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English B

English B for the IB Diploma


for the IB Diploma

Brad Philpot
English B
Visual Arts for the IB Diploma is tailored to the IB subject guide for first for the IB Diploma

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examination in 2016. This coursebook covers each of the core areas of Heather McReynolds has
the Visual Arts course and links them to theoretical, art-making and taught IB Diploma Visual
curatorial practices. It includes activities that provide students with Arts for over 20 years and
practical ways to learn and reflect on their work. was Head of Art at the

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International School
Written by an experienced teacher and examiner, students can of Florence. She is a
feel confident that this book will help them navigate the course practicing artist and
requirements. This book supports and encourages learners on their workshop leader and is
individual journey of inquiry, investigation, reflection and creative also the author of the Visual
application in art. Arts pages on InThinking
(www.thinkib.net/visualarts),
This coursebook contains: an innovative educational
• Striking images from a range of contexts to capture students’ consultancy service.

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imagination and encourage individual artistic style
• Examples of students’ work to help learners consider different
approaches to the course and the assessments
• Definitions of key terms are included alongside the text to support
students where English is not their first language
• Theory of Knowledge (TOK) and art questions throughout to

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encourage curious and critical thinking

Teacher’s Book
Brad Philpot SECOND EDITION
Brad Philpot and Anne Farrell

Elevate
Dear IB Teacher,
English B for the IB Diploma 2nd edition has been published and is available for
order. The Teacher’s Book to support your teaching will publish later this year.

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We have produced this ‘Starter Pack’ to enable you to plan and teach the new course
while we finalise and print the new resources.
Our resources are written specifically for the IB guides and we work with
experienced and renowned authors to provide learning material for all six IB Diploma

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groups.You can be sure that resources from Cambridge reflect the latest changes to the
guides and the IB ethos.
This pack contains the following content from the new IB resources written to
support the new syllabus for first examination in 2020.
It contains the following:
• Table of Contents
• The How to Use this Book section from the Coursebook
• Introduction to the Coursebook
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• Sample material from the Coursebook
• Unit 1.1
• Unit 6.1 from the Text types section
• Unit 7.1 from the Assessment section
• Introduction to the Teacher’s Book
• Sample material from Units 1.1-1.3 of the Teacher’s Book, including:
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• Scheme of Work
• Unit planning guidance
• Lesson notes
• Coursebook answers
• Audio scripts
• Sample material from Units 6.1 and 6.2 in the Tests types section
Please note that the material included in this Starter Pack is at draft stage and may
change between now and publication.
Audio files accompanying the listening activities in the coursebook are
available online at cambridge.org/9781108434812
Visit our website to pre-order the course resources or speak to your local sales
representative.You can find their contact details here: cambridge.org/education/
find-your-sales-consultant.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Introduction

Contents

How to use this book iv Section 2: Text types


Chapter 6: Exploring text types
Introduction vii
273
Unit 6.1 – Formal letter 274
Section 1: Themes Unit 6.2 – Review 278

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Unit 6.3 – Blog 285
Chapter 1: Identities 1
Unit 6.4 – Speech 292
Unit 1.1 – Citizens of the world 2
Unit 6.5 – News report 298
Unit 1.2 – Belief and identity 21
Unit 6.6 – Brochure 306
Unit 1.3 – Beauty and health

Chapter 2: Experiences
Unit 2.1 – Pilgrimage
Unit 2.2 – Extreme sports
Unit 2.3 – Migration
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59
60
77
96
Unit 6.7 – Guidelines
Unit 6.8 – Official report
Unit 6.9 – Essays

Section 3: Assessment
Chapter 7: Paper 1
312
318
324

331
Chapter 3: Human ingenuity 115
Unit 7.1 – Paper 1 Standard level 332
Unit 3.1 – Future humans 116
Unit 7.2 – Paper 1 Higher level 337
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Unit 3.2 – Technology and human interaction 132
Unit 3.3 – Redefining art 151 Chapter 8: Paper 2 343
Unit 8.1 – Paper 2 Standard level 346
Chapter 4: Social organisation 167
Unit 8.2 – Paper 2 higher level 356
Unit 4.1 – Minorities and education 168
Unit 4.2 – Partners for life 187 Chapter 9: The individual oral 367
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Unit 4.3 – The future of jobs 208 Unit 9.1 – Standard level individual oral 368
Unit 9.2 – Higher level individual oral 373
Chapter 5: Sharing the planet 225
Unit 5.1 – Ending poverty 226
Glossary 378
Unit 5.2 – Climate change 241
Unit 5.3 – Power to the people 258 Acknowledgements 384

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


How to use this book

This coursebook is structured around the 5 new prescribed themes of the


Language B guide:
• Identities
• Experiences

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• Human ingenuity
• Social organisation
• Sharing the planet
Each theme is explored across 5 dedicated chapters, providing in-depth coverage of
the latest Language B guide. Chapter 6 is devoted to exploring different text types,

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whilst chapters 7, 8 and 9 cover each of the 3 modes of assessment and provide both
standard and higher level exam-style practice.

The coursebook features


This coursebook contains several special features, which are designed to enhance the learning
experience of your students:

Guiding questions Learning objectives


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• Guiding questions at the start of each unit • Learning objectives are clearly stated at the
introduce important world issues and ensure beginning of each unit to help you engage with
that your learning reflects the mission of the the content and skills covered and actively take
IB Diploma – ‘to create a better world through responsibility for your own learning.
education.’
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Activities
A wide range of activities provide the opportunity for you to develop skills across core areas such
as writing, discussion, literature, form and meaning and exploring texts. These have been carefully
selected to map an engaging and effective route through content from the ‘Getting Started’ activ-
ities at the beginning of units right through to wrap up activities which promote reflection and
consolidation of your learning.

LEARNER PROFILE
This feature has been included to remind you of some of the qualities you
should aspire to demonstrate as a student of the IB programme.

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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Introduction

TOK
The Theory of Knowledge (TOK) component at the core of the Diploma Programme
asks you: ‘How do you know what you know?’ These feature boxes help you explore
the knowledge questions behind the content of the coursebook.

CAS
The Creativity, Activity and Service (CAS) component of the Diploma Programme
encourages you to have a range of experiences from which you can learn. These
feature boxes offer examples of CAS, while making connections to the content of
the coursebook.

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ATL
Approaches to Learning (ATL) are a set of skills that you should aim to develop
throughout the Diploma Programme. These include communication skills, research

Extended Essay
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skills, self-management skills, social skills and thinking skills. This feature will help
you to develop these while engaging in coursebook activities.

Extended Essay is a core requirement for the Diploma Programme. If you should
decide to write your EE on English B, you will find these feature boxes useful. They
offer guidance on research and tips on formulating research questions.
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Watch and listen
Audio activities are included throughout the coursebook in all units to provide essential listening
comprehension practice in line with the IB Language B guide. Clearly signposted icons show
where an audio track is required for an activity. The transcripts for these audio clips can be found
in the Teacher’s book. Sometimes you will be directed to a suggested video which may help to
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further your understanding of a particular topic.

Word bank
At the beginning of each unit you will find a word bank containing key words and
vocabulary related to that topic. Definitions for all word bank terminology can be found in
the glossary at the back of the book. Key words in the word bank are shown in bold type
when they first appear in the text.

EXTRA
Extra features encourage you to explore more about a particular concept or topic.
These may take the form of additional activities you could partake in, further research
or a related article or video that you could watch to take your learning further.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


IB English B

TIP
Tips have been included intermittently throughout the coursebook which will provide
additional support and guidance on your learning and in preparation for exams.

READING STRATEGY
This feature encourages you to think about particular text extracts, and the different
strategies that could be employed to understand and interpret them.

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CONCEPTS
The IB encourages you to explore certain key concepts in the process of learning:

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audience, context, purpose, meaning and variation. These concepts and their
relevance to a particular topic is explored in regular features.

TEXT AND CONTEXT


These boxes offer additional information about a given text to help you understand
more about the context in which it was written.
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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Introduction
Introduction

Who is this coursebook for?


This coursebook is for students taking the English B course for the International Baccalaureate

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(IB) Diploma Programme. As English B meets the Language Acquisition (Group 2) requirement
for the IB Diploma, students are non-native speakers of the English language. The aim of the
course is to develop communication skills, to help you become more proficient in the
English language.
The texts in this coursebook are relevant for 16–19-year-olds who study in international contexts
or have a broad outlook on the world. The activities and assignments encourage you to engage

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with language, while developing your own opinions about a wide range of topics.
English B can be taken at both standard and higher levels. Before registering for one or the other,
it is important to know the expectations of both teachers and examiners for each level.

Standard level
At standard level you will be able to:
• understand the main points of a variety of texts in English
• write different kinds of texts, although your writing might not be perfect and your sentence
structures might be simple
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• understand and handle situations where spoken English is used and required, although you
may require preparation and help before interacting with others.

Higher level
At higher level you will be able to:
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• understand the main ideas of more complex texts about topics that might be more abstract
in nature,
• write a variety of texts, although your writing might contain some errors
• understand complex conversations and interact with native speakers with some degree of
fluency and spontaneity
• produce clear and persuasive arguments.

