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Heating with Mobiltherm’ Heat-Transfer Oils Mobiltherm Light, 600, 603, 605 In indrect heating systems, heat from the combustion ‘of fuel or from electric heating elements is transferred toa fluid which carries the heat to where it is needed, Heat-ranster systems make it possible 19 control tem peratures precisaly, and to supply heat to a number of areas from one primary heating unit in the most con- venient Iocation. The most common example of indi- Gece eating s the nome or otice cera heating system where water, sieam, or air is the heat‘transfer medium, Heat-iranster fluds must meet ceitain basic requirements: ‘= Resist deterioration at the temperatures for which they are recommended, to assure long Muid lite and clean systems = Possess good heat-transier characteristics ‘Have low vapor pressures at operating temperatures, to permit operation al atmospheric pressures * Have low viscosity, to decrease pumping losses ( due to pipe friction) and the power required for circulation ‘Protect metals against corrosion * Be available at moderate cost Water and steam are excellent heat-ransfer media. Water has a high specific heat; and steam, a high latent heat. They do not deteriorate with use and are low in cost, Both, however, will rust piping and other ferrous parts, High-temperature operations require ex- ae high-pressure equipment, as shown in Fig. 1 jing steam requires condensate return systems, the treatment of boller water {0 protect against scale, and in some cases, a licensed operator, None of these necessary when using a petroleum oil OW UA BuNDeH Fig. 1. Steam pressure increases vory rapidly a2 operating temperature increases. Petroleum (Mineral) Oils Stebility When typical petroleum fluids aro exposed to high tem- peratures. some of the carborhydrogen bonds breek and form new materials, This thermal cracking occurs in the absence of oxygen. Unsuitable heat-transter ils can crack at such high rates that extended service at temperatures even as iow as 204°C (40°F) is impossible. Thermal cracking forms both light, rela tively volatile products and heavier, more viscous prod- Uucts which increase the resistance of fuid flow through the system and lead to the formation of coke-lke deposits. Most petroleum ols will crack at the tem- peratures enccuntered in indirect heating systems, Whereas specially selected petroleum cis — such as the Mobiltherm oils — resist cracking I oilat high temperature is exposed to air, oxidation occurs at a relatively rapid rate The rasuiting oxy- products thicken the oil and eventually form insoluble material that is deposited on heater and other surfaces of the system, These coke-ike deposits interfere with heat transfer, In order to maintain needed bulk cil temperatures, higher heater temperatures are neces. sary to overcome the insulating effect of these depos- its. The higher surface temperatures, however, are likely to cause heater tube failures. Consequently ‘oxygen must be excluded trom the hot oil in any indi roct heating system using petroloum oils. Mobiltherm heat-transier oils were developed specifi- cally for this type of service, They have proved their value at temperatures up to 316°C (600°F) tor extended periods, and under low-temperature condi tions, such as in snow-melting installations. Systems can operate at atmospheric pressure ai temperatures up t9 316°C (600°F) with Mobiltherm 600, or 288°C (50°F) with Mobiltherm 603 and 605 heat transfer oils. Mobiltherm 608 is available only from Mobil Interrational Division in areas where Mobiltherm 603 is not available ‘Thermal Expansion Like all fluids, mineral oils expand when heated, The extent cf expansion varies with the temperature rise and the particuar fluid involved. Expansion can be considerable and the system must have the means to take care af it. Far example, 100 gallons (978.5 liters) ct mineral oil at 10°C (50°F) will become 114 gallons (431.5 liters) when heated to 232°C ( 45 F). The actual expansion of Mobiltherm ail can be calculated from the equation Percent Increase in Volume = 0.035 X Rise in Tem- perature (°F ); or Percent Increase in Volume = 0.089 X Rise inTem- peratura (=C Heat-Transfer System A correctly designed system is essential for the suc- cessful use of Mobiltherm oils. Fig. 2 is a schematic 2 dir ail eel aa, cea, ao fecormonded wher these prods are sed vais ea The "sei he ent to wich Peal soto Reconrensicas te oko Daves ol ots sty of custanzed teed stata fs tana’ oso os Warspralepacage Expansion Tank A correctly desioned expansion tank is important for trouble-iree operation. It permits the oil to expand in. the system without exposing hat oil to air. it functions as a coldil soal which is essential to the oil's long service life. The temperature af oil in the tank should