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Pa r a g r a p h t o E s s a y

Contents

Unit Writing Type Writing Task Unit Goal Key Points

1 The Topic Sentence Topic sentence Writing about a skill you want to learn Writing a topic sentence
Writing thoughts, feelings, facts, or information
Introducing the body

2 The Body Sentences Body sentences


Writing about what you want to be when
you grow up
Writing body sentences
Writing main points and supporting details
Using transitions

3 The Closing Sentence Closing sentence Writing about a bad(great, fun, etc.) day Writing a closing sentence
Restating, Summarizing, Giving a thought or feeling,
Sharing a hope, Suggesting, Predicting

4 My Dad’s Life Past tense


Writing about your life or the life of
someone you know
Writing about events
transitions that show order // time phrases
before /after + noun or sentence

5 In 100 Years Future tense


Writing about what the world will be like
in 100 years
Writing about the future
future tense // time phrases
when /after /before + present tense, future tense

6 J.K. Rowling’s Success Reasons


Writing about why you admire or like
someone
Writing about reasons
~ for ~ reasons // There are ~ reasons why ~
because /since // because of /due to + noun

7 My Favorite Teacher Effects


Writing about the effects of an important
person on your life
Writing about effects
have /has ~ effects on ~ // There are ~ effects of ~
, so / as a result, / therefore, / thus,

8 New York and Seoul Similarities


Writing about two similar cities, countries,
or people
Writing about similarities
both ~ // like ~, ~ // similarly,(=likewise,)
as ~ as // the same ~ as

9 Skiing vs. Snowboarding Differences


Writing about two different people, games,
or sports
Writing about differences
~, but /yet ~ // unlike ~, ~ // the comparative + than ~
however, / in contrast, / on the contrary,

10 A Fun Day with My Family Descriptive


Writing about a camping trip, beach trip,
or birthday party
Writing descriptively
Using strong adjectives // Using a variety of verbs
Writing details
Topic Sentence
Unit The Topic Sentence

1
Unit Goal Writing a topic sentence

Key Points Writing your thoughts or feelings


Writing facts or information
Introducing the body Discuss the features of a topic sentence. Tell the students that the main
purpose of a topic sentence is to introduce what they are writing about
(the topic) and give readers an idea of what they will say about the topic
in the paragraph.

Tell the students that they will learn about the topic sentence and
different ways to write it.

1. Have the students read the text out loud.


Have the students read each outline and write the correct topic sentences
2. Have the students answer the questions about the text and check for each using the sentences from the box.
the answers as a class.

4 5
Writing Practice

1. Let the students know they will learn about the various ways they can say something Tell the students that when writing a paragraph that gives facts or information
about the topic. about the topic, they should introduce the topic in a way that is interesting to the
readers. In the given example, saying that Michael Jackson was a famous American
2. Tell the students that when they write about what they think or feel about the topic
singer identifies and sets him apart from other people rather than just saying that
that they should write specific thoughts or feelings. In the given example, explain
he sang and danced (which anyone, famous or not, might be able to do).
that the “better” sentence tells something more specific about Uncle Joe than the
writer just liking him.

Have the students read the


topic sentences and choose Have the students read the topic sentences
the better ones. Discuss and choose the better ones. Discuss why
why they are better. they are better.

Have the students read the body sentences and write their own topic sentences. Have the students read the body sentences and write their own topic sentences.
Encourage the students to be as specific as possible. Encourage the students to say something interesting about the topics.

6 7
Writing Practice Writing Tips

Tell the students that if they choose to, they can add words to their topic sentences Tell the students topic sentences 1) shouldn’t say something that anybody can
that tell the readers exactly what the paragraph (specifically the body sentences) figure out, 2) should be specific, but shouldn’t give so many details that there
will talk about. In the given example, the topic sentence could just be “Rules are is nothing to write about in the body sentences, and 3) shouldn’t use phrases
important,” but adding the “for several reasons” makes it clear that the writer will like “This paragraph is about…” or “I will write about…” because they don’t say
talk about the many reasons why rules are important in the paragraph. anything about the topic.

