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CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1 Background Creative Thinking

Creative Thinking is what everyone should have. Maybe without Creative Thinking people will
have difficulty in fulfilling the needs of life in the world. Creativity will differentiate humans from one
another because the creative person is more advanced than his friends and many of his ideas seem strange
or impossible to them.

Creative Thinking is not new. Creative thinkers existed thousands of years ago, perhaps long
before they found fire and wheels. These thinkers are empowering their minds and their creative ability to
produce something new. Therefore it is not impossible for us to maximize our creativity ability to produce
achievement.

For example on wisausaha, An entrepreneur is a person who has a certain soul and ability in
creating and innovating. He is someone who has the ability to create something new and different (ability
to create the new and different) or creative and innovative abilities. Such creative and innovative skills are
reflected in the ability and willingness to start up, the ability to work on something new (creative), the
ability to explore opportunities, the courage to bear the risk (risk bearing) and the ability to develop idea.
This is where a creativity is needed to develop ideas and even to maintain an existing idea.

In entrepreneurship there is intense competition. To win the competition, an entrepreneur must


have a high creativity. Creativity power should be based on advanced thinking, filled with new ideas that
are different from the products that have been there so far in the market. Creative ideas generally can not
be limited by space, form or time. Precisely often genius ideas that provide new breakthroughs in the
business world initially is based on creative ideas that seem impossible.

1.2 Problem Formulation

a. What is the meaning of creativity and its benefits to humans?

b. What are the factors that affect human creativity?

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c. Mention the stages in creative thinking?

1.3. Goals

a. To know the sense of creativity and its benefits for humans

b. To know the factors that affect human creativity

c. To know the stages in creative thinking

1.4 Benefits

Achieving the purpose of the paper so that the results can be taken into consideration in the analysis of
general psychology, especially creative thinking

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CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1 Understanding creativity and its benefits for humans

A. Understanding creativity

Here we present some sense of creativity put forward by experts:

• Understanding Creativity According to Widayatun: Creativity is an ability to solve problems, which


gives individuals to create original ideas / adaptive function of its utility fully to grow.

• Understanding Creativity According to James R. Evans: Creativity is a skill for determining new
relationships, looking at the subjects of new perspectives, and forming new combinations of two or more
concepts that have been imprinted in the mind

• Understanding Creativity According to Santrock: Creativity is the ability to think about things in new
and unusual ways and to get unique solutions.

• Understanding Creativity According to Semiawan: Creativity is the ability to give new ideas and apply
them in problem solving. Creativity includes both aptitude features such as fluency, flexibility, and
originality in thought, as well as non-aptitude features, such as curiosity, liking to ask questions and
always looking for new experiences.

• Understanding Creativity According to Munandar: Creativity is the ability to combine, solve or answer
problems, and reflect the operational skills of creative children.

In KBBI, creative is defined as the ability to create or process the emergence of new ideas. In
essence the notion of creativity is the ability of a person to create something new, both in the form of
ideas and real work, in the form of aptitude and non aptitude, in new and combined works with things that
already exist, and everything is relatively different from those already there before. Actually, there is a lot
of sense of creativity, for example there is a mean of creativity as an effort to perform new and amazing
activities. On the other hand, some assume that creativity is creating stunning new innovations.

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Campbell (in Manguhardjana, 1986) suggests creativity as an activity that results in its nature:

a. New or , which is interpreted as innovative, has not been there before, fresh, interesting, strange and
surprising.

b. Useful , interpreted as more convenient, more practical, simplify, encourage, develop, educate, solve
problems, reduce barriers, overcome difficulties, bring good results.

c. Understandable, which means the same result can be understood and can be made later, or otherwise
incidental, incomprehensible, unpredictable and irreversible.

The characteristics of creativity

Guilford (in Munandar, 2009) suggests features of creativity such as:

a. Fluency of thinking namely the ability to generate many ideas that come out of one's thoughts quickly.
In the fluency of thinking, the emphasis is quantity, not quality.

b. Flexibility, ie the ability to produce ideas, answers or varied questions, can see a problem from
different perspectives, look for alternatives or different directions, and be able to use a variety of approach
or way of thinking. A creative person is a person who is flexible in thinking. They can easily abandon the
old way of thinking and replace it with a new way of thinking.

c. Elaboration ,the ability to develop ideas and add or detail the details of an object, idea or situation so
that it becomes more interesting.

d. Originality, ie the ability to spark a unique idea or the ability to trigger original ideas.

So, creativity is the ability of a person to think and behave. Someone who has high creativity or
divergence thinking ability does not have much difficulty in solving the problems he faces. Therefore,
creativity that is defined by experts is always related to the ability to think and behave.

