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GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L.

)
USING VARYING LEVELS OF CHICKEN MANURE

A RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
TECHNOLOGY, VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY, ALANG-ALANG
CAMPUS, ALANG-ALANG, LEYTE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
SUBJECT OF

ELECTIVE 1
(Agricultural Research)

Dacuba, Liezel L.
Davalos, Rubylyn M.
Davocol, Antonette C.
Horca, Alvin
Macorol, Edel
Pedrique, Joepet
Quebec, Paul John B.

MAY 2019
(Second Semester)
APPROVAL SHEET

The research entitled “GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF OKRA

(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) USING VARYING LEVELS OF CHICKEN

MANURE”, prepared and submitted by GROUP III, BACHELOR OF

AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS in partial fulfillment of the

requirement for the subject of ELECTIVE 1 (Agricultural Research) is hereby

accepted.

DIONESIO R. MACASAIT JR., MSc.


Adviser and Instructor
ELECTIVE 1 (Agricultural Research)

________________________
Date

ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
TITLE i
APPROVAL SHEET ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES v
LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES vi
LIST OF APPENDIX FIGURES vi
ABSTRACT vii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1
Nature and Importance of the Study 2
Objectives of the Study 2
Time and Place of the Study 2
Scope and Limitation of the Study 2

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3


History, Cultivation and Names of Okra 3
Chemical composition of Okra 3
Uses and Benefits of Okra 4
Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer 6
Animal Manure and It’ s Benefits 6
Post- Harvest Handling 7
Post-Harvest Handling of Okra 7

CHAPTER III. MATERIALS AND METHODS 8


Preparation of Experimental Crops 8
Preparation of Experimental Treatments 8
Description and Preparation of Experimental Area 8
Care and Management of Experimental Crops 9
Harvesting Management 9
Experimental Treatments and Design 9
Data Gathered 10
Data Analysis 10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 11


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 16
LITERATURE CITED 17

iv
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

1. Height of okra (Abemoschus esculentus) using varying


levels of chicken manure after 56 days of field trial 11

2. Leaf area of okra (Abemoschus esculentus) using


varying levels of chicken manure after 56 day of field trial 13

3. Average weight of okra (Abemoschus esculentus) using


varying levels of chicken manure after 56 days of field trial 15

LIST OF FIGURES

Table Title Page

1. Height of okra using varying levels of chicken manure 12

2. Leaf area of okra using varying levels of chicken manure 13

3. Average weight of okra using varying levels of chicken


manure 15

v
LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

Table Title Page

1. Height of okra using varying levels of chicken manure 21

2. Analysis of variance on height of okra using varying


levels chicken manure 21

3. Leaf area of okra using varying levels of chicken manure 21

4. Analysis of variance on leaf area of okra using varying


levels of chicken manure 22

5. Average weight of okra using varying levels of chicken


manure 22

6. Analysis of variance on weight of okra using varying


levels of chicken manure 23

LIST OF APPENDIX FIGURES

Table Title Page

1. Preparation of Experimental Area (A), Pulverizing the


soil (B), Making plots (C) 23

2. Measuring the height of okra (A), Weighing the chicken


manure (B), Applying treatments to okra (C) 24

3. Hilling up the soil (A), Weeded area (B), Matured okra


pods (C) 25

4. Harvesting okra (A), Harvested okra pods (B), Gathering


data (C) 26

5. Tracing okra leaves (A), Computing leaf area (B), Pest


and diseases encountered (C) 27

vi
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This study was made possible through the help of some people who had

contributed to the successful completion of the research work. Thus, the researchers’ wish to

lengthen the sincere appreciation and gratitude to the people who supported and provided the

necessary encouragement for accomplishment of this study.

To Mr. Dionesio R. Macasait Jr. MSc., Research Adviser and Instructor, thank

you so much for patiently checking this humble work. Your valuable guidance and

brilliant ideas, insights, expertise resulted to a much improved and reliable work.

To Mrs. Mellian S. Dizon assigned at the Nursery area of the Department of

Agricultural Technology, College of Environmental and Agricultural Technology,

Visayas State University, Alangalang, Alangalang Leyte, for allowing us to use the

nursery area for the experimental research activity.

To the parents and friends of the researchers, thank you for being the pillar of

strength throughout the duration of this study, guidance, moral encouragement,

financial assistance as well as the spiritual support in every path the researchers take.