not be more than 54°C (10°F), if is vented to the atmosohere. Expansion Tank Size — Tank capacity should be twice the calculated expansion volume. That is, the tank will be 25% ful when the all in the sysiem is cold and approximately 75% full when the oil is hot. This leaves half of the tank volume for ail expansion. For the example given earlier, the tank size chould be 14 x 2 = 28 gal (53 X 2 = 106 liters). A vertical tank of relatively large height-to-diameter ratio will expose as little of the cil surface to air as possible, ‘Tank Location and Piping — A secondary, but important, function of the expansion tank is to provide for the change in air volume as the of lovel in the tank rises and falls with the change in oil volume in the sys- tem, Therefore, the tank must be vented to permit the air to escape, and must be placed higher than all out- lets. It is connected to the pump suction, or return, line. To maintain cold oil in the expansion tank, the tank and connecting piping should not be nsulated. In some instanoas, a cooling water jacket may be desir- able. Lines should be just large enough to take care. of surges caused by rapid temperature changes, to minimize convection currents which will heat the oil in the tank. Restricting flow with an orifice will also rini= mize convection heating, In some systems, several lines connect the expansion tank to various points in the system to facilitate filing oF to eliminate air lock. These extra lines rmust includ valves so that they can be closed during normal opera tion to avoid overheating the expansion tank through thermo-siphon heating VENT LINE 4, 2° FLL LINE OVER TEMPERATURE curour ven OVER-ERESSURE Let P- PRESSURE GAGE 7_ THERMOMETER F—FLOW SENSOR capcuvatine 6 = q OVERFLOW veNT usea re STRAINER, “RETURN STRAINER Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of a closed heatransfor system designed for Mobiltnerm heat-ranster oils Fittings — The tank should have an oil level gauge, a thermometer. a vent line from the top of the tank, @ drain, an overfiow line, and a filing connection. The tank should be covered to prevent contamination. ‘As the oil in the system contracts, the oil level in the expansion tank falls and moist air enters the warm expansion tank, As the tank cools, water may con: dense and settle to the bottom of the tank. To prevent this water from entering the system, the oil line (Fig. 2) should enter the tank above the maximum water leval, but well below the lowest oi level, The expansion tank should have a cone-shaped or dished bottom, with a drain from the lowest point Inert Blanket — In many applications, oil tampera- tures in the expansion tank cannot be kept below 54°C (130°F), To reduce the possibilty of oxida- Gene. such as nitrogen, may be used to maintain a sigh pesitive pressure in the expansion tank. This method will require a prossure-relie! vant valve, a demand requiator, and a source of oxygen- free nitrogen. Pumps Either centrifugal or positive-displacement pumps can circulate oil through heattranster systems. With a centrifugal pump, ihe pumping head required to crou late the oll at the desired rate Is important. Figs. 3, 4, and 5 ale chars for determining the pressure drop in pipe and tubing A pump should have the capactyy to circulate the oil at a rate that will provide the heat required by the users, plus heat losses, with a reasonable temperature drop at 11 19 20°C (20 to 50°F) across the users Often, both the pump and a backup duplicate wil operate during the heating-up period in snow-meliing installalions. When the snow-melting area is up to temperature, one pump usuelly is sufficient to mett snow as it falls Pumps designed specifically for handling hot oil must have fece or deep-oland shaft seals and packing mate- rial suitable for high-temperature petroleum fluid ser- vice. Leakage {rom the pump seals snoud not be returned to the system for reuse. Becrings and seals, may be water-cooled. The bearings must be lubrice- ted separately, because the heat transfer oil is not’ suitable lubricant. TUBE SIZE & GAUGE 348 arg 1-14 —— TEMPERATURE | CORRECTION MULTIPLIER: 1.99 10128 125 12 15 132 108 190 PRESSURE DROP —PSI PER 100 FT £ susec hint orssie 2 $ @ 8 Brest 2 ad ad 5060 BO 10) FLOW — GPM AT 500 F Fig. 3. Chart for determining pressure drop thet results from Mobittherm Light flowing in tubes. Adapted trom material provided by Struthere Welle Corp. if Texrensrine | COnnectiION PRESSURE DROP — PSI PER 100 FT ry sso 135, oa Ho 08 sy os oa E00 tae FLOW — GPM AT 500 F Fig. 4. Chart for determining pressure drop thet results from Mobiltherm 600 flowing in Schedule-40 pipe. Courtesy of Struthers Weils Corp. 4 NONINAL SIZE, SCHEDULE-40 PIPE si T Ll MULTIPLES PRESSURE DROP —PSI PER 100 FT to 230 «4080 FLOW — GPM AT 500 F © os. charter deeming pressue dep