B. the benefits of creativity for humans

An Albert Einstein says that imagination is better than intelligence. Imagination relates to
creativity. Creativity provides many benefits for the individual as well as the wider community. The
benefits of creativity are as follows:

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• Make Life More Beautiful

Creativity will make life more beautiful because it will be surrounded by things that are varied
and not monotonous. Running a routine activity will make you feel bored, not passionate, and passive.
Doing various creative things will give you something fresh and fresh. In addition to school, as a teenager
we also need to try new things that are positive.

• Increase Appreciation to Others' Ideas

Creativity will increase understanding and appreciation of other people's ideas. Creative people
can certainly accept and appreciate other people's ideas, regardless of whoever gives the idea.

• Increase Motivation and Spirit of Life

Creativity will increase the spirit or motivation of life. A creative person will not be afraid of
losing opportunities, because he can create his own opportunities. A creative person is not afraid of
problems because he is able to solve problems with his creative power.

• One of the Success Factors of Business

More and more creativity in the business world will be increasingly needed. In the business world
of creativity becomes one of the factors of business success. All business activities require creativity,
from the creation of goods or services, the mode of production, the way of marketing, the mode of
payment, and the loyalty of buyers to continue to use their products. With increasing competition,
creativity is absolutely needed by an entrepreneur to win the competition.

2.2 Factors that affect human creativity

• According to Rogers (in Munandar, 2009), factors that can encourage the realization of individual
creativity include:

a. The drive from within oneself (intrinsic motivation)

According to Roger (in Munandar, 2009) every individual has a tendency or drive from within
himself to creativity, realize the potential, reveal and activate all the capacities it has. This encouragement
is the primary motivation for creativity as individuals form new relationships with their environment in an

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effort to become themselves fully (Rogers in Munandar, 2009). It is also supported by Munandar's (2009)
opinion that individuals should have intrinsic motivation to do something on their own, in addition to
being supported by the attention, encouragement, and training of the environment.

According to Rogers (in Zulkarnain, 2002), the internal conditions (interal press) that can
encourage someone to be creative include:

1) Openness to experience

Openness to experience is the ability to receive all sources of information from one's own life
experience by accepting what it is, without any defense effort, no rigidity to those experiences and
openness to the whole concept, belief, perception and hypothesis.

2) The ability to assess the situation according to one's personal benchmarks (internal locus of
evaluation)

Basically an assessment of a person's product of creation is primarily determined by oneself, not


because of criticism and praise from others. Nevertheless the individual is not closed from the possibility
of input and criticism from others.

3) Ability to experiment or "play" with concepts.

It is the ability to form a combination of things that already existed.

b. Encouragement from the environment (extrinsic motivation)

Munandar (2009) suggests that an environment that can affect individual creativity can be a
family, school, and community environment. The family environment is an important force and is the first
and foremost source in the development of individual creativity. In the school environment, education at
every level ranging from pre-school to college can play a role in growing and enhancing individual
creativity. In the community environment, cultures that develop in society also affect individual
creativity. Rogers University of North Sumatra (in Munandar, 2009) states that environmental conditions
that can develop creativity are characterized by:

1) Psychological security

Psychological security can be formed through 3 interrelated processes, namely:

a) Accept individuals as they are with all their advantages and limitations.

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b) Seeking an atmosphere in which there is no external evaluation (or at least no character or
threatening effect).

c) Empowering empathy, sharing feelings, thoughts, individual actions, and being able to see
from their point of view and accept them.

2) Psychological freedom

A psychologically free environment provides an opportunity for the individual to freely express
symbolically his thoughts or feelings. Munandar (in Zulkarnain, 2002) states the factors that affect
creativity can be the ability to think and personality traits that interact with a particular environment. The
factor of thinking ability consists of intelligence (intelligence) and the enrichment of thinking materials in
the form of experience and skills. Personality factors consist of curiosity, and self-esteem.

In addition to the factors mentioned above, there are various other factors that can cause the emergence of
variations or differences in creativity owned by individuals, according to Hurlock (1993), namely:

a. Gender

Boys show greater creativity than girls, especially after the passage of childhood. For the most
part this is due to differences in the treatment of boys and girls. Boys are given the opportunity to be
independent, urged by peers to take more risks and be encouraged by parents and teachers to show more
initiative and originality.

b. Socioeconomic status

Children from higher socioeconomic groups tend to be more creative than children from lower
socioeconomic groups. The child's environment of a higher socioeconomic group gives more
opportunities to acquire the knowledge and experience necessary for creativity.

c. Birth order

Children of different birth orders exhibit different levels of creativity. This distinction emphasizes
the environment rather than the innate. Children born in the middle, born later and single child may have
high creativity than the first child. Generally, the first born child is more pressed to adjust to the
expectations of parents, this pressure is more encouraging children to become child obedient than the
creator.

