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The „Ego“-Root

inside the Name „Thebes“


Joannes Richter

Fig. 1 Sketch of the archaic Lake Kopaïs mapped in a modern Google Map of Greece, including
the location of Thiva (Thebes). ( Google-map: Atlantis in Lake Kopais )

Notes to this map


Lake Kopaïs is located between Mt. Parnassos, Mt. Citaeron and Mt. Parnes. The archaic irrigation area for
Lake Kopaïs may be marked by Orchomenus, Chaeronea (Cheronia), Alalcomenae (Alalkomenes), Ocalea
which is located roughly halfway between Alalcomenae and Haliartus, about 30 stadia (5.5 km) from each.
Ancient sources often mention it alongside Mantinea and Medeon and Halyartes (Haliartus).
The Sphingion (Fagas) and Ptoion mountains act as a barrier to the waters that collect in the bassin 1.
According to our guide the Sphingion Mountain (Fagas, or Phagas, “the Devourer”, 565 m) and the Ptoion (or
Ptoon) Mountain ridge (725 m - 781 m) represented the legs of the Sphinx.

1 The Topography of Thebes from the Bronze Age to Modern Time (Source: Sarantis Symeonoglou - 2014 - History)
Abstract
In order to complete the study of the close links between the “Ego”-pronoun and its Creator Dyeus I
decided to find the most suitable source of these “Ego”-roots within the European “cradle”, which is
concentrated in the center of “Hellas” (“Greece”).
Inside Greece the origin of the “cradle” may be targeted near Thebes, which in ancient Greek is
named Θῆβαι, Thêbai and in modern Greek Thíva, which may be equivalent to the Germanic sky-
god “Tiw”.
Thebes may be considered as the most powerful Hellenic settlement in the bronze age. At an
elevation of 215 metres (705 feet) the city may have flourished by the cooperative megalithic
concept of the megalithic citadel Gla (ca. 1300 BC) and the ingenious water drainage and irrigation
in the marshes of Lake Kopaïs (a management at Gla in cooperation with Orchomenus).
In Linear B the name of Thebes is te-qa-i,[n 1] understood to be read as *Tʰēgʷaii s (Ancient Greek:
Θήβαις, Thēbais, i.e. "at Thebes". The nominative name (*Tʰēgʷai) follows the rule of a Daylight-
Sky-God (*Tʰeiʷas”) as a concatenation of “Tʰ” and “ēgʷa”, which is very close to “ego”. The
corresponding PIE-root of the Daylight-Sky-God is *Dyḗws, but this name does not include a “g”.
The Egyptian center “Thebes” is related to the Greek name Thebes. Deger-Jalkotzy claimed that the
statue base from Kom el-Hetan in Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) mentions a name similar to
Thebes, spelled out quasi-syllabically in hieroglyphs as d-q-e-i-s, which may be related to *Tʰēgʷai.
After a failed revolt (335 BC) against the Macedonians Alexander the Great destroyed the Greek
city of Thebes, which never regained its earlier principal status.
In the Boeotian Glossary another correlation may be identified between the personal pronouns ἰώ iō
and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge) and a number of relevant religious-based names
such as Dionysus, Ion, Ionia, Ἰάων, iāōn, Javan, Ionians and even ἸΆΩ, Yāw.
In reversed reading we may identify correlations between the dual form νῶι, νῶ2 (“we two”) and the
names Ion, Ionia, Ionians.
The role of the “Tʰ” in *Tʰēgʷai may be correlated with the D in Dionysus in the Z of Zeus and the Δ
in Boeotian Δεύς. The Boeotian dialect prefers the Δ instead of the Z in Zeus and spells Δεύς Deus
instead of Zeus.
The “w” in *Tʰēgʷai may be correlated with the “w” in “Tiw”.
Thebes' name *Tʰēgʷai as a divine name may explain the “ch” in the German ego-pronoun “ich”
and the “c” in the Dutch ego-pronoun “ic” which correspond to the γ in Greek ἐγώ and the “g” in
*Tʰēgʷai, but are missing in the PIE-root Dyeus. Only *Tʰēgʷai combines the elements ἐγ in Greek
ἐγώ and Tʰē for Theos and Δε for Δεύς.

2 1st pl. oblique


The Roots of the European Cradle
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western
philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical
principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games.
Greece is a relatively large country of 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)
• with the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the
world at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in length. 80% of the territory is mountainous.
• with an astonishing small population of 11 million inhabitants, who concentrate in 2 cities
(Athens 4 million and Thessaloniki 1 million).
In addition I also considered the Greek language and religion as the transfer link to other European
people.
This is what I investigated on a journey to Greece between a week between 27.10.2019-3.11.2019.
The trip included visits to Corinth, Epidaurus, Nafplio, Mycene, Olympia, Delphi, Vergina,
[Olymp], Thermopylae, Meteroa, [Thebes, Gla, Lake Kopaïs, Lake Hylica], Athens3.
The trip had been guided by a professional Greek guide Nathasja, who apart from the standard
information also described a great number of informative details, which turned out to be very
important for my study.

The preparations of the journey → The Mycenaean civilization


The preparations of the journey included various aspects of the strategy in searching the cradle. Of
course I did not expect too much help from written records of the period of time. The writing
system may have existed but should be Linear A for Minoan language or Linear B (from 1450 BC,
found in Crete (in Knossos and Cydonia), at the Peloponnese (in Pylos and Mycenae) and Thebes
(in Boeotia, central Greece).

Mycenae
Of all of these cities only Mycenae belonged to the excursions for my visit. Mycenae however did
not really inspire me for further investigations. Apart from the stronghold I could not discover a
special feature what made this location so special. Mycenae seemed to be a fortress at a trading
route, but not a center for religious activity.