Above all, the researchers would like to thank God Almighty for giving us the strength,

patience, knowledge, ability, sustenance, protection, endurance and opportunity to undertake

this research study and complete it satisfactorily. Without His blessings and the help, He gave

to surpass all the hindrances and obstacles that have been encountered during the time of

conducting this study achievement would not have been possible.

iii
ABSTRACT

Three months of field trial assessed the effect to the growth performance of okra

using varying levels of chicken manure (0 g, 15 g, 30 g). The treatments were allocated

according to randomized completely block design (RCBD) with three replications. A

total of one hundred eight (108) okra seedlings 21 days of after sowing (DAS) used in

the study, twelve (12) seedlings per plot and thirty-six (36) per treatments planted

directly on prepared plots and one (1) plant per hole with a distance of 0.5 meter. Data

gathered were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using STAR (Statistical

Tool for Agricultural Research version 2.0.1). Results revealed a no significant

differences (p>0.05) among the treatments in terms of growth, leaf area and yield of

okra. Although, results showed a no significant difference, T1 (15 grams of chicken

manure) shows the best results in terms of growth performance, leaf area, average yield

of okra as compared to T2 and T0.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, Chicken manure

vii
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) is a commercial vegetable crop with

considerable area under cultivation in Africa and Asia. Okra plays an important role in

the human diet by supplying fats, protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.

Moreover, its mucilage is suitable for certain medical and industrial applications.

Therefore, young fruits of okra have reawakened beneficial interest in bringing this

crop into commercial production (S.Benchasri, 2012). Okra cultivation requires

nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium

(Na) and Sulphur (S) for fertility maintenance and crop production. These nutrients are

specific in function and must be supplied to plants at the right quantity. Lack of

sufficient amounts of these nutrients results in poor performance of the okra with

growth been affected resulting to low yield (Chauhan, 1972).

Sustainable soil productivity is of the major constraints of tropical agriculture.

Continuous cultivation is a common practice by poor resource in rapid decline of soil

nutrients and unstable soil microbial population (ECA, 2001). Consequently, there is

decline productivity, low farmers’ income and increasing poverty (FAO 2006). Hence,

the use of organic manure as alternative soil amendment strategy for soil nutrient

management has been advocated (Shehu et al. 1997). Manure provides necessary

macro- and micro-nutrients in available form, and improves the physical and biological

properties of the soil (Abou El-Magd et al. 2006). Poultry manure (PM) is an excellent

source of organic manure. It supplies both macro- and micro-nutrients during

mineralization, increases the organic matter content of the soil, and consequently
2

enhances the texture, structure, aeration, moisture holding capacity, nutrient retention

and water infiltration in the soil (Akinrinde et al. 2006: Dekissa et al. 2008). According

to Garge and Bahla (2008), PM supplies phosphorus more readily to plants than other

organic sources. In another study, Abd El-Kader et al. (2010) reported that manure from

poultry increased okra yield and water use efficiency than composted residue. Hence,

this study was conducted.

Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study evaluated the growth and yield performance of okra given

with different levels of chicken manure.

Specifically, the study:

1. Assessed the effect of chicken manure in terms of plant height, and size of

leaves.

2. Determined the different average yield of okra given varying levels of

chicken manure.

Time and Place of the Study

The experimental crop (Okra) was planted February 21 to April 23, 2019 at the

Nursery Area of Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Environmental

and Agricultural Technology, Visayas State University-Alangalang, Binongtoan,

Alangalang, Leyte.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study was limited to the assessment of growth and yield performance of

okra given with varying levels of chicken manure.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

History, Cultivation and Names of Okra

Okra originated somewhere around the Ethiopia, and was cultivated by the

Ancient Egyptians by the 12th Century B.C. Its cultivation spread throughout Middle

East and North Africa (Tindall 1983, Lamont 1999). Okra is grown in many parts of

the world, especially in the tropical and sub-tropical countries (Arapitsas 2008,

Sailfullah and Rabanni 2009).

This crop can be grown on a large commercial farm or as a garden crop (Rubatzky and

Yamaguchi 1997).

Latin binomial names for okra are Abelmoschus esculentus and Hibiscus

esculentus (Kumar et al. 2010), and it is commonly known as bhindi in India, krajiab

kheaw in Thailand, okra plant, ochro, okoro, quimgombo, quingumbo, gombe kopi

arab, kacang bendi and bhindi in South East Asia. However, in Middle East it is known

as bamia, bamya, or bamieh and gumbo in Southern USA, and lady’s finger in England

(Ndunguru & Rajabu 2004). On the other hand, in Portuguese and Angola, okra is

known as quiabo, and as gumbo in France, mbamia and mbinda in Sweden and in Japan

as okura (Chauhan 1972, Lamont 1999). Lastly, it is also found in Taiwan, where it is

called qiu kui (Siemonsma & Kouame 2000).