hat sess Yom Meltberm 60 Nowng in Seheaue40 ig. Courtesy of Stathers Pumps must be placed so that they discharge to the ll heater, Their inlet should be under positive pres- sure to prevent air from being drawn into the system through the shaft seals Airis detrimental to both the oil and the system. ‘Stiainers placed at the pump inlet will protect positive displacement pumps from coarse contaminants. Finer filers, on a by-pass loop, are used in some systems. Heater The heating unit is the most citical part of the system because of its possible offect on the heat-transfer oil ‘Whether oil is heated electrically (Fig. 6), by steam, or in gas or oil heaters (Fig. 7), the heater must have the capacity to raise the heattransfer oi to the desired temperature, The rate of heat flow to the oll depends con (@) the temperature diferance maintained between the ol and the outside surtace of the tube, and (b) on the total resstance to the flow of heat The total resistance to heat flow is the sum of the Fig. 6. Electric heating unit with one element partly removed resistance of the metal tube and the resistance of the to Show tins tnat increase heating surface, 5 Fig 7 Gibfired unit for heating Mobitthern 600 oil consists ‘ofa section that receives heal largely by radiation and 2 sec~ fond section that receives heat by conduction trom combus~ tion gees. thin, more or less stationary layer of oil on the inside surface of the 1uge. The lermperature drops caused by these resistances to heat flow are shown in Fig. 8 ‘The resistance to heat flow though the stationary oil layer depends on fluid velocity, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, specific gravity, and tube diame- ter. in heatsransfer terminology. a high resistance 10 heat transfer is indicated by a low film coettclent ot heat transter, ard a low resistance by a high film ccotficiont Figs. 9, 10 and 11 show how emall changes in fiuic velocity, pipe diameter, of oil temperature cause large changes in the film coefficient of heat transfer. The temperature correction factor aiven includes the effects of viscosity, specitc gravity, end specific neat. Low film coefficients result in heat absorption by the oil film It the oll fle Gels too hot it may crack and form a layer of coke an the wall of the pipe oF tube High rates of heat tow from the metal curtace. For instance, low oil velocity may cause a low film coelf- cient of heat transfer. which may raise the oil fim tem perature 19 56°C (100°F) oF more above the buk ol temperature If the bulk oll temperature is close 10 its Iraximum recommended service temperature, thermal racking may occur in the thin stanonary film. The layer of coke formed on the wall of the tube ot pipe Fig. 8. Resistance fo heat flow. A and 8 diagram the tem perature drops that occur when heat from a furnace flows Trough the walls of @ metal tube to 9 liquid flowing inaido ‘The temperature of the metal depends on the rate of Neat flow and the resistance offered to heat flow by the metal and tne thin boundary fiquid tim at the inside tube surtoce. A shows the relative level of temperatures when te resistance tered by the liquid film is OW. B shows the relative increase In metal temperature for the same rate of heat tow ‘when the resistance offered by the liauid film is high, Resls- fance to heat flow by the liquid film is function of tuld velocity, viscasly, specific neat, thermal conductivity, spe tific gravity, ane tube dameter. ae TUBE SIZE AND GAGE 17-16 1% °-14_1¥%2'-14 5 T T 1 T | seupenarune | [ . [ «Q CORRECTION ] | Be 9 eur TeueR Tr T 7 6S ar Approx Za yo O88 avSEC aa a) O70 | Fa 30 20 119 + Lz io ay er 0 08 wi # 380 1.00 T T co | | 5 f Sy aw 7 ; - go ao f 4 = - « ] h= 93 | op | za j 5 | = 00 | 1111 | i | = 1 2 a 45 6 8 10 ca 30 40 80 60 «BD 100) FLOW — GPM AT 380 F Fig. 9. Charl for determining film costticients of heat transter when using Nobiltheim Light in tubing. Adapted from material prepaies by Strainers wells Corp. NOMINAL SIZE, SCHEDULE-40 PIPE 112° 2 3 a 5 = : 1 LEE Bex = rextenane’ ++ Lay 8 “Goenection = MULTE Be iol = mermen 5 5 5 snl % Za fa 0m Ee = Ge wl & o gre band too, Oo. ei ft oe ee ne gs CF =5 a z at aor a FLOW —GPM AT 500 F wo 106 10. Chart for determining fim coetficients of heat transfer when using Mobiltherm 600 in Schedule-40 pipe. Courtesy of Struthers Wells Corp, NOMINAL Size, SCHEDULE-40 PIPE At FILM COEFFICIENT OF HEAT TRANSFER (CI) BTU/HR-F-SQ FT EXTERNAL SURFACE 108) FLOW — GPM AT 500 F 1%" 2 TEMPERATUSE (CORRECTION MULTPLIER oes Boo woo 407600 1000 Fig. 14 ‘Struthers Weils Corp, ‘really increases the overall resistance to heat flow, leading to increased tube surface temperatures and tube failure, The film temperature in welldesigned heaters is 14 to 28°C (25 to 50°F) above dulk-oil temperatures. To assure long oil Ife and freedom from