Have the students read the given topic


sentences and write if they are “good” or
“bad” topic sentences. Discuss why the bad
ones are bad using the points from the box
above.

Have the students read the body sentences and write their own topic sentences Discuss why the given topic sentences are bad using the points from the box above
using the words in the parentheses. and have the students write better topic sentences.

8 9
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer for the text on page 6. Point out that Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body,
like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences and closing. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write
when they brainstorm. in complete sentences when they outline.

Have the students choose a skill they want to learn and brainstorm about
why they want to learn it. Tell them to think about the benefits of learning Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 12 and make
that skill, how knowing that skill will change or improve something about their own outlines.
themselves, the disadvantages of not knowing that skill, etc.

10 11
1 ce
Unit n
Writing a Topic Sente

12 13
Body Sentences
Unit The Body Sentences

2
Unit Goal Writing body sentences

Key Points Writing main points and supporting details


Using transitions
Discuss the features of body sentences. The body sentences talk about the
topic, but more importantly, talk more about what the writer wants to say
about the topic. In the text that the students just read, the topic is about
the writer wanting to be a doctor and the body sentences are about the
reasons why he wants to be a doctor.
Tell your students that they will learn about body sentences, the two
kinds of body sentences (main points and supporting details), and
using transitions.

1. Have the students read the text out loud. Have the students read the topic sentences and circle which
of the given choices are possible body sentences and cross
2. Have the students answer the questions about the text and check out those that are not.
the answers as a class.

14 15
Writing Practice

Tell the students that the “main idea” of the topic sentence is what they want to say Have the students read the paragraph out loud and answer the questions. Point
about the topic. The main points talk more about this main idea. The supporting out or ask the students about what the topic is (learning English), what the writer is
details then give further explanations, descriptions, reasons, or examples about the saying about it (that it’s useful), what the main points are doing (giving reasons for
main points. Mention to the students that a typical paragraph usually has at least why learning English is useful), and what the supporting details are doing (giving
two main points that at least have one supporting detail each. specific examples about the main points).

1. Have the students read the paragraph out loud. Afterwards, point out the paragraph’s
topic (Sydney) and main idea (how there are many things to do there.) Tell them to
underline the main points, which name specific places in Sydney. Then, mention
that the supporting details give more information about the places and what kind of
activities people can do there. Have the students fill in the outline using the text above. Remind
the students that they do not have to write in complete sentences.
2. Have the students fill in the outline using the text above. Remind the students that
they do not have to write in complete sentences.

16 17
Writing Practice Writing Tips

Have the students read the topic sentence and the given main points, and Talk about how these given transitions help the reader go from a point to the next point
write the correct supporting details from the box. Point out or ask the students in the body (what the first point is, what the second point is, what the last point is, etc).
to identify the topic (helping the Earth), the main idea (many ways to do it), The transitions in the first line are especially used before the main points, while the
and what the supporting details are doing (giving specific examples of how to transitions in the second line can be used for both main points and supporting details.
do the given ways of helping the Earth).

Have the students write transitions for


the given paragraph. Remind them
to write commas after the transition
words.

Have the students read the topic sentence and write the main points and their Have the students look at the outline on page 18 about helping the Earth and
supporting details using the phrases from the box. Point out or ask the students complete the paragraph with complete sentences and transitions. Encourage the
to identify the topic (television), the main idea (not good for kids), what the main students to not just use the words from the first line, but to use words from the
points are doing (giving reasons why television is bad), and what the supporting second line, too.
details are doing (giving specific examples of these bad reasons).

18 19
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer for the text on page 14. Point out that Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body,
like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences and closing. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write
when they brainstorm. in complete sentences when they outline.

