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# Limitations of Propositional Logic

##  Which can NOT be expressed using

propositional logic?
Ex1: How do you make a statement about all
even integers from integers? (any x, x mod 2 = 0)
Ex2: Every computer connected to the
university network is functioning properly,
which can imply () CS1 is functioning
properly.
 A more general language: Predicate logic

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 1

Predicate Logic (1/3)
Predicate Calculus or Predicate Logic
• Predicate – refers to a property that the subject
of a statement can have.
• The area of logic that deals with predicates and
quantifiers (e.g. for any  and there exists )
E.G. “x is greater than 3”
x is the subject and “is greater than 3” is a
predicate.
• A predicate which binds with variable(s) is called
propositional function.

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 2

Predicate Logic (2/3)
 Propositional function P at x, P(x), once a value has
been assigned to x, P(x) becomes a proposition and
has a truth value. Domain of x is critical.
E.g.: P(x): x is an even number. Then P(1) is false
and P(2) is true,….where Domain(x) = all integers.
 Examples of predicates:
 Domain is ASCII characters - IsAlpha(x) : TRUE iff
x is an alphabetical character.
 Domain is floating point numbers - IsInt(x): TRUE
iff x is an integer.
 Domain is integers: Prime(x) - TRUE if x is prime,
FALSE otherwise.
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Predicate Logic (3/3)
 A propositional function may associate with
two or more variables.
Eg 1: P(x,y): “x = y+3”, and P(1,2) is false.
Eg 2: Q(x,y,z): “x+y=z”, then Q(1,2,3) is true.

##  P(x1, x2, …, xn ) is the value of the

propositional function P at the n-tuple (x1,
x2, …, xn ) and P is also called a n-tuple
predicate or a n-ary predicate.

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 4

Quantifications
 When the variables in a propositional function
are assigned values, the resulting statement
becomes a proposition, which could be either
true of false.
 Another way to create a proposition – using
Quantifications
 Universal quantification 
 Existential quantification 

 Uniqueness quantification !
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Two Popular Quantifiers
 Universal: x P(x) – “P(x) for all x in the domain”
 Existential: x P(x) – “P(x) for some x in the domain”
or “there exists x such that P(x) is TRUE”.
 Either is meaningless if the domain is not
known/specified. Think about x (x2 ≧ x) ?
 Examples
 x (x2 ≧ 0) is true, if domain of x is R.
 x (x >1) is true, if domain of x is R.
 (x>1) (x2 > x) is true, if domain of x is R.
Note: in the last case - quantifier with restricted domain
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Using Quantifiers
Let domain of x be integers,
 Using implications: The cube of any
negative integer is negative.
x (x < 0) (x3 < 0)
 Expressing sums (domain of n be N):

n
n ( i = n(n+1)/2)
i=1

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 7

Scope of Quantifiers
 , have higher precedence than operators
from Propositional Logic (¬    )
x P(x)  Q(x) is not logically equivalent to
x (P(x)  Q(x))
  x (P(x)  Q(x))  x R(x)
Say, P(x): x is odd, Q(x): x is divisible by 3, R(x): (x=0)  (2x >x)
 Logical Equivalence: P(x)  Q(x) iff they have same
truth value no matter which domain value is used and
no matter which predicates are substituted into these
statements.
 For example, ¬x P(x)   x ¬P(x)
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Translation Examples (1/5)
Example 23: “Every student in this class has studied calculus.”
Sol_1:
Domain of x is “the students in this class”
C(x) represents “x has studied calculus”
x C(x)

Sol_2:
Domain of x is “all people”
S(x) stands for “the person x is in this class”
x (S(x)  C(x)) (Caution: Not x (S(x)  C(x)) )

Sol_3:
Domain of x is “the students in this class” or “all people”
Q(x,y) represents “x has studied subject y”
x Q(x, calculus) or x (S(x)  Q(x, calculus))
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Translation Examples (2/5)
Example 24: “some student in this class has visited Mexico” and
“every student in this class has visited either Canada or Mexico”
Sol:
Let M(x) = “x has visited Mexico”
S(x) = “x is a student in this class”
C(x) = “x has visited Canada”
V(x,y) denotes “x has visited y”
 x M(x) if x’s domain is “the students in this class”
 X (S(x)  M(x)) if x’s domain is defined as “all people”
(Caution: not  X (S(x)  M(x)) Why? )
x (S(x)  (C(x)  M(x)) or x (S(x)  (V(x,Mexico)  V(x,Canada)))
if x’s domain is defined as “all people”, how about in the restricted domain?