coking, the temperature of the ail film on the inside surface of the tube should never be above the following limits at any place in the heater Mobiltherm 600, 605 Mobiltherm 603 Mobiltherm Light 330°C (625°F) 302°C (875°F) 218°C (425°F) When designing an oll- or gas-fred radian! heater for a specific application, prevent critical film temperatures by Keeping the total neal tux rate (Q) in the range of 8,000 to 12,500 Btu/aq t-hr cr, in terme of projected area at pipe, 25,000 to 40,000 Btu/tr sq ft. The fim temperature (Tt) is equal to the maximum temperature rise in the fm (. Timex) plus the local bulk temper- ature (Tuk) Ti = A Timax + Tbuk The maximum temperature sise in the film is calculated from the heat flux rate (Q) and the fluid fim coeff cient (Ct) as follows: Q (Blush — sq it) Cf (Btu /tr — sq ft — °F) A Timax Chart for determining film coetficients of heat transfer when using Mobillherm 603 in Schedule-40 pipe, Courtesy of The fluid film coeticient is a function of flow, ppe diameter and temperature, Use Fig. 9, 10. 0 1!, de- pending on the Mobitherm grade. For example, the oil film temperature (TH) ina typical 12,500-Btu ne-eq-t radiant heater circulating Mobiltherm 600 at S00°F through twolinch schedule 40 pipe at a rate of 55 gpm would be 63°F, ‘The oilsiim temperature of S63°F relers to that part of the heater having 2 buk cil temperature of 500°F the ol enters the heater at 475°F and exits at 50°F the ol fn temperatures near the inlet and outlet of the hoater would be 58°F and 613°F, respectively These values are safely below the recommended maxi- mum film temperature of €25°F lor Mobiltherm 600. To avoid hot spats, oil flow must be directed over the heating surfaces so that there are no areas of stagnant 8. Directed (fire tube type) heaters that depend only on convection currents to produce oil fow may have areas where there Is essentially no flow. These localized hot spots can overheat the oil and lead to deposits which insulate the steel surface, reduce heat transfer, and eventually cause the steel plate to rup- ture in this erea, This also can happen in a tube-type heater ifthe rate of heat input per unit area of tube e surface is too high ‘The heat storage capacity of the combustion chamber of fushfired heaters should be low, $0 that the olf will rot overheat in case of an unexpected shutdown of the circulating pump. It is critical to have a safety device that will shut off the burners automatically in case of 2 pump shutdown. ‘The rate of energy input to electric heaters is constant ‘and independent of the fluid or working temperature. If the oll does not accept and distribute heat as fast as provided, the heater temperature wil rise until the heat is carried away by circulating oi It deposits intetere with heat transfer, excessive local- ized temperatures may degrade the oil and damage the heater. Therefore, electrical energy should be supplied at @ sate rate This sate rate depends on the velocity of oil circulating past the heating surfaces, temperature, characteristics of the oil, and design of the heater. Typical values run from 6 to over 18 watts per $9 in. ping Carbon stool pipe such as ASTM A-53 or ASTM A- 106 seamless steel is preferred for the entire system, Except for small parts such as pump bushings and valves, do not use copper and copper alloys because they promote oll oxidation and sludge formation, Do rot use cast iron because it tends to fracture. See Appendix for details. Pressure Regulator A pressure regulator should be nstalled between the heater discharge and the pump inlet. This wil permit constant circulation of oil at optimum valocity through the heating units when the thermostatic control reduces or stogs the flow of hot oil to the user. The pressure regulator acts as a by-pass to accommodate ‘tat portion of the hol oil not required by the user, by dirocting the ol back to the pump and heater. If there were no pressure regulator, the decrease in rate of flow of oil caused by the thermostatic control will lead to temperature increases which might burn out the heating elements, Controts Safety devices and controls, including thermometers and pressure gauges, protect heat transfer systems against excessive temperatures and pressures, and fow and flame failures, User (Process Vessel) The user equipment, in which the hot oil gives up its heat, should be designed for maximum heat transfer. It should have sufficient surface area so that only a srrall thermal head will be needed. A temperature dif- ferential of about 10°C (50°F) between the of and the contents of the vessel is good design practice. Materials Packing end gasket material shouid be excepticnally fesistent 10 all. Commonly used materials are: Application Range Buna-N Below 93°C (200°F) Viton Up to 121°C (250°F) Telion® (juorinated resin) Above 