Have the students brainstorm about what they want to be when they grow up
and the reasons why. Like the “why” and “how” parts in the given graphic Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 20 and make
organizer, ask them to give further explanations for their reasons or how they their own outlines.
will do something in their supporting details.

20 21
2 s
Unit ce
Writing Body Senten

22 23
Closing Sentence
Unit The Closing Sentence

3
Unit Goal Writing a closing sentence

Key Points Restating // Summarizing


Giving a thought or feeling // Sharing a hope
Suggesting // Predicting // Writing titles Discuss the features of a closing sentence. Tell the students that the closing
sentence should let the reader know that they have said everything they
wanted to say about the topic. In the text that the students just read, the writer
repeats that her day was bad and that she hopes tomorrow will be better, so
the reader knows that she has finished writing about why her day was bad.

Tell your students that they will learn about the closing sentence
and different ways to write it, as well as about writing good titles.

1. Have the students read the text out loud. Have the students read each topic sentence and choose
which three are possible body sentences and which one is
2. Have the students answer the questions about the text and check a possible closing sentence.
the answers as a class.

24 25
Writing Practice

1. Let the students know they will learn about the various ways they can end the
paragraph. Tell the students to use phrases like “I think,” “I feel,” or “I hope” to share a final
thought, feeling, or hope about the topic.
2. Tell the students that restating the topic sentence is to write it in a different way.
Summarizing the main points is to group the main points into one idea, or to
restate and list each main point in a shortened way. Both of these ways are to
remind the readers of the most important idea(s) about the paragraph.

26 27
Writing Practice Writing Tips

1. Tell the students that when giving a suggestion or prediction about the topic, Talk about the rules for titles and have the students mark the good and bad titles.
they should not say something that is completely irrelevant to the paragraph. Discuss why the bad titles are bad.
2. For suggestions, they can use a word like “should” or “need to.” For predictions,
remind them to use the future tense.

Tell the students that they can write interesting titles by giving a little more
information or using more specific adjectives or nouns. Have the students
write possible titles for the given topics (have them check that they followed
the rules from the box above).

28 29
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer for the text on page 22. Point out that Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body,
like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences and closing. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write
when they brainstorm. in complete sentences when they outline.

Have the students pick a certain kind of day they had and brainstorm about
it. Just like the writer on page 22 used clear examples to show what a bad day Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 28 and make
she had, tell the students that the examples that they choose should clearly their own outlines.
show if their day was bad, great, fun, etc.

30 31
3 ntence
Unit
Writing a Closing Se

32 33
Writing about Events
Unit My Dad’s Life

4
Unit Goal Writing about events

Key Points transitions that show order


time phrases
before /after + noun or sentence Tell the students about what to remember when writing about past events,
for example, the order of events, and the use of transitions, time phrases,
and the past tense.

1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about


past events in chronological order.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students to look at the pictures, number them in order, and
write about what happened, in order, in the given lines. Point out the transitions (then, 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
finally), before/after (after Laura came home from school, before she went to sleep),
2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
and the usefulness of using these kinds of words when writing events in order.
students to answer question 2 in a complete sentence.

34 35
Sentence Building

1. Explain that these words are used at the beginning with a comma to show order. Explain that “for ~” is used to show an event’s duration, while “until ~” is used more
to tell up to what time an event has lasted. “Until ~” can also be used with a time
2. Encourage the students to not just use “First, Second, Third,” but to mix it up with
word (Question 3) or a sentence (Question 4).
“Then, Next, Later,” or “Lastly, Last, Finally,” too.

Explain that “~ later” and “after ~” are used to show how much time has passed after an Explain that these various time phrases can be used to show when exactly events
event. Remind students that “later” comes after the time words and “after” comes before happened. Remind the students to write commas after the time phrases when they
the time words, and to write commas after the time phrases when they are used at the are used at the beginning. (You can also tell the students that these time phrases
beginning. (You can also tell the students that these time phrases can also be used at can also be used at the end without a comma, but students will practice this in the
the end without a comma, but students will practice this in the workbook). workbook).