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d. Family size

Children from small families when other conditions tend to be more creative than children from
large families. In large families, how to educate an authoritarian child and a less favorable socioeconomic
condition may further influence and hinder the development of creativity.

e. Urban environment vs. rural environment

Children from urban environments tend to be more creative than rural neighborhood children.

f. Intelligence

Every smarter child shows greater creativity than a less intelligent child. They have more new
ideas to deal with the social atmosphere and are able to formulate more solutions to the conflict.

2.3. Stages of creative thinking process

According to Cropley (1999), there are 3 stages of creativity development such as:

a. Preconventional phase

This stage occurs at the age of 6-8 years. At this stage, the individual exhibits spontaneity and
emotionality in producing a work, which then leads to an aesthetic and pleasant outcome. Individuals
produce something new without regard to rules and boundaries from the outside.

b. Conventional phase

This stage takes place at the age of 9-12 years. At this stage the ability of one's thinking is limited
by the rules so that the resulting work becomes rigid. In addition, at this stage critical and evaluative skills
are also developing.

c. Postconventional phase

This stage takes place at the age of 12 years to adulthood. At this stage, the individual is able to
produce new works that have been adapted to the external constraints and conventional values that exist
in the environment.

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Creativity can be enhanced by understanding that the creative process consists of four stages each
of which requires hard work.

1. Preparation: the process of gathering information, analyzing and exploring solutions. This step involves
mindful preparation for creative thinking, formal training, on-the-job training, work experience and other
learning opportunities. This training provides the foundation for building creativity and innovation.

2. Incubation: The subconscious takes time to reflect the information collected

3. Illumination: inspiration does not come when a person is thinking about a problem, but when he is in a
relaxed state. phase in this creative process occurs during the incubation phase when a spontaneous
breakthrough causes one to gain an enlightenment

4. Verify: For entrepreneurs, testing the idea of ensuring accuracy and benefits, run by experimenting,
running simulations, testing the marketing of products or services, establishing a small-scale guiding
program, creating prototypes and many other activities designed to verify that the new idea applied
successfully and practically.

Constraints that Hampers Creativity

1. Negative thinking on individuals and teams: focus on the negative aspects of a problem rather than
looking for opportunities to find solutions

2. Fear of failure: a fear of failure and fear of appearing foolish in the presence of others

3. Lack of quality thought time and interesting experience: stress can make it difficult to be objective and
inhibit the natural thinking process

4. Number of rules and regulations, lack of freedom to flourish: too many rules can encourage someone's
laziness. Someone needs the freedom to be able to think creatively and develop his creativity ..

5. Making assumptions that are not necessarily true: failure to identify your assumptions will hamper the
process of developing new ideas. So we should not assume too much, because the assumption is not
necessarily true.

6. Too much logic: too much use of logic beyond imagination, intuition, and synthesis of thought
processes

7. Uncreative thinking: The biggest hurdle is when you think you are not creative

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People who are not creative have the characteristics: Can not think positively to a problem Too
busy and stressful to be able to think objectively Very critical of yourself Fear to use new ideas Fear of
looking stupid in front of others vulnerable to apply logic as the first and last resort doubtful that many
people who are capable of being creative are incapable of thinking laterally are not inspired despite being
confronted with new ideas.

On the other hand, creativity within a person can be encouraged by exploring the qualities and
characteristics of other creative thinking and activity as well as the steps that can be done to improve the
creative thinking process.

In order for someone to be creative can take steps:

1. Think outside the framework of the problem

It can be open to observation and new thinking, although it may seem strange at first. We tend to
see what we expect, but if we want to open our minds beyond our reasonable limits we will become more
observant, objective, and creative in our minds. Can consider starting point and perspective when looking
for solutions can be very inspiring. Problem approach from different angles can lead to new ideas.
Creative thinking can be a new adventure that leads to a very rewarding experience.

2. Identify when assumptions should be made and when not to use assumptions

Do not assume everything we assume is true. Do not prioritize the perceptions or ideas before
acquiring the real knowledge. Assumptions and perceptions are often unwarranted and misleading, and a
major obstacle to creative thinking.

3. Thinking shortsighted and broadening the field of vision (to draw on other experiences of individuals
and businesses).