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Translation Examples (3/5)
Translation from English into logical expression
• Every student in this class has studied calculus
C(x): x has studied calculus
S(x): the person x is in this class
Q(x,y): student x has studied subject y
 x (S(x)  C(x)), Domain(x)=“students in the class”
or
 x (S(x)  Q(x, calculus)), Domain(x)=“all people”
 x Q(x, calculus)

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Translation Examples (4/5)
Examples from Lewis Carroll
1. all lions are fierce
2. some lions do not drink coffee
3. some fierce creatures do not drink coffee

P(x): x is a lion
Q(x): x is fierce
R(x): x drinks coffee

1. x (P(x)  Q(x))
2.  x (P(x)  ¬ R(x)) (note: not  x (P(x)  ¬ R(x))
3.  x (Q(x)  ¬ R(x)) (note: not  x (Q(x)  ¬ R(x))

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Translation Examples (5/5)
Use predicates and quantifiers to express the system
specifications. “Every mail messages larger than one
megabytes will be compressed” and “If a user is active,
at least one network link will be available.”

## Let S(m,y) be “mail message m is larger than y megabytes”,

where domain of m is all messages and y is a positive
integer. C(m) denotes “mail message m will be compressed”,
domain of m is all messages.
Let A(u) be “user u is active”, where domain of u is all users. Let
S(n,x) be “network link n is in state x”, domain of n is all
network links and domain of x is all possible states for a

1. m (S(m,1)  C(m))
2.  u A(u)   n S(n, available)
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Translation Examples Again (1/2)
Let S(x) be “x is a student”, F(x) be “x is a faculty member”, and A(x,y)
be “x has asked y a question” where the domain consists of all people.
(expressions in red are for domain of students and faculty members)
✓ Some student has not asked any faculty member a question.

## x y (S(x)  F(y)  ¬A(x,y)) (wrong), x y ¬(A(x,y))

x y (S(x)  (F(y)  ¬A(x,y))
✓ Some student has asked any faculty member a question.
x y (S(x)  F(y)  A(x,y)) (wrong), x y (A(x,y))
x y (S(x)  (F(y)  A(x,y)))
✓ There is a faculty member who has never been asked a question by
a student.
y x (F(y)  S(x)  ¬A(x,y))(wrong)) , y x ¬(A(x,y))
y (F(y)  x ( S(x)  ¬A(x,y)))
✓ No student has asked all faculty members.
¬(x y (S(x)  (F(y)  A(x,y))), ¬(x y (A(x,y)))
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Translation Examples Again (2/2)
Let S(x) be “x is a student”, F(x) be “x is a faculty member”, and A(x,y)
be “x has asked y a question” where the domain consists of all people.
(expressions in red are for domain of students and faculty members)
✓ Every student has asked a faculty member a question.

## ✓ Every student has asked Professor Gross a question.

x (S(x)  A(x, Prof. Gross)), x A(x, Prof. Gross)

## ✓ No student has asked Professor Gross a question.

¬(x (S(x)  (A(x, Prof. Gross)))), x(¬A(x, Prof. Gross))

## ✓ No student has asked any faculty member a question.

¬(x y (S(x)  (F(y)  A(x,y))), x y(¬A(x, y))
x y ((¬S(x)  F(y))  (S(x)  ¬A(x,y))),
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Negation of Quantifiers
 “There is no student who can …”
 “Not all professors are bad….”
 “There is no Toronto Raptor that can dunk like
Vince …”
 ¬x P(x)   x ¬P(x) why?
E.g. Every student in this class is working hard.
 ¬ x P(x)   x ¬P(x)
 Careful: The negation of “Every Canadian loves
Hockey” is NOT “No Canadian loves Hockey”! Many,
many students make this mistake!
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Nested Quantifiers (1/3)
 Allows simultaneous quantification of
many variables.
 E.g. Let domains be positive integers,
 x  y  z x2 + y2 = z2 (畢氏定理)
n  x  y  z xn + yn = zn ? false
(對任一n,存在x,y,z 使得xn + yn = zn成立?)
 Domain of real numbers:
x  y  z (x < z < y)  (y < z < x) T or F ?
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Nested Quantifiers (2/3)
x y (x + y = 0) is true over the integers
 Assume x is an arbitrary integer.
 To show that there exists a y that satisfies the
requirement of the predicate, choose y = -x. Clearly
y is an integer, and thus is in the domain.
 So x + y = x + (-x) = x – x = 0.
 Since we assumed nothing about x (other than it is
an integer), the argument holds for any integer x.
Therefore, the predicate is TRUE.
 BUT, x y (x + y = 0) is false over the reals
(How about if the domain is “integers”? false)
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Nested Quantifiers (3/3)
 Caveat: In general, order matters!
Consider the following propositions over
the integer domain:
x y (x < y) and y x (x < y)
 x y (x < y) : “there is no maximum integer”
 y x (x < y) : “there is a maximum integer”
 Not the same meaning at all!!!

