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- Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences
- statistics research
- Statistical Methods for Machine Learning Mini Course
- Output
- minton1976.pdf
- lab 2 report
- lec40
- Fachris Statistika Quiz 2
- 12713Sample Paper XI
- Course Notes for Unit 6 of the Udacity Course ST101 Introduction to Statistics
- Biomedical Literature Evaluation
- Chapter-3
- Batanero Borovcnik Statistics and Probability in High School Contents Preface
- SOFTWARE CODE MAINTAINABILITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW
- ERM and Value Creation Transmission Mechanism and Multifactor Model of Risk and Return Through ERM Framework
- v1-i1-a005
- FIIDII FUNDFLOW IMPACT OF MUTUAL FUNDS INFLOWS AND OUTFLOWS A STUDY
- 82537_1502 Metpen Stat Intro Ddq
- Quantitive Correlations.pdf
- SPSS

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Introduction

forecasting business trends, forecasting sales and in other business and economic

activities such as investments, production, employment, marketing and in management

and control. Private companies also use statistics in making intelligent company

policies.

Today, statistics is used in nearly every field. It is for this reason that students,

whether taking a course in business or sciences should learn or at least get acquainted

with statistics. It is to their advantage that they should have an adequate understanding

and working knowledge of the concepts and principles of statistics to equip them with

the knowledge necessary for an intelligent decision making.

Statistics may be defined as the branch of mathematics that deals with the systematic

method of collecting, classifying, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative or

numerical data.

DIVISION OF STATISTICS

classification, and presentation of data designed to summarize and describe the

group characteristics of the data. Ex. Measures of location, measures of

variability, skewness and kurtosis.

about a population based on a representative sample systematically taken from

the same population. Its aim is to give concise information about large groups of

data without dealing with each and every element of these groups. So that, if the

taken is small, certain assumptions and inferences are made based on limited

information, and if the sample drawn is large, it may be treated as equal to that of

the whole observation.

In statistical investigation, after the problem has been clearly defined and its

objectives have been set up, the following steps have to be undertaken:

A. COLLECTION OF DATA:

The data collected must be valid, reliable, relevant and consistent with

other information to the problem at hand. Data collected may be classified

as:

1

a. Primary data – refer to data obtained directly from an original source by

means of actual observations or by conducting interviews. The direct

source could be an individual or family group, business entities or private

and government agencies.

b. Secondary data – refer to data or information that come from existing

record ( published and or unpublished ) in usable form such as surveys,

census, business journals and magazines, newspapers, commercial

publications, and others such as theses and dissertations and research

papers, etc.

c. Internal data – data taken from the company’s own records of operations

such as sales records, production records, personnel records, etc.

d. External data – data that come from outside sources and not from the

company’s own records.

Data gathering device where in the research worker or interviewer gets

theneeded data/ information from the respondent or interviewee verbally and

directly in a face-to-face contact. One marked advantage of this method is that

skillful interviewer may draw from the interviewee certain types of personal and

confidential information which may not be possible through the other methods of

data collection.

Data gathering instrument consisting of a list of well- planned, written

questions related to a particular topic sent by mail to individuals, with space

provided for responses to each question given out to acquire the needed

data/ information.

3.Registration method.

Pertains to records of births, marriages, and deaths at the NSO or

registration record of voting age at the COMELEC.

4.Observation.

Employed when certain data or information cannot be secured adequately or

validly through the use of the other methods of data collection except through

the use of observation. Observation must be specific, systematic, quantitative,

expert and its results must be checked and substantiated.

5.Experimentation.

Data obtained as a result of systematic effort in following the scientific

method.

B.PROCESSING OF DATA

After data have been collected, they have to be processed. Processing of

data includes:

a.Editing – in which the purpose is detect errors and omissions, and to

ensure that the data gathered are accurate, consistent with other information,

complete, and should be arranged in such a way as to facilitate and

classification.

b.Coding – refers to assigning numerals and other symbols to the data

collected to be able to group them into a limited number of classes or

categories.

c.Classification – refers to sorting of the data and grouping them on the

basis of similarity . The purpose of classification is to enable us quickly see all

the possible characteristics in the data collected.