121°C (250°F) Metalic (Over 204°C (40°F) Iron and carbon steel are preferred for the entire sys- tem, Do not use copper and copper alloys in hot-oil systems because they are powertul catalysts that pro- mote oxidation and siudging, Exceptions may be made for small paris, such as valves, instruments, and bush: ings. See Appendix for details. Mobiltherm Light, 600, 603, and 605 Mobiltherm heat-transfer oils have boon in successiul Use since the early 1940s. Mobilthem 603 and 605 are more recent products which provide greater protec- tion through resistance to oxidation when leaks in the system alow the entraiiment of air. Their lower vis cosities (Fig. 12) make them suitable for applications, where one fiuid both heats and cools. Mobiltherm cils are exceptionally resistant to deteriora- tion by thermal cracking and, therefore, are eminently sutable for heat transfer systems. They differ among grades principally in solvency, pour point and dstila~ tion range. The applications for Mobitherm oils are summarized below Mobiltherm Bulk Oil Limit 600 © <316°C (600°) = 12°C (10°F) Applications Older heat-transier sys toms whore its ability to solubilize degradation products is beneficial ‘when coking is present from a previous charge Welldesgned, air-tight systems, especially for high flow rates at rea sonably low tempera tures, 603 © <288°C (50°F) >=7°C (25°F) 605 -—7°C (25°F) Light <204%C (aoasF) 26°C (—15°F) Good low-temperature fuldity makes it especial- ly applicable where ele ments of the system are exposed t0 lower tem peralures, of to below- freezing temperatures during shutdown, KINEMATIC VISCOSITY — eSt EN SYSTEM "YPE| MINERAL OF Fig. 12. Temperature-viscosity characteristics of Mobiltherm Light, Mabiltherm 600, Mobitherm 603, ang Mebiltnerm 605. Pour Point is denoted by a short, vertical stioke. Viscosity determinations are approximations (dashed line} a6 pour point is ‘approaches. Typical physical characteristics of Mobiltherm oils are listed in Table 1, and the physical properties needed for heat and pressure-drop calculations are given in Figs. 12, 13, and 14. The upper limits given for Mobiltherm oils are based on their boiling pons at atmospheric pressure and on their thermal stabilty. If used above these levels, vapor lock may result unless the system is designed for higher temperatures. Do not use Mobiltherm cils above their maximum operating temperatures. Higher temperatures shorten fluid fife because the rate of thermal deterioration increases markedly as temperatures increase Mobittherm List 600 83s Specie Grany, SngorF(iss95C) 0958 asa ows; Fash Poin"C.°=) 116,240) +77 (360) 190/00) 204 400) PourPont,‘C(F) 29/20) 48 (8) 4125) —-15(5) gal, 60°F a2 787272 ‘egir, 15.6°0) (0002) ose) foxes) ose) Dislaton, ASTI, °C) 10% Point 858 (05) 991 735) 374,705) 969,750) 50% Paint 226 (618) $18,785) 416,780) «29 (605) 80% Point #02 (158) 456 @50) 4601860) 457 (855) Table 1, Typical Physical Cheracteristics, 10 Advantages of Mobiltherm Oils ‘When used in correctly designed systems, Mobiltherm ols have a number of advantages: Resistance to Thermal Cracking — Mobilthermn oils show litte sign of oil deterioration at the temperatures. for which they are recommended. The flash poin's, therefore, remain practically unchanged after years of operation, In one instance, the flash point of ‘Mobithe'm 600 dropped only 3°G (5°F) alter 4.000 hours-of service. Elimination of Sludge and Coke Deposits — ‘Mobithe'm oils resist thermal decomposition, There: fore, sludge and coke deposits which interfere with heat transfer are minimized Long Service Life — Ten years oil life has been dac- umented in a number of properly maintained and oper ated systems, There are no simple criteria for determining the useful lite of heat-ranster ols, This decision must be based (on laboratory examination of the used cil and compari; son with previous analyses o! the oil when it was new and during its service life. The information must be weighed by experienced engineers against the operat: ing conditions for the system under consideration, SPECIFIC HEAT — BTU/LB-F x THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY — BTU/HR-F-FT TEMPERATURE OF OIL—F Fig. 19, Specific heat and thermal conductivity of Nobilthorm Light, Mebiltnerm 602, and Mobitharm 603 at @ fetes Mobil laboratories provide a valuable service by ana- lyzing samples of used Mobiltherm oils and determining their suilabiity for continued use Easier Starting — Because of the low viscosities of Mobiitherm oils, cold systems can be put into opera- tion quickly. In one case, starting tme was cut trom 4 hours to 1's hours with valuable savings in labor cost, power consumption and lost production Mobiltherm 600 pumps at temoeratures of -15°C (S°F), ard Mobiltherm Light at temperatures as low as ~26°C (=15°F). Although the