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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


IB English B

How does this coursebook support


your study of IB English B?
This diagram represents the different
elements of the English B syllabus:

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At the heart of the course is communication. This coursebook invites you to develop your
communication skills through a range of activities. Each unit in the first five chapters uses the
following structure to develop these skills:
• The ‘Getting started’ section activates any knowledge you already have of a particular topic
before it’s explored in class.
• The ‘Watch and listen’ section presents activities through video and audio recordings to help
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you develop your receptive skills.
• Furthermore, productive and interactive skills are developed through text-handling activities
in the ‘Exploring texts’ section of each unit.
• Various phrases and sentences have been extracted from the texts presented in each unit
to create a section on ‘Form and meaning’, which corresponds to the language aspect of
the course.
• Your productive skills are needed for the ‘Writing, and, Discussion’ sections in each unit.
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• Finally, interactive skills are required for the ‘Discussion’ section, which encourages you to
engage with your teacher and classmates.

Themes and topics


The Language B syllabus outlines five required ‘themes’, which are addressed in the first five
chapters of this coursebook. The themes are:
• Identities
• Experiences
• Human ingenuity
• Social organisation
• Sharing the planet

Within each theme you are invited to explore various ‘topics’. Each chapter contains three units,
each of which explores a different topic. For example, the final theme, ‘Sharing the planet’,
includes a unit on the topic of climate change. The contents list gives you an overview of the
topics and themes that are explored in this book.

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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Introduction

Texts
You will develop your language skills through the study of various topics.You will explore a wide
range of ‘text types’, from brochures to speeches. Part of this course is about learning which forms
of language are appropriate in certain contexts. How are news reports different from official
reports? How are speeches different from blogs? These kinds of questions are explored in
Chapter 6, where a unique text type is introduced and explored in depth in each unit, with
examples and activities. The IB has categorised the following texts into ‘personal’, ‘professional’,
and ‘mass media’ texts.

Personal texts Professional texts Mass media texts

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blog blog advertisement
diary email article
personal letter essay blog
formal letter brochure
proposal editorial

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questionnaire
report
survey
film
instructions
interview
leaflet
literature
news report
pamphlet
podcast
poster
proposal
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public commentary
radio programme
review
speech
travel guide
web page
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Concepts
This coursebook encourages you to explore the following five key concepts, which are
fundamental to the English B course. The relevance of these concepts to the coursebook content
is highlighted in regular features.
• Audience: To whom are you speaking? Use appropriate language for this target group.
• Context: For which setting or situation are you writing or speaking? This too will influence
your use of language.
• Purpose: What is the goal of your communication? Use language that helps you achieve
your aims.
• Meaning: What is the message that you are communicating? Select words and phrases that
deliver this message effectively.
• Variation: How is your use of language different from other people’s use of language?
Differences in language use reflect differences in time, place and culture.

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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


IB English B

TOK, CAS and international mindedness


The outer ring of the syllabus diagram includes four further elements of the diploma programme:
• International mindedness: Most of the activities are designed around materials that
encourage international mindedness. Unit 1.1 explores this notion in depth.
• Theory of Knowledge (TOK): This required course for the diploma programme asks
you: ‘How do you know what you know?’ Language, also referred to in TOK as a ‘way of
knowing’, is an important tool for acquiring knowledge. This coursebook makes connections
between the course content and TOK through boxes in the margins, which often include
questions and activities for classroom discussion,
• Creativity, Activity, Service (CAS): There are several connections between CAS and the
English B course. Both encourage you to interact with others in an international setting.

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Both focus on experience and reflections as ways of learning. Boxes in the margins of this
coursebook help you make these connections.

Approaches to Learning (ATL)


The IB encourages you to develop the following approaches to learning throughout your


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diploma programme. The English B course provides you with many opportunities to explore and
develop these in class through features such as tips, activities and questions. The skills you will
need to develop are:
• Communication skills: Listening, reading, writing, speaking and interacting skills are at the
heart of this course.
Thinking skills: This course encourages you to develop thinking skills, by connections to
TOK and asking deeper questions.
Social skills: The activities in this coursebook invite you to interact with classmates, by
engaging in conversation and playing games.
• Research skills: This coursebook includes boxes in the margins labelled ‘extra’, in which you
are invited to research the ideas of the texts and activities in more depth. Furthermore, the
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marginal boxes on the extended essay give you guidance on how to research typical
English B topics.
• Self-management skills: What kinds of study habits do you need to develop in order to
acquire English effectively? This coursebook encourages you to reflect on your own learning.

HL extensions and literature


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Each unit offers activities and texts for higher level students, which offer more depth and breadth
to each topic. Furthermore, you will find a passage of literature at the end of each unit. These
texts and activities help you develop skills for studying the two literary works that your teacher
will assign you over the course of two years. The term ‘literary works’ means works of prose
fiction, prose non-fiction, poetry and drama, that are appropriate to your reading level. At higher
level, your understanding of one of the literary works will be assessed through an individual oral
assessment. Standard level students are not required to read literary works.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Introduction

How is the course assessed?


There are three assessment components at both higher and standard level. Here is an overview,
that will help you understand the differences between the standard and higher levels. As you will
see in further explanations of each component, the IB differentiates between standard level (SL)
and higher level (HL) in the following ways:
• the amount of time allowed for taking exams
• level of difficulty of tasks
• level of difficulty of stimulus texts and recordings
• number of words for written production

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• descriptors of ability levels in the assessment criteria.
Chapters 7–9 offer activities, specimen exam papers and examples of student’s work, that will
help to give you a more in-depth understanding of the assessment for this course.
The following table summarises the assessment for the course.

Paper 1

(Externally assessed
by examiner)
SL





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1 hour 15 minutes
one writing task from a choice
of three
each task based on a course
theme
select a text type
HL





1 hour 30 minutes
one writing task from a choice
of three
each task based on a course
theme
select a text type
Percent of final grade

25%

• 250–400 words • 450–600 words


• 30 marks • 30 marks
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Paper 2 • 45 minutes listening for 25 • 1 hour listening for 25 marks 50%
marks
(Externally assessed • 3 audio passages
by examiner) • 3 audio passages
• 1 hour reading for 40 marks
• 1 hour reading for 40 marks
• three reading texts
• three reading texts
• based on themes
• based on themes
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Individual oral • presentation of a photograph • presentation of a literary 25%


passage
(Internally assessed • conversation with teacher about
by teacher) an additional theme • conversation with teacher about
a theme

Paper 1: Productive skills – writing


Paper 1 tests your ability to write for a particular audience, for a specific purpose, using the
conventions of a specific text type. At both higher and standard level, you will see three prompts,
each of which corresponds to a different theme from the course.You only have to respond to one
of three prompts, using one of three recommended text types for your response. See the criteria
on Paper 1 in the following section of this introduction. Chapter 7 includes student sample work
which has been marked according to these criteria.

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Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


IB English B

Paper 2: Receptive skills – listening and reading


Paper 2 is a test of your listening and reading comprehension skills. The exam is based on three
audio recordings and three reading texts, each of which corresponds to a different, prescribed
theme from this course. Paper 2 will include a range of questions, including multiple choice,
true/false, matching, fill–in–the–gap or short answer. Many of the activities in Chapters 1–5 help
develop your listening and reading skills. See Chapter 8 for a practice Paper 2 at both standard
and higher level.

Individual oral
The only component of internal assessment at both standard and higher level is the individual

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oral, which is marked by your teacher and moderated by the IB. This table shows you how this
exam differs at higher and standard level.

Standard level Higher level

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Supervised
preparation time

Part 1: Presentation
15 Minutes
Select one of two visual stimuli
(photo, illustration, cartoon,
poster) each corresponding to a
theme. Make notes and prepare a
presentation.

3–4 minutes
Give a presentation in which you
20 minutes
Select one of two literary extracts
of 300 words, each from a different
literary work. Make notes and
prepare a presentation on the
extract.

3–4 minutes
Give a presentation on the extract,
relate the stimulus to the theme commenting on the events, ideas
and target culture. and messages in the extract.
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Part 2: Follow-up 4–5 minutes 4–5 minutes
discussion Discuss this theme further with Discuss the extract further with
your teacher. Expand on your your teacher. Expand on your
presentation. observations.

Part 3: General 5–6 minutes 5–6 minutes


discussion Have a general discussion with Have a general discussion with
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(5-6 minutes) your teacher about one or more your teacher about one or more
themes of the course. themes of the course.

For a more detailed description of the individual oral assessments at standard and higher level see
Chapter 9, which includes student sample responses and preparation activities. See the assessment
criteria on for the individual oral given in the following section.

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Identities Chapter
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How do you see yourself? When you look in the mirror, who do you 1
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see? This chapter explores the theme of identity, asking you to think
about how you define yourself and how others influence
your self-image.

In this Chapter
• In Unit 1.1, you will explore how our individual identities are shaped by the diverse cultures
in which we’re raised.
• In Unit 1.2, you will discuss how your identity is shaped by your beliefs.
• In Unit 1.3, you will study how the media and the advertising industry shape people’s
definition of ‘beauty’ and impact their sense of self-esteem.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Unit 1.1
Citizens of the world

Guiding questions Learning objectives


• What does it mean to be a ‘citizen of the world’? • Develop an understanding of international-
• How do you develop your sense of identity in a mindedness.

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globalised world? • To use language effectively to explore the topic
• What kinds of experiences have contributed to of globalisation.
your sense of identity? • To develop appropriate language skills to discuss
and express your identity.