3 The names between 2 brackets have not been visited, but belonged to Nathasja's narration
Thebes
The first kings of the Boeotia region (before Cadmus and the flood of Deucalion) were
Calydnus and Ogyges (Ogygos). The first king of the settlement that would become Thebes
was Cadmus, after whom the city was originally called Cadmeia. It only became known as
Thebes during the reign of Amphion and Zethus, after the latter's wife Thebe.4
In modern Greek Thebes is named Thíva, which may be equivalent to the Germanic sky-god “Tiw”.
The name Thebes seemed to be related to divine names such as *Dyeus (*Dyḗws).
The Boeotian “ego”-pronouns ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) instead of the standard Attic dialect ἐγώ (egō, I)
correlated to Ion, Dionysus, Ionia, Ἰάων, iāōn. Additionally the old Greek language contained a dual
form νῶι, νῶ5 (“we two”), which in the Boeotian dialect was to be completed by a singular form ἰώ
(iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) instead of the standard Attic dialect ἐγώ (egō, I).
All these words seemed to be correlating to Dios, Dionysus (Διόνυσος), Δεύς, Zeus, Ion, Ionia,
Ἰάων, iāōn, Javan, Ionians and even ἸΆΩ, Yāw. Therefore in my study I decided to restrict myself
to the special boundary conditions of the infrastructure at Thebes.

4 Theban kings in Greek mythology


5 1st pl. oblique
The etymological problem of a long vowel ώ (ṓ) in ION-related words
in Greek the first person dual personal pronoun νώ and νῶϊ (nṓ, respectively nṓi, “we two”) is
spelled with a long vowel ώ (ṓ).
Obviously the long vowels are preferred for sacred topics, which according to my studies is also
valid for the first person personal pronouns in singular ἰώ (iṓ) and ἱών (hiṓn) in Boeotian dialect.
Also in Attic dialect the first person personal pronouns in singular ἐγώ (egō, I) spelled with a long
vowel ώ (ṓ). Most of the names with a pattern “Io*”, such as: Ἰωνία / Ἰωνίη, Ἰώ, Ἰώ, Ἰοῦς, but for
the names at the west-side of Greece the short “o” is used, e.g. in: Ἰόνιος.
In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios (Ἰόνιος) was used as an epithet for the sea between
Epirus and Italy in which the Ionian Islands are found because Io swam across it.[2]6
This argument seems rather unreliable as the Greek spelling Ἰώ is based on a long vowel ώ (ṓ).
Although they have the same Latin transliteration and Modern Greek pronunciation, the
Ionian Sea and Islands do not seem to be related to Ionia, an Anatolian region;
In Greek, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands are spelled with an omicron (Ιόνια), whereas
Ionia has an omega (Ἰωνία), reflecting a classical difference in pronunciation.
The two words are still distinguished by stress: the western "Ionia" is accented on the
antepenult (IPA: [iˈonia]), and the eastern on the penult (IPA: [ioˈnia]). In English, the
adjective relating to Ionia is Ionic, not Ionian.[citation needed]7.

@ English name Greek spelling Description Adjective


ω Ionia Ἰωνία / Ἰωνίη An Anatolian region; the ancient Ionic
(→ Iōnía) (ca 1100 BC) region including
western Asia Minor
ω Ionians (→ Ἴωνες, Íōnes, One of the four main ἰωνικός (iōnikós,
Íōnes), Ion singular Ἴων, Íōn) Hellenic tribes. “related to Ionians”).
Ionians, who sailed to the west
ω iṓ, ἰώ (iṓ), Boeotian singular pronoun (“I”) of
hiṓn ἱών (hiṓn) the first person
ω Noo, νώ, νῶϊ Greek dual form pronoun (“we 2”)
Nooi of the first person
ω Javan / Iáwōn *Ἰάϝων "Iáwōn" Ancestor of the Greek people

ω Io Ἰώ One of the mortal lovers of Zeus


ω Io, Ios Ἰώ, Ἰοῦς Name of the Moon in Argos

o Ionian Sea and Ἰόνιος related to Io Ionian Sea and Ionian (Ἰόνιος,
Ionian Islands Ionian Islands related to “Io”, “Ἰώ”)
Table 1 The etymological problem of a long vowel ώ (ṓ) in Ionian (Ἰόνιος)

6 LSJ, A Greek-English Lexicon s.v. Ἰόνιος.


7 Etymology (Ionian Islands)
Ω-Related names

Ionic
Ionic, of Ionia, the ancient (ca 1100 BC) region including western Asia Minor and the adjacent
Aegean Islands occupied by the Ionian people.
From Ancient Greek ἰωνικός (iōnikós, “related to Ionians”).

The first person dual νῶ(ϊ) and singular ἱώ(ν) of the personal pronoun
In ancient Greek the first person dual personal pronoun (νώ, νῶϊ - we two, both of us, us two) is νώ,
respectively (epic): νῶϊ 8

singular dual plural


case
str. encl. str. str.
nominative ἐγώ νώ, νῶϊ ἡμεῖς
genitive ἐμοῦ μου νῷν ἡμῶν
dative ἐμοί μοι νῷν ἡμῖν
accusative ἐμέ με νώ, νῶϊ ἡμᾶς
adjective ἐμός ἡμέτερος
Table 2: first person pronoun
For ἐγώ there are some alternative forms, especially ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) for the Boeotian dialect:
• ἐγών (egṓn)
• ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) – Boeotian
• ἔγω (égō) – Aeolic
I asked myself why the Boeotian ἐγώ-pronoun ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) was equivalent to the name of the
Ionic people.

The princess Io and the Moon Io


I asked Nathasja – a native Greek citizen - for the root of the name Ionic and she answered me
without any hesitation: IO, who in Greek mythology is known as one of the mortal lovers of Zeus.
Io (/ˈaɪ.oʊ/; Ancient Greek: Ἰώ [iːɔɔː] was, in Greek mythology, one of the mortal lovers of
Zeus. According to some stories, Zeus then turned Io into a heifer in order to hide her from
his wife;[5] others maintain that Hera herself transformed Io.[17][18]
As an Argive princess, she was an ancestor of many kings and heroes such as Perseus,
Cadmus, Heracles, Minos, Lynceus, Cepheus, and Danaus.
Prometheus comforted Io with the information that she would be restored to human form
and become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles (Hercules).
Io escaped across the Ionian Sea to Egypt, where she was restored to human form by Zeus.
There, she gave birth to Zeus's son Epaphus, and a daughter as well, Keroessa. She later
married Egyptian king Telegonus. Their grandson, Danaus, eventually returned to Greece
with his fifty daughters (the Danaids), as recalled in Aeschylus' play The Suppliants. 9

8 (PDF) The etymology of the Greek dual form νώ (νῶϊ ...