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 19

Negation of Nested Quantifiers
 Use the same rule as before carefully.
 Ex 1: ¬x y (x + y = 0)
 This is equivalent to x ¬y (x + y = 0)

##  This is equivalent to x  y ¬(x + y = 0)

 This is equivalent to x  y (x + y  0)

 Ex 2: ¬x y (x < y)
 This is equivalent to x ¬y (x < y)

##  This is equivalent to x y ¬(x < y)

 This is equivalent to x y (x  y)

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Translation Examples (1/4)
Example 7: “Every real number except 0 has a
multiplicative inverse.”
Sol:
Assume that the domains of x and y are all “real numbers”
Let’s rewrite the sentence as “For every real number x
except 0, x has a multiplicative inverse.”

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 21

Translation Examples (2/4)
Example 8: use quantifiers to express the definition of limit
of a real-valued function f(x) of a real variable at a point
a in its domain.
Sol:
The definition of the statement lim f(x) = L is:
For every real number ε >0 there exists a real number
σ>0 such that \f(x)-L\ < ε whenever 0 < \x-a\ < σ.
Hence,
ε σ x ((0 < \x-a\ < σ)  \f(x)-L\ < ε ) if the
domain of ε and σ is all positive reals and domain of x is
reals. Or,
ε>0 σ>0 x ((0 < \x-a\ < σ)  \f(x)-L\ < ε ), if the
domain for ε ,σ, and x is reals.
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Translation Examples (3/4)
Example 13: There is a woman who has taken a flight on every
airline in the world.
Sol Let P(w,f) be “w has taken f” and
Q(f,a) be “f is a flight on a”
The statement can be expressed as
 w  a  f (P(w,f)  Q(f,a)),
where the domains for w,f, and a consists of all the
women in the world, all airplane flights, and all
airlines, respectively.

Example 15: There does not exist a woman who has taken a
flight on every airline in the world.
 w ¬ a  f (P(w,f)  Q(f,a))

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Translation Examples (4/4)
Example 12: Everyone has exactly one best friend.
Sol: Let B(x,y) be “y is the best friend of x” and
the domain is all people.
The statement can be expressed as

## x  y (B(x,y)  z (B(x,z)  (z = y))), or

x  y (B(x,y)  z ((z ≠ y)  ¬B(x,z))), or
x !y (B(x,y)

 x y ¬B(x,y)

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Translating into English (1/2)
Example 9: Translate the statement
x (C(x)  y(C(y)  F(x,y))) into English
where C(x) is “x has a computer. F(x,y) is ”x and y are
friends”. The domain of both x and y consists of all

## A: The statements says that every student in your school

has a computer or has a friend has a computer.

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Translating into English (2/2)
Example 5: x y z Q(x,y,z) and z x y Q(x,y,z)
where Q(x,y,z) is “x+y=z” and the domain of all
variables consists of all real numbers.

A: (1) for all real numbers x and for all real numbers y,
there is a real number z such that x+y=z. (T)

## (2) There is a real number z such that for all real

numbers x and for all real numbers y, it is true that
x+y=z. (F)

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Domain is the Matter
Example 6: Translate the statement “the sum of two
positive integer is always positive.”

## A: (1) Assume the domain of variables is Z.

x y ((x>0)  (y>0)  (x+y > 0))

x y (x+y > 0)

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Argument and Argument form
 An argument in propositional logic is a sequence of
propositions, or a sequence of statements that end with
a conclusion.
 For example, “ If you have a current password, then you
can log on to the network”., “You have a current
password.”, and “You can log onto the network.”
 All but the final proposition in the argument are called
premises, the final proposition is called the conclusion.
 An argument form in propositional logic is a sequence of
compound propositions involving propositional variables.
 Valid argument means the conclusion must follow from the
truth of the premises (no matter which variables are binding
to the propositional functions).
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Valid Argument
 If you have a current password, then
you can log onto the network
 p “you have a current password”

## q “you can log onto the network”

pq
p
 q (means “therefore”)