36 37
Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that these paragraphs are mini-examples of the kind of
Explain that “before ~” or “after ~” are used to tell about an event, and what paragraphs they will be writing, and that the varied use of transitions and time
happens before or after the event in one sentence. Remind the students to phrases is also expected in their writing.
write commas after the time phrases when they are used at the beginning. 2. Tell the students to follow the numbers indicated in the second box and to pay careful
(Students will practice using the time phrases at the end in the workbook). attention to the kind of time phrases they are being asked to write (that is, not all
the time phrases can be directly copied from the given information and require the
students to think about how much time has passed or how long events lasted).

For the second paragraph, remind the students about the use of the past tense and
commas if they use the time phrases at the beginning of the sentences. Also, note
that the students are expected to use both of the given words in the third sentence.

38 39
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body,
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. and closing. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write
in complete sentences when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Tell them not to
worry about putting the events in exact chronological order yet. They can Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 36 and make
write down the various events, and since they cannot write about everything their own outlines. Remind them that in the body, they should put the
(especially if they are writing about their lives or the life of someone they events in order so that it will be easier when they write their draft.
know), tell them to cross out any events that are not as important.

40 41
4 Practice
Unit
ce
More Senten

42 43
Writing about Future
Unit In 100 Years

5
Unit Goal Writing about the future

Key Points future tense


time phrases
when /after /before + present tense, future tense Tell the students about what to remember when writing about events that
have not happened yet, including using the future tense, time phrases, and
phrases like “I think” or “I hope” to talk about predictions and hopes.

1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about


predictions or future plans.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students


to look at the picture and then,
draw and write what they think
will happen to the orange trees
in 30 years. Suggest that they
can write about what will
happen to the trees, what will
be in that space, or what they
will do with the trees.

1. Have the students write what happens in the pictures in complete sentences using 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
the time phrases that are given with the pictures and “will + verb.”
2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
2. Tell them to put a comma after the time phrases. students to answer questions 2 and 3 in a complete sentence.

44 45
Sentence Building

1. Explain that “will/won’t + verb” is used for thoughts about the future and decisions, 1. Explain that “this” is closer to the present time than “next.” If, for example, it
while “be (not) going to + verb” is used for actions that are planned beforehand and is 2011 and you are talking about “this Christmas,” you mean Christmas 2011.
predictions that can be made from something that is happening in the present. “Next Christmas” is Christmas 2012.
2. Have the students write what they think will happen (to themselves or the world) or 2. Explain that “in ~” and “~ from now” are used to tell how long it will take from
what they will decide at the given times in the future using “will/won’t + verb.” some point or from now for something to happen. Tell the students they can
use phrases like “a couple of ~” and “a few ~” when they don’t know the exact
amount of time something will take to happen.
3. Tell the students they can use the phrases “I think,” “I believe,” or “I hope” before
they write about what they think or hope will happen in the future.
4. Have the students write sentences about the future using the given time
phrases. Remind the students to write commas after the time phrases when
they are used at the beginning. (Students will practice using the time phrases
at the end in the workbook).

From the given sentences, have the students write their plans or predictions
using “be (not) going to + verb.” Remind them to use the correct form of “be.”

46 47
Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that these paragraphs are mini-examples of the kind
1. Explain to the students that they can tell what will happen when, after, or before of paragraphs they will be writing, and that the varied use of time phrases is
something else happens using “when/after/before ~.” Remind them that the present also expected in their writing. Tell them that the time phrases they learned in
tense is used in the first part of the sentence starting with “when/after/before,” and the past tense (such as “on ~,” “in ~,” and “at ~”) can also be used to talk about
the future tense is used in the second part of the sentence after the comma. the future.
2. Have the students write their own sentences using the given phrases at the 2. Tell the students to complete the paragraph using the given information, “be
beginning. Remind the students to write commas after ”when/after/before ~” when going to,” and the correct time phrases from the box. Tell them that the events
they are used at the beginning. (Students will practice using ”when/after/before ~” are written in order, so following the timeline will help them choose which
at the end of the sentences in the workbook). time phrase to use.

