia 177 Çanaklı 85, 88
Antikythera 177, 181 Çandarlı (= Pitane) 7, 12, 13, 14, 19, 20, 20 (Fig. 12),
Aolisch Graue Glattware 11 n. 2 21, 23, 28, 29, 36–39, 44, 50, 74, 151, 151 n. 2, 152
Apamea (Apamée) 23,46 (Figs. 1, 2, 3), 153 (Fig. 4), 154, 155 (Figs. 5–6), 156,
Appliqué 7, 11, 13 n. 28, 15, 17 (Fig. 6), 24, 27, 41, 42 157 (Fig. 7), 158 (Fig. 8), 159, 171, 172
(Figs. 3–7), 43, 44, 44 (Fig. 8), 45f, 59–66 Capernaum 193 n. 16
Argos 73 n. 11 Carpathian Mountains 157
Arretine Sigillata (Arretina) 12, 21 Carvoran 41
Artezian 156 Casa del Menadro 44, 45
Atarneus 37 (Tab. 2) Çatalka 156
Athens 74 n. 13, 90, 130, 177, 171 Cayster Valley 75
Athenian Agora 44, 73 n. 11, 89, 89 n. 39, 90, 91, 140, Chersonesos 129, 130, 145
175, 179, 181, 183, 184, 188 Chios 75
Attica 37 (Tab. 2), 39, 39 (Fig. 6) Chremonidean war 130
Attalid Kingdom 71 Cimmerian Bosporus 133, 137 (Fig. 9), 156
Asia Minor Sigillata 12 Cnidian 168, 168 n. 36
Asklepieion 20, Constanţa 43
Assos 43, 45, 46, 176 Constantinopole 176
Copenhagen 45, 46
Bakır Çayi 23 Corinth 44, 73 n. 11, 74 n. 12, 77 n. 23, 177
Balıkesir 41, 45 Crete Island 73 n. 11
Bel`bek 156 Crimea 7, 130, 133, 141, 156, 172, 177
Beljaus 141 Curetes Street 51
Benghazi 73 n. 11, 74 n. 12 Cypriot-Levantine area 93
Berenice 177 Cypriot Sigillata (Eastern Sigillata D 90, 90 n. 66, 92, 156
Bergama 21 n. 69 “Cypriot Red Slip Ware” (CRS[W})= LR D 95,96, 97
Bird bowl workshop B 39 (Abb. 2), 98 (Abb. 3), 103–105, 193-200
218 Index

Cyprus (Chypre) 7, 23, 90, 92, 95, 105, 172, 172 (Fig. 3) Gródek nad Bugiem 157, 158 (Fig. 8), 159
Cyrenaica 154, 157, 175, 177 Gryneion 20, 37, 50