LEARNER PROFILE
The first part of
the IB mission
statement reads:
‘The International
Baccalaureate aims
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Have you ever met someone who finds it hard to answer the question: ‘Where are you from?’
Perhaps you are one of them. Defining who we are in a multicultural and mobile world is
becoming more and more challenging.You might live in a place where you were not born.Your
parents might speak a language that is not your own.Your culture might not be the same as your
neighbour’s. Thanks to globalisation people are moving to other
countries, doing business across borders and making friends
online. Trying to figure out who we are in a globalised
world is not easy.
to develop inquiring, This unit asks you to think about who you are in
knowledgeable the context of where you are from, where you
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and caring young have been and where you are going.You will
people who help to read several texts about people who have come
create a better and to understand themselves better by travelling and
more peaceful world getting to know other cultures.You could say that
through intercultural these people are more ‘citizens of the world’ than
understanding and citizens of any one nation. Through their stories,
respect.’ Two traits you might see the value of being a worldly person.
of from the learner You might come to understand the ethos of the
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profile have been International Baccalaureate a little better.


written in italics.
Being an inquirer is
also mentioned. What
other character traits
should you have if Getting started
you’re going to make
the world a better 1.1 For each of the questions below, you are asked to name a country. Without showing your
place? Make a list as classmates, write your answers on a piece of paper and give them to your teacher.
a class. a In which country were you born?
b Where are your parents from?
c During international sporting events, such as the Olympic games or the World Cup (football),
which country are you most likely to support?
d If you could visit any country in the world, which would it be?
e Is there any other country that you feel close to? Which one?

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

1.2 Your teacher will make one alphabetical list of the countries from your class’ answers to the
Word bank
previous activity, and then read the list aloud.
After each country is read aloud, take a few seconds to write down the first association that multicultural
comes to mind.You might use words and phrases such as ‘home’, ‘warmth’, ‘power’, ‘poverty’ or globalisation
even ‘fish and chips’. There are no right or wrong answers! worldly
association
1.3 Make a list of everyone’s associations with the countries that were mentioned in the diverse
previous activity. Everyone could write their associations on the whiteboard, or place sticky notes stereotypes
on a large map. Whichever you choose, display everyone’s answers so they are visible to all. Discuss identity
the following questions: race
a How diverse is your class? ritual

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b Why do you have these associations with these countries? If these are stereotypes, ask yourself customs
where they come from. values
c Were some of the associations very different or was everyone in agreement? abroad
d Why do such perceived differences exist? habits
foreign

view it?

EXTRA
a
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e How does it make you feel when others view your home country differently from how you

Do an online search for ‘maps of stereotypes’. You may want to check those of
Yanko Tsvetkov, also known as ‘Alphadesigner’.
heritage
roots
third culture kid
nomad
repatriation
culture clash
communication
b Hold a classroom discussion about these stereotypes. Ask yourself why there are appearances
different views on countries.
c How do you think stereotypes originate?
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EX-BANKS
FJORDS
LOTS OF DARKNESS
FISH
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MIGHT BE
POTATOES
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CAS
ENGLAND?
FJORDS POTATOES
RACE & VODKA
TA PE

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DRIVERS

CAS stands for Creativity,


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requirements, you will
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OH

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WOMAN WITH LE
SHINY HAT
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you are encouraged to
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TRYSTS CL OR
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this unit, think about
BOOZ P
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MAN WITH
SLEEPING PEOPLE
how you can come into
FRANCE,
FANCY HAT
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PAPRIKA
LOVERS
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contact with people
ES
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ITALY,
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SMALLER
ABSOLUTELY
AC

BULLFIGHTS DRUGS
NO MONEY DRUNK
from other cultures and
HES

BRITISH BRITS
CRIMINALS
MA

communities to ensure
FIA

that you grow as a


person.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


1
Identities

1.4 Read the captions to the images below (a-d), which are quotations from famous people.
Then answer the following questions:
a As a class, create a mind map with the word ‘identity’ in the middle. What factors contribute
to our identity? Where do you see evidence of this in the four quotations?
b What do you already know about these historical figures? Share your knowledge with
your classmates.
c Based on each quotation, how closely does each person identify with the country in which he
or she was born? What part of the quotation leads you to believe this?
d Looking back at the list of countries from Activities 1.1-1.3, can you name some famous
people from these countries? What did these people do for their country? How have they
helped to make the world a better place?

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A B

I am an Albanian by birth. Now If the Theory of relativity is


I am a Catholic citizen of India. confirmed, the Germans will

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I am also a Catholic nun. In
my work, I belong to the whole
world. But in my heart I
belong to Christ.
Mother Teresa
say that I am a German, and
the French that I am a citizen
of the world; but if my theory is
disproved, the French will declare me
a German and the Germans –
a Jew.
Albert Einstein

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D
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My identity might begin with
the fact of my race, but it To be an African in South Africa
didn’t, couldn’t end there. means that one is politicized
At least that’s what I would from the moment of one’s birth,
choose to believe. whether one acknowledges it
or not.
Barack Obama
Nelson Mandela
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Watch and listen


1.5 Go to TED.com and search for ‘Taiye Selasi: Don’t ask where I’m from, ask where I’m a
local.’ Before you watch her presentation, read the words and phrases in the box and list (a-i) at
the top of the next page, which will be used in Selasi’s talk. Try to match the words and phrases
from the box with their synonyms in the list.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

to look like a take away from


it’s quicker to say b to belie
familiar c it hit me
to not quite work d fixed point in place and time
milieu e using a short hand
the penny finally dropped f overlap
remove g at home
a constant h to pass as
layers that merge together i environment

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Taiye Selasi

1.6
a Selasi explains that there is a difference between the questions: ‘Where are you from’ and
‘Where are you a local?’ How are these questions different in her mind? What would be your

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own answers to these questions?
b Selasi suggests that we are defined by our rituals. What are some of your daily rituals and how
do they define the culture you come from?
c Selasi also says that we are defined by our relationships. If you think about the people you
connect with on a weekly basis, where do these connections take place, literally? Consider
both your online and physical settings? How do these people and places define you?
d Lastly, Selasi claims that people’s identities are often defined by the restrictions they
TOK
In TOK we ask the
question: ‘How do we
know what we know?’
Much of what you know
may be defined by where
you come from and what
experience. What kinds of restrictions is she referring to? Do you experience such restrictions kinds of experiences you
in your life? How do these restrictions define who you are? have had. In her TED Talk,
Selasi uses the following
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1.7 After you have discussed the questions from the previous activity, copy the table below. logic to persuade the
Interview a classmate and ask him or her how these things define who they are. Use their audience:
responses to complete the table. Then ask your classmate to use the table to interview you. Use • All experience is local
your completed tables to introduce each other to your classmates. (Or: our experience
is where we’re from)
Rituals Relationships Restrictions (premise 1).
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• All identity is
experience (premise 2).
• Therefore my
identity is defined by
where I have been
1.8 Discuss your answers to the following questions before listening to Audio track 1. (conclusion).
a What is ‘globalisation’ exactly? As a class, can you come up with one definition?
This form of reasoning,
b What do you think are three main problems in the world today? when starting from
c Do you think that globalisation forces people to give up their identity? general premises to a
d What are the differences between ‘customs’ and ‘values’? specific conclusion, is
known as deductive
reasoning. Do you agree
with Selasi’s reasoning?

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1
Identities

1.9 In the box below is a selection of words that you will hear in Audio track 1. Look up the
meaning of any unfamiliar words and then use them to complete the sentences below. Check
your answers with fellow classmates and your teacher before listening to Audio track 1.

commence privilege adapt esteemed


adopt possess boundaries aspiration sacrifice

a After they moved to a different country, he had to ... to a different culture.


b After the opening ceremony, the games will ....
c She had the ... of speaking to the students on the first day of school.

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d They could not have children so they decided to ... a young girl.
e The war spilled over the ... of the country.
f It was her ... to become a leader in parliament.
g The IB Learner Profile encourages students to ... certain character traits.

i
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h He had to ... his Saturday in order to help at the shelter.
The school had an excellent reputation. It was one of the most ... schools in the region.

1.10 As you listen to Audio track 1, listen for answers to the following questions. After
listening, check your answers with a classmate and then with your teacher.
a Fill in the gap. The speaker refers to the students of this international school as young and ‘. . .’
b What has the speaker been asked to talk about?
c Fill in the gap. Rather than referring to himself as a ‘. . .’, the speaker would like to think of
himself as a ‘citizen of the world’.
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d Fill in the gap. The speaker thinks the world would be a better place with more ‘. . .’ citizens.
e The speaker mentions three main problems that this generation faces. Name one of them.
TIP f Fill in the gap. Globalisation is a reality which people will have to ‘. . .’
For your Paper 2 exam, g Fill in the gap. People have different customs and ‘. . .’
you will do several text- h Name one of the two international organisations that the speaker mentions.
handling exercises. The
‘Exploring texts’ sections i Fill in the gap. The speaker asks if people have to sacrifice their ‘. . .’ to make the world a
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in Chapters 1–5 should better place.


help you prepare for
this part of your exam. 1.11 Try to make one long, meaningful sentence that includes as many answers as possible from
Notice how the activities Activity 1.10. Share your sentence with your classmates. Who has included the most words? Does
in this coursebook ask their sentence make much sense? Try to use punctuation accurately.
you to predict what
the texts will be about
before you read them.
During your Paper 2
exam, make predictions Exploring texts
based on the text titles.
This strategy will help 1.12 Imagine you were to move abroad and live abroad for over 10 years. How might that
you engage with the affect you? How might that change your perspective on life? What kinds of lessons might you
texts and to understand learn? Discuss your answers to these questions with your classmates. If you have anyone in your
them, as you read them. class who has spent a significant about of time living abroad, ask them to answer these questions.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

1.13 The title and the paragraph headings have been removed from Text 1.1. Read through
Text 1.1 and find where these lines fit into the text appropriately.
a The life of a new immigrant
b We’re all just human
c Adventures in fitting in
d The inevitable pep talk
e Questions of belonging
f 10 years of living abroad: How moving to Australia changed by my life.
g Finding myself

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READING STRATEGY
Activity 1.13 asks you to read the headings that have been removed from the original
text (Text 1.1) and match them with their corresponding paragraphs. When you are
faced with a text with lots of sub-headings, it is useful to read these sub-headings

will be about.