C. PRESENTATION OF DATA.

a.Textual Presentation - this mode of presentation combines text and figures

in a statistical report. Ex. The news item in the newspaper which reports the

number of houses buried by the lahar flow and the number of families

evacuated from the lahar ravaged municipalities during the recent lahar

calamity.

form because the data are presented in more concise and systematic

manner. The data are systematically presented through tables consisting of

vertical columns and horizontal rows with headings describing these rows and

columns. Example:

Chemical and Materials (CM) 1 10 10

Consumer Products 2 8 8

Durables/ capital Equipment ( DCE) 3 7 7

Energy 4 13 13

Financial 5 24 24

data, because important relationships are brought out more clearly in graphs.

Graphs have a great advantage over tables because graphs convey

quantitative values and compares more readily than tables.

3

Types of Graphs:

1.Bar Graph. The simplest form of graphing presentation generally intended for

comparison of simple magnitude. It may either be horizontal bar graphed or a

vertical bar graph.

Business classification

2.Line Graph. The most widely use practical device effective in showing a trend (

Changes in value ) over a period.

3.Circle or Pie Chart. A circle divided into parts whose sizes are proportional to

the magnitude or percentages they represent. Used to show the component parts

of a whole.

list of values for two variables cannot. It shows if a relationship exists between

variables. It also convey both direction and shape of the relationship.

to indicate data instead of a bar in a bar- type chart.

4

D. ANALYSIS OF DATA.

E. INTERPRETATION OF DATA.

Analysis- is the manipulation of the data gathered as descriptive and inferential

statistics

Cumulative Frequency- is used in getting the value for the median, quartiles,

deciles and percentiles.

Data- point to statistical facts, principles, opinions and various items of different

sources.

questionnaire, experiments, observation and documentary analysis.

tendency, measures of central location, measure of dispersion or variation,

graphs, skewness and kurtosis. Likewise, it refers to some techniques which are

concerned with presentation and collection of data or information.

conclusion are to be made from the population observed using only the

representative samples. This statistics includes as both parametric and non

parametric tests which are more concerned with generalizing information or

making inference about the population through representative samples.

interval.

polygons, pie charts and pictographs, among others.

Grouped data- are properly organized and classified data such as the use of

frequency distribution.

see whether significant differences or relationships exist between variables.

objects or individuals.

Random sampling- involves the selection of samples such that each sample of

a given size has precisely the probability of being selected. It includes the simple

random, stratified, cluster and multistage sampling techniques.

population.

interview.

TYPES OF MEASUREMENT

The data can be classified into two types. These are the continuous and

discontinuous or discrete data.

Continuous data- are measures like feet, pounds, kilos, minutes and meters.

These kinds of data can be made into measurement be made into

measurement of varying degrees of precision, for example, 1 yard equals three

feet ( 1 yd = 3; 1 ft = 12 in.

Counting of people, number of objects, number of cars passing by, number of

houses, number of students, workers and so on.

MEASUREMENT OF SCALES

According to Stevens, there are four types of scales that are used in sciences.

These are the nominal, ordinal, interval and, ratio..

classification of individuals into categories, like gender and, male and female; yes

and no answers; in religion for instance, Muslims and Christians; for political

parties,LP, Laban, Lakas, and KNP; dwelling place, rural and Urban; and more of

such categories.

Ordinal measures reveal which person or object is larger or small, harder or

softer, responses like strongly agree, agree, no opinion, disagree, and strongly

disagree.

6

Interval scales- are numbers that reflect differences among items. Examples are

scores in a test, grades of students, ages, blood pressures, Fahrenheit and

Celsius thermometers.

Ratio scale- the highest type of scale. The basic differences between the interval

and ratio scale is that ratio scale are the measures of length, weight, loudness,

width, and so on.

STATISTICAL SYMBOLS

x = y x equals y

x ≠ y x is not equal to y

x ˃ y x is greater than y

x˂ y x is lesser than y

7

The characteristics of the population are called parameters while the

characteristics of the sample are called statistics.

Mean μ , mu x

Number of Cases N n

Proportion P p

Coefficient

Variance S2 s2

Summation Notation

Example 1. If N =5 the following observations are X1 = 2 ; X2 = 4; X3 = 3 ; X4 = 5; X6 =

6, find the sum of five values of Xi using summation notation.