Danube 176, 177 Halikarnassos 89


Daskyleion 176, 179 Hama 89, 90
Delos 7, 11, 140, 161, 162, 165 n. 26, 170, 171 Hamaxitus, Sanctuary of Apollon Smintheios 77 n. 23
Delos, Aphrodision 163 Hierapolis 95
Delos, House of Seals 161, 162 (Fig. 1), 163, 165 n. 26, Hippos = Susita (Sussita)
166, 167 (Fig. 5), 168, 168 n. 23), 169, 169 n. 39, 169 Histria 156
n. 42, 169 (Tab. 3), 170 (Figs. 6–7, 9), 171
Delos, House of Stuccoes 161, 163, 163 (Fig. 2), 164–166, Iatrus 177, 181
166 (Fig. 3), 168, 169 n. 40 Ilion 39, 92, 176
Delos, House of the Sword (Courtyard of) 161, 169 n. Illuraton 156, 158 (Fig. 8)
39 Isa Bey 110
Delos, Insula of Bronzes 161 Italian Sigillata 93, 154
Delos, Insula of Comedians 161
Delos, Insula of Jewels 161 Ionia 39
Delian 174 Jebel Khalid 88–92
Dhiorios 23 Jerash bowl 198 (Pl. 2)
Düzen Tepe 81, 88
Kadıkalesi 107
Eastern Sigillata A (ESA) 13 n. 22, 73, 83 (Tab. 1), 89, Kadirgürü Mevkiisi 95, 96, 100 (Abb. 8), 103, 104 (Abb.
90 n. 71–73, 91, 92, 156, 161, 162 (Fig. 1) 164, 164 13)
(Tabs. 1, 2), 164 n. 16, 165, 165 (Tab. 2 ctd), 165 n. Kenchreai 45
25, 27, 166, 166 (Fig. 3), 167 (Fig. 4), 168, 169, 169 Khirbet Karak
(Tab. 3), 170 (Figs. 6-9) Kiremitli Mevkiisi (Haciosmanlar) 95, 96, 102 (Abb. 11),
Eastern Sigillata B 13, 73, 154, 156 103, 104 (Abb. 13)
Eastern Sigillata C (ESC) 13, 15 (Figs. 1–3), 16, 18, 19, Knidos 88, 90, 92,
21, 72, 73 n. 10, 74, 74 (Fig. 4–5), 75, 76 (Figs. 8–9), Komotini 45
77 (Figs. 10–12), 78, 79 (Figs. 15–16), 151, 153–159 Kömbeci Mevkii 95, 96, 99 (Abb. 5), 100 (Abb. 6), 102
(Figs. 4–8), 171 , 174 (Abb. 11), 103, 103 (Abb. 12), 104 (Abb. 13)
Echt-pergamenische Ware (Sigillata) 13, 14 Kursi 193
Elaia 19, 37, 38 (Table 3), 39, 39 (Fig. 6), 154, 155 (Fig. Kyme 7, 71, 71 n, *, 72, 72 n. 6, 75, 77, 78, 79
6), 159
Ephesian Red Slip Ware (ERSW) 50–53, 50–52 (Figs. 4–7), Late Roman C (LRC)/ Phocaean 7, 20, 20 (Fig. 12), 49–53,
56 (Plate 3:1), 57 (Plate 4), 58 (Plate 5) 54 (Plate 1), 57 (Plate 4.2), 57 (Plate 5), 75, 78, 79,
Ephesus (Ephesos) 7, 23, 45, 49, 50–53, 54 (Plate 1), 55 159, 177, 193-200, 197-200 (Plates 1–4)
(Plate 2), 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 71, 72, 75, 88, 89, 90, Late Roman Relief Ware (Oinophorenware) 15, 19, 19
91, 91 (n. 77), 92, 107, 107 ( n. *), 110, 112 (tabl. 1), (ig. 10)
113, 114 (Fig. 4), 119, 122 (tabl), 125, 129, 141, 171, Light Coloured Ware 19, 19 n. 64, 20 (Fig. 20), 175, 176
174 (Fig. 1), 177
Ephesus, church of St. Mary 49, 51 Llíria 43
Ephesus, Episkopeion 51 Lokal-pergamenische Ware 13, 13 n. 29,
Ephesus, Gymnasium of Vedius 51, 52, 52 (Fig. 6)
Ephesus, Nymphaeum Traiani 52, 52 (Fig. 7) Manisa, Kordon Tumulus, 89
Ephesus, Artemision (Selçuk) Miletos 34, 34 (Fig. 3), 39
Ephesus, So-called Tomb of St. Luke 50, 50 (Figs. 3–4), Meander valley 51, 51 (Fig. 5), 52, 52 (Figs. 6–8), 53, 56
51 (Fig. 5), 52 (Plate 3), 57 (Plate 4), 154
Ephesus, Terrace House 2, Dwelling unit 6 52, 52 (Fig.
8) Naukratis 35, 35 (Fig. 5), 36
Ephesus, heatre 51, 52 Nicea/Iznik 107
Ephesus, Türbe 110, 119 Non-ESC 18 (Fig. 9)
Evpatoria 134
Foça (Phokaia) 37 (Tab. 2), 38, 39, 39 (Fig. 6), 50, 159, Oboda 23
177 Olbia 45, 129, 130, 131 (Fig. 1, 2), 132 (Fig. 3), 133
Old Samian (Samien Ancien) 161, 171
Geto-Dacia 133
Grey Ware 89 n. 38 Palaepaphos 92
Index 219