Text 1.1
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before reading the whole text. This way you can predict more accurately what the text

1... 10 years ago today, I moved abroad for the


first time.
I packed two (very heavy) bags and left
behind the only home I had known until
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that point in my life – Calcutta, India.
I came to the Gold Coast in Australia to
get a Master’s degree and planned to move
back to familiarity as soon as I was done.
Little did I know then, that I was taking a
step that would go on to be one of the
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biggest turning points of my life.

2... During my first year in Australia, I hated it. I found it beautiful, but superficial and the people friendly,
but distant. I missed my family, my friends, the food and the overfamiliar warmth of India.
I was also terrified of how polite everyone was. Every sentence seemed to be punctuated with a
please or a thank you. If you come from a non-Anglo culture, you’ll know exactly what I mean. 
It wasn’t an English language problem because I have spoken English my whole life; but communication
in India is a lot more direct.
In Australia however, I realised I had to embellish my sentences with “Would you mind…” or “Could
you please…” before even getting around to the actual point. I lived in mortal fear of losing friends
because I hadn’t said the right amount of pleases and thank yous.
I make it sound like we’re so rude in India. We’re not, I promise.
Our politeness is just more centred around gestures and body language (head nods, anyone?) and not
so much around minding our Ps and Qs. It’s complicated, but if you’ve ever spent time with anyone
from an Asian culture, you’ll know what I mean.

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Identities

Of course when I wasn’t terrified of politeness, I spent my time worrying about accents. Back in
2007, I was ridiculously shy and hated having to repeat myself or worse, asking people to repeat
themselves. 
I struggled a bit with the nasal Queenslander Aussie accents and jargon and in return, I got my share
of strange looks for my accent or choice of words that aren’t commonly heard in Australia.

3... And of course, despite the majority of people I met, being amazingly nice, I also dealt with my share
of racists and bigots. People made fun of my accent, or made me feel like I didn’t belong because of
skin colour or my ethnicity.
But, through all the ups and downs of immigrant life and adjusting to life abroad, somehow I managed

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to fall in love with Australia.
At some point, I realised that “fitting in” wasn’t up to anyone else but me. If I wanted Australia to
embrace me, I was going to have to embrace it first.
I met some incredible people, who I am proud to call my friends today.
I found a job that not only taught me so much about digital marketing, but also about Aussie

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workplace culture and it gave me a whole new group of friends.
And of course, somewhere in between all my fitting-in, I also met Johnny. 

4... Fast forward to 27th February, 2017 and Australia is now my home. I will always be Indian, but I am
also very proudly Australian.
Over the years, I have had many variants of “go back to where you come from” or “…. in Australia we do
it like this” thrown at me.
It used to upset me because it made feel like I didn’t belong but now I honestly just laugh at the
ignorance of people who say stupid stuff like that.
Moving to and living in Australia taught me a lot about Australia (obviously) but also a lot about
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myself. I am still an introvert but I am a much more confident introvert.
10 years of living outside the country of my birth has made me a much more empathetic person. But
most importantly, it has taught me that my identity is more than my skin colour, my ethnicity
or my accent.
I belong in Australia just as much as the ignorant idiots.
But, I am also proud of not belonging entirely.
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I am no longer insecure about that. I embrace it and thrive in it.


I had the courage to give up the familiar and unlike many racists and bigots, I now not only have a
deeper understanding of my own culture, but of my adopted country as well.

5... Today, I have embraced “not belonging” on a whole new level.


Packing up my life to go live abroad in a brand new city every few months, is now normal for me. I
love the thrill of travel and heading off to an unknown place.
Many people go off to travel as a way to find themselves. It makes you want to roll your eyes but
there is a grain of truth to it. When you travel outside your home country, you learn things about
yourself and see yourself in a completely new light.
Moving to Australia taught me that if I could give up everything that is familiar and create a brand
new life when I was 22 – I was capable of a lot more than I gave myself credit for.
It also made me want to learn about different ways of life around the world because travelling and
living abroad can teach you much more about the world and people than any school ever could.

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

So in 2013, when we gave up our life in Australia in exchange for a life of travel – I was nervous as
hell but also excited for what lay in store and what we could potentially learn from other countries,
other cultures.

6... A very wise man (my dad) once told me that underneath all our differences, we’re all the same and
want the same basic things from our lives. We’re human.
Having lived in many different countries in the past few years, I cannot help but say my dad is right.
If you relate to people on a human level, and stop comparing who’s better (or worse) – you will
come out with brand new friends and develop a much richer understanding of the world.
I’ve never liked being put into a box. I refuse to be limited by definition of my nationality or

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ethnicity alone.
There’s more to me than that.
I have left a piece of my heart in every place we’ve been to and I carry a piece of them in me.
Today, I am part Indian, part Australian but also part Colombian, part Mexican, part Thai & much more
— all of which combine to make me wholly global — fitting in everywhere yet not

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belonging anywhere.
And I love that.

7... I’ll just end with this: I moved to Australia to study and with a plan to take on the world of journalism.
But instead, I ended up with a brand new, completely different life. I will forever be grateful for that.
Have the courage to give up the familiar. Have the courage to grow.
Have the courage to willingly put yourself in situations that make you uncomfortable.
Good things never came out of comfort zones.
Travel. Go see the world. Leave the comforts of your home behind and go live abroad if you can.
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It can be scary as hell but NOTHING else can change you the way travel and living abroad can. It’s
not all rainbows and unicorns (real life doesn’t work that way.) It will be tough and uncomfortable
but you will never, ever regret it.
Oh and P.S.: Be nice to immigrants. We’re all fighting battles – internally and externally and a little
kindness goes a long way.
www.fulltimenomad.com
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1.14 Can you find synonyms from Text 1.1 for the following words? They appear in the same
order as they do in the text.
a insincere b detached
c well-mannered d adorn
e timid f slang
g extremists h obliviousness
i compassionate j excitement
k evidently l worry about
m bravery

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


1
Identities

1.15 What does the author of Text 1.1 mean by the following phrases?
a to mind your Ps and Qs
b all the ups and downs
c to roll your eyes
d to be put into a box
e its’ not all rainbows and unicorns
f good things never came out of comfort zones

1.16 What has the author of Text 1.1 learned from her experiences living abroad? Return to
your answers from Activity 1.12 and compare her experiences to you answers. What does living

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abroad teach you? Find references from the text to support your answers.

Form and meaning

been used.
PPLL
1.17 Read Text 1.2, below about an American-born Chinese (ABC) woman, who lives in
Beijing. She writes about her life and her daily activities. Here are two groups of sentences taken
from Text 1.2. For each group of sentences explain why the particular verb tense (underlined) has

1 When do you use ‘to be’ with ‘-ing’ (the present continuous verb tense)?
a My friends are constantly asking me …
b But I don’t feel like I’m missing out.
c … we’re living abroad.
d It would’ve been very different from what I’m experiencing now.
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e I’m just enjoying my life.
2 When do you use the present simple verb tense?
a I believe that the term applies to me.
b We always have a home to go back to.
c The culture doesn’t make sense sometimes.
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d I have no idea what my future holds.


e I don’t like the thought of settling.

1.18 Do you need help describing the difference between the present simple and the present
continuous verb tenses? Look at the sentences in Activity 1.17 again. Make a copy of the table
below, and decide which of the descriptions (a–g) go in the ‘present simple’ column and which in
the ‘present continuous’ column.
a General statement b Something temporary
c Something happening right now d A state of being
e Something annoying f Something permanent
g Something that happens again and again

Present simple Present continuous

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

1.19 Test your understanding of the present simple and the present continuous by selecting the
correct verb tense in each sentence below. ATL
a Studies prove that many TCKs (suffer/are suffering) from depression. The IB encourages five
skills or approaches to
b (I live/I’m living) in this flat until the end of the month. learning (ATL):
c The USA (grants/is granting) 50,000 Green Cards every year. • thinking skills
d TCKs usually (speak/are speaking) more than one language. • communication skills
e Most military families (live/are living) on bases during their time abroad. • social skills
f We (run/are running) out of time to talk about the immigration bill. • self-management skills
g He (constantly makes/is constantly making) that slurping noise with his soup! • research skills.