9 IO
Libya (Ancient Greek: Λιβύη) is the daughter of Epaphus, King of Egypt, in both Greek and
Roman mythology. She personified the land of Ancient Libya in North Africa, from which
the name of modern-day Libya originated.
The ancients connected Io with the Moon,[21] and in Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound, where Io
encounters Prometheus, she refers to herself as "the horned virgin".
Ἰώ [ι_], Ἰοῦς, ἡ, acc. - Io, name of the moon at Argos, Eust.ad D.P.92.
I was surprised to see the name of the princess Ἰώ was identical to the Ionian people the singular of
the Boeotian personal “I”-pronoun ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) and also to the reversed version of the dual
form νῶϊ (“we both”) in Greek language.

Ἰάων (Iáwōn, Iáōn), Ion and the Ionians


Originally the Ionians (Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) lived in the north Peloponnesian
region of Aigialeia, but moved to Attica and mingled with the local population of Attica, and many
later emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor founding the historical region of Ionia.
The foundation myth which was current in the Classical period suggested that the Ionians
were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, who lived in the north Peloponnesian region of
Aigialeia.
In Ancient Greek Ion was spelled in an ambiguous way with a long and a short vowel: Ἴων, Íon,
(gen.: Ἴωνος, Íonos, "going").
Ion was also believed to have founded a primary tribe of Greece, the Ionians. He has often
been identified with Javan, who is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the ancestor of the
Greek people, but in the Bible, Javan is a son of Noah's son Japheth.[4] The earlier Greek
form of the name was *Ἰάϝων "Iáwōn", which, with the loss of the digamma, later became
Ἰάων Iáōn,[5] or plural Iáones, as seen in epic poetry.[6][7]
In addition, Dionysius Periegetes, Dionysius the Voyager, of Alexandria, in his Description
of the Known World ver. 416[clarification needed] mentions a river in Arcadia called Iaon.
This river Iaon is further alluded to in Hesiod's Hymns of Callimachus, Hymn to Jupiter 22.
This river has also been connected to the earlier forms of the name.[8]

“o”-Related names
In Greek language only one name “Ionian” (in the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands) seemed to be
spelled with a short vowel “O”. The reason for this usage is unknown.
The infrastructure of the Mycenaean world

The agricultural infrastructure of Thebes


As an archaic “Polis” Thebes was an independent entity in the Mycenaean society.
Originally the agricultural infrastructure of Thebes may have been founded by the both royal
families at Thebes and Orchomenus and was to be managed by the supervisors at the
fortification Gla. The agricultural infrastructure belonged to the "bread basket" of the
Mycenaean world.
In the Bronze Age, during the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries, Orchomenus became a rich and
important center of civilization in Mycenaean Greece and a rival to Thebes. In the Trojan War
Thebes and Orchomenus both belonged to the coalition of Greek states.
The following chapters describe a subset of the coalition of Greek states, which were related to
Thebes. Most of these relations refer to their common project “the irrigation management” for the
territory of “ Lake Kopaïs”.

Lake Kopaïs
The following legends suggest a destructive flooding of the agricultural infrastructure of Thebes,
which may have been caused either by natural or human forces.
• There was a legend that Lake Kopaïs came into being when the hero Heracles flooded the
area by digging out a river, the Cephissus, which poured into the basin.[8]
• Polyaenus explains that he did this because he was fighting the Minyans of Orchomenus:
they were dangerous horseback fighters, and Heracles dug the lake in order to unhorse them.
[9]
• Another story has the lake overflow in the mythical time of Ogyges, resulting in the
Ogygian deluge.[10]
When the lake existed, the towns of Haliartus, Orchomenus, and Chaeronea were on its shores.
The system comprised two large canals that met about 1 km north of Gla. These canals combined
covered over 50 km in length, and collected water from the Boeotian Cephissus and Melas rivers
and redistributed them into areas where the water flowed out to sea easily.[4]
Basically the flooding catastrophes may have occurred by earthquakes, which caused the
obstructions in the mouths of the drainage coves between the Sphingion Mountain (Fagas, or
Phagas, “the Devourer”, 565 m) and Ptoion (or Ptoon) Mountain ridge (725 m - 781 m)
representing the legs of the Sphinx.
The Spninx - now called Phagas, or Fagas (“the Devourer”) - swallows the superfluous water of
Lake Kopaïs.
The mechanism of the "Copaic drainage complex”
In an article published in Archaeology the flooding catastrophes have been studied by a US-
American classicist Robert L. Scranton who argued that Atlantis was the "Copaic drainage complex
and its civilization" in Lake Copais, Boeotia.10

Fig. 2: Map from"Lost Atlantis Found Again?" - Robert L. Scranton (1949)


Source: JSTOR - 41662314. The central channel may have been created by a hydraulic engineer named Crates
of Chalcis in the time of Alexander the Great

The rivers feeding Lake Copais and the Catavothres draining the Lake
Modern archaeological discoveries have revealed a Mycenaean-era drainage complex and
subterranean channels in the lake11.
Located at the foot of high mountains covered by snow for a major part of the year, the marshes of
Lake Copais were indeed fed by many rivers, by order of decreasing importance: the Cephissus, the
Melas, the Hercyne, the Phalaros and the Lophis. Another list describes the rivers flowing into Lake
Copais as follows: (1) Kephissor river, (2) Melas river, (3) Erkyna river, (4) Triton river, (5)
Xerorema river, (6) Lofis river and (7) Phalaros river.
Up to or around 23 Katavothres (“sinkholes” in cavities) between the Sphingion (Fagas) and Ptoion
mountains are responsible for the drainage of the valley. If the drainage is blocked the water will
start flooding the lowest areas in the former territory of Lake Copais.