Chemical Composition of Okra

Okra contains proteins, carbohydrates and vitamin C (Lamont 1999, Owolarafe

& Shotonde 2004, Gopalan et al. 2007, Arapitsas 2008, Dilruba et al. 2009), and plays
4

a vital role on human diet (Kahlon et al. 2007, Saifullah & Rabbani 2009). The

composition of okra pods per 100 g edible portion (81% of the product as purchased,

ends trimmed) is water 88.6 g, energy 144.00 kJ (36 kcal), protein 2.10 g, carbohydrate

8.20 g, fat 0.20 g, fibre 1.70 g, Ca 84.00 mg, P 90.00 mg, Fe 1.20 mg, 𝛽-carotene 185.00

𝜇g, riboflavin 0.08 mg, thiamin 0.04, niacin 0.60 mg, ascorbic acid 47.00 mg.

The composition of okra leaves per 100g edible portion is: water 81.50 g, energy

235.00 kJ (56.00 kcal), protein 4.40 g, fat 0.60 g, carbohydrate 11.30 g, fibre 2.10 g, Ca

532.00 mg, P 70.00 mg, Fe 0.70 mg, ascorbic acid 59.00 mg, 𝛽-carotine 385.00 𝜇g,

thiamine 0.25 mg, riboflavin 2.80 mg, niacin 0.20 mg (Gopalan et al. 2007, Varmudy

2011). Carbohydrates are mainly present in the form of mucilage (Liu et al. 2005,

Kumar et al. 2009). Fat of young fruits consists of long ohain molecules with a

molecular weight of about 170,000 made up of sugar units and amino acids. The main

components are galactose (25%), rhamnose (22%), galacturonic acid (27%) and amino

acids (11%). The mucilage is highly soluble in water. Its solution in water has an

intrinsic viscosity value of about 30%.

Uses and Benefits of Okra

Okra is a multipurpose crop due to its various uses of the fresh leaves, buds,

flowers, pods, stems and seeds (Oyalade et al. 2003, Andras et al. 2005). Okra

immature fruits (green seed pods), which are consumed as vegetables, can be used in

salads, soup no stews, fresh or dried, fried or boiled. It offers mucilaginous consistency

after cooking. Okra mucilage has medicinal applications when used as plasma

replacement or blood volume expender. The mucilage of okra binds cholesterol and

bile acid carrying toxins dumped into it by the liver. The entire plant is edible and is
5

used to have several foods (Sailfullah & Rabanni 2009, Madison 2008). Okra is

recommended for consumption by World Health Organization due to its ability to fight

diseases. Okra has been found to be a rich source of vitamins A (retinol) and C (ascorbic

acid), calcium, thiamine, and riboflavin. It is also rich in iron and is used as a medicine

in the treatment of the peptic ulcer.

Okra seeds contain about 20% protein and 20% oil (Tindall 1983, Charrier

1984). The bark fibre is easy to extract. It is white to yellow in colour, strong but rather

coarse. Test conducted in China suggest that an alcohol extract of okra leaves can

eliminate oxygen free radical alleviate renal tubular-interstitial diseases, reduce

proteinuria, and improve renal function (Liu et al. 2005, Kumar et al. 2009). In

Thailand, okra is usually boiled in water resulting in slimy soup and sauces, which are

relished. The fruits also serve as soup thickeners. Okra seed can be dried and the dried

seeds are nutritious material that can be used to prepare vegetable curds, or roasted and

ground to be used as coffee additive substitute (Moekchantuk & Kumar 2004). Okra

leaves are considered good cattle feed but this is seldom, compatible with the primary

use of the plant. The leaf buds and flowers are also edible (Doijode 2001).

Moreover, Okra mucilage is suitable for industrial and medicinal applications

(Akinyele & Temikotan 2007). Industrially, okra mucilage is usually used for glace

paper production and has confectionery use. Okra has found medical application as a

plasma replacement volume expander (Savello et al. 1980, Markose & Peter 1990,

Lengsfeld et al. 2004, Adetuyi et al. 2008, Kumar et al. 2010).