For this paragraph, remind the students to use “will” and commas if they are using
the time phrases at the beginning of the sentences. Also, tell them that they are
writing the events in order, so following the timeline will help them choose which
time phrase to use.

48 49
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. If they are writing
about the 100 years or 20 years topic, have them make a graphic organizer like
the example. The diamond is the topic, the circles are the main points (ideas Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 44 and make their own
about what they think will be happening to them or the world at that time), outlines. For the students who are writing about what will happen in 100 or 20
and the rectangles are supporting details (examples or details about these years, remind them to number their main points and add supporting details
ideas). If they are writing a plan, remind them that they will need to organize under them with dashes in the body. For the students that are writing plans,
their plans chronologically, but for now, they should just write down all the remind them to put the events in order in the body so that it will be easier when
things that they plan to do. they write their draft.

50 51
5 e P ractice
Unit c
M ore S e n t e n

52 53
Writing about Reasons
Unit J.K. Rowling’s Success

6
Unit Goal Writing about reasons
Key Points ~ for ~ reasons // There are ~ reasons why ~
because /since
because of /due to + noun Tell the students that when writing about reasons, they are answering “why”
questions, such as “Why do you think this way?” or “Why did this happen?” (like
what they did in the warm-up). Point out the two ways students can begin a
paragraph that talks about reasons.

1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about


reasons.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students to look at the pictures, describe what
happened, and give possible reasons why the situations happened using 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
the words from the box or their own ideas. 2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
students to answer the questions in complete sentences.

54 55
Sentence Building

1. Explain to the students that for a topic sentence in a paragraph about reasons, they 1. Explain to the students that they will practice writing sentences using words that
can introduce the topic and what they will write about in the body sentences by indicate reasons. Explain that “because” and “since” can be used to show reasons
using “~ for ~ reasons” or “There are ~ reasons why ~.” Tell the students to use words in one sentence. When these words are used at the beginning, a comma is used
like “many,” “a lot of,” “several,” “a few,” or an exact number (if they know exactly how after the reason.
many points they are going to write) before “reasons.”
2. Have the students combine the sentences using “because.” Remind them to
2. Have the students write topic sentences using “~ for ~ reasons.” In these topic put the sentences in the right order and change the subjects into the correct
sentences, the topic is written at the beginning. Encourage them to use a variety of pronouns after “because.”
words before “reasons” instead of the same words over and over.

Have the students fill in the first blank with their own ideas and write topic Have the students combine the sentences using “since.” Remind them to put the
sentences using “There are ~ reasons why ~.” In these topic sentences, the sentences in the right order and change the subjects into the correct pronouns
topic is written at the end. Encourage them to use a variety of words before after the comma.
“reasons” instead of the same words over and over.

56 57
Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that this paragraph is a mini-example of the kind of paragraph
1. Tell the students to use “because of” or “due to” when the reason is expressed they will be writing, and that the varied use of words that indicate reasons is expected
as a noun or noun phrase. When these words are used at the beginning, a in their writing.
comma is used after the reason. 2. Tell students to look at the title and write a topic sentence for the paragraph like how
2. Have the students make complete sentences using the given noun phrases. they practiced on page 48. Have them complete the body sentences using the words
Tell them that in this exercise, the reasons should come at the end. that indicate reasons and the actual reasons from the boxes. Remind them about
using a comma when the word that indicates a reason is used at the beginning of a
sentence. Finally, have the students write a suggestion for the closing sentence.

Have the students make complete sentences using the given phrases from the
boxes. Remind them that since “Because of” or “Due to” begin the sentences in
this exercise, a comma is used after the reasons.

58 59
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Have them make a Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 52 and make their own
graphic organizer like the example connecting their topic, their reasons (main outlines. For the body, remind them to number their reasons (main points) and
points), and the supporting details. add supporting details under them with dashes.

