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18BCE2333 Udit Uberoi

1. List the different types of sensors available (not less than 15) and create a table
mentioning sensor image, its usage, connection specifications, etc. An example of one sensor is
given in the following table.

SI.No. Image Sensor Usage Connection Other information


Name and specifications
#IC

1 Temperature They can be used 1 Vcc Temperature Range: 0°C


sensor to detect solids, 2 Data to 50°C
liquids or gases 3 NC Humidity Range: 20% to
DHT 11 over a wide range 4 Ground 90%
of temperatures. Resolution: Temperature
and Humidity both are
16-bit
Accuracy: ±1°C and ±1%

2 MQ-4 Used in gas leakage 1 H -Pins Detection Concentration:


Methane detecting equipment 2 A-Pins 200-10000ppm (Natural
Gas Sensor for homes and 3 B-Pins gas / Methane)
industry. They are Interface: 1 TTL
suitable for compatible input (HSW), 1
detecting of CH4 TTL compatible output
and CNG. (ALR)
Heater consumption: less
than 750mw

3 Flex Sensor Where you want to P1 Usually Can operate on LOW


measure the FLEX connected to voltages
or BENT or ANGLE positive of Power rating : 0.5Watt
change of any power source. (continuous), 1 Watt (peak)
instrument or Life: 1 million
device. The FLEX P2 Usually Operating temperature:
SENSOR internal connected to -45ºC to +80ºC
resistance changes ground. Flat Resistance: 25K Ω
almost linearly with Resistance Tolerance:
its flex angle. ±30%
Bend Resistance Range:
45K to 125K
Ohms(depending on bend)
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4 FSR400 - As mentioned P1 Simple and easy to


Force earlier, FORCE integrate
Sensor SENSOR terminal Terminal one of Operating temperature:
resistance sensor -40ºC to +85ºC
decreases when Non actuated Resistance:
pressure is applied P2 10M Ω
on the surface of the Device rise time: < 3 Micro
sensor.So force Terminal two of second
sensor is basically a sensor Bend Resistance Range:
VARIABLE 100K to 1K
RESISTOR whose Ohms(depending on force)
terminal resistance
depends on surface
pressure.

5 IR Sensor Obstacle Detection VCC Range: Up to 20cm


Module Industrial safety
devices Power Supply Adjustable Sensing range
Wheel encoder Input
Built-in Ambient Light
GND Sensor

Power Supply 20mA supply current


Ground

OUT

Active High
Outpu

6 APDS9960 We can use it for 1 VL Operating Voltage: 2.4V to


Proximity, gesture detection, 2 GND 3.6V.
Gesture and ambient and RGB 3 VCC Operating current: 0.2mA.
Ambient light sensing, 4 SDA Communication protocol:
Light Sensor proximity sensing 5 SCL 400KHz
etc. It can be used 6 INT Highly sensitive Ambient
to give the RGB and RGB sensing through
ratings of the light, UV and IR blocking filters.
because many times For gesture sensing there
we need a particular are four photodiodes,
RGB rated light, so which are sensitive to
that can be different to next directions
manipulated so that it can detect
accordingly. It is complex gestures easily.
used in many
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phones to disable
the screen while
someone is dialing
the phone and
keeping it on ear.

7 Pulse Sleep Tracking 1 Ground Black Plug and Play type sensor
Sensor Anxiety monitoring Operating Voltage: +5V or
Remote patient Connected to +3.3V
monitoring/alarm the ground of Current Consumption:
system the system 4mA
Health bands Inbuilt Amplification and
Advanced gaming 2 Vcc Red Noise cancellation circuit.
consoles Diameter: 0.625”
Connect to +5V Thickness: 0.125” Thick
or +3.3V
supply voltage

3 Signal
Purple

Pulsating
output signal.

8 VL53L0X – Obstacle detection 1 VIN Communication: I2C


LIDAR in robotics. protocol
Distance Hand detection in Power supply 940 nm safe and long
Sensor hand driers, soap for the board ranging laser VCSEL
dispensers, faucets can be In-built 2.8V linear voltage
etc. powered by regulator
Gesture recognition 2.6V to 5.5V Fast and accurate distance
in one dimension. ranging. It can measure up
Widely used in 2 GND to 2m
camera autofocus to Ground of the Prevents optical cross talk
enhance in the module efficiently.
camera
performance in low 3 SCL
light or fast moving Serial Clock
objects conditions. Line pin, used
Used as a proximity for I2C
sensor in many communication
phones.
4 SDA
Serial Data
Address pin,
used for I2C
communication
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9 Piezoelectric Production and Outer Circle Impedance:≤500Ω;