10 [17] Scranton, R. L. (1949). "Lost Atlantis found again?". Archaeology. 2 (3): 159–162. JSTOR 41662314.
11 Source (Wikipedia): Location hypotheses of Atlantis → In mainland Greece
The citadel of Gla
It is suggested that the land dominated by the citadel of Gla served as the "bread basket" of
the Mycenaean world. This is supported by the fact that Lake Kopais, the largest lake in
southern Greece, had been drained by a system of dams and canals (one of the most
astonishing achievements of prehistoric engineering) at about the same time as the erection
of Gla, producing a large fertile plain.
The drainage system collapsed from destruction or neglect at or after the end of the
Mycenaean Civilization; in Classical Antiquity, the lake existed again. It was drained a
second time in the 19th century.
The system comprised two large canals that met about 1 km north of Gla. These canals
combined covered over 50 km in length, and collected water from the Boeotian Cephissus
and Melas rivers and redistributed them into areas where the water flowed out to sea easily.
The major element of the complex was the main northern bank channel (40 m broad, 2.50 m
of depth, contained by 30 m thick dams, themselves supported by two stone walls), which
led the floods of Cephisus and Melas from Orchomenos to the catavothres, on a distance of
25 km.
The walls surrounding Gla were about 3 m thick, and 2.8 km long, enclosing about 235,000
square meters of land. These massive walls were made from Cyclopean masonry.
Modern excavation has found enormous channels dug in the 14th century BCE which
drained water into the sea to the northeast; Strabo mentions work being done on these
channels by a hydraulic engineer named Crates of Chalcis at the time of Alexander the
Great.12

The harbors Aulis, Eretria and Chalcis


At an elevation of 215 metres (705 feet) the city of Thebes did not really seem to rely on a harbor.
The nearest harbors are Aulis, Eretria and Chalcis. At the time of the Trojan war Aulis nearby
Chalcis may have been the optimal harbor place at the south bank of the strait. Livy states that Aulis
was distant 3 miles (4.8 km) from Chalcis, which also may be found in Homer's "Catalogue of
Ships". Therefore also Chalcis may have been used as a harbor.
The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the same
line as its rival Eretria. It is also documented that the ships set for the Trojan War gathered at
Aulis, the south bank of the strait nearby the city.
However, the departure was prevented by Artemis, who stopped the wind to punish
Agamemnon, who had killed a deer in a sacred grove and boasted he was the better hunter.
The fleet was only able to sail off after Agamemnon had sacrificed his eldest daughter
Iphigenia.13
Aulis never developed into fully independent polis, but belonged to Thebes (378 BCE) and Tanagra
respectively. In the Trojan War however Aulis was restricted to 50 ships14, which required a
distribution of the majority of the fleet to a neighboring harbor such as Vathy or Chalcis.15

12 Source (Wikipedia): Draining of the Kopais (Gla)


13 Source (Wikipedia): Aulis
14 Strabo says that the harbour of Aulis could only hold fifty ships, and that therefore the Greek fleet must have
assembled in the large port in the neighborhood, called Βαθὺς λιμὴν. [Source (Wikipedia): Chalcis]
15 The latter harbour, as well as a village situated a mile to the southward of it, is called Vathy, a name evidently
derived from βαθὺς λιμὴν. [Source: Delphi Complete Works of Strabo - Geography (Illustrated)] - Strabo of
Amaseia ( 2016 )
Orchomenos
Orchomenus is mentioned among the Achaean cities sending ships to engage in the Trojan War in
Homer's "Catalogue of Ships" in the Iliad. According to the list the cities Orchomenus and
Aspledon contributed thirty ships:
The northernmost Mycenaean fortified town, it was a seat of the Minyae dynastic family and
controlled a large part of Boeotia. In the Archaic period,
The legendary wealth of Orchomenus is confirmed by the coinage of money:
Orchomenus was a member of the Calaurian League, but political supremacy in Boeotia
passed to Thebes. Among the first Boeotian cities to coin money (c. 550 bc), it was famed in
legend for its wealth.
At times Orchomenus may have been forced to relocate the town's center to protect the inhabitants
against the floods:
Orchomenus became the headquarters of the oligarchic exiles who freed Boeotia from
Athenian control (447/446), and by the 4th century its policy was anti-Theban. After
repeated sackings by the Thebans in the 4th century, Orchomenus was left to obscurity and
the encroaching waters of Lake Copias.16

Haliartus
Haliartus was a town of ancient Boeotia, and one of the cities of the Boeotian League. It was
situated on the southern side of Lake Copais in a pass between the mountain and the lake.
In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes I, in 484 BCE, Haliartus was the only town that
remained true to the cause of Greece, and was in consequence destroyed by the Persians. It
was, however, soon rebuilt, and in the Peloponnesian War appears as one of the chief cities
of Boeotia.
The Haliartia (Ἁλιαρτία, or territory of Haliartus) was a very fertile plain, watered by
numerous streams flowing into Lake Copais, which in this part was hence called the
Haliartian marsh. These streams bore the names of Ocalea, Lophis, Hoplites, Permessus, and
Olmeius.
The territory of Haliartus extended westward to Mount Tilphossium, since Pausanias says
that the Haliartians had a sanctuary of the goddesses called Praxidicae situated near this
mountain. The towns Peteon, Medeon, Ocalea, and Onchestus were situated in the territory
of Haliartus. 17

Onchestus
Located in the territory of Haliartus on the southern side of Lake Copais, Onchestus was said to
have been founded by Onchestos, a son of Poseidon.