60 61
6 Practice
Unit
ce
More Senten

62 63
Writing about Effects
Unit My Favorite Teacher

7
Unit Goal Writing about effects
Key Points have /has ~ effects on ~ // There are ~ effects of ~
, so /as a result, /therefore, /thus,
have + past participle Tell the students that when writing about effects, they are explaining the results
(what happened) because of their actions or how someone or something has
affected or changed them. They can also talk about whether these effects were
positive or negative. Point out the two ways the students can begin a paragraph
that talks about effects.
1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about
effects (results).
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students to look at the pictures, describe what happened,
and write possible results of these situations in complete sentences. 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
students to answer the questions in complete sentences.

64 65
Sentence Building

1. Explain to the students that for a paragraph about effects, they can introduce the 1. Explain to the students that they will practice writing sentences with words that
topic and what they will write about in the body sentences by using “~ have/has indicate effects. Explain that “so” is used to tell about the effect of the first part of
~ effects on ~” or “There are ~ effects of ~.” Before “effects,” tell the students to use the sentence.
words like “many,” “a lot of,” “several,” “a few,” or an exact number (if they know exactly
2. Have the students write the effects of the given sentences using “so.” Remind
how many points they are going to write) and what kind of effects they are using
them to put a comma before “so.”
“negative,” “positive,” good,” “bad,” or “important.”
2. Have the students write topic sentences using “~ have/has ~ effects on.” In these
topic sentences, the topic is written at the beginning and what or who they have an
effect on is written at the end after “on.” Encourage them to use a variety of words
before “effects” instead of the same words over and over.

Have the students write topic sentences using “There are ~ reasons why ~.” In 1. Explain that “As a result,” “Therefore,” and “Thus,” are used to say the effect of the
these topic sentences, the topic is written at the end. Encourage them to use a previous sentence in a new sentence.
variety of words before “effects” instead of the same words over and over.
2. Have the students write the effect of the given sentence in a new sentence using
the word(s) in the parenthesis at the beginning. Remind them to use a comma
after the word(s) in the parenthesis.

66 67
Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that this paragraph is a mini-example of the kind of paragraph
1. Tell the students to use the present perfect tense (have + past participle) to talk they will be writing, and that the varied use of words that indicate effects is expected
about effects that started in the past and continue in the present. in their writing.
2. Have the students write sentences using “~have/has had ~ effects on ~” or “There 2. Tell the students to look at the title and write a topic sentence for the paragraph like
have been ~ effects of ~,” telling them that these are similar to the sentences how they practiced on page 56. Have them complete the body and closing sentences
they wrote on page 56, but in a different tense. using the words that indicate effects and the actual effects from the boxes. Remind
them about using a comma before “so” and after “therefore,” “as a result,” and “thus.”

68 69
Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Have them make a Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 60 and make their own
graphic organizer like the example connecting their topic, their effects (main outlines. For the body, remind them to number their effects (main points) and
points), and the supporting details. add supporting details under them with bullets and/or arrows.

70 71
7 Practice
Unit
ce
More Senten

72 73
Writing about Similarities
Unit New York and Seoul

8
Unit Goal Writing about similarities
Key Points both ~ // like ~, ~
similarly, / likewise,
as ~ as // the same ~ as Tell the students that a paragraph about similarities compares two things by
explaining similar or same characteristics they share. Point out the various
ways they can write topic sentences for this kind of paragraph (Point out that
A and B are what are being compared and remind them of using words like
“many,” “several,” etc. like in the previous two units).
1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about
similarities.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students they will write about the similarities between a
dog and a cat. Tell them to not only look at the pictures for physical similarities, 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
but to also think about how they are similar as pets and animals.
2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
students to use the box above for question 1 and to write the questions in complete sentences.