N

Solution: Σ Xi = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + X5 = 2 + 4 + 3 + 5 + 6 = 20

i=1

N

Solution: Σ Xi = X1 + X2 + X3 = 5 + 4 + 1 = 10

i=1

Example 3. Suppose a be a constant. Find the sum of the values, when a constant has

been added to each, Use example 2, where N = 3 and X i = 5; X2 = 4; X3 =1

N

Solution: Σ (Xi + a) = (Xi + a) + (X2 + a) + (X3 + a) = 5 + a + 4 +a + 1 + a = 10 + 3a

i=1

So we can say that the es of the variables plus N times the constant. Therefore;

N N

Σ (Xi + a) = Σ Xi + Na

i=1 i =1

8

Example 4. Suppose a be a constant has been subtracted from each observation X i.

Find the values using the notation of N = 4 and X 1= 4; X2 = 7; X3 = 1; X4 = 5.

N

Solution: Σ (Xi - a) = ( X1 – a ) + ( X2 – a ) + ( X3 – a ) + ( X4 – a )

i=1

= ( 4 –a ) + ( 7 – a ) + ( 1 – a ) + ( 5 – a )

= 17 – 4a

So, the sum of the values of a variable when a constant has been

subtracted from each is equal to the sum of the values of the variables

minus N times the constant. Therefore,

N N

Σ (Xi - a) = Σ X1 - Na

i=1 i-1

THE NATURE OF STATISTICS: Statistical investigation can be classified into two major

functions;

1. Descriptive Statistics- method of collecting and presenting data. it includes the

computation of measures of central tendency, measure of central location,

likewise the measures of dispersion or variability. It also includes the construction

of tables and graphs.

advanced mathematical modes such as using the different statistical tools both

the parametric and non parametric tests. This is concerned with the analysis and

interpretation of data in order to draw conclusion and generalization from

organized data. This also includes the testing of the significant relationship

between the dependent and independent variables as well as the significant

differences between and among independent samples.

SAMPLE AND POPULATION

may use the population as subject of studies when it is small and manageable

when employing statistical methods. However, if the population is too large, trhe

researches may use the representative sample.

Sampling- the method of getting a small part from the population that serves as

the representative of the population called sample.

9

Note: If the population under study is too large to handle and will entail too much time, cost,

and effort, taking samples is a very alternative. It should be noted that if a small part of the

population is considered, sampling error should be expected. Thus, in drawing conclusions

about the population from which a sample is drawn, the researcher should learn how to draw

samples that are truly representative of the population. Different sampling techniques include

sample random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and multi- stage

sampling.

A simple random sample is a subset of a statistical population in which each

member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. A simple

random sample is meant to be an unbiased representation of a group.

sampling, the researcher divides the population into separate groups, called

strata. Then, a probability sample (often a simple random sample ) is drawn

from each group.

heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used

in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these

groups (or clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected.

because sampling is a type of sampling which involves dividing the population

into groups (or clusters). Then, one or more clusters are chosen at random and

everyone within the chosen cluster is sampled.

Note: The problem that is commonly encountered is determining the sample size.

It is not advisable to set a certain percentage; instead, the margin of error which

is from 1% to 10% in social science researches should be considered. The

computation of the sample size, relative to the population size has this formula:

n= N

1 + Ne2

Where: N = the population size

e2 = the margin of error

n = the sample size

10

Example 1. Find the sample size if the population size is 2500 at 95% accuracy.

using the formula,

n= N

1 + Ne2

= 2500

1 + 2500 ( .05 )2

= 344.83 or 345

the performance of 200 teachers in the 1st district of Catarman, Northern Samar. If the

margin of error is 3%, how many of the teachers should be taken as respondents?

N. Samar. At 3% margin of error, the sample size n shall be:

n = N_______

1 + Ne2

= 200

1 + 200 (.03)2

= 169.49 or 169

11

II. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

values divided by the number of observations. It is a computed average and

its magnitude is influenced by every value in the set. It is the location

measure most frequently used, but can be misleading when the distribution

contains extremely large or small values.