recommended minimum pumping temperature for Mobiltherm 603 of ~7°C. (20°F) is somewhat higher than that of Mobithe:m Light or Mobiltherm 609, its viscosity a1 temperatures above -7°C (20°F) (Fig. 12) is considerably lower than that of Mobiltherm 600. This characteristic pro vides good circulation at all (emperetures above —7° (20°F) and permits jis use for cooling and heating in combined-cycle systems. Higher Heat-Transfer Rates — The low viscosities of Mobitherm oils also result in higher rates of heat trans: fer than are obtained with more viscous materials 6 This increases the efficiency of the whole system. Protection Against Corrosion — With Mabitherm Gils in service, system piping remains smooth and free from corresion and deposits, Further, their good uid ity reduces the power required for oil circulation thereby contributing to operating economy, Applications Snow-meling is a major application for Mobitherm oils, A typical system should incorparate grids of 1-in wrought iron Schedule 40 pipe on 124in centers in @ Grin-thick conorete slab. The grid should be 2": in below the upper surface of sidewalks, and 3 in below the upper suriace of driveways. The 6-in concrete slab should ba separated from the gravel base by @ polyetiylene membrane to prevent water from seeping Up through the concrete Place the system in service in advance of predicted snow to assure melting when snaw first falls During the starting period, temperature at the inlet of the heat ing cols shoud rot be more than 40°F above the Feturn-oil temperature to prevent the concrete slab from cracking, Cail inlet ol temperature should not exceed 175°F In addition, Mobiltherm oils are recommended for indi rect heating systems in a wide variety of manufactu~ ing and processing applications: asphalt, waxes, oreases, plasiics, foodstuffs, chemicals, vegetable oils, rubber compounds, paints and vamishes, paper and textiles, and solar heating Operating Notes Initial Filling and Start-Up Beiore fillng a new system, make sure that all safety ‘and control devices are in working arder, and that the system has been pressure tested for leaks. Do not use water because i! is too dificult to remove com- pletely from the system Test for leaks with either pressurized air on the interior and soapy water on the exterier of all joints, or the Mobiltherm oil to be used in the system Fill the system in @ way that also removes the air ‘One method is to pump out the air with @ vacuum pump and fil the system from the expansion tank ‘This method has the advantage of removing mosture that may be present from candensation The eystem also can be filled through a connection between the pump inlet and the inlet shutotf valve. ‘This usualy is the Jowest point in the system, and Mebiltherm oil pumped in at ths point wif force air ahead of itand out the vents, All vents, including those on user equipmert, must be open during the Jil: ing operation and attended by an operatar who will 4 boo +20 ae 25 SPECIFIC GRAVITY VAPOR PRESSURE — mm OF HG. ABS. ED EY 7 3 Tar TEMPERATURE, F Joure of Mobiltherm Light, Mobitherm 600, Mobiltherm 609, ond Mobiierm GOS at var Fig, 14, Specitic gravity and vapor pe ‘ous temperatures. lose them when air is purged and fluid appears, could froth and averfiow Minimize dlficulties ith Where it is not convenient to set up a smell pump on water by bringing the temperature up slowly. Some the Mobiltherm drum, use the system circulating pure ——_weter vagor will be released thraugh the expansion by closing the pump main suction valve and supplying tank, but vents at the high paints may have to be fluid under positive head through the connection, cracked open to relieve steam | the pump becomes vapor-bound, slightly crack the vents on the pump case fo remove the water vapor. Dificulties with water are avoidable if, as recommended, the system is pressure-tested with Mobiltherm ol or air instead of ‘The fluid should circulate through the system for three to four hours to eliminate air pockets and io be sure the system is full The exparsion tank should be one: quarter full when the system is cold. After the intial water. period of circulation, inspect and clean the pump suc “ tion strainers Instruments — After the system has reached & steady state, record readings of thermometers and Start-Up — Alter the strainers have been cleared and pressure gauges for fulure reference. This informa ‘installed and the circulating pump placed in opera- tion, taken when the system is new and clean, will pro tion, the heater can be started. On inital start-up vide a bate lor judging luture performance. tempereture should be raised slowly, aboul 56°C (100°F) per hr (assuming the setting of a fueled Filling Systems Previously Using @ heater has been tried out previously) Conventional Cils Water — If water is