16 Source: Orchomenus | ancient town, Greece | Britannica


17 Haliartus
Homer's "Catalogue of Ships" in the Iliad
In the Iliad, the Greek Catalogue lists 29 contingents under 46 captains, accounting for a total of
1,186 ships. For this paper relevant ethnic identities and Settlements are marked yellow (near Lake
Kopaïs) or blue (not near Lake Kopaïs).
From their priority in the list the Boeotians and Minyans as well as the Abantes of Euboea belong to
the most important contributors of the Hellenic fleet. This priority suggests that the Boeotians may
still have been considered as the leaders of the Greek army:
Cap-
# Ethnic identity ships Settlements
tains
Hyria, Aulis, Schoenus, Scolus, Eteonus, Thespeia, Graia, Mycalessus, Harma,
1 Boeotians 50 6 Eilesium, Erythrae, Eleon, Hyle, Peteon, Ocalea, Medeon, Copae, Eutresis, Thisbe,
Coronea, Haliartus, Plataea, Glisas, Thebes, Onchestus, Arne, Midea, Nisa, Anthedon
2 Minyans 30 2 Aspledon, Orchomenus
Cyparissus, Pytho, Crisa, Daulis, Panopeus, Anemorea, Hyampolis, river Cephissus,
3 Phocēans 40 2
Lilaea
4 Locrians 40 1 Kynos, Opoüs, Calliarus, Bessa, Scarphe, Augeae, Tarphe, Thronium
Abantes of
5 40 1 Chalcis, Eretria, Histiaea, Cerinthus, Dium, Carystus, Styra
Euboea
6 Athenians 50 3 Athens
7 Salamineans 12 1 Salamis
8 Argives 80 3 Argos, Tiryns, Hermione, Asine, Troezen, Eiones, Epidaurus, Aegina, Mases
Mycenae, Corinth, Cleonae, Orneae, Araethyrea, Sicyon, Hyperesia, Gonoessa,
9 Mycenaeans 100 1
Pellene, Aegium, Helice
Lacedae-
10 60 1 Pharis, Sparta, Messe, Bryseae, Augeae, Amyclae, Helos, Laas, Oetylus
monians
11 (No name) 90 1 Pylos, Arēne, Thryon, Aipy, Cyparisseis, Amphigenea, Pteleum, Helos, Dorium
Cyllene, Pheneus, Orchomenus, Rhipae, Stratie, Enispe, Tegea, Mantinea, Stymphalos,
12 Arcadians 60 1
Parrhasia
13 Epeans of Elis 40 4 Buprasium, Hyrmine, Myrsinus, Olene, Alesium
14 Dulichium 40 1 Dulichium, Echinean Islands
15 Cephallenians 12 1 Ithaca, Neritum, Crocylea, Aegilips, Same, Zacynthus [15]
16 Aetolians 40 1 Pleuron, Olenus, Pylene, Chalcis, Calydon
17 Cretans 80 2 Cnossus, Gortys, Lyctus, Miletus, Lycastus, Phaestus, Rhytium, ...
18 Rhodians 9 1 Lindus, Ielysus, Cameirus
19 Symians 3 1 Symi
20 (No name) 30 2 Nisyrus, Crapathus, Casus, Cos, Calydnian Islands
Pelasgians,
Myrmidons,
21 50 1 Pelasgic Argos, Alos, Alope, Trachis, Phthia
Hellenes,
Achaeans
22 (No name) 40 2 Phylace, Pyrasus, Iton, Antrium, Pteleum
23 (No name) 11 1 Pherae, Boebe, Glaphyrae, Iolcus
24 (No name) 7 1 Methone, Thaumacia, Meliboea, Olizon
25 (No name) 30 2 Tricca, Ithome, Oechalia
26 (No name) 40 1 Ormenius, Hypereia (fountain), Asterius, Titanus
27 (Lapiths) 40 2 Argissa,[16] Gyrtone, Orthe, Elone, Oloösson
Enienes,
28 22 1 Cyphus, Dodona, Gonnos, banks of the Titaresius
Peraebi
29 Magnetes 40 1 About the Peneus and Mt. Pelion

Table 3 Homer's "Catalogue of Ships" in the Iliad. (Extract from: Wikipedia's Catalogue)
Personal notes to the trip Karditsa-Athens

Thebes
On our trip (at 1.11.2019) from Karditsa to Athens we crossed the valley in which Lake Kopaïs had
been drained to provide the Greek people with the most fertile soil of Greece.
On the highway back to Athens we passed the Kopaïs plain between distant mountain ridges. At the
east-side we could also see the sea, obviously the Gulf of Euboea18 and far eastwards the peninsula.
Nathasja told us we could see the Boeotian city of Thebes at the west-side. The plain also included
Lake Yliki (ancient Hylica) and the drained Lake Copais, which in the historical eras had been
drained and flooded from time to time.
She also described the rich city of GLAS19, protected by a cyclops-wall at the great Lake Copais
which had been drained and now formed a very fertile agricultural soil.
The lake was (and is) surrounded by fertile land, but the lake increasingly encroached on the
surrounding land because of inadequate drainage. In response to this, in 1867–1887 Scots
and French engineers reclaimed the land for the British Lake Copais Company, by building
channels to drain water from the lake to the Cephissus and from there to Lake Yliki (Ylíki
Limní, ancient Hylica). In total about 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) were reclaimed. This
land was returned to the Greek government in 1952.
Before this the lake drained into the sea by numerous subterranean channels. Some of these
channels were artificial, as the 1st century geographer Strabo recorded. Modern excavation
has found enormous channels dug in the 14th century BCE which drained water into the sea
to the northeast; Strabo mentions work being done on these channels by an engineer named
Crates of Chalcis in the time of Alexander the Great.
At the left side the left foot of the Sphinx represented a mountain and at the other (right) side the
other foot was to be found at the city of Thebes. She pointed at the left side into the darkening
evening but the rain did not really allow any impression of the mountains.
Later I identified the left foot of the Sphinx as Mount Sphingion, now called Phagas, “the Devourer”,
legendary home of Oedipus's Sphinx20.
Oidipous told the Sphinx the answer was "Man, who crawls on all fours as an infant, walks
on two legs as an adult, and uses a staff in old age." This answer was sufficient for the
Sphinx, who jumped to her death from the citadel or from Mount Phikion (a strange means
of suicide for a creature who could fly).21
Therefore the other foot of the sphinx may have been the Ptoon mountain 22. Indeed the Sphingion
(Phikion) and Ptoon mountains may be acting as a barrier to the waters that collect in the bassin23.
In an Atlantic concept the Lake Copais may have been named the „Sea of Atlas“ or „Atlantic Sea“.

18 Boeotia was originally called Ogygia (Burnouf), quoted in "The Mysteries of Lake Copias
19 The Mycenaean citadel of Glas was fortified by a massive cyclopean wall ... The three major Boeotian palatial
centers, Thebes, Orchomenos, and Glas were . (GLAS | Archaeology Department ...)
20 Remember Greece - Dilys Powell - 2013 - Travel
21 Myths of Thebes:Oidipous
22 Its eastern limit was the Ptoon mountain chain, and its southern boundary was the hilly extension of Mt Sphingion or
Phikion (also known as Fagas). (source: Μεγάλη διαδικτυακή εγκυκλοπαίδεια της Βοιωτίας)
23 The Topography of Thebes from the Bronze Age to Modern Times (Sarantis Symeonoglou - 2014)
Lake Copais
According to our guide Nathasja today's fertile 24 acres of the former Lake Copais may often be used
for growing cotton25.
Gla may have been mentioned as “Arne” by Homer, although Pausanias, Strabo and others
suggested other variants for the name of the megalithic citadel Gla. In fact the name is unknown.26
A one-time island in the lake was modified in ancient times into a megalithic citadel, now
called Gla, though its ancient name is not known.
The Gla-structures might belong to the first half of the 15th century B.C. and would thus
precede the other Mycenaean sites by more than a century. In the opinion of G. Rachet (14),
the first foundations of the acropolis of Gla may date from the 16th century B.C.27
In archaic eras the natural drainage had been optimized by artificial channels:
Some of the drainage channels were artificial, as the 1st century geographer Strabo recorded.
Overflow drained East of the lake into twenty-three "catavothres", natural cracks between
the blocks of limestone.
The dimensions of these artificial channels must have been impressive for the dating period of the
14th century BCE :
Modern excavation has found enormous channels dug in the 14th century BCE which drained
water into the sea to the northeast; Strabo mentions work being done on these channels by
an engineer named Crates of Chalcis in the time of Alexander the Great.