Long method b) short method

X = ΣfM X = Am + ( Σfd ) i

n n

Where: X = the mean;

ΣfM = the summation of the products of frequencies and midpoints

Σ fd = the summation of the products of frequencies and deviations

Am = assumed mean, the midpoint of the class where the zero

deviation is placed.

n = the number of cases or scores

i = the class interval

b.Median – median of the distribution. Half of the values in the distribution fall

below the median, and the other half fall above it. It is the most appropriate

locator of center values.

Me = Lme + ( n/2 – fb ) i

Fw

median class

12

c.Mode – value that appears with the highest frequency. It is determined by the

formula;

Mo = Lmo + ( d1 ) i

d1+ d2

Lmo = the lower boundary of the modal class

d1 = the difference between the frequency of the modal class and

the frequency of that class next lower in value.

d2 = the difference between the frequency of the modal class and

the frequency of of that class next higher in value

Fractiles )

a given fraction of the distribution must lie. Like the median, the quantiles or fractiles are

also positional measures.

a.Quartiles – are values that divide the distribution into 4 equal parts.. These are

Q1 in which 25% or less of the distributions lie, Q 2, which 50% or less of the

distributions lie, and Q3, where 75% or less of the distributions lie.

fwQ1

fb1 = the less than or equal to cumulative frequency just below the

quartile one class

b.Deciles – are values that divide the distribution into 10 equal parts:

The deciles are: D1 , D2 , D3 , …, D9.

FwD1

C.Percentiles – are values that divide the distribution into 100 equal parts.

These are: P1 , P2 , P3 , P4, …, P99

P1 = LP1+ ( n/100 – fbP1 ) i

FwP1

13

Note: You will notice that quantiles, deciles, and percentiles utilize the

median formula while they differ only in the subscripts.

( Measures of Absolute Variation & Measures of Relative Dispersion)

MEASURES OF VARIATION:

A.Range – the difference between the upper boundary of the highest class

and the lower boundary of the lowest class.

R = UBHC - LBLC

C.Quartile Deviation, QD = Q3 – Q1

2

n

E.Mean Squared Deviation or Variance, S2

S2 = [ nΣ fd2 – ( Σfd)2] i2

n(n-1)

F.Standard Deviation, S = √ S2

a. Coefficient of Variation ( CV ),

CV= S x 100%

X

CQD = Q3 – Q1 x 100%

Q3 + Q1

14

Illustrative Problem:

Problem: The following are the distribution of the ages of 100 employees of Philippine

Christian University during the time of Carlito S. Puno as the President.

Class f M fM M-x f M-x d fd d2 fd2 ≤cumf

54-59 1 56.5 56.5 23.22 23.22 3 3 9 9 100

42-47 11 44.5 489.5 11.22 123.42 1 11 1 11 94

36-41 18 38.5 693 5.22 93.96 0 0 0 0 83

30-35 30 32.5 975 0.28 8.4 -1 -30 1 30 65

24-29 24 26.5 636 6.78 162.72 -2 -48 4 96 35

18-23 11 20.5 225.5 12.58 140.58 -3 -33 9 99 11

n= 100 3328 638.4 -87 265

i=6

k) IQR l) QD m) MAD n) S2 o) S p) CV q) CQD

Solution:

n 100 n 100

fw 30

d1 + d 2 6 + 12

fwQ3 18

fwQ1 24

fwD7 18

fwD4 30

fwP35 24

fwP55 30

15

l) QD = Q3 – Q1 = IQR = 11.83 = 5.92

2 2 2

n 100

n(n-1) 100(100-1)

o) S = √ 68.84 = 8.30

x 33.28

Q3 + Q1 38.83 + 27

Exercises:

1. For the given frequency distribution table determine the following: a) Mean b)

Me c) Mo d) Q3 e) Q1 f) D8 g) D5 h) P65 i) P35 j) R k) IQR l) QD m) MAD n)

S2 o) S p) CV q) CQD

Classes F M fM d fd d2 fd2 f M - x f M - x ≤cumf

95 – 99 2

90 – 94 2

85 – 89 7

80 – 84 9

75 – 79 10

70 – 74 8

65 – 69 2

16

2. In the given frequency distribution table, determine: a) Mean b) Me c) Mo d) Q 1

e) Q3 f) D5 g) D7 h) P25 i) P65 j) R k) IQR l) Q.D. m) MAD n) S2 o) S.D.

