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Dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs)

Dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs) is a radio antenna which is most used in

microwave frequencies. It consists of a block of ceramic material of various shapes including

hemisphere, cylindrical ,rectangular, conical, hexagonal and rectangular as shown in figure 1.

Richtmyer was the first person used the word dielectric resonator (DR) in mid 1939s.The

practical application did not take place until when 1960’s suitable dielectric compounds are

become available. In mid 1983’s, the dielectric resonator (DR) using as a radiating element

which is cylindrical shapes. Usually, the antennas are small, low weight, low cost, compatible

in 3D, thus it has large power handling capacity, less dissipation, high efficiency and easily

integrated by chips. The dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs) can be in smaller size, thus reduce

the overall circuit costs with comparable performance. The smaller the physical size, the larger

the dielectric constant ; can be in 3D shape, thus having more geometric parameter, adding

more degree of freedom to design as shown in figure 2; high dielectric constant ,thus no

conducting parts and very small dissipation loss; not limited to linear polarization, thus can

also be single, dual or circular polarization. When the radio wave goes inside the resonator

material from the transmitter circuit, it will bounce back and forth between the resonator wall,

thus this will form a standing wave. The walls of the resonator are partially transparent to the

radio waves, thus the radio power is radiated into space as shown in Figure 3. Now, DRAs are

used to replace traditional radiating elements at high frequencies, especially in application at

millimetre waves and beyond. This is due to DRAs do not have any conduction losses and have

high radiation efficiency. Moreover ,DRAs can be used as a small and low profile antenna

when operated at low microwave frequencies. This is due to low cost dielectric material are

now easily available commercially. Furthermore ,DRAs are becoming major choose for more

antenna engineering to design communication system.

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the shape of dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs).

Figure 2

Figure 2 shows the 3D shape of dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs)

Figure 3

Figure 3 shows the radiation pattern of dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs).

Important of dielectric permittivity to antenna application

The impedance bandwidth for a dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs) is a function of

material permittivity and aspect ratio (length-to-height ratio). Higher permittivity can result in

size reduction, whereas lower permittivity can broaden the bandwidth. The permittivity

dielectrics used for DRAs are 10≤εr≤100.This is to ensure that most of the field remains within the

resonator, this will lead high quality factor Q. The high Q - factor element was specified for filter and

oscillator. Because of the high Q – factor, the amount of energy stored was more than the amount of the

energy lost, thus it can be used as energy storage device. If the Q- factor is low, the working is vice

versa which is the energy radiated is higher than the energy stored .As per Long et al, when DR is low

factor Q and placed on the metallic ground surface with unshielded surrounding also an excitation is

applied to it, the discontinuity of the relative permittivity will enable the radio waves bounded back and

forth between the resonator boundary. This is called standing electromagnetic wave, the resonances will

create the chance of reflection but cannot radiate. If the permittivity constant is not too high and the

excited mode presents strong fields at the resonator boundaries, the Q drops significantly in as much

part of the stored energy is radiated in the environment. Since dielectric losses remain low and the size

of the DRs are small with respect to the free – space wavelength , these radiator provide small and high

efficiency antennas.