3: Map of ancient Boeotia. (Public Domain)


(published by User:Petrouchka; vectorized by Fulvio314)

24 The Haliartia (Ἁλιαρτία), or territory of Haliartus, was a very fertile plain, watered by numerous streams flowing
into Lake Copais, which in this part was hence called the Haliartian marsh.[14] Strabo. Geographica. ix. pp. 407,
411. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
25 The Lake Copais Co., which for a long time has been engaged in exploiting the large tract of land formerly occupied
by Lake Copais [Topolias], has within the past year conducted experiments in the growing in the lake bed of several
varieties of cotton... (Commerce Reports 1916 - Consular reports)
26 Pausanias identified this Boeotian Arne with Chaeroneia,[2] Strabo with Acraephium;[3] and others again supposed
that it had been swallowed up by the waters of the Lake Copais.[4] Modern scholars locate Arne with the site of
archaeological site of Magoula Balomenou.[5][6] It may be linked to the ancient citadel of Gla.
27 Lake Copais by Therese Ghembaza
The priority of Thebes
Natasha also mentioned the clay tablets with Linear B inscriptions, which had been found in
Thebes. These findings of the Linear B inscriptions and the relation of Cadmus to the Phoenician
alphabet suggest the dominance of Thebes in introducing the usage of the modern alphabet.
Ancient Greek legends describe the adventures of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, Heracles at or near
Θῆβαι, Thêbai, where the archaeologists had found the clay tablets with the Linear B inscriptions.
The major status of Thebes ended at 335 BC:
In 338BC the Sacred Band of Thebes (an elite military unit) lost a Battle of Chaeronea in
338 BC against Philip II and Alexander the Great. Prior to its destruction by Alexander in
335 BC, Thebes was a major force in Greek history.
Thebes never managed to return to its original status. During the Byzantine period, the city
was famous for its silks.
According to Natasha the introduction of the alphabetical writing by Cadmus seems to be related to
Thebes:
The Greeks attributed the foundation of Thebes to Cadmus, a Phoenician king from Tyre
(now in Lebanon) and the brother of Queen Europa. Cadmus was famous for teaching the
Phoenician alphabet and building the Acropolis, which was named the Cadmeia in his honor
and was an intellectual, spiritual, and cultural center.

The fortress on the “Island of Gla”


According to our guide the Island of Gla represented a triangular shape of considerable size:
A center of interesting ruins are located at the East end of the plain, facing the high cliff
overlooking the North of the ancient city of Copae 28. There, about 100 meters from the
former Eastern shore of the lake, a rocky outcrop in the form of a triangular plateau called
Gla with an area of 235 000 m2 rises up to sixty-six meters above the plain.

28 Copae → the modern village of Kastron


The Egyptian version of Thebes29

The ancient name Wase, or Wo’se


The ancient name of Thebes was Wase, or Wo’se. The nome (province) of Wase, the fourth
of Upper Egypt, is known to have existed from the 4th dynasty onward.

The name Nowe, or Nuwe (“City of Amon”)


The earliest monuments that have survived at Thebes proper date from the 11th dynasty
(2081–1939 bce), when the local nomarchs (governors) united Egypt under their rule. From
this time Thebes frequently served as the royal capital of Egypt and was called Nowe, or
Nuwe (“City of Amon”), named for its chief god.

The Greek name Thebes (Thebai) - maybe derived from Ta-ope


The Greek name Thebes (Thebai) may have been derived from Ta-ope, the ancient Egyptian
name for Luxor.

The uniqueness of Thebes


In ancient Egypt there were other great cities, but none that has left so great a legacy to
posterity. The great temples of Thebes with their historical scenes and inscriptions, the
tombs with their wealth of illustration of daily life and religious belief, and the countless
antiquities that now fill the museums and private collections of the world, are all aspects of
that legacy. Few other sites have contributed more to the store of knowledge about early
civilizations than that of ancient Thebes.

29 Source: Thebes
The formula for the relation between the Ego and his Creator30
In order to generate a divine name we would normally have to insert a genuine personal pronoun of
the first person singular between a leading character D, Z, Th or Þ and eventually the trailing
character S. In Provencal language for instance the divine name Diéu will be generated by D and
the pronoun iéu.
In Linear B the name of Thebes is te-qa-i,[n 1] understood to be read as *Tʰēgʷaii s (Ancient Greek:
Θήβαις, Thēbais, i.e. "at Thebes". The nominative name (*Tʰēgʷai) follows the rule of a Daylight-
Sky-God (*Tʰeiʷas”) as a concatenation of “Tʰ” and “ēgʷa”, which is very close to “ego”. The
corresponding PIE-root of the Daylight-Sky-God is *Dyḗws, but this name does not include a “g”.
In the Boeotian Glossary another correlation may be identified between the personal pronouns ἰώ iō
and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge) and a number of relevant religious-based names
such as Dionysus, Ion, Ionia, Ἰάων, iāōn, Javan, Ionians and even ἸΆΩ, Yāw.
A list of examples explains some of the generating mechanisms, including the suggested Linear B,
Attic and Boeotian versions31:
Language Formula Ego-pronoun Result
Linear B “*Tʰ” + “ēgʷa” + “s” “Ēgʷa” “*Tʰēgʷais” →
Θήβαις (Thēbais)
Attic “*Tʰ” + “ēgʷo” + “s” “ἐγώ” “*Tʰeigʷos” →
(egō, I) ~ “*Dyḗws” (PIE-root)
Boeotian “Θ” + “ἰώ” (iō) + “s” “ἰώ” (iō) “Θἰώs” (Thioos)
“Θ” + “ἱών” (hiōn) + “s” “ἱών” (hiōn) “Θἰώs” (Thioons”)

Provencal “D” + “iéu” = “Diéu ” “iéu” “Diéu”