Classes F M fM d fd d2 fd2 fM-x f M-x ≤cumf

60 - 64 6

55 - 59 7

50 - 54 10

45 - 49 8

40 - 44 8

35 - 39 5

30 - 34 4

25 - 29 2

V. HYPOTHESIS TESTING

In either accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis, incorrect decision can be

made. A null hypothesis can be accepted when it should have been rejected or rejected

when it should have been accepted. Thus in accepting or rejecting the null, two types of

decision errors could be committed.

Type II error is committed if the null hypothesis is accepted when it is false.

Another most widely used test of significance ( non- parametric) is the x 2 test. X2

can test for the significant differences between the observed distribution of data among

categories an the expected distribution of data based upon the null hypothesis ( or

significant relationship ) .It is used in cases of one- sample analysis, two- independent

samples or k independent samples.

Illustrative Problem.

Test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the gender of the

employees and their job satisfaction level, if in a certain School the following results

were obtained at 0.05 significant level.

Male 45 60 55 160

Female 9 10 10 29

Total 54 70 65 189

17

I.Statement of hypothesis:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the gender of the employees

and their job satisfaction level.

H1: There is significant relationship between the sex of the employees and

Their job satisfaction level.

II.Statistical test: use the one sample x2 test.

Level of significant and Critical value:

@ 0.05 and df = ( r-1)( c -1) = ( 2 -1)(3 -1)= 2

Critical x2 value = 5.99

Expected value, E = Ct x Rt

Gt

III.Computation:

Male/ low: E = 54 x 160 = 45.71

189

Male/ med : E = 70 x 160 = 59.26

189

Male/ high : E = 65 x160 = 55.03

189

Female/ low: E = 54 x 29 = 8.29

189

Female/ med: E = 70 x 29 = 10.74

189

Female / high: E = 65 x 29 = 9.97

189

O–E X2 =∑ ( O – E )2

O E E

45 45.71 -0.71 0.011028

60 59.26 0.74 0.009241

55 55.03 -0.03 0.000016

9 8.29 0.71 0.060808

10 10.74 -0.74 0.050987

10 9.97 0.03 0.003009

∑X 2 = 0.135089

Decision: Since the critical X2 value of 5.99 ˃ the computed X2 value of 0.135089, the

null hypothesis, Ho is accepted while the alternative hypothesis, H 1 is rejected.

Therefore, there is no significant relationship between the gender of the employees and

their job satisfaction level.

18

Note: For any hypothesis testing involving the relationship between the critical statistic

test value and the computed value, when the critical value is greater than the computed

value (Critical value ˃ computed value), the null hypothesis is accepted leading to the

rejection of the alternative hypothesis. But when the critical value is less than the

computed value (critical value ˂ computed value), the null hypothesis is rejected leading

to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis.

Exercise:

Test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the students

class level and attitudes with respect to fraternities using 5% level of significance.

Students Favorable Neutral Unfavorable Total

Junior 80 60 70

Senior 100 50 70

Total

B. LINEAR CORRELATION

association between variables.

The Pearson product moment correlation reveals the magnitude and direction

of relationships.

The Pearson’s r measures relationships in variables that are linearly related. Its value

range from +1 through 0 to -1. The r symbolizes the coefficient’s estimate of linear

association based on sampling data. The formula for Pearson’s r is:

r =

[ n ( ∑x2) – ( ∑x )2] [ n (∑y2) – (∑ y)2 ]

y = observed data for the dependent variable

n = sample size

r = degree of relationship between x and y

19

+/- 1.00 Perfectly positive/ negative correlation

+/- 0.91 - +/- 0.99 Very High positive/ negative correlation

+/- 0.71 - +/- 0.90 High positive/ negative correlation

+/- 0.51 - +/- 0.70 Moderately positive/ negative correlation

+/- 0.31 - +/- 0.50 Low positive/ negative correlation

+/- 0.01 - +/- 0.30 Negligible positive/ negative correlation

0.00 No correlation

Illustrative Problem:

grade in English and their grades in Mathematics. A random sample of 10 students of

Education, major in Physics of a certain University were taken and the results of the

sampling are tabulated as shown. Use the 5% level of significance.

Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Number

English grade 93 89 84 91 90 83 75 81 84 77

Mathematics 91 86 80 88 89 87 78 78 85 76

grade

y = grade in Mathematics

r =

[ n ( ∑x2) – ( ∑x )2] [ n (∑y2) – (∑ y)2 ]

20

8 81 78 6318 6561 6084

r=

[ n ( ∑x2) – ( ∑x )2] [ n (∑y2) – (∑ y)2 ]

r=

[ 10 ( 72,067 – ( 8472] [ 10 (70,480) – ( 8382) ]

is statistically significant, so we have to test the significance of r. The t- test will be

used.

21

n–2

Formula: t = r

1- r2

I. Statement of Hypotheses:

Mathematics.

H1 : There is a correlation between grades in English and grades in

Mathematics.

n–2

t = r

1- r2

Computation: 10 - 2

t = 0.89

1 – ( 0.89 )2

t = 5.52

Conclusion: In as much as the critical t- value of 2.306 < the computed t value

of 5.52, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected while the alternative hypothesis ( H 1)

is accepted. Therefore, there is a high correlation between grades in English

and grades in Mathematics.

22

Exercise:

Ten employees in one industrial organization have the following characteristics of number of years of

experience(X) and yearly salary (Y)(given in thousand pesos). Solve the Pearson product –moment

correlation (r) for the data and interpret the result.

SN X Y XY X2 Y2

1 7 18

2 11 16

3 33 25

4 24 22

5 5 19

6 18 23

7 35 24

8 12 19

9 9 21

10 10 26

Use for testing the null- hypothesis that the means of several populations are equal.

The comparison in means of 3 or more populations which follow normal distributions

can be taken simultaneously in just one application of this test. This test, therefore, is

the generalization of Z- test and t- test of two normal population means.

ANOVA uses a simple factor, fixed- effects model to compare the effects of one factor

on a continuous dependent variable. It uses squared deviations or variances so that the

computation of distances of individual data points from their own mean or from the

grand mean can be summed.

The test statistic for ANOVA is the F- ratio, comparing the variance from the two

sources.

Formula:

MSW Within – groups variance Mean square within

Where:

MSB = Sum of Squares between = SSB

Degree of freedom between dfB

Degree of freedom for SSB, dfB =k-1’,where k pertains to the number of groups

or samples

22

Degrees of freedom within dfW

( size of each sample)

ΣX = Xa + Xb + Xc + …

N

SSB = Σ[ ( XA )2 + ( XB)2 + (XC)2] - ( X)2

n N

Illustrative Problem:

Three brands of infant’s powdered milk ( Infant’s formula) were given to three groups of

8 infants and the results were monitored for a certain period of time during an outreach

program of a certain University in Cavite. The results in terms of weight gains are

tabulated below:

Respondents XA XB Xc

1 4.5 3.2 3.0

2 4.1 3.0 2.8

3 3.6 3.8 3.2

4 5.3 3.9 3.6

5 4.8 4.2 3.5

6 2.7 3.1 3.5

7 4.3 4.0 2.9

8 3.8 3.3 3.6

Test the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the mean growth of the three

groups of infants given the three brands of infant powdered milk @ 0.01 level.

23

I.STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

Ho: there is no significant difference in the mean growth of the three

groups of infants given the three brands of infant powdered milk )

H1: There is a significant difference …given the three brands of infant

powdered milk.

Solution: ( completing the table below);

ndent

4 5.3 28.09 3.9 15.21 3.6 12.96

k=3

n=8

N = 3x8 = 24

III.Level of significance and critical value

=3–1 = 3 ( 8-1)

=2 = 21

Critical F value = 5.78

IV Computation:

F ratio = MSB

MSW

ΣX = XA + XB + Xc = 33.1 + 28.5 + 26.1 = 87.7

23

2 2 2 2

ΣX =XA +X + Xc = 330.31

B

N 24

8 24

dfB 2

dfW 21

MSW 0.32

Decision: In as much as the critical Fratio value of 5.78 ˃ the computed F ratio

of 4.94, the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted therefore, there is no significant

difference in the mean growth of the three groups of infants given the three

Exercise

A. Three Administrators were task for packing noodles in a plastic cup that must

weigh 200 grams. A random sample of 6 plastic cups were weighed and the

results are tabulated below. Test the hypothesis that there is no significant

difference in the average weight of the cup noodles packed by the 3

administrators at 0.05 level.