present, steam will form during Thermal decompositan of conventional ails may pro- the heatingup period and its expansion will cause duce guirmy and coke-ike deposits. Mobiltnerm Light bumping and force oil into the expansion tank. The oil and Mobilthe:m 600 are highly aromatic and have a strong solvent action on the gummy materiais and may loosen some of the coke-like deposits. The loosened solid materials wll collect an strainers and can be removed, but it should be understaod thal they were left by the praduct formerly used. Inspect the strainer regulariy to prevent clogging as long as purging contin- les. While the cleaning action removes the deposits which roiard circulation and heat transfor, the gummy raterial held in solution may shorten the lite of the initial charoe Regular Operation Never operate the system with any of the satety devices out of service. Thay prevent damage to equipment and shauld always be in operating condition, To prevent Not spots, ctculating pumps should always tbo in operation, with fuid flowing through the heater before itis started. Shut the heater off before stopping the pump. The pump shauld operate for as long as 30 minuies after the heat nas been shutoff to prevent injurious hot spots. Adding Make-Up Mobitherm oils may be added as make-up to the expansion tank or at the pump inlet, Do no! add con- ventional ols to.a system containing Mabiltherm ails. Tho thormal stability of the Mebilthorm ails will bo reduced in proportion to the amount of conventional oil added. Mobitherm Light and Mobiltherm 600 have high solvencies and the addition of materials of lewer solvency might cause deposits (0 form. This applies to adding Mabitherm 803 or Mobilthern 605 to system: containing Mobitherm 800. Although the thermal stability of all four products is comparable, Mobitherm 1803 and 605 have much lower solvency than Mobittherm Ught and Mobiltherm 600. If desirable or necessary to use Mobiltherm Light or Mobiitherm 600 as make-up to Mabitherm Light ar Mobiltherm 600, do so only after a Mobi laboratory has analyzed a sample trom the system and determined the maximum permissible percentage of make-up Toxicology As lite as a few drops of Mobittherm Light and Mobiltherm 600 applied daily witout washing may produce serious toxic effects. These producis contain aromatic oils. Aromatic oils contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds, some of which have been shown fo cause skin cancer in humans under conaitions of poor personal hygiene and prolonged, repeated contact. Certain of these compounds also produced harmful effects in laboratory animals after absorption through the skin. If product contact is ikely, take the following precautions: © Wear oil-impervious clothing. Avoid skin contact, © Incase of skin contact, dry-wipe the skin, cleans the area with waterless nand cleaner, and follow by washing thoroughly with soap and water, © Avoid excessive breathing of mist or vapors. . Launder contaminated clothing belore re-use. Discard stoes if product has penetrated to inside surface. Mobiltinerm 603 and 605 ate formulated with solvent- refined or severely hydrotreated oils. Based on available toxicological information, these products pose no significant adverse effects on health when properly handled and used. No special precautions are sug gested beyond atiention to good personal hygiene, including avoiding repeated skin contact. Material Safely Data Bulletins are available from Mobil Commercial Division offices, ar by calling 1-800-227-0707, ext. 3205, Safety Design and operate heal-transfer systems to insure that the heat-transfer oil and the material being heated do not commingle. Depending on the material being heates and system operating temperatures, thermal and ‘or chemical reactions may eccur if commingling takes place. Typically, the fluid in a heat-transter system is at a temperature considerably above its flash point. How- ever, 2 leak will nat necessarily result in an immediate fire or explosion. Operating temperature and fluid vapor pressure, not flash point, determine if vapor will form in the system, The ignition hazard is a function of the operating tem peratures and pressures. The degree of atomization in the airis the most imporiant factor determining the ignition temperature of Mobiltherm oils. A fine mist from a minute facture in pressure piping can cause a mild explosion even al 109°C (212°F}, while a fine mist can seft-ignite at 240 to 279°C (480 to 535°) ‘Spontaneous heating tests performed by Factory Mutual Research Corporation snow that the autoign tion temperature of Mobitherm 600 is well above 371°C (700°F). However, insulation soaked with the oil willignite at 204°C (400°F). To minimize the hazard, Mobil recommends using foam glass or other non-absorbent insulation, and following a preventive maintenance program to minimize leakage and to replace oi-soaked insulation. Another approach is to not insulate flanges ina hot-of system. Protect flanges with a cap to prevent the oil from atomizing if there Is a small break in the gasket. In addition, a small drain hole in the bottom cf the cap wil warn of aleak in the flarge. 