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h My psychiatrist thinks I (suffer/am suffering) from reverse culture shock. Texts 1.1–1.3 are about
i Some people (find/are finding) the term ‘third culture kid’ offensive. people who have lived
abroad. How did their
experiences help them
1.20 Think about the use of verb tenses in Text 1.2, a blog by Michelle Lai- Saun Guo.
develop one or more of
a How long do you think the author plans to live in Beijing? these skills? Where in the

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b Does she feel she has come ‘home’ to her roots in China, or is she only a long-term visitor?
c Where in the text do you see evidence to support your answers?

Text 1.2
texts do you see evidence
of these skills?

My Beijing Survival Diary


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My friends are constantly asking me, ‘When are you Having spent my first year and a half in Beijing with
coming home?’ Although I understand it’s because only close Chinese friends, it’s nice to finally have
they miss me, and obviously I miss them, it’s a difficult friends here who understand what I miss most about
question to answer for several reasons. The first is America, and also understand what I go through here in
the state of the US economy. I feel like being in China China, such as visa issues, looking for housing, getting
gives me many opportunities to network and create sick from the lack of quality dairy, even my cross-
opportunities that people back home may not have. The cultural relationship. Although I didn’t study abroad, I
second is quite simply because I’ve learned that even if I feel like it would’ve been very different from what I’m
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make plans for my life, God’s going to shake a finger and experiencing now, which is living abroad.
say ‘Nuh uh! That’s not how I see it going down.’ One thing that TCKs share (at least the ones I know) is
Although the Urban Dictionary definition of a Third spending a good portion of their mid-20’s not partying in
Culture Kid [TCK] is typically someone whose parents Vegas, but hitting up Sanlitun or other bar areas. When I
have moved him/her around to different countries see pictures of my friends from home together in Vegas,
during childhood, I believe that the term applies to me of course I wish I could be there. But I don’t feel like I’m
and my Beijing expat friends as well; especially those of missing out by being here. Last weekend, I went to Xiu
us who are of Chinese heritage. with some friends. I was standing on the rooftop terrace,
Sidenote: for those ABCs who have never been to China looking up at the tall, chic Jianwai SOHO buildings
but think you understand Chinese culture, you’d be that surrounded the bar. It was an awesome view, and
amazed at what you discover actually living here. As I thought to myself, ‘This is the epitome of life in your
much as we TCKs complain to each other about the 20’s, of living in this city where the culture doesn’t make
lack of lines outside subway trains, baby poop on the sense sometimes, but you just go with it.’
sidewalk, or getting scammed by housing agents, we In a way, living overseas doesn’t bring as much pressure
understand that there’s something that still draws us to as I imagine the ‘real world’ back home would have.
China despite all those things. One reason is that we always have a home to go back to,

11

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1
Identities

even if we’re living abroad. I’ve always been a nomad, So while I have no idea what my future holds, I’m just
and I love the feeling of not knowing where I’m going to enjoying my life of hanging out in artsy cafes, eating
‘settle,’ if I do settle at all. To be completely honest, even chuan’r outdoors, and playing basketball with guys
if I moved back home, I’d be open to moving back to whose names I can never remember because three
China in the future, or even another country. I don’t like Chinese characters are harder to remember than one
the thought of settling in one place and planning out my English name.
entire future based around that one location. Blog by Michelle Lai-Saun Guo

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READING STRATEGY TEXT AND CONTEXT
We usually read with • The term ‘ABC’ (paragraph 3) stands for ‘American-born Chinese’, describing
a purpose in mind. If someone born in America to first generation Chinese immigrants.
you are looking for
information you might • This term can be used jokingly (as seen in this text) or in a negative way to describe
Chinese-Americans who have given up their parents’ traditions and culture.
quickly glance over the
text to find key words
(scanning). Similarly,
when reading texts
for exams or in the
classroom, make sure
you always know what
you are looking for.
In other words, read
EXTRA
PPLL
The author of Text 1.2 is not the first migrant to go back to her roots. Immigrants and
their descendants have frequently gone back to their country of origin – a process
known as repatriation. Try to find other texts about people who have ‘gone home’
the question before to a place that might no longer feel like home. Prepare a brief presentation on one of
reading the text. Keep your texts and the story that it tells. You may use one or more of the examples below:
the following guiding
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questions in mind as you • The Back-to-Africa movement and the history of Liberia
read Text 1.2. • Mexican repatriation in the 1930s
• What do we know • The Law of Return, giving all Jews the right to return to Israel
about the author?
• Skilled non-resident Indians (NRIs) returning to India.
• What is she doing in
Beijing?
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• How long does she


plan to live there?

The `Back to Africa’ movement, which began in the early 19th century,
encouraged African Americans to return to their roots in Africa.

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

Discussion
1.21 Do you agree or disagree with some of these statements made by the author of Text 1.2?
Give reasons for your answers.
a ‘If I make plans for my life, God’s going to shake a finger and say, ‘Nuh uh! That’s not how I
see it going down.’
b ‘The epitome of life in your 20’s [is] living in [a] city where the culture doesn’t make sense
sometimes, but you just go with it.’
c ‘I love the feeling of not knowing where I’m going to ‘settle’.’

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d ‘I don’t like the thought of planning out my entire future based around that one location.’

1.22 Edward T. Hall was a famous anthropologist who likened culture to an iceberg in 1976.
He claimed that ‘external’ culture was like the tip of an iceberg that is visible above water. It
includes people’s ‘outward’ behaviour, such as their customs and art. Under the water lies people’s

PPLL
‘internal’ culture, that includes their ways of thinking, values and norms. See the image below for
a more detailed understanding. Using this iceberg model of culture, discuss the similarities and
differences between two cultures with which you and your classmate(s) are familiar. Present your
findings to your classmates.

External cultural characteristics


customs traditions fashion
games language holidays
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Internal cultural characteristics
concepts of self roles related to age, focus on past, sense of fairness
gender, class and family present or future

displays of emotion personal space courtesy and manners

understanding of cleanliness attitudes toward authority


tolerance of uncertainty
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importance of individualism
and ambiguity
importance of competition
value of self-
restraint

EXTRA
If you are interested in how cultures work and the iceberg model, you might like to
investigate the research of Geert Hofstede on ‘cultural dimensions’. The Culture Map
by Erin Meyer is a more recent best-seller on this topic. Do more research on Geert
Hofstede or read Erin Meyer’s book (or parts of it) and tell your classmates more about
the ‘science’ of culture in a presentation.

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Identities

1.23 The photograph below was taken at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. It is
accompanied by four headlines from four different newspapers (Captions A-D) and a Tweet from
a journalist (Caption E). Answer the following questions after studying Captions A-E, that are
below the picture:
a For each of the five captions, what is the author’s intention?
b Which one of the first four captions best captures the way you feel about this image? Why
would you say this?
c How are these terms different: ‘cultural divide’, ‘cultural contrast’, and ‘culture clash’? What do
they mean and what is the effect of using each term?
d Do you agree with Ben Machell’s message in his tweet (Caption E)? Is there really much
difference in culture between two teams that compete in the same sport?

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e To what extent does the sportswear of these two women reflect their cultural identity?

Caption A

‘The cover-ups versus the cover-nots:


Egyptian and German beach volleyball
players highlight the massive cultural divide
between Western and Islamic women’s teams

Daily Mail

Caption B
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Rio 2016: How one photo of beach
volleyball captured the beauty of
diversity at the Olympics
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Global News

Caption C

CULTURE SHOCK Rio Olympics 2016:


Egypt v Germany beach volleyball clash
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shows colossal cultural divide between


two teams
The Sun

Caption D

Beach volleyball displays cultural contrasts


coming together at the Olympics
Report UK

Caption E

Hijab vs bikini thing aside, how much of a 'culture clash' is it really if you are
both playing women's beach volleyball at the Olympics?
Tweet by Ben Machell (The Times and Evening Standard)

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

Writing
1.24 Do an online search, using the headlines (captions A-E) from Activity 1.23. Read one
of the articles that follows one of these headlines. Write a letter to the editor in response to their
reporting of the Egypt versus Germany women’s volleyball match from the 2016 Olympics.Voice
your opinion, that you expressed in the discussion from Activity 1.23. For more information on
how to write a letter to the editor, see Unit 6.1.

1.25 Texts 1.1 and 1.2 are both blogs about living abroad. While there are many different
types of blogs, these texts are like public diaries or journals, open to friends, family and anyone

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who is interested in the writer’s personal experiences. Try writing your own blog entry about
an experience that you have had while traveling or even living abroad. Try using terms from the
word bank in this unit. For more information on blog writing see Unit 6.3.

Extended Essay
PPLL
If you would like to write an extended essay for English B, you can do so in one of
three categories:
1 A specific analysis of the language (its use and structure), normally related to its
cultural context or a specific text.
2 a A socio-cultural analysis of the impact of a particular issue on the form or use
of the language based on an examination of language use.
b An essay of a general cultural nature based on specific cultural artefacts.
3 An analysis of a literary type, based on a specific work or works of literature
exclusively from the target language.
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Talk to your supervisor about the IB’s specifications. You can write about how
language reflects culture and how culture shapes identity, which is in the spirit
of this unit. Be sure to focus on a particular Anglophone culture and a particular
set of language, as expressed in various texts or ‘cultural artefacts’, that can
be anything concrete such as newspapers, magazines, articles, books, cartoons,
advertisements, websites, policies or speeches.
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Higher level extension


1.26 We started this unit by studying the opening lines from IB’s mission statement. The final
lines of this statement read:
‘These [IB] programmes encourage students across the world to become active,
compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their
differences, can also be right.’

