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1. Documentary Review – involves the use of information available from secondary

sources e.g. diaries, tapes, abstracts, magazines
2. Focus Groups/Typical Cases – researcher sits with a small group of subjects believed the
knowledge about the issues at hand together with a facilitator and discuss openly
problems at hand.
3. Questionnaire – most common type
- form prepared and distributed to secure responses to questions that
are intended to obtain information about conditions or practices on
which the respondent is presumed to have knowledge
Types of questionnaire

a. free response questions or “open-ended” or unstructured questionnaire – asks why,

what and how. This allows respondents complete freedom in answering
b. close-ended or structured form of questionnaire – the response already prepared

4. Interview – second most common type

- either utilize interview schedule (structured) which is read to the respondent,
or an interview guide (unstructured) wherein the interviewer is allowed to
pursue relevant ideas in depth.

a. Unstructured interviews – provide the researchers with enough chance and

freedom to direct or manipulate the course of the interview.
b. Structured interviews – utilized similar questions, similar order, and similar way
of data collection from the respondents in the study.
c. Semi-structured interviews – done by asking a certain number of specific
questions. Use both close-ended and open-ended questions.
5. Observation – provides for active participation of the investigator in the activity

Type of Observation according to structure:

a. Structured observations- done effectively when the researcher possesses an

understanding of the phenomenon of interest under study
b. Unstructured observations – performed by the researcher as he tries to describe
or explain events or behaviors without any preconceived ideas of what will be
observed as they happen.

Type of Observation according to relationship between the observer and the subjects:
1. Nonparticipant observer – overt – the observer makes himself known during the
research process and supplies information to the subjects about the types of data that
will be gathered.
2. Nonparticipant observer – covert – the researcher does not identify his identity at the
beginning of data collection
3. Participant observer – overt – the observer deals with the subjects openly and observes
their daily activities as he lives with them
4. Participant observer – covert – the observer interacts and observes subjects even
without their knowledge or approval.