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Sentence Building

1. Explain that “both” can be used to explain how two things are the same in one sentence. 1. Explain that “Similarly” and “Likewise” are used at the beginning with a comma
Point out the two ways that “both” can start sentences and how it can come after pronouns to say a similarity with the previous sentence.
such as “they” or “we.” Remind them that with the “be” verb, “both” can come before or after
2. Have the students write the two sentences again with “Similarly” and a comma
the verb, but can only come before other verbs.
at the beginning of the second sentence.
2. Have the students combine the two given sentences into one sentence using “both” at the
beginning of the sentence and after “they” or “we.” Remind them to change the verbs into the
plural and pay attention to if the noun does or doesn’t need to be changed into the plural.

Explain that you can use “Like ~,~” to show similarities between two things. Have the students come up with their own similarity for the given sentence
Remind the students to use a comma after “Like” and the first subject. using “Likewise” and a comma at the beginning.

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Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that these paragraphs are mini-examples of the kind of
1. Explain that another way to say two things are similar or the same is to use phrases paragraphs they will be writing, and that the varied use of words that indicate
like “as + adjective + as” and “the same + noun + as.” similarities is expected in their writing.
2. Have the students combine the two given sentences into one sentence using the 2. Tell the students to complete the paragraph using the given information and
“be” verb and “as + adjective in the parenthesis + as.” the correct words from the box. Remind them to write commas as needed.

Have the students combine the two given sentences into one sentence using the For this paragraph, have the students write a topic sentence about Mozart and
singular form of the verb in the parenthesis and “the same + noun in parenthesis Beethoven using one of the ways they learned on page 63. Tell the student to
+ as.” write the rest of the paragraph using the given information and all the words in
the box. For “as ~ as,” tell them to come up with their own adjective.

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Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Have them make Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 68 and make their own
a graphic organizer like the example connecting their topic, their similarities outlines. For the body, remind them to number their similarities (main points)
(main points), and the supporting details. and add supporting details under them with bullets.

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Writing about Differences
Unit Skiing vs. Snowboarding

9
Unit Goal Writing about differences
Key Points ~, but /yet ~ // unlike ~, ~
however, /in contrast, /on the contrary,
the comparative + than ~ Tell the students that a paragraph about differences contrasts two things by
explaining their differences. Point out the various ways they can write topic
sentences for this kind of paragraph (Point out that A and B are what are being
contrasted and remind them about using words like “many,” “several,” etc. like in
the previous units).
1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about
differences.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students they will write about the differences
between a car and a bicycle. Tell them to not only look at the pictures 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in the box above.
for physical differences, but to also think about how they are used
differently, their different capabilities, etc. 2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class. Remind the
students to use the box above for question 1.

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Sentence Building

1. Explain that “but” and “yet” can be used to say differences in one sentence and 1. Explain that “However,” “In contrast,” and “On the contrary” are used at the
commas are written before these words. beginning with a comma to say a different fact from the previous sentence
in a new sentence. “However” can also be used to say a different thought
2. Have the students complete the given sentences using “but” or “yet” and their
(In the example, the second sentence with the “however” is that despite
own ideas.
the reality of the first sentence, which other people may not like, the writer
thinks her class is best).
2. Have the students write a different fact or thought about the given sentence
using the word(s) in the parenthesis.

1. Explain that you can use “Unlike ~,~” to say how two things are different. Remind
the students to use a comma after “Unlike” and the first subject. If they choose to
use a pronoun as the first subject, remind them to change “I/he/she/they” to “me/
him/her/them.”
2. Have the students complete the sentences using “Unlike” and their own ideas.

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Grammar Practice Paragraph Building

1. Explain to the students that these paragraphs are mini-examples of the kind of
1. Explain that another way to compare two different things is to use phrases paragraphs they will be writing, and that the varied use of words that indicate
with the comparative, such as comparative adjectives, “better,” and “more.” differences is expected in their writing.
2. Have the students make the two given sentences into one using “be + 2. Tell the students to complete the paragraph using the given information and
comparative adjective + than.” Tell them to come up with a comparative the correct words from the box. Remind them to write commas as needed.
adjective that shows the differences between the two subjects.