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Identities

In order to think about the phrase ‘other people, with their differences, can also be right,’ study
the list of famous individuals. Research them online and answer the following questions:
• Who were these individuals?
• How were they different?
• How were they right?
a Marie Curie
b Mahatma Gandhi
c Alan Turing
d Rosa Parks
e Dick Fosbury

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f Steve Jobs

PPLL Rosa Parks in 1955

Dick Fosbury at the


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Olympic games in 1968

1.27 Have you ever experienced situations when travelling or living abroad, where people did
things differently?
• What did they do differently?
• Could you consider these differences ‘right’ or ‘wrong’?
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• Discuss your experiences and opinions with your classmates.

1.28 The following words have been removed from Text 1.3. Study the list before reading
Text 1.3 and look up the meaning of any words that you do not know. Then read Text 1.3
and insert the missing words from the list below.
a mundane b reexamine
c ulterior d rubs
e blunt f sense
g reconfigure h apology
i funny j self-development
k deception l niceties
m abundance n superficially
o outspokenness p repercussion

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

Text 1.3
In 2011 I travelled to Saint Petersburg,
Russia. The food sucked. The weather
sucked. My apartment sucked. Nothing
worked. Everything was overpriced. The
people were rude and smelled ...1....
Nobody smiled and everyone drank too
much. Yet, I loved it. It was one of my
favorite trips.
There’s a bluntness to Russian culture

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that generally ...2... Westerners the
wrong way. Gone are the fake ...3...
and verbal webs of politeness. You
don’t smile at strangers or pretend to
like anything you don’t. In Russia, if
something is stupid, you say it’s stupid.

PPLL
If you really like someone and are
having a great time, you tell her that you
like her and are having a great time. It doesn’t matter
if this person is your friend, a stranger, or someone you
met five minutes ago on the street.
The first week I found all of this really uncomfortable.
I went on a coffee date with a Russian girl, and within
three minutes of sitting down she looked at me funny
and told me that what I’d just said was stupid. I nearly
Travel is a fantastic ...10... tool, because it extricates
you from the values of your culture and shows you
that another society can live with entirely different
values and still function and not hate themselves. This
exposure to different cultural values and metrics then
forces you to ...11... what seems obvious in your own
life and to consider that perhaps it’s not necessarily
the best way to live. In this case, Russia had me re-
choked on my drink. There was nothing combative
examining the fake-nice communication that is so
about the way she said it; it was spoken as if it were
common in Anglo culture, and asking myself it this
some ...4... fact – like the quality of the weather that day,
wasn’t somehow making us more insecure around each
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or her shoe size – but I was still shocked. After all in the
other and worse at intimacy.
West such ...5... is seen as highly offensive, especially
from someone you just met. But it went on like this with I remember discussing this dynamic with my
everyone. Everyone came across as rude all the time, Russian teacher one day, and he had an interesting
and as a result my Western-coddled mind felt attacked theory. Having lived under communism for so many
on all sides. Nagging insecurities began to surface in generations, with little to no economic opportunity and
situations where they hadn’t existed in years. caged by a culture of fear, Russian society found the
most valuable currency to be trust. And to build trust
But as the weeks wore on, I got used to the Russian
SSA
A

you have to be honest. That means when things suck,


frankness, much as I did the midnight sunsets and the
you say so openly and without ...12.... People’s displays
vodka that went down like ice water. And then I started
of unpleasant honesty were rewarded for the simple
appreciating it for what it really was: unadulterated
fact that they were necessary for survival – you had to
expression. Honesty in the truest ...6... of the word.
know whom you could rely on and whom you couldn’t,
Communication with no conditions, no strings
and you needed to know quickly.
attached, no ...7... motive, no sales job, no desperate
attempt to be liked. But, in the ‘free’ West, my Russian teacher continued,
there existed an ...13... of economic opportunity – so
Somehow, after years of travel, it was in perhaps the
much economic opportunity that it became far more
most un-American of places where I first experienced
valuable to present yourself in a certain way, even if
a particular flavour of freedom: the ability to say
it was false, than to actually be that way. Trust lost
whatever I thought or felt, without fear of ...8.... It was
value. Appearances and salesmanship became more
a strange form of liberation through accepting rejection.
advantageous forms of expression. Knowing a lot of
And as someone who had been starved of this kind of
people ...14... was more beneficial that knowing a few
...9... expression most of his life – I got drunk on it like,
people closely.
well, like it was the finest vodka I’d ever had. The month
I spent in Saint Petersburg went by in a blur, and by the This is why it became the norm in Western cultures to
end I didn’t want to leave. smile and say polite things even when you don’t feel

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1
Identities

like it, to tell little white lies and agree with someone West, if you can completely trust the person you’re
whom you don’t actually agree with. This is why people talking to. Sometimes this is the case even among good
learn to pretend to be friends with people they don’t friends or family members. There is such pressure in
actually like, to buy things they don’t actually want. The the West to be likeable that people often ...16... their
economic system promotes such ...15.... entire personality depending on the person they’re
dealing with.
The downside of this is that you never know, in the
Extract by Mark Manson

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CONCEPTS
Purpose
So far, you have read three accounts from people living abroad (Texts 1.1-1.3). Discuss
your answers to these questions with your classmates.

PPLL
a Why do the authors of these texts feel a need to share their experiences
with others?
b What is their intention or purpose?
c Why have they chosen these text types to achieve their purpose?
d Have you ever felt the need to write about your experiences abroad? How have
you shared these with others?

1.29 Answer the following questions, using complete sentences and making reference to Text 1.3.
a Despite bad weather and terrible food, why does Mark Manson say that his trip to Russia was
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one of his favourite trips?
b What, according to Mark Manson, is the main cultural and behavioural difference between
Americans and people in the West?
c What do Russians think of this behaviour of people in the West? And how do people in the
West, like Mark Manson, usually respond to this Russian behaviour?
d Why, according to Mark’s Russian teacher’s historical reasons, do these cultures
behave differently?
SSA
A

1.30 To what degree has your identity been shaped by experiences that you’ve had with people
who were ‘different’? Discuss how ‘other people’ have influenced who you are today.

Literature
1.31 In the spirit of this chapter’s theme, identity, you will read a passage from Richard Wright’s
novel, Black Boy (Text 1.4). Before you read the text, discuss your answers to the
following questions:
a To what degree does the colour of your skin determine your sense of identity?
b Do you live a society that is racially diverse or homogeneous (meaning all the same)? How
does this affect your view on people from other cultures?
c Do you think racism is a problem in the place where you live? How does this problem express
itself in day-to-day relationships?

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

1.32 The words in the vocabulary box below are used in Text 1.4. For each sentence that
follows, decide which of these words is being referred to.

nuisance trivial tardiness circulated naïvely paternal kin stoutly brooded

a This word is used to describe how news travelled through Richard’s community about a
white man who beat a black boy.
b Richard uses this word to describe the right that he thought fathers had to beat their children.
c Richard uses this word to describe how annoying he once was for asking too many questions
as a child.
d This word describes how Richard says, in a very firm and resolute way, that he would not let

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anyone beat him.
e This word is used to describe how Richard thought for a long time about the relationships TEXT AND CONTEXT
between whites and blacks.
• Black Boy is a
f This word is used to describe a family relative. Richard is surprised to learn that the black boy memoir by Richard
was not beaten by a member of his own family. Wright, published in

PPLL
g In this way, Richard assumed that a ‘black’ boy could be beaten by a ‘white’ father, meaning
that he was quite inexperienced and immature.
h Richard uses this word to describe how he was rather slow or late in his understanding of
racial relationships in the South in the 1920s.
i This word describes the small and seemingly insignificant news and happenings of
Richard’s neighbourhood.
1945.
• It is about Richard,
growing up in the
1920s in the South of
the USA.

Text 1.4
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I soon made myself a nuisance by asking far too the ‘black’ boy’s father. And did not all fathers, like my
many questions of everybody. Every happening in father, have the right to beat their children? A paternal
the neighborhood, no matter how trivial, became my right was the only right, to my understanding, that a
business. It was in this manner that I first stumbled man had to beat a child. But when my mother told me
upon the relations between whites and blacks, and that the ‘white’ man was not the father of the ‘black’
what I learned frightened me. Though I had long boy, was no kin to him at all, I was puzzled.
known that there were people called ‘white’ people,
‘Then why did the ‘white’ man whip the ‘black’ boy?’ I
it had never meant anything to me emotionally. I
asked my mother.
SSA
A

had seen white men and women upon the streets


a thousand times, but they had never looked ‘The ‘white’ man did not whip the ‘black’ boy,’ my
particularly ‘white.’ To me they were merely people mother told me. ‘He beat the ‘black’ boy.
like other people, yet somehow strangely different ‘But why?’
because I had never come in close touch with any of
them. For the most part I never thought of them; they ‘You’re too young to understand.’
simply existed somewhere in the background of the ‘I’m not going to let anyone beat me,’ I said stoutly.
city as a whole. It might have been that my tardiness
in learning to sense white people as ‘white’ people ‘Then stop running wild in the streets,’ my
came from the fact that many of my relatives were mother said.
‘white’-looking people. My grandmother, who was I brooded for a long time about the seemingly
white as any ‘white’ person, had never looked ‘white’ causeless beating of the ‘black’ boy by the ‘white’ man
to me. And when word circulated among the black and the more questions I asked the more bewildering
people of the neighborhood that a ‘black’ boy had been it all became. Whenever I saw ‘white’ people now I
severely beaten by a ‘white’ man, I felt that the ‘white’ stared at them, wondering what they were really like.
man had had a right to beat the ‘black’ boy, for I
Extract from Black Boy by Richard Wright
naively assumed that the ‘white’ man must have been

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1
Identities

LEARNER PROFILE
Would Richard Wright have been a good IB learner? What IB learner traits
apply to Richard, as the main character of this passage? Give evidence from the
text for each trait that applies to him:
• Inquirers • Knowledgeable
• Thinkers • Communicators
• Principled • Open-minded
• Caring • Risk-takers

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• Balanced • Reflective

1.33 Here are several questions about Text 1.4 and the context in which it was written. Discuss
your answers with classmates.