6

Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer

The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers results in yield increase of

cultivated crops. Recently, the modern subsistence and commercial farming systems

depends on synthetic chemical fertilizer due to readily application, rapid absorption and

utilization of the crop (Eliot 2005). Unfortunately, in the long-run the continuous

applications of these fertilizers causes deterioration in the soil physical properties such

as soil structure which leads to accelerated soil erosion, salinity and soil deterioration

(Williams & Harris 1896).

Animal Manure

Animal manures has been used successfully in sustainable agriculture (Eliot

2005). The most important manure among organic residues is chicken manure because

it contains high concentration of nitrogen and other essential elements (Eliot 2005,

Ghanbarian et al. 2008).

Chicken manure and its Benefits

Chicken manure as an organic amendment provides soil with other nutrients and

improve the physical chemical properties of the marginal and deteriorated soils in arid

and semi-arid regions (Ouda & Mahadeen 2008). The organic matter in chicken manure

conserve soil moisture by increasing water holding capacity. Nutrients contained in

chicken manure are released more slowly and are stored for a long time in the soil,

thereby ensuring a long beneficial residual effect (Hidayatullah.et al. 2013).


7

Post-harvest Handling

Post-harvest losses in horticultural fruit crops are related mainly to handling

beginning first from the harvest and on to retail shops. Losses can be caused by

mechanical injuries, inadequate storage, unsuitable handling in transporting and delay

in the display time while at the retail market (CEAGESP, 2002). Changes in quality of

okra can be of mechanical, physiological, or pathological in nature. Mechanical injuries

may cause metabolic and physiological changes in okra leading to the appearance of

both typical external or internal signs (Moretti and Sargent, et al. 2000: Sargent et al.,

1992) and the alterations in respiratory metabolism (Galvis Vanegas, 2007) flavors and

smell (Moretti and Sargent et al. 2000; Sargent et al., 1992) and firmness (Jackman et

al., 1990).

Post-harvest Handling of Okra

Okra suffer from severe post-harvest losses particularly under hot tropical

conditions, hence the need for careful handling during harvesting and after, to minimize

mechanical injuries such as scratches, punch and bruises to crop. The uses of

measurement to determine internal bruising from impact has proven suitable to evaluate

injuries in vegetables like okra (Chen & Yazdani, 199; Sargent et al. 1992; Morreti et

al., 1998).
CHAPTER III

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of Experimental Crop

A total of one hundred eight (108) okra seedlings 21 days after sowing (DAS)

was used in the study. Twelve (12) seedling per plot and thirty-six (36) per treatments

were planted directly on prepared plots and one (1) plant per hole with a distance of 0.5

x 0.5 meters.

Preparation of the Experimental Treatments

Chicken manure was procured from Erning’s poultry farm, Jaro Leyte. The

experimental rations were prepared based on different treatments as follows: The T0

used only a garden soil while T1 and T2 was given 15 and 30 grams of chicken manure

per plant, respectively. The experimental rations were applied every two weeks interval

in side circular dressing method with 2 inches around the base of the plant. The chicken

manure applied was covered with soil.

Description and Preparation of Experimental of Area

Newly cleaned area at nursery section of the Department of Agricultural

Technology, College of Environmental and Agricultural Technology-Visayas State

University, Alangalang, Leyte was utilized for the study. The experimental area was

divided into nine (9) equal size of 2.5x2.5 meters. Thereafter, the experimental area was

further prepared for plantation of experimental crops.


9

Care and Management

Watering were done regularly at 8:00 AM and 4:00 AM to avoid high moisture

loss due to hot climate that can affect the growth and development of the experimental

crop. Weeding was practiced every 2 weeks.

Harvesting Management

Experimental crop was harvested at 54 days after sowing(DAS) with a sharp

knife since they are no more than finger sized and stems are still tender and easy to cut.

Experimental Treatments and Designs

Nine (9) plots were used in the study with a size of 2.5 m x 2.5 m (5.0 m2). The

experimental plot was laid out in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with

three treatments and replicated three times with 12 plants per replicate.

The treatments were as follows:

T0 – garden soil (control)

T1 – 15 grams of chicken /plant

T2 – 30 grams of chicken /plant

T0 R1 T1 R2 T2 R1

T2 R2 T0 R2 T0 R3

T1 R3 T2 R3 T1 R1

B1 B2 B3

RCBD Layout
10

Data Gathered

1. Plant Height (cm) – the plant height was obtained using meter stick at weekly

basis.

2. Leaf Area (cm2) – one biggest leaf in every plant were selected for the study in

computing the leaf area.