A D M I N I S T R A T O R

Cup A B C

1 198 188 199

2 201 195 200

3 196 193 198

4 201 196 201

5 199 200 198

6 196 190 197

24

D. REGRESSION ANALYSIS

This section deals with the simplest type of prediction. When we tahe the

observed values of X to estimate or predict corresponding Y values, the process is

called simple prediction. When more than one x values is used, the outcome is a

function of multiple predictors. The simple and multiple predictions are made using a

technique called regression analysis.

relationship between two variables. The relationship is estimated by fitting a straight

line through the given data. The method of least squares permits us to find a line of

best fit called regression line which keeps the errors of prediction to a minimum.The

equation for s fitted straight line is:

y = a + bx

where: y = predicted value

a = y- intercept

b = slope of the line ( regression coefficient )

To find the y- intercept ( a ),

a = y – bx

y = mean of y- values

n ( Σx2 ) - ( Σx)2

25

Illustrative Problem

Dr. Fred Santos, the Administrator of the biggest University in Asia would

like to estimate the number of enrollees that would be expected 7 th week of their

2-month long ( 8weeks) school promotion. The number of enrolees during the

past 6 weeks are tabulated below.

Solution.

1 6 6 1

2 5.5 11 4

3 6.4 19.2 9

4 5.1 20.4 16

5 4.9 24.5 25

6 6.6 39.6 36

7 ?

n( Σx2 ) – ( Σx )2 6 ( 91) – ( 21)2

= y – bx x = Σx = 21 = 3.5

n 6

y = Σy = 34.5 = 5.75

n 6

26

a = 5.75 - ( - 0.0029 )( 3.5 ) = 5.76

By regression equation;

y = a + b x = 5.76 +( - .0029)( 7)

E. The table below shows the monthly income (x) and the monthly expenses (y) of 7

families in a certain barangay in Makati. Estimate the monthly expenditure of the

family whose income is P 8250.

1 6600 4980

2 5875 4680

3 7250 5650

4 4925 3700

5 5678 5668

6 5975 4260

7 6950 6380

8 8250 ?

The parametric tests are tests that require normal distribution and the level of

measurement are expressed in interval or ratio data.

Type of Parametric Tests are ( t-test, z- test, F- test, analysis of variance for the

test of difference and r, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation for the

test of relationship/ association, and the test for prediction and forecasting are the

Simple Linear Regression Analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis.

27

I. The t –Test . The t- test is used to compare two means, the means of two

independent samples or two independent groups and the means of correlated

samples before and after the treatment. Ideally, the t- test is used when there

are less than 30 samples, but some researchers use t- test even if there are

more than 30 samples.

X2 - X 1

t=

17 11

16 SS 1 + SS2 1 + 1 5

4 n 1+ n2 – 2 n 1 n 2

10

14 3

Where: t = the

12 t- test 7

X1 = mean

10 of group 1 2

X2 = mean

9 of group 2 6

SS1 = sum

17 of squares of group 1 13

SS2 = sum of squares of group 2

n1 = number of observations in group 1

N2 = number of observations in group 2

Solution:

_______________________________________________________________

Male ( X1 ) Female ( X2 )

2

X1 X1 X1 X 22

14 196 12 144

18 324 9 81

17 289 11 121

16 256 5 25

4 16 10 100

14 196 3 9

12 144 7 49

10 100 2 4

9 81 6 16

17 289 13 169

2 2

ΣX1 =131 ΣX1 =1891 ΣX2 =78 ΣX2 = 738

28

n1= 10 n2 = 10

X1 = 13.1 X2 = 7.8

n1 10

n2 10

t= X1 - X 2

SS1 + SS2 1 + 1

n1+ n2 – 2 n 1 n2

= 13.1 – 7.8

174.9 + 129.6 1 +1

10 + 10 – 2 10 10

t = 2.88

and female students in spelling?

II. Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference between the performance

of male and female AB students in spelling.

H0: x1 = x2

H1: There is a significant difference between the performance of male

and female AB students in spelling.

H1: x1 ≠ x2

III. Level of Significance:

α = .05 ; df =[ n1 + n2] -2 = 10 -+ 10 -2 =lar/ critical value, reject the null ( H0 )

IV. Conclusion: Since the t- computed value of 2.88 is greater than the t- tabular

value of 2.101 at .05 level of significance with 18 degrees of freedom, the null

hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. This means that

there is a significant difference between the performance of male and female

AB students in spelling. It implies that the male perform perform better than

the female students considering that the mean/ average score of the male

students of 13.1 is greater compared to the average score of female students

of only 7.8.

29

Exercise 1.

Two groups of experimental rats were injected with tranquilizer at 1.0 mg. and 1.5

mg dose respectively. The time given in seconds that look them to fall asleep is hereby

given. Use the t-test for independent samples at .01 to test the null hypothesis that the

difference in dosage has no effect on the length of time it took them to fall asleep.

1.0 mg. dose 9.8 13.2 11.2 9.5 13.0 12.1 9.8 12.3 7.9 10.2 9.7

1.5 mg. dose 12.0 7.4 9.8 11.5 13.0 12.5 9.8 10.5 13.5

Exercise 2.

To find out whether a new serum would arrest leukemia, 16 patients, who had all

reached an advanced stage of the disease, were selected. Eight patients received the

treatment and eight did not. The survival was taken from time the experiment was

conducted.

No Treatment ( x1) 2.1 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.1 1.2 1.8 1.9

With treatment ( x2 ) 4.2 5.1 5.0 4.6 3.9 4.3 5.2 3.9

The t-test for correlated samples is used when comparing the means before and

after the treatment. It is also used to compare the means of the pre-test and post-

test.

Formula:

t= D

Σ D - (ΣD )2

2

n

n (n-1)

where: D = the mean difference between the pretest and the posttest

Σ D2 = the sum of squares of the difference between the pretest and the post test

Σ D = the summation of the difference between the pretest and the post test

n = the sample size

30

in English on the performance of 20 selected college students. Before the program was

implemented the pretest was administered a and after 5 months the same instrument

was used to get the posttest result. The following is the result of the experiment.

Pretest Posttest

X1 X2 D D2

20 25 -5 25

30 35 -5 25

10 25 -15 225

15 25 -10 100

20 20 0 0

10 20 -10 100

18 22 -4 16

14 20 -6 36

15 20 -5 25

20 15 5 25

18 30 -12 144

15 10 5 25

15 16 -1 1

20 25 -5 25

18 10 8 64

40 45 -5 25

10 15 -5 25

10 10 0 0

12 18 -6 36

20 25 -5 25

2

ΣD = -81 ΣD = 947

D = -81 = -4.05

20

947 - ( -81 )2

20

20 ( 20 - 1)

t = - 3.17

31

Solving by Stepwise` Method:

I.Problem: Is there a significant difference between the pretest and the posttest on

the use of program materials in English?

II.Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant difference between the pretest and post

test on the use of the programmed materials did not effect the

student’s performance in English.

H1: The posttest result is higher than the pretest result.

III.Level of Significance:

α = .05

df = n-1= 20 -1 = 19

t@ .05 = -1.729 = -1.73

V. Decision Rule: If the t- computed value is greater than or beyond the critical

value, reject the null.

VI.Conclusion: The t-computed value of -3.17 is beyond the t-critical value

of -1.73 at .05 level of significance with 19 degree of

freedom, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected in favor of

the research hypothesis. This means that the posttest result

is higher than the pretest result. It implies that the use of the

programmed materials in English is effective.

Exercise

An admission test was administered to incoming freshmen in the College of Nursing

and veterinary medicine with 100 students. Each was randomly selected. The mean

score of the given samples were x1= 90 and x2 = 85 and the variances of the test scores

were 40 and 35, respectively. Is there a significant difference between the two groups?

Use .01 level of significance.

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