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LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

URINALYSIS

DATE ANALYSIS AND NURSING


LABORATORY ORDERDED/ INDICATION/PURPOSE RESULT INTERPRETATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES
PROCEDURE DATE DONE RESULTS

URINALYSIS November 19, Urinalysis is used to detect Appearance - Assist both patient
2019 a variety of kidney and Color: and other health care
urinary tract disorders, DARK YELLOW providers during laboratory
including chronic kidney Transparency: testing. - Monitor patient
disease, diabetes, bladder TURBID during laboratory testing.
infections and kidney - Assess patient's
stones. And to look for physical condition and
abnormalities such as an monitor patient needs to
excess amount of protein, during the test.
blood, pus, bacteria or - Check for the results
sugar. of the tests.
- Notify the patient's physician
when abnormal or critical
results that require an
immediate response are found.

CHEMICAL 1.020 Analysis and Interpretation:


Specific Gravity NORMAL, result within the
range of norms.
Norms:
The specific gravity of urine
normally ranges from 1.010 to
1.025 (Kozier&Erb,2018) A
measure of concentration, or
specific gravity, shows how
concentrated particles are in
your urine. A higher than
normal concentration often is a
result of not drinking enough
fluids.
Urine pH 6.5 Analysis and Interpretation:
Urine normally is slightly
acidic, with an average pH of
6.5
Norms:
7 is neutral, less than 7 is
acidic, greater than 7 is alkaline
(Kozie&Erb,2018)
The pH level indicates the
amount of acid in urine.
Abnormal pH levels may
indicate a kidney or urinary
tract disorder.
Glucose NEGATIVE Analysis and Interpretation:
No glucose particles detected.
Norms:
Normally, the amount of
glucose in urine is negligible,
although individuals who have
ingested large amounts of sugar
may show small amounts of
glucose in urine.
(Kozie&Erb,2018)
Normally the amount of sugar
(glucose) in urine is too low to
be detected. Any detection of
sugar on this test usually calls
for follow-up testing for
diabetes.
Ketone NEGATIVE Analysis and Interpretation:
Negative traces of ketones.
Norms:
Ketone bodies, a product of the
breakdown of fatty acids.
Normally are not present in the
urine. (Kozie&Erb,2018) As
with sugar, any amount of
ketones detected in your urine
could be a sign of diabetes and
requires follow-up testing.
Protein NEGATIVE Analysis and Interpretation:
No proteins detected in the
urine.
Norms:
Protein molecules normally are
too large to escape from
glomerular capillaries into the
filtrate. (Kozie&Erb,2018)
Low levels of protein in urine
are normal. Small increases in
protein in urine usually aren't a
cause for concern, but larger
amounts may indicate a kidney
problem.
Bilirubin NEGATIVE Analysis and Interpretation:
No bilirubin traces.
Norms:
Bilirubin is a product of red
blood cell breakdown.
Normally, bilirubin is carried
in the blood and passes into
your liver, where it's removed
and becomes part of bile.
Bilirubin in your urine may
indicate liver damage or
disease.
Blood NEGATIVE Analysis and Interpretation:
No blood was found in the
urine.
Norms:
Blood in your urine requires
additional testing — it may be
a sign of kidney damage,
infection, kidney or bladder
stones, kidney or bladder
cancer, or blood disorders.

Leukocytes + Analysis and Interpretation:


Traces found due to presence
of infection.
Norms:
In urine, leucocytes are usually
associated with a urinary
infection but sometimes may
indicate a more severe renal
problem (Steggall, 2007).
When white blood cells are
present in the urine, patients
are said to have pyuria (pus in
the urine).
Pus cells 5/HPF Analysis and Interpretation:
High amount of pus found in
the test, may be due to an
infection.
Norms:
May also be a sign of an
infection.
Red blood cells NEGATIVE May be a sign of kidney
disease, a blood disorder or
another underlying medical
condition, such as bladder
cancer.
Epithelial Cells May be a sign of infection.

MODERATE

URATES/ May be a sign of Urinary tract


PHOSPHATES infection.
FEW

Mucus Threads MANY May be a sign of Urinary tract


infection.
Bacteria MODERATE May indicate an infection.
LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

Date
Laboratory Tests ordered/Date Indication/Purposes Result Analysis and Interpretation Nursing Responsibilities
done of results
CBC November 19, To evaluate
2019 (2:25 the cells that circulate
PM) in blood

Use to check for


anemia and/or detect
low platelet count,
hemoglobin and
hematocrit count. And
also excessive amount
of blood which may
indicate bleeding.

To know presence of
White Blood cells may
be a sign of an infection
Hemoglobin 145 Normal number of hemoglobin. Advise the client to increase
Normal Values: fluid intake
F – 120 to 153 g/L
Kozier – 11 to 13 g/dL

Hematocrit 0.398 Normal number of Hematocrit. Advise the client to increase


Normal Values: fluid intake
F – 0.350 to 0.450%
Kozier – 0.36 to 0.46%
WBC 15.3 Increase of WBC due to Instruct the client to
Normal Values: infection maintain good hygiene.
4.5 to 10.5 x 10^9/L Advise to increase fluid
Kozier: 4,500 to 11,000 intake, specially water.
Instruct patient to avoid
holding in the feeling to
urinate.
Avoid urinary irritants such
as coffee, tea, colas, and
alcohol.

Give medicines for infection


as ordered by the physician

Platelet 415,000 NORMAL


Normal Values:
150,000 to 450,000
Kozier: 150,000 to
400,000