Pamphylia (Pamphylien) 96 (Abb. 1), 104 Sagalassos, Eastern Domestic Quarter (TSW5) 83
Pantikapaion 129, 130, 133, 133 (Fig. 4), 134 (Fig. 5), 140, (Table 1), 84, 89 n. 35
142 (Fig. 13), 143 (Fig. 14), 145, 149, 156 Sagalassos, Upper Agora North Terrace (UAN) 82, 83
Paphos 88, 90 (Table 1), 84 (Fig. 2)
Parion 155, 156, 158, 159, 175, 177, 179, 183, 185, 191 Sagalassos Potters’ Quarter 85
Pednelissos 7, 95, 96 Sagalassos Red Slip Ware (SRSW) 52, 52 n. 21, 56 (Plate
Pergamon (city, pottery production centre) passim 3:6), 81, 82, 83 , (Tab. 1), 85, 87–89, 92, 93, 93 (Fig.
Pergamenian (Group C, Knipovič) 12 9)
Pergamenian [part] (Group D, Knipovič) 13 Samaria 13
Pergamenian [part] (Group E, Knipovič) 13 Samian (Sigillata A, Zahn) 12, 13, 14, 129
Pergamenian (Sigillata B, Zahn) 12 Samos 12, 37, 39
Pergamenische (Pergamenian) Sigillata (Schäfer, Mey- Sanded Ware 15
er-Schlichtmann) 14, 17 Fig. 7, 18 Fig. 8, 45, 83, 141, Sardis 51 n. 14, 88 n. 27, 89, 90, 91 n. 77, 92, 177, 181,
145, 146 Fig. 17, 147 Fig. 18, 149, 151, 154–156, 171 185, 188
Pergamene (as adjective) 7, 13 n. 29, 14, 31, 39, 41, 45, Sigillata from Meander Valley 51-53, 51–53 (Figs. 5–8),
46, 72, 74, 88 (Fig. 6), 110, 116, 119, 125, 129, 130, 56 (Plate 3), 57
133, 137 (Fig. 9), 140, 141, 145, 149, 150, 151, 155, Schitul 43
156, 161, 164–166, 168–172, 174-175 Smyrna 44, 45, 71, 176 (Fig. 1), 177, 179, 188, 191
Pergamon, Gate of Philetairos 12 Susita (Sussita)/Hippos 193, , 193 (note *)194, 196
Pergamon, Kestel 25, 27, 28, 74, 151
Pergamon, Ketios 11, 11 n. 11, 23–25, 27–29, 107, 116, Tas Silg, Malta 35 (ig. 4)
116 n. 34, 41, 151, 171, 172 Tel Anafa 89, 90
Pergamon, Red Hall 108 (Fig. 1), 109, 110, 116 Terra Sigillata Italica 73
Phokaia/Gryneion 7 heos 39 n. 24
Pisidia (Pisidien) 81, 92, 93, 95, 96 (Abb.1), 104, hin-walled ware 44, 89, 163 n. 14
Pitane cf. Çandarlı Troia Cf Ilion
Pompeii, Casa del Menandro 44
Pontic Sigillata 43 Wardt-Lüttingen 45
Pseudo-Pergamene 161, 166, 169 West Slope (decoration) 15, 16, 17, 72, 73 Figs. 1–2, 88,
130–136 Figs. 1–7, 140
Red-gloss wares of the Pergamon region 14 White Glazed Ware 52, 52 n. 22, 56 (Plate 3)
Rotirniskeramik 14 White-ground Ware 15, 89

Sagalassos 81–82
Sagalassos, Apollo Klarios Temple (AK) 83 (Table 1),
84, 86,89 n. 35