PPLL
a How is Richard’s understanding of ‘black’ and ‘white’ different from other people’s
understanding of ‘black’ and ‘white’ in the American South in the 1920s?
b How are people’s views on racial differences in the American South in the 1920s similar or
different from modern-day views on racial differences where you live?
c Besides race, what other values are different, when comparing your world to Richard’s world
of the 1920s?

REFLECT
M
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This unit has explored the topic of identity in light of globalisation. Discuss your
answers to the following questions to reflect on what you’ve learned.
a The texts, quotations, audio file and video were mainly stories. Could you relate to
the experiences that these authors described? Describe how you have had similar
or different experiences when travelling or living abroad.
b The title of this unit is ‘Citizens of the world’. What does this phrase mean to you?
SSA
A

c Do you consider yourself a ‘citizen of the world’? Why or why not?

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Unit 6.1
Formal letter

Guiding questions Learning objectives


• How do you write a letter to the editor? • Become familiar with the elements of letter writing.
• Develop skills for writing letters of complaint or

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letters to the editor.

Writing an effective letter is not only a useful skill for your Paper 1 writing task, but also for life
Word bank in general.
greeting
salutation
synthesise
direct opening
concise argument
call to action Model text
PPLL
In this unit, you will practise writing a formal letter to the editor.
Paper 1-style writing tasks are also included in this unit to help you prepare for the exam.

Text 6.1
Your address Melissa Davenport
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123 Sunrise Dr.
Tulsa, Oklahoma
Their address American Apparel
456 Sunset Rd.
Los Angeles, California
Date 28 August 2020
SSA
A

Greeting To whom it may concern,


Direct opening I am writing to you to express my concern about your recent advertisement featuring
Lauren Phoenix, which I find inappropriate and disturbing.
Concise argument I fear that women who view this ad will think that they must look young, skinny and
sexually available in order to be fashionable and attractive. By stating her weight
Reference to source text (‘150lbs of magic’), claiming she is famous and showing her sexually aroused, you create
an unrealistic definition of ‘beauty’. Such images encourage bulimic, depressed and loose
behaviour. In fact studies by Martin Lindstrom suggest that sex in advertising only distracts
from the product and brand being promoted.
Call to action I kindly ask, for the sake of young American women, that you pull this ad from all media.
Your company’s image would benefit more by focusing on ‘sweatshop free’ instead of
‘sexually discriminatory’.
Thank you for taking my opinion into consideration for future advertising campaigns.
Salutation Kind regards,
Signature Melissa Davenport

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Unit 6.1 Formal letter

Key features explained ATL


Communication skills
Learning how to write
Key features Examples from Text 6.1 various types of letters
for different purposes is
Addresses: Write your own address first, Melissa Davenport a useful life skill. Writing
followed by the address of the person to whom 123 Sunrise Dr. a letter, especially in
you are writing. Tulsa, Oklahoma response to a passage or
These can be written top left or top right. event, requires the ability
to read, synthesise,
American Apparel
formulate, argue and

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456 Sunset Rd.
Los Angeles, California communicate. You can
practice these skills
Date: There are different formats for writing 28 August 2020 throughout Chapter 6
the date. Any of these can be used. by studying the ‘model
28th of August 2020 texts’ and ‘Key features
explained’ sections.

appropriate.
PPLL
Greeting: With a letter to the editor, it is
important to remain formal. ‘Hi’ would not be

Direct opening: Explain why you are writing


your letter. You should make the point clearly
at the beginning. The reader might not want to
August 28th 2020

Dear Mr. ...or Ms....


To whom it may concern,
To the editor,

‘I am writing to you to express my concerns


about...’

read the rest of your letter, if you do not state ‘I would like to bring to your attention...’
your main point from the start.
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Concise argument: Letters to the editor ‘Stating [the model’s] weight (‘150lbs of
tend to be short (200–300 words). Make an magic’), claiming she is famous and literally
effective argument in the second paragraph, showing her sexually aroused, leads to bulimic,
explaining why the editor should care about the depressed and innappropriate behaviour.’ 
complaint. Refer to the stimulus text.

Call to action: What should the editor do ‘I kindly ask that you pull the ad from all media.’
SSA
A

after reading your letter? Offer the editor a


‘...focus on ‘sweatshop free’ instead of ‘sexually
solution.
discriminatory’.’

Salutation and signature: There is no ‘Kind regards,’


need to be original or especially creative. ‘Kind
Sincerely, (more personal)
regards’ is very business-like. Be sure to write
your name in full below your signature. All the best, (less formal)

CONCEPT
Purpose
In some cultures it is not polite to be very direct when stating your purpose. With
regards to formal letters in the English-speaking world, however, it is important to
state very clearly why you are writing and what you want the reader to do in response
(call to action).

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6
Exploring text types

1.1 On the left is an advertisement for Barnardo’s, a charity


organisation for the support of children. This advertisement, that first
appeared in 2003, was considered controversial and shocking. Text
6.2 is a letter to the editor, and is not very well written. Make a list of
what you can identify is wrong with it and ways in which the letter
could be improved. Use a copy of the table below.

What is wrong with How could you improve


Text 6.2? it?

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PPLL Barnardo’s ad on which Text 6.2 is based

CONCEPT
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M
Text 6.2
Context Dear Barnardo’s,
Whenever you receive a
letter or email, the first I was travelling on the subway the other day with my two daughters, ages 4 and 10
sentence that you read months. My oldest girl saw your ad and completely flipped out. She asked me if
should give you a sense something like that could happen to her or her little sister. I had to spend the rest of the
of context: day reassuring her that it wouldn’t. But I think your poster gave her nightmares anyways.
SSA
A

• Who is the writer? I don’t know why you would publish such disturbing images.You’re only scaring people,
like mothers and small children. The subway is a place for people to travel without having
• Why have they written
to think about dying babies and poverty. But your ad ruins that whole experience.
this letter?
• Who is the reader? In fact, your ad is a disgrace.
• When was it written? Cheers,
Answering simple Rachel Carmichael
‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’,
‘where’ and ‘why’
questions can help to
give you a better sense 1.2 Write an improved version of the letter to the editor (Text 6.2) complaining about the
of context. Barnardo’s advertisement. Apply what you know about the key features of this text type. Before
you write your letter, have a class discussion and make a list of the complaints that could be made
about the Barnardo’s ad.

1.3 Write your own letter to the editor in response to the Barnardo’s ad. Take into consideration
the class discussions that you had in Activities 1.1 and 1.2.

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Unit 6.1 Formal letter

Standard Level Exam preparation TIP


When tackling a
1.4 Write a 250–400 word letter in response to one of the following writing tasks. Include the Paper 1 writing task,
key features of this text type.You have one hour and 15 minutes to write your letter. be flexible when
considering the
a Identities: You have seen an advertisement that uses models to sell mobile phones.You are
different text types that
worried that the models’ lack of clothing and unrealistic body size set false expectations for
you have learned about.
young readers. Write a letter to the mobile phone producer to express your concerns. (Look
at Unit 1.3 on ‘Beauty and self-esteem’ for some ideas.) Letters to the editor
are similar to letters
b Experiences: You have just returned from an outdoor adventure holiday that did not go as
of complaint or other
you had expected. The travel agency’s website promised better facilities and services than

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types of letters.
you received. Write a letter of complaint that describes your dissatisfaction. Feel free to use
your imagination when describing this outdoor adventure and the services promised by the However, you might be
organisation. (See Unit 2.2 on ‘Extreme sports’ for some ideas and inspiration.) asked to write a letter
c Human ingenuity: You have recently been to an exhibition at an art gallery. The featured artist of praise or a letter
explores themes that you find very interesting. He uses techniques that are very contemporary or application. Rather
than sticking to a rigid

Higher Level Exam preparation


PPLL
and materials that are very unconventional. Write a letter to the gallery, in which you offer
your response to his artwork. (Go to Unit 3.3 for inspiration.) template for a text type,
keep key concepts in
mind such as ‘audience’
and ‘purpose’. If you
know why and to
whom you’re writing,
the letter will be easier
to write!
1.5 Write a 450–600 word letter to the editor in response to one of the following writing tasks.
Include the key features of this text type.You have one hour and 30 minutes to write this.
a Human ingenuity: You have just heard someone speak about the effect of technology on
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human relationships. She has made claims that younger generations are addicted to their
devices, disappointed by their career choices and self-absorbed by social media. Write a letter
to the speaker in which you agree or disagree with her point of view. Feel free to refer to
examples from your own life experience, where relevant. (Go to Unit 3.2 on ‘Technology and
human interaction’ for ideas.)
b Social organisation: A local university wants to stop its affirmative action/positive programme,
where ethnic minorities are given scholarships and grants to attend the university. Write a
SSA
A

letter to the university, giving them your opinion on the matter. (Turn to Besides focusing on
technology and migration for ideas and inspiration.)
c Sharing the planet: There is a politician in your state or country, running for an elected
position. He has promised to re-open coalmines and stop investments in renewable sources
of energy. What’s more, he does not believe in global warming. Write him a letter expressing
your opinion on this matter. (Look at Unit 5.2 for inspiration.)