18 Appendix Pipe + Recommended: Seamless steel ASTM A-53 or ASTM A106. ‘= Fiping ove inch and under: A.A, Schedule 80 with screwed connestions made to gauge and clean cut ‘= Piping larger than one inch: 4.8.4. Schedule 40 with 1501b ASA flangod joints + Reamed pipe ends; pipe thoroughly clean and tree of sale belare assembly. * Wela pipe connections, wnerever possible. * Make suitable expansion allowances, basing expan- sion on a maximum temperature ot 316°C (600°F) Without proper allowance for expansion, there will be unde siresses on the piping and terminal equipment. ‘+ Frotect siping against mechanical inlury; support it securely ‘Insulate all main piping, except the equalizing line to the expansion tank, to save heat Separable Joints In pigina 1 inch (2.54 em) and smaller, use screwed pine connections with 600-b. steel groundijoint Unions. Make screwed joints with one of the follow: ing pipe compounds or equivalent materials: Kenneth Industries’ Plastiseal or Markal E-2 Sreak “ll threads made to gauge and clean cul. Do not depend on a sealing compound to make a good joint ‘ut of a poor one. + For piping larger than 1 inch, use flanged joints, Flanges should be 150+b A.S.A. raised face with a smooth finish. Forged-steel welding or slip-on flanges are suitable, The flange faces need not be ‘ground or otherwise polished. 14 Gaskets Satisfactory for het-oll service: »Patker Seals P-900 soft, corrugated stee! gasket (Coat with Kenneth Industries’ Plastiseal or Markal E-Z Break *Spiral-wound steel: Garlock Guardian, Parker Seals P-911, or Patker Parmite. Bolting "ASTM A-193 Grade B-7 alloy steel. Valves ‘In valve sizes abave two inches: 3004b, cast- or forged:steel valves equipped with extra-deep stuffing boxes designed to handle metallic foil or other high temperature packing Do not use brass valves Valves two inches and smaller: 6C0-Ib design in order to provide a stutiing box of suitable depth. Other specifications same as noted above for the larger valves. ‘Valve flanges: in accordance with the specifications, described for pipe joints ‘+ Recommended packings: Garlock 926 AFP spiral Durametalic D-19 spiral, Garlock 333 AFP molded Aluminum is the preferred metallic foil packing. When the service temperature exceeds 232°C (450°F), the aluminum foil may be used if a few rings of cop- per foll are placed in the bottom of the stuffing box * Diaphragm control valves: 300b cast-stee! construc: tion with radiation fin extensions. Auxiliary valve positioners generally are recommended + For thvolling oF tight shut-off, manual valves should be globe or engle type. Angle vaives give a lower pressure drop. Gate valves are recommandad tor pump inlet lines, etc., to minimize pressure drop, Temperature Conversions: Celsius (°C)+—+Fahrenheit (°F) Tonperatue Tomperaiure Tenperatue ¢ Corr F Cor F F ca 5 =40.0 -40 29.4 8s 198 989 210 410 31.2 =35 822 90 1941017 Bis 419 -24.4 =30 350 98 73 1044 220 428 ~31.7 -25 378 100 2121072 238 a7 =28.9 20 408 105 m1 1100 230 486 =15 433 110 2301128 235 485 =283 =10 464 145 291156 240 a4 =206 “5 “89 120 2aB 1103 265 478 -78 0 517 126 271214 250 sez 150 +5 Baa 130 268 1289 255 481 122 10 50572 35 2751287 50 -94 15 53 600 140 we 1204 505 -87 20 cs eze ias ws 1822 518 -38 25 7856 \s0 021380 827 4 30 a6 nS 155 an 1378 596 7 35 9714 160 #0 1806 285 545 “a 40 104738 168 291483 280 564 72 45 787 170 381461 235 563 10.0 50 2784 175 7140.9 300 572 28 55 131 on 180 95501517 305 581 15.6 60 140 85.0 185 365, 154.4 310 590 183 85 M387 90 ar 1872 315 593 ait 70 13880 195 3831600 320 608 23.9 75 17 93 200 sez 1828 328 817 267 30 178963 205 aor 1656 380 528 Imigponon Factor a F + 48 839 6 108 2.38 3a9 7 i128 3°54 444 8 144 472 500 9 162 590 555 10 180 Conversion Formulas To Convert From Te Use This Equation Degrees Fahrenheit Degrees Celsius (°F + 40)5/9-40 = °C Degrees Cesius Degrees Fahvenneit (°C + 40)9/5—40 = °F Bu Gal, gram tu » 282 = Cal, gram Cal, ram Bu Gal., gram x 0.00297 = Btu psi (or © per sq in) kp sq em psi x 0.0703 = kpsq cm ko/sq om psi kp/ 34 om x 14.22 = asi Ib (pound avdp.) kg tb x 0.454 = kg kg b kg x 2.205 = ib f m (meters) fx 0.905 = m m i mx 325 = gal (US., liquid) iter gal x 8.785 = her liter gal liter x 0.264 = gal ed kg/iter tb/gal x 0.1198 = kgitter 15 Mobil Oil Corporation © TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS 5225 GALLOWS ROAD, FAIRFAX, VIRGINIA 22037-0001 Copyright 1978, 1988, 1991, 1992. Al rights reserved Heating with Mobitherm Heat-Transter Oils (5-82 TaLesaoa07