It's easy to think only in a scope when you're faced with a problem, but if you expand your
parameters, the answers that come up may be closer than you think. Technology and practices in industry
other than oneself may trigger ideas, leading to solutions. Experience can broaden your horizons and open
up all sorts of new ways of thinking

4. Develop and adjust the ideas of more than one source

As humans we can not make any assumptions or decisions out of nothing, our minds need
something material or capital to work on, so we combine existing ideas and elements to create new ideas

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and products. Creative thinking can see possibilities, and relationships between ideas that were
unthinkable.

5. Practice Serendipity (finding an accidental value of value when looking for something else) - has a
wide range of concerns and interests are important.

When we engage in a problem-solving process we tend to focus solely on the problem but we
must always be open and aware of things that come unexpectedly. What may seem irrelevant at first can
then become significant if we think creatively. This may take time, which makes the creative thinker have
to retain as much information and experience as possible. This experience may be the trigger for creative
thinking that may be the only one who can solve difficult problems.

6. "Transferring Technology" from one field to another

Keep an open mind when faced with a problem and look beyond your own situation. Often other
departments, organizations and industries can provide inspiration to develop ideas to overcome
challenges. The most successful creative thinkers have knowledge of more than one field and often make
their names appear in different fields than they are mastered.

7. Be open and ready to use opportunities or unexpected things and useful events.

Have a wide focus of attention and develop the power of experience to capitalize on the
opportunities you meet in your life. Use your experience to interpret these things as useful without
prejudice. You may have to invest a lot of time opening up for the experience but they will give you a
good reference base for creativity in the future.

8. Explore the thought processes and main elements of the mind at work in analyzing, assessing, and
synthesizing

Creative thinking can not be divided into a particular process or system. The nature of creativity
can be interpreted as an orderly process. However, it usually begins by analyzing a problem and then
playing it by restructuring. (synthesize). Next we arrange it by using our imagination and assessing the
thoughts we connect into a possible solution.

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9. Use it into the subconscious mind

Sleep is one way to enable ideas to be generated. Dreaming makes you feel totally free and not
felt during normal times. Although this does not give the right answer but it can be to direct your awake
mind in the right direction. You should record your dreams as soon as you wake up so they do not
disappear. The brain is capable

analyze the information that you may not even be aware of. By turning off your conscious mind,
you allow your deep mind to begin analyzing, assessing, and synthesizing knowledge in your heart. You
can not control the type of inspiration but you must remain vigilant and hopeful, so you can know when it
shows itself.

10. Record ideas or thoughts that have been found

Having a notebook is a good way as recording material for your future use. Make notes of a
conversation (real or from TV or radio), excerpts from articles or books and observations or thoughts.
Your instinct will tell you what might be relevant for future problem solving and creative thinking. It does
not need to be too systematic like when you look back through your notes, you will make the connection
between points not visible.

11. Using analogies (to enhance imaginative thinking).

Nature has many answers to our problems. We have the challenge of realizing them and applying
what we find to our personal situation. Other models can be found in existing products and organizations
but we must be aware not to copy directly because this can cause more problems. We must remain open-
minded and very observant when looking at our environment and using what we see for our benefit.

12. Try to sometimes make strangeness to release new ideas

Creative thinking is looking for something new. Sometimes something new can be found in the
weirdness. By making your idiosyncrasies, you can see more and better from the creative mind and vice
versa. By being more familiar to the strangeness will make you to find out what you may and do not
know. Both of these processes can cause creative thinkers to new ideas.

Referring to previous explanations of creativity that has a scientific nature, and making us think
scientific, means there is orisinilitas in it. Besides being scientific, creativity is also something peculiar to
every individual. Creativity is a potential that basically Has everyone in different degrees and different
from one another. In other terminology, these creative functions of man are determined by two

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components, first is ability, and the second is its ability to conceive the symptoms that occur in general.
However, this potential does not develop if humans do not use it.

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CHAPTER III

COVER

3.1. Conclusion

Creative thinking is a way of thinking where one tries to find new relationships to get new
answers to problems. In creative thinking, a person is required to be able to gain more than one answer to
a problem and that requires imagination. The analytical thinking is to think otherwise using a logical
approach to a single answer. Actually in dealing with problems we need both types of thinking, ie logical-
analytical thinking and creative thinking. Logical-analytical thinking is often referred to as convergent
thinking, because this way of thinking tends to narrow and leads to a single answer.

While creative thinking is often referred to as divergent thinking, because here the mind is driven
to spread far and wide in searching for new ideas. In creative thinking the process that occurs turned out
through several specific stages. An idea can not suddenly come into our minds. Ideas occur after various
symbols are processed in our subconscious. So it can be said that in the occurrence of creative thinking,
will inevitably will pass several stages.

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