Have the students write


sentences about who in the
given sentences is better
using “be + a + better +
noun + than.” Tell them that
the clue for what noun to
write is a word in the first
sentence (1. swimming
swimmer, 2. dancing
dancer)

Have the students write sentences about which subject has more of what using For this paragraph, have the students write a topic sentence about cell phones
“have + more + noun + than.” The noun they should use is the one repeated in and home phones using one of the ways they learned on page 71. Tell the
both sentences. student to write the rest of the paragraph using the given information and all
the words in the box.

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Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Have them make Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 76 and make
a graphic organizer like the example connecting their topic, their differences their own outlines. For the body, remind them to number their
(main points), and the supporting details. differences (main points) and add supporting details under them.

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Writing Descriptively
Unit A Fun Day with My Family

10
Unit Goal Writing descriptively

Key Points Using strong adjectives


Using a variety of verbs
Writing details Tell the students that a descriptive paragraph should describe something as if
showing the reader a picture of what they are writing about. It should use good
adjectives, strong verbs, and lots of details. The important points are to not
repeat the same words over and over and to use meaningful words, instead of
boring words that don’t really tell or show anything.
1. Tell your students that today’s/this week’s assignment is to write about
an experience as descriptively as they can.
2. Mention the unit’s key points.

In the warm-up, tell the students to look at the picture and describe what the 1. Have the students read the text out loud while keeping in mind the points in
people are doing, what they look like, what they are wearing, the objects that the box above.
are near them, etc. 2. Have the students answer the questions and then check the answers as a class.

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Sentence Building

1. Using the given examples, explain to the students how words like “good,” “great,” or “bad” 1. Explain to the students that while using “get” and “go” sometimes is fine, they
don’t really say anything about what they are describing. Tell them to be more descriptive should mix it up with stronger, more interesting verbs. For “get,” they can
with more specific adjectives and using more than one adjective. replace it with more exact actions, while with “go,” they can explain how the
subject moved.
2. Tell the students to describe the given topics using two adjectives from the box or with
their own words. The first sentence can be written as “noun + be + adjective 1 + and + 2. Have the students rewrite the given sentences by replacing the underlined
adjective 2.” In the second sentence, the adjectives come before the noun and have a verbs with words from the box. Tell them to change the form if needed.
comma in between them. For this sentence, tell the students that they have to add a bit
more information (such as an action).

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Paragraph Building

Explain to the students that this paragraph is a mini-example of the kind


1. Explain that details help the reader see or imagine exactly what you are describing. In the of paragraph they will be writing. Using the words in the box or their own
example from the text, “good food” doesn’t tell the reader anything, but giving the names words, have them write a paragraph that uses specific adjectives, a variety
of the specific kinds of food paints a picture for the reader about the writer’s meal. of verbs, and lots of details to describe what the girls saw, ate, etc. during
their day at the zoo. Have them write their own topic and closing sentences.
2. Have the students write sentences with more details from the given pictures and sentences.
Tell them to ask themselves how they can show what the picture and the given sentence
are trying to show. In the example, point out that the author doesn’t use the word “sick,”
but from reading the sentence, the reader can tell that the boy is sick.

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Brainstorming Outlining

Review the graphic organizer. Point out that like the example, they Review the given outline together and what goes in the topic, body, and closing.
do not have to write in complete sentences when they brainstorm. Point out that like the example, they do not have to write in complete sentences
when they outline.

Have the students choose a topic and brainstorm about it. Tell them that they can Have the students look at their brainstorming on page 84 and make their
make a graphic organizer like the given example, or make a list, draw a picture, etc. own outlines. For the body, tell them to include and number the categories
Whatever method they use, tell them to make categories like “weather,” “sights,” they made and add supporting details under them with dashes.
“activities,” “food,” etc. and add supporting details.

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MEMO