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Inference rules (1/3)
 Recall that the reason for studying logic was to
formalize derivations and proofs.
 How can we infer facts using logic?
 Simplest possible inference: From p  q and p is
TRUE, we can infer that q is TRUE. (Modus Ponens)
 Similarly, From p  q, q  r and p is TRUE, we
can infer that r is TRUE. (by Hypothetical syllogism
& Modus Ponens)
 Read rules on page 72 and page 76.
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Inference rules (2/3)
 Modus ponens (p  (p  q))  q
 Modus tollens (¬ q  (p  q))  ¬p
 Hypothetical syllogism
((p  q)  (q  r))  (p  r)
 Disjunctive syllogism ((p  q)  ¬p)  q
 Addition p  (p  q)
 Simplification (p  q)  p
 Conjunction ((p)  (q))  (p  q)
 Resolution (p  q)  (¬p  r)  (q  r)
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Inference rules (3/3)
 Universal instantiation
x P(x)  P(c) for any element c
 Universal generalization
P(c) for an arbitrary c  x P(x)
 Existential instantiation
x P(x)  P(c) for some element c
 Existential generalization
P(c) for some element c  x P(x)

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Using Rules of Inference to
build Arguments
• Using rules of inference to build arguments:
It is not sunny this afternoon and it is colder than yesterday.
We will go swimming only if it is sunny.
If we do not go swimming, then we will take a canoe trip.
If we take a canoe trip, then we will be home by sunset.
• The conclusion is “we will be home by sunset”
p: It is sunny this afternoon
q: it is colder than yesterday
r: we will go swimming
s: we will take a canoe trip
t: we will be home by sunset
(1) ¬ p  q  ¬ p simplification
(2) r  p  ¬ r modus tollens
(3) ¬ r  s  s modus ponens
(4) s  t  t modus ponens
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Literal, Clause, and Resolution
 A variable or negation of a variable is called a literal.
 A disjunction of literals is called a sum and a
conjunction of literals is called a product.
 A Clause is a disjunction of literals, i.e. it is a sum.
 In the resolution rule: ((p  q)  (¬p  r))  (q  r),
(q  r) is called the resolvent.
 For any two clauses C1 and C2, if there is a literal L1
in C1 which is complementary to a literal L2 in C2 then
delete L1 and L2 from C1 and C2 respectively, we have
a resolvent.
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Resolution Principle
 Definition: Given two clauses C1 and C2, a
resolvent C is a logical consequence of C1 and C2.
 The resolution principle Given a set S of clauses, a
resolution deduction of C from S is a finite sequence
C1, C2 ,.., Ck of clauses such that Ci is either a clause
in S or a resolvent of clauses preceding C and C K= C.
A deduction of empty clause is called a refutation or
a (an inconsistent) proof of S.
 Consequently, for premises P1,…, Pn, and conclusion
C, if put P1,…, Pn in clauses form and add it to ¬C,
then we should get an empty clause.
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Examples of Resolutions
 Show the following argument is correct.
If today is Tuesday, I have a test in Math. or Economics.
If my Economics Professor is sick, I will not have a test in
Economics. Today is Tuesday and Economics Professor is
sick. Therefore, I have a test in Math.
 Proof Let T denote ‘today is Tuesday’
M denote ‘I have a test in Math.’
E denote ‘I have a test in Economics’
S denote ‘My Economics Prof. is sick’
we have T  (M  E), S  ¬E, T  S implies M.

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Universal Modus Tollens
 Which rules are used in the following argument?
No man is an island. Manhattan is an island. Therefore,
Manhattan is not a man.

##  Let M (x) be “x is a man”, I(x) be “x is an island”.

Domain of x is “all things”. The premises are:
x (M(x)  ¬I(x))
I(Manhattan) (Note that Manhattan is an instance)
Therefore, by universal modus tollens, we can conclude
that ¬M(Manhattan).

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Remarks on  and 
 Verify whether the followings are true or not :
(i) x (P(x)  Q(x)) ≡ x P(x)  x Q(x) D={2,3}
(ii) x (P(x)  Q(x)) ≡ x P(x)  x Q(x) (T)
(iii) x (P(x)  Q(x)) ≡ x P(x)  x Q(x) (T)
(iv) x (P(x)  Q(x)) ≡ x P(x)  x Q(x) D={1,2,3,5}

## Think about the domain is {all prime numbers} or integers.

P(x) denotes “x is a multiple of 2” or Even numbers
Q(x) denotes “x is a multiple of 3” or Odd numbers
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First-Order Logic
For a fixed vocabulary Γ, each formula of first-
order logic (FO) is a string of symbols taken from
the alphabet consisting of:
1. v1, v2, … variables
2. ¬ and  for not and or
3.  existential quantifier
4. =, (,), equality and parentheses
And, all symbols are in Γ.

## 2017/11/13 CSE, NCHU 39

MEMO
 Read section 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6
 Why from propositions, predicates, to rules of
inference? For what?
 Get familiar with Modus ponens, Modus tollens,
and Resolution.
 Practice translating English sentences to
predicate logic statements by applying rules of
inference
 HW #6,7,9,15,17,18,21-27,31 of §1.4, #9-11,15-
17,21,23,24 of §1.5, #9,13-16 of §1.6 40
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