Sensor detection of sound Voltage:≤30Vp-p;
Generation of high This gives Operating
voltage Negative temperature:-20°C~+60°C
Electronic output voltage Storage
Frequency temperature:-30°C~+70°C
generation Inner Circle Low Soldering temperature
Microbalances Strain sensitivity: 5V/µƐ
Ultra-fine focusing of This gives Material: Quartz (mostly
optical assemblies positive output used)
Everyday voltage
applications like
cigarette lighters

10 BMP085 - Indoor and outdoor 1 Ground I2C interface


Barometric navigation Fully calibrated
Pressure Sports equipment 2 EOC End Of Pb-free, halogen-free and
Sensor Weather forecast Conversion) RoHS compliant
Temperature sensor pin is used as Pressure range: 300 ...
Vertical velocity an indicator to 1100hPa (+9000m ...
indication speed up -500m above sea level)
Enhancement of conversion Operating voltage range:
GPS navigation time 1.8V to 3.6V
Hobby projects Operating temperature
3 Vdda range: -40ºC to +85ºC
Conversion time
4 Vddd temperature: 4.5ms
maximum
5 NC Conversion time pressure:
25.5ms maximum
No Connection

6 SCL

I2C interface -
Serial Clock pin

7 SDA

I2C interface -
Serial Data pin

8 XCLR

Master clear
pin (Active low)
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11 TCS3200 The sensor has four GND Input voltage: (2.7V to


Color Sensor different types of 5.5V)
Module filter covered 4 Interface: Digital TTL
diodes. In the 8 x 8 High-resolution conversion
array of Power supply of light intensity to
photodiodes, 16 ground. All frequency
photodiodes have voltages are Programmable colour and
Red filters, 16 have reference to full-scale output frequency
Blue filters, 16 have the ground. No need of ADC(Can be
Green filters and the directly connected to the
rest 16 photodiodes VCC digital pins of the
are clear with no microcontroller)
filters. Each type 5 Power down feature
can be activated Working temperature:
using the S2, S3 Supply voltage -40oC to 85oC
selection inputs. Size:
Since each OE 28.4x28.4mm(1.12x1.12")
photodiodes are
coated with different 3
filters each of them
can detect the Enable for FO
corresponding (Active low)
colours. For
example, when OUT
choosing the red
filter, only red 6
incident light can get
through, blue and Output
green will be frequency (fo)
prevented. By
measuring the S0, S1
frequency, we get
the red light 1, 2
intensity. Similarly,
when choose other Select lines for
filters we can get output
blue or green light. frequency
scaling
We can also set the
frequency scaling S2, S3
option by using the
S0, S1 select lines. 7,8
Normally, in Arduino
20% frequency Select lines for
scaling is used. photodiode
type.
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12 ACS712 The ACS712 1 Vcc Measures both AC and DC


Current Module uses the Input voltage is current
Sensor famous ACS712 IC +5V for typical Available as 5A, 20A and
Module to measure current applications 30A module
using the Hall Effect Provides isolation from the
principle. The 2 Output load
module gets its Outputs Analog Easy to integrate with
name from the IC voltage MCU, since it outputs
(ACS712) used in proportional to analog voltage
the module, so for current Scale Factor
you final products
use the IC directly 3 Ground
instead of the Connected to
module. ground of
circuit
These ACS712
module can T1 Wire In
measure current AC The wire
or DC current through current
ranging from +5A to has to be
-5A, +20A to -20A measured is
and +30A to -30A. connected here
You have to select
the right range for T2 Wire Out
your project since
you have to trade off
accuracy for higher
range modules. This
modules outputs
Analog voltage
(0-5V) based on the
current flowing
through the wire;
hence it is very easy
to interface this
module with any
microcontroller. So if
you are looking for a
module to measure
current using a
microcontroller for
you project then this
module might be the
right choice for you.
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13 MPU6050 - Used for IMU 1 Vcc MEMS 3-aixs


Acceleromet measurement accelerometer and 3-axis
er and Drones / Quad 2 Ground gyroscope values
Gyroscope copters combined
Module Self balancing 3 Serial Clock Power Supply: 3-5V
robots (SCL) Communication : I2C
Robotic arm controls protocol
Humanoid robots Used for Built-in 16-bit ADC
Tilt sensor providing clock provides high accuracy
Orientation / pulse for I2C Built-in DMP provides high
Rotation Detector Communication computational power
Can be used to interface
The MPU6050 is a 4 Serial Data with other IIC devices like
Micro (SDA) magnetometer
Electro-Mechanical Configurable IIC Address
Systems (MEMS) Used for In-built Temperature
which consists of a transferring sensor
3-axis Data through
Accelerometer and I2C
3-axis Gyroscope communication
inside it. This helps
us to measure 5 Auxiliary
acceleration, Serial Data
velocity, orientation, (XDA)
displacement and
many other motion Can be used to
related parameter of interface other
a system or object. I2C modules
This module also with MPU6050.
has a (DMP) Digital It is optional
Motion Processor
inside it which is 6 Auxiliary
powerful enough to Serial Clock
perform complex (XCL)
calculation and thus
free up the work for Can be used to
Microcontroller. interface other
I2C modules
with MPU6050.
It is optional

7 AD0
If more than
one MPU6050
is used a single
MCU, then this
pin can be
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used to vary
the address

8 Interrupt
(INT)

Interrupt pin to
indicate that
data is
available for
MCU to read.