Italian “D” + “ió” = “Dió” “ió” “Dió”
Spanish “D” + “yo” + “s” = “Dios” “yo” “Dios”
Portuguese “D” + “eu” + “s” = “Deus” “eu” “Deus”
Romanian “Z” + “eu” = “Zeu” “eu” “Zeu”
old-German “D” + “ih” + “s” = “Dis”32 “ih” “Dis”
English “D” + “i” + “s” = “Dis” “i” “Dis”
Romance “D” + “jau” = “Diéu” “jau” “Diéu” (ideally Djaus)
Sursilvanic “D” + “jeu” = “Diéu” “jeu” “Diéu”
Sutsilvanic “D” + “jou” = “Diéu” “jou” “Diéu” (ideally Djous)
Sicilian dialect “D” + “iu” = “Diu” “iu” “Diu”
Old High German “Z” + “i(u)” = “Ziu” “i(u)” “Ziu”
Sutsilvanic “D” + “jou” = “Diéu” “jou” “Diéu”
Old English “T” + “ich” = “Tigʷ”33. “ich” “*Tʰeigʷos” → “Tiw”
Table 4: The formula for the relation between the Ego and his Creator

30 Source for the formula: The Hermetic Codex II - Bipolar Monotheism by jwr47
31 Details: The Deity Dis in the Gallic Wars and Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages
32 Dis has 53 BC been described by Julius Caesar in De Bello Gallico, Book VI- chapter 18
33 Similar pronouns are gothic-Dutch “ik”, ags. “ic and Icelandic “ek”
The divine character of Thebes and Io
Most of the archaic names have been founded on divine concepts, in which the hierarchical level in
the divine pedigree indicates the importance. The etymology of Θήβαι (Thēbai) is defined as:
• Greek Θῆβαι: from Ionic-Attic Θήβη (Thḗbē), from Mycenea …. (te-qa /tʰēgʷā/), from
Proto-Hellenic *Thēgʷā.
• Egyptian Θῆβαι: from Demotic Egyptian t3-jpy (name of the Karnak Temple at Luxor), for
formal Egyptian jp.t.

The feminine character of Thebes


According to Wikipedia's List of mythological figures named Thebe all names Thebe represent
female characters, which indicates a very old goddess as a matriarch, who had been subordinated to
a dominant patriarchal sky-god such as Zeus.
Thebe (Ancient Greek: Θήβη) is a feminine name mentioned several times in Greek mythology, in
accounts that imply multiple female characters, four of whom are said to have had three cities
named Thebes after them. These cities are Boeotian Thebes, Thebes, Egypt and Hypoplacian
Thebes. Most may have been related to Zeus as a consort or daughter:
• Thebe, daughter of Asopus and Metope,[1][2] who was said to have consorted with Zeus.[3]
Amphion and Zethus named Boeotian Thebes[4] after her because of their kinship, the twins
being sons of her sister Antiope by Zeus.
• Thebe, daughter of Zeus and Iodame, given in marriage to Ogygus.[5] She was the sister of
Deucalion, otherwise unknown.[6]
• Thebe, daughter of Zeus and Megacleite[7] and sister of Locrus, the man who assisted
Amphion and Zethus in the building of Thebes.[8] She later on married Zethus.
• Thebe, daughter of Prometheus, and also a possible eponym of the Boeotian Thebes.[9]
• Thebe, daughter of Cilix and wife of Corybas (son of Cybele).[10]
• Thebe, eponym of Thebes, Egypt.[11] She was the daughter of either Nilus, Epaphus,
Proteus, or Libys;[12] rare versions of the myth make her a consort of Zeus and mother of
Aegyptus[5] or Heracles.[13]
• Thebe, daughter of the Pelasgian Adramys, the eponym of Adramyttium, or of the river god
Granicus. She married Heracles, who named Hypoplacian Thebes after her.[14]
• Thebe, an Amazon
• Thebe, alternate name for the Titaness Phoebe.
The feminine character of Io
In Greek mythology also Io belonged to the mortal lovers of Zeus. An Argive princess, she was an
ancestor of many kings and heroes such as Perseus, Cadmus, Heracles, Minos, Lynceus, Cepheus,
and Danaus.
In most versions of the legend, Io was the daughter of Inachus, the first king of Argos[1][2] after
whom a river was called Inachus River,[3] the modern Panitsa that drains the western margin of the
Argive plain.
Usually the draining of plains had been considered as a job for the hero Heracles, who was
mentioned in the flooding and drainage of Lake Kopaïs. According to one account, the city
of Hypoplacian Thebes was founded by the hero Heracles after his sack of Troy during the
reign of King Laomedon and named after his birthplace, Thebes in Boeotia34.
Prometheus comforted Io with the information that she would be restored to human form and
become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles (Hercules), the master of drainage and
irrigation....
In Argos the Moon had been named Ἰώ [ι_], Ἰοῦς, ἡ, acc. - Io, name of the moon at Argos, Eust.ad
D.P.92. In Germanic languages the moon is categorized as a male word, but in Greek mythology the
moon represents a female symbol.