It was obtained using the formula:

LA (cm2) = total number of whole square (cm2) + total number of half

square (cm2)

Data Analysis

Data gathered was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and

significant differences between treatments means was determined by Least Significant

Difference Test (LSD) using the Statistical Tool for Agricultural Research (STAR

version 2.0.1)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Plant Height

Plant height measurements were taken during 4,5,6,7,8 weeks after planting by

measuring from the base of the okra up to highest point. The results showed no

significant differences (p>0.05) in okra plant height among the treatments (Table 1).

Hence, increasing chicken manure level from 0% up to 15% not significantly increase

plant height. Whereas, in 30% of chicken manure level decreases the height of okra.

Although, results showed insignificant difference (p>0.05) 8 weeks after planting T1

had the highest height (48.46 cm) among the treatments, while T2 (47.59cm) and T0

(47.91) showed the lowest height.

Table 1. Height of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) using Varying levels of Chicken
Manure after 56 Days of Field Trial

Plant Height (cm)


Treatments 4 WAP 5 WAP 6 WAP 7 WAP 8 WAP
0 8.27 13.25 16.61 30.37 47.91
1 9.38 14.19 18.02 35.61 48.46
2 8.49 13.01 16.36 35.26 47.59
P – value (T) 0.5815 ns 0.7567 ns 0.8289 ns 0.3719 ns 0.9885 ns
(B) 0.8653 ns 0.6672 ns 0.6467 ns 0.5988 ns 0.3593 ns

*- means significant
ns – not significantly different
12

60

50
PLANT HEIGHT (cm)

40

30

20

10

0
WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8
Weeks After Planting (WAP)

T0 T1 T2

Fig. 1. Height of Okra using varying levels of Chicken manure.

Leaf Area (cm2)

No significant differences (p>0.05) were recorded in leaf area among treatments

(Table 2). Leaf area measurement were taken from one of the biggest leaf in every plant

9 weeks after planting of okra plants. The highest leaf area was obtained from plots

given with 15 grams of chicken manure (Table 2), while the control treatment (T0)

obtained the lowest leaf area. Although, results showed insignificant (p>0.05) T1 had

the highest leaf area (386.19 cm2) among the treatments.


13

Table 2. Leaf Area of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) using Varying levels of
Chicken Manure after 56 Days of Field Trial

Treatments Leaf Area (cm2)


0 309.64
1 386.19
2 334.57
P – value (Treatment) 0.2023 ns
(Blocking) 0.3822 ns

*- means significant
ns – not significantly different

450

400 386.19

350 334.57
309.64
300
LEAF AREA (CM2)

250

200

150

100

50

0
T0 T1 T2
TREATMENT

Fig. 2. Leaf Area of okra using varying levels of chicken manure.


14

Average Weight of Okra Pods (kg)

The effects of chicken manure on pod weight per treatment during 1st, 2nd and

3rd harvest are shown in Table 3. The results showed that application of chicken manure

had no significant influence on pod weight (Fig. 3). Although there was no significant

difference among the treatments 15 g of CM gave the highest fruit yield of 1.13 kg as

compared to the controlled which gave the lowest 0.81 kg.

The present study investigates effects of organic fertilizer in form of chicken

manure, the results revealed positive effect of organic fertilizer in improving

performance of okra crop. According to Abd El-Kader et al., (2010) chicken manure

increase okra yield and water used efficiency than composted plant residue. Growing

of okra on chicken manure performed in term of the plant height, number of leaves and

average weight of the plant than the control plot, this shows that chicken manure was

readily available in the best form for easy absorption by the plant roots, hence there was

a boost in the morphological growth of the plant. The results obtained agrees with the

findings of Aniefiok et al., (2013) in okra production in which they reported that

organic manure most especially chicken manure could increase plant height and number

of leaves. The results of the study proved that the treatments evaluated are capable of

improving crop yield. The significant effects in all growth parameters, leaf area and

weight of okra pods due to chicken manure application can be to easy solubilization

effect of released plant nutrient leading to improved nutrient status of the soil.

Surprisingly, in the present study applying highest dose of chicken manure up to 20 g

decreased in all growth parameters and yield of okra plant compared with 15 g dose of

chicken manure. Previous studies stated that proper growth and development of plants
15

require optimum supply of nitrogen. Too little of nitrogen directly reduces crop yield

while excess of nitrogen also causes negative effect on plant and this issue getting focus

continuously in crop production (Magistad et al., 1945 and L. Van der Eerden,1989).