14 A3144 Hall A hall-effect sensor 1 +5V (Vcc) Digital Output Hall-effect


effect Sensor as then name sensor
suggests works with Used to power Operating voltage: 4.5V to
the principle of the hall sensor, 28V (typically 5V)
hall-effect and is typically +5V is Output Current: 25mA
used to detect used Can be used to detect both
magnets. Each side the poles of a magnet
of the sensor can 2 Ground Output voltage is equal to
detect one particular operating voltage
pole. It can also be 3 Output Operating temperature:
easily interfaced -40°C to 85°C
with a This pin goes Turn on and Turn off time
microcontroller since high, if magnet is 2uS each
it works on transistor detected. Inbuilt reverse polarity
logic. Output voltage protection
is equal to Suitable for Automotive
So if you are looking Operating and Industrial Applications
for a sensor to voltage.
detect magnet for
measuring speed of
a moving object or
just to detect objects
then this sensor
might be the perfect
choice for your
project.
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15 SW-520D - Security systems. GND Supply voltage: 3.3 V to 5V


Tilt Sensor Digital cameras Connected to Output can directly
Module Toys GROUND connected to controller
Motors TTL level output
Robotic arms VCC Maximum output current :
Vending machines. Connected to 15mA
Measuring +5V Can work on low voltages
instruments. Maximum operating
Hobby projects. DO temperature: 0°C to +
Output of TILT 80°C
SENSOR Easy interface
Long life

2. Design a module for smart city, named smart municipal water release approach. The tank
should have two sensors one is to identify the maximum tank capacity and the other is to
maintain the minimum water level as a backup. The tank should automatically release the water
at a particular time every day. The water which is released by tank should be noted in online
cloud. Consider ThinkSpeak / Amazon Web Service (AWS) for this process. Design the same
using any simulator (ThinkCad) / NodeRed / others and display the diagram here.

The water-level sensors perform a two way communication with the Raspberry Pi where it sends
back the raw sensor data when the Raspberry Pi demands for it. This sensor works on the
SONAR principle where it emits an ultrasonic sound wave and receives it back. When the
voltage on the “TRIG” pin is high it emits the sound wave and on receiving it back the voltage on
the ECHO pin is set to “HIGH”.

Raspberry Pi: The Raspberry Pi houses a Node.js script which performs a two-way
communication with the water-level sensor and the MQTT broker respectively. It receives a
request from the Android or Web client via the MQTT broker to get the water-level. On getting
the request it sends a “HIGH” signal to the sensor‟s TRIG pin. The sensor then emits an
ultrasonic sound wave which sets the ECHO pin to HIGH after receiving it. This “HIGH” signal is
received back by the Raspberry Pi. The Pi then calculates the distance based on the time
elapsed between the sending and receiving of the sound wave. It then communicates with the
MQTT broker and sends it the calculated distance.

MQTT Broker: The MQTT broker is a central server which runs on Amazon Web Service‟s EC2
instance. The broker acts as a bridge that connects all the modules. It is the centralized MQTT
server that hosts topics through with the communication takes place. For the broker all the
connected devices are clients (website, Android app, and Raspberry Pi). The website and/or
Android app requests the Raspberry Pi to send the water-level which is received by the broker
first. It then locates all the devices subscribed to that topic, finds Raspberry Pi in the list, and
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forwards it the request. Similarly, when the Raspberry Pi calculates the level it publishes the
level data to a particular topic which is received by the broker first. The broker then looks for all
the devices subscribed to the particular topic, finds website and/or Android app in the list, and
forwards the level-data.

Through explaination is given in the research paper which was similar to the idea I had
envisioned as the logistics weren’t worked out the paper is linked below which shows what a
refined solution will look like. In essence the logic and idea behind it is the same. You could use
a different protocol or a different sensor for your approach but the basics will still be that, basics.
Due to lack of time due to CAT II, I won’t be able to elaborate further but I could after CATS and
projects are over.

Citations:

https://www.ijarcce.com/upload/2016/august-16/IJARCCE%2067.pdf

https://components101.com/sensors/