34 Mythology of the city named Hypoplacian Thebes


Conclusion
In order to complete the study of the close links between the “Ego”-pronoun and its Creator Dyeus I
decided to find the most suitable source of these “Ego”-roots within the European “cradle”, which is
concentrated in the center of “Hellas” (“Greece”).
Inside Greece the origin of the “cradle” may be targeted near Thebes, which in ancient Greek is
named Θῆβαι, Thêbai and in modern Greek Thíva, which may be equivalent to the Germanic sky-
god “Tiw”.
Thebes may be considered as the most powerful Hellenic settlement in the bronze age. At an
elevation of 215 metres (705 feet) the city may have flourished by the cooperative megalithic
concept of the megalithic citadel Gla (ca. 1300 BC) and the ingenious water drainage and irrigation
in the marshes of Lake Kopaïs (a management at Gla in cooperation with Orchomenus).
In Linear B the name of Thebes is te-qa-i,[n 1] understood to be read as *Tʰēgʷaii s (Ancient Greek:
Θήβαις, Thēbais, i.e. "at Thebes". The nominative name (*Tʰēgʷai) follows the rule of a Daylight-
Sky-God (*Tʰeiʷas”) as a concatenation of “Tʰ” and “ēgʷa”, which is very close to “ego”. The
corresponding PIE-root of the Daylight-Sky-God is *Dyḗws, but this name does not include a “g”.
The Egyptian center “Thebes” is related to the Greek name Thebes. Deger-Jalkotzy claimed that the
statue base from Kom el-Hetan in Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) mentions a name similar to
Thebes, spelled out quasi-syllabically in hieroglyphs as d-q-e-i-s, which may be related to *Tʰēgʷai.
After a failed revolt (335 BC) against the Macedonians Alexander the Great destroyed the Greek
city of Thebes, which never regained its earlier principal status.
In the Boeotian Glossary another correlation may be identified between the personal pronouns ἰώ iō
and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge) and a number of relevant religious-based names
such as Dionysus, Ion, Ionia, Ἰάων, iāōn, Javan, Ionians and even ἸΆΩ, Yāw.
In reversed reading we may identify correlations between the dual form νῶι, νῶ35 (“we two”) and
the names Ion, Ionia, Ionians.
The role of the “Tʰ” in *Tʰēgʷai may be correlated with the D in Dionysus in the Z of Zeus and the Δ
in Boeotian Δεύς. The Boeotian dialect prefers the Δ instead of the Z in Zeus and spells Δεύς Deus
instead of Zeus.
The “w” in *Tʰēgʷai may be correlated with the “w” in “Tiw”.
Thebes' name *Tʰēgʷai as a divine name may explain the “ch” in the German ego-pronoun “ich”
and the “c” in the Dutch ego-pronoun “ic” which correspond to the γ in Greek ἐγώ and the “g” in
*Tʰēgʷai, but are missing in the PIE-root Dyeus. Only *Tʰēgʷai combines the elements ἐγ in Greek
ἐγώ and Tʰē for Theos and Δε for Δεύς.
The findings of the Linear B inscriptions and the relation of Cadmus to the Phoenician alphabet
suggest the dominance of Thebes in introducing the usage of the modern alphabet.
Traces of the introduction of the alphabet may be identified in the Boeotian personal pronouns ἰώ
iō, which also seemed to have been derived from the divine names Dio(s). This correlation between
ἰώ (iō) and Dios seems to have been lost in the other Hellenic dialects, which are based on the
personal “ego”-pronoun ἐγώ.

35 1st pl. oblique


Appendices

Ionia
The Boeotian dialect words ἰώ (iṓ), ἱών (hiṓn) seemed to be related to the eastern region
“Ionia” near Ephesus and Milete. Boeotia is located at the central region around Thebes.
The region Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) is named after the Ionian
tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC). The foundation myth which was current in
the Classical period suggested that the Ionians were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, who
lived in the north Peloponnesian region of Aigialeia.
One story of Ion is told in the tragedy play Ion by Euripides. Creusa conceived Ion with
Apollo then she abandoned the child. Apollo asked Hermes to take Ion from his cradle. Ion
was saved (and raised) by a priestess of the Delphic Oracle.36

Ionians
The name Ionians first appears in Greek literature in Homer as Ἰάονες, iāones,37 used on a
single occasion of some long-robed Greeks attacked by Hector and apparently identified
with Athenians, and this Homeric form appears to be identical with the Mycenaean form but
without the *-w-.
This name also appears in a fragment of the other early poet, Hesiod, in the singular Ἰάων,
iāōn.[6]38

Boeotian ἰώ (iṓ), singular Ionia Ἰάων, iāōn, ἸΆΩ, Yāw, Ion


ἱών (hiṓn) Javan, Ionians
Table 5 Correlations of ego-Pronouns with regions, people and deities

Old-Greek νῶι, νῶ 39 dual Ionia Ionians Ion


(reversed reading)
Table 6 Dual form νῶι, νῶ (“we two”) in Old-Greek language
from: Correlations of ego-Pronouns with regions, people and deities

36 A Linguistic Control of Egotism


37 Ventris, Michael; John Chadwick (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek: Second Edition. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 547 in the "Glossary" under i-ja-wo-ne. ISBN 0-521-08558-6., (source: Wikipedia's Ionians-Mycenaean)
38 Homer. Iliad, Book XIII, Line 685. (source: Wikipedia's Ionians-Mycenaean)
39 A Linguistic Control of Egotism (Table: Correlations of ego-Pronouns with regions, people and deities)
Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................2
The Roots of the European Cradle.......................................................................................................3
The preparations of the journey → The Mycenaean civilization ...................................................3
Mycenae......................................................................................................................................3
Thebes.........................................................................................................................................4
The etymological problem of a long vowel ώ (ṓ) in ION-related words........................................5
Ω-Related names..............................................................................................................................6
Ionic............................................................................................................................................6
The first person dual νῶ(ϊ) and singular ἱώ(ν) of the personal pronoun ....................................6
The princess Io and the Moon Io................................................................................................6
Ἰάων (Iáwōn, Iáōn), Ion and the Ionians.....................................................................................7
“o”-Related names...........................................................................................................................7
The infrastructure of the Mycenaean world.........................................................................................8
The agricultural infrastructure of Thebes........................................................................................8
Lake Kopaïs.....................................................................................................................................8
The mechanism of the "Copaic drainage complex”........................................................................9
The rivers feeding Lake Copais and the Catavothres draining the Lake.........................................9
The citadel of Gla..........................................................................................................................10
The harbors Aulis, Eretria and Chalcis..........................................................................................10
Orchomenos...................................................................................................................................11
Haliartus ........................................................................................................................................11
Onchestus.......................................................................................................................................11
Homer's "Catalogue of Ships" in the Iliad ....................................................................................12
Personal notes to the trip Karditsa-Athens.........................................................................................13
Thebes............................................................................................................................................13
Lake Copais...................................................................................................................................14
The priority of Thebes...............................................................................................................15
The fortress on the “Island of Gla”...........................................................................................15
The Egyptian version of Thebes.........................................................................................................16
The ancient name Wase, or Wo’se.................................................................................................16
The name Nowe, or Nuwe (“City of Amon”)................................................................................16
The Greek name Thebes (Thebai) - maybe derived from Ta-ope..................................................16
The uniqueness of Thebes..............................................................................................................16
The formula for the relation between the Ego and his Creator..........................................................17
The divine character of Thebes and Io...........................................................................................18
The feminine character of Thebes.............................................................................................18
The feminine character of Io.....................................................................................................19
Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................20
Appendices.........................................................................................................................................21
Ionia...............................................................................................................................................21
Ionians............................................................................................................................................21