Table 3. Average weight of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using Varying levels of


Chicken Manure after 56 Days of Filed Trial

Average weight of pods (kg)

Treatments 1st Harvest 2nd Harvest 3rd Harvest


0 0.2733 0.3133 0.81
1 0.3300 0.4500 1.13
2 0.2133 0.4033 0.95
P – value (Treatment) 0.8023 ns 0.0670 ns 0.1673 ns
(Blocking) 0.5089 ns 0.7363 ns 0.6380 ns
*- means significant
ns – not significantly different

1.2

0.8
Weight of pods (kg)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
1st harvset 2nd harvest 3rd harvest
Treatments

T0 T1 T2

Fig. 3. Average weight of okra using varying levels of chicken manure.


CONCLUSON AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion

The present study revealed a no significant differences (p>0.05) in terms of

plant height, leaf area, and average weight of okra pods using 0, 15, 30 grams of chicken

manure per plant.

Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended to reduce the level of

chicken manure from 15 grams to 5-10 grams of chicken manure to be applied per plant.

However, further investigation is needed in order to get a significant result and for

compare and contrast from the present study.


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APPENDICES

Appendix Table 1a. Height of okra using varying levels of chicken manure

REPLICATION

Treatments I II III TOTAL MEAN


0 21.75 21.52 26.73 70 23.33
1 28.88 17.33 21.24 67.45 22.48
2 27.22 23.62 23.37 74.21 24.73
Block Total 77.85 62.47 71.34
Grand Total 211.66
Grand Mean 70.54
Legend:
T0 – Garden soil (control)
T1 – 15 g chicken manure/plant
T2 – 30 g chicken manure/plant

Appendix Table 1b. Analysis of variance on height of okra using varying levels of
chicken manure

Source of DF Sum of Mean Square F Value Pr(>F)


Variation

Block 2 39.7882 19.8941 1.43 0.3396


Treatment 2 8.0154 4.0077 0.29 0.7638
Error 4 55.5794 13.8948
Total 8 103.3829
C.V. = 15.84%

Appendix Table 2a. Leaf Area of okra using varying levels of chicken manure

REPLICATION

Treatments I II III TOTAL MEAN


0 385.25 264.2 279.41 928.91 309.63
1 426.61 374.5 357.45 1158.56 386.18
2 314.12 335.33 354.25 1003.7 334.56
Block Total 1125.98 974.08 991.11
Grand Total 3,091.17
Grand Mean 1030.37
Legend:
T0 – Garden soil (control)
T1 – 15 g chicken manure/plant
T2 – 30 g chicken manure/plant
22

Appendix Table 2b. Analysis of variance on leaf area of okra using varying levels of
chicken manure

Source of DF Sum of Mean Square F Value Pr(>F)


Variation

Block 2 4617.0609 2308.5304 1.24 0.3322


Treatment 2 9146.0318 4573.0159 2.45 0.2023
Error 4 7476.4187 1869.1047
Total 8 21239.5114
C.V. = 12.59%

Appendix Table 3a. Weight of okra using varying levels of chicken manure

REPLICATION

Treatments I II III TOTAL MEAN


0 0.43 1.18 0.41 2.02 0.67
1 1.18 1.25 0.63 3.06 1.02
2 0.56 0.52 0.48 1.56 0.52
Block Total 2.17 2.95 1.52
Grand Total 6.64
Grand Mean 2.21
Legend:
T0 – Garden soil (control)
T1 – 15 g chicken manure/plant
T2 – 30 g chicken manure/plant

Appendix Table 3b. Analysis of variance on weight of okra using varying levels of
chicken manure

Source of DF Sum of Mean Square F Value Pr(>F)


Variation

Block 2 0.3418 0.1709 2.46 0.2007


Treatment 2 0.3937 0.1968 2.84 0.1708
Error 4 0.2773 0.0693
Total 8 1.0128
C.V. = 35.69%
23

Appendix Figure 1. Preparation of Experimental Area (A),


Pulverizing the soil (B), Making plots (C)
24

Appendix Figure 2. Measuring the height of okra (A), Weighing the chicken
manure (B), Applying treatments to okra (C)
25

Appendix Figure 3. Hilling up the soil (A), Weeded okra plots (B),
Matured okra pods (C)
26

Appendix Figure 4. Harvesting okra (A), Harvested okra pods (B),


Gathering data (C)
27

Appendix Figure 5. Tracing okra leaves (A), Computing the leaf area (B),
Pest and diseases encountered (C)