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Paper 1
Chapter

At both higher and standard level, your understanding of a theme from


the English B course and a text type will be tested on a Paper 1 exam. In
this form of assessment you will be presented with three writing tasks,
7
each taken from a different theme, each focusing on a different text
type. To be successful in this exam, you will need to demonstrate:
• the ability to communicate a message effectively

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• the ability to write using a style and structure appropriate to the
audience and purpose of the text type you have selected.

Paper 1 SL
1 hour 15 minutes
PPLL
This chapter provides you with exam preparation guidance. Unit 7.1 includes activities and practice
for standard level students and Unit 7.2 includes material and practice for higher level students.
An overview of the differences between higher and standard level in Paper 1 are shown below.

Paper 1 HL
1 hour 30 minutes
25% of final course grade 25% of final course grade
250−400-word writing task 450–600-word writing task
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Choice of three tasks, each taken from Choice of three tasks, each taken from
a different theme. For each task you a different theme. For each task you
choose one from three optional text choose one from three optional text
types for your response. types for your response.
SSA
A

Your school may ask you to take the Paper 1 exam online, in which case it is called
‘Assessment 1’. In this coursebook, the term ‘Paper 1’ will be used.

Original material © Cambridge University Press 2018


Unit 7.1
Paper 1 Standard level

Guiding questions Learning objectives


• What is required in the Paper 1 exam at standard • A greater awareness of the expectations for
level? Paper 1.

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• How can you write your Paper 1 effectively? • An understanding of the assessment criteria.
• Be able to write good answers to Paper 1
questions.

TIP
Some text types are
more appropriate for
PPLL
1.1 Read the specimen exam Paper 1 for standard level below, in which you are presented with
three writing tasks. Which task and text type would you select? Explain your reasons for selecting
this task and text type to your classmates. Which reasons sound most reasonable to you?

English B – Standard level – Paper 1


Specimen paper 1 hour 15 minutes

your response than


Instructions to candidates
others. For example,
• Do not start this examination paper until instructed to do so.
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the first prompt in this
Paper 1 specimen says • The maximum mark for this examination paper is 30 marks.
that you are a ‘popular’ • Complete one task. Use an appropriate text type from the options given below the
travel writer. For this task you choose. Write 250-400 words.
reason a blog makes
more sense than an 1 Imagine that you are an active and popular travel writer.You have just returned from an
e-mail. The IB exam adventure trip that has changed your outlook on life. Write about your experience and
will also contain a less its effects on you.
SSA
A

appropriate and more


appropriate text type E-mail Blog Essay
for each prompt. Learn
2 You have noticed that your school’s catering services do not offer very healthy options.
how to identify these
Write a text in which you spread awareness about the importance of a healthy diet and
for success on Paper 1.
request that changes be made to your school’s canteen.

Proposal Speech Essay

3 Imagine that a new device has been introduced as the ‘next big thing’ at a recent
technology fair.You can decide what this new device is and how it will improve people’s
lives. Write a text that communicates these ideas to a wider audience.

Review Editorial Brochure

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Unit 7.1 Paper 1 Standard level

1.2 After selecting one of the writing tasks, create a mind map around the task, to activate your
imagination and make your thoughts visible. This should be similar to the example below, based
on writing task 3 from the specimen Paper 1.
too Steve Jobs

too sci-fi perfect!!


new phone
flying cars cooking robot

next big thing

Imagine that a new device has been introduced as the ‘next big thing’
at a recent technology fair. You can decide what this new device is and
how it will improve people’s lives. Write the first part of an article for a

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magazine that comments on the device and its introduction at the fair.

how cooking robot will comment introduction at fair


improve lives
hygiene in kitchen
review describe demonstration audience’s reaction

feed the kids


time saver

PPLL
is it worth it? how does it work? showman

1.3 After you have created your mind map, organise your ideas into a linear outline, with your
ideas in the order in which you intend to write them.Your outline does not have to be detailed.
It may ask a series of questions. See the example below, which is based on the third writing task
from the specimen Paper 1 and relates to the example mind map above.
slice and dice impressed

TIP
Notice that the sample
outline to the student’s
writing task asks a series
Introduction • Philip Dekker’s robot is popular at ‘Design and Technology Week’ fair
of questions. It does
• Why it’s useful: It’ll make dinner for ‘the kids’.
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not yet have all of the
Body paragraph 1 • What happened at the conference? answers! But the writer
• Who demonstrated it? knows the order in
• What did audiences think? which they are going to
answer these questions.
Body paragraph 2 • How does the cooking robot work?
It is also organised
Conclusion • Return to the question of why audiences should buy it. around the concept
• How much does it cost? of ‘purpose’, or why
SSA
A

someone should want


to read this review.
1.4 Read the sample student response to Paper 1 below. It responds to the third writing task
from specimen Paper 1. As you read this response, look for answers to the questions below, that
are related to the assessment criteria for this paper.

Criteria Questions

Criterion A: Language • How successfully does the candidate command written language?

Criterion B: Message • To what extent does the candidate fulfil the task?

Criterion C: Conceptual • To what extent does the candidate demonstrate conceptual


awareness understanding?
• audience • context • purpose
• meaning • variation

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7
Paper 1

Sample student response


TIP
Notice that two of the Philip Dekker’s cooking robot captures audiences at
writing tasks begin with
the word ‘imagine’. the Design and Tech Week.
To be successful on
Perhaps the biggest conversation piece at this year’s Design and Technology Week was Philip
Paper 1, you will need
to exercise your powers Dekker’s new cooking robot. Whilst top chefs have every reason to turn up their nose at the
of imagination. In sight of this invention, the rest of us now have a solution for preparing that spaghetti dinner
other words, it helps for the kids. And yes, it will garnish that plate with fresh Parmesan and basil, plucking the
to think of scenarios, leaves right off the plant.

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make up details, create
characters and adopt Philip Dekker himself was demonstrating the robot, and his performance was like a beautiful
a persona. Notice how dance between man and machine. In case you’re wondering how a robot can know how to chop
the sample student tomatoes or press garlic, the answer is quite simple: You have to teach it. Mr. Dekker
response is very much a dazzled audiences as he taught his robot how to grate cheese and stir sauce. The robot’s
product of the student’s
imagination. It has
created many details: a
new device (the cooking
robot), a designer’s
name (Philip Dekker),
and a fair at which the
device is presented (the
Design and Technology
PPLL
360 camera, which hung like a small disco ball above a sink, recorded Mr. Dekker’s every
move as he bounced around the sleek kitchen like Jamie Oliver talking to his mates. Then he
casually served up his plate of pasta, wiped off the counter top and took off his apron. And
that was when the real show started.
The kitchen took over. Two human-like arms with hands and fingers and joints came down from
the ceiling and the rails on which they were attached. The audience cheered when an arm
opened the refrigerator door and pulled out all the ingredients. And then it began to cook,
Week). which was even more amazing. Everything that Dekker did, it could do better. It was a kind
of shadow of his every move, but without all the bouncing and babbling. It was effective and
efficient. Yes, it could slice and sizzle and serve. And it could do it all over again and again and
M
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again, in different portions and quantities, if you asked it to.
TEXT AND CONTEXT Of course, Dekker’s new toy is more than a pair of robot arms hanging from curtain rails.
Jamie Oliver is a famous The whole kitchen is smart, with sensors on just about every surface, which means we’re
chef in the UK, known talking about a major home installation. Pricewise, we’re talking about something comparable
for his flamboyant style to a top-of-the-line Ferrari, which might be more tempting to buy, considering all that
installation. But you have to ask yourself: Will a Ferrari feed your kids?
SSA
A

CONCEPTS
Notice that Criterion C for Paper 1 makes explicit reference to the concepts that you
have explored in this course. As you look for evidence of each of the concepts in the
sample response, ask yourself the following questions:
• Audience: Who would read a review like this?
• Context: When was this review written?
• Purpose: What is the writer’s purpose in writing this review?
• Meaning: What message is the review communicating?
• Variation: How are various words (synonyms) used to articulate this message?

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Unit 7.1 Paper 1 Standard level

1.5
a What are the strengths and weaknesses of the sample response?
b What suggestions would you give the student for how to improve?
c What marks would you give the sample student response? Use the assessment criteria for
Paper 1 standard level given at the beginning of this coursebook. Share your marks with a
classmate. How similar or different are they? Discuss your marks with your teacher who can
share comments and marks with you that you might expect from the examiner.

1.6 Besides using the assessment criteria for Paper 1, examiners are also given ‘marking notes’.
These are a list of points that are specific to each task, and indicate what a good task should
include. Below is an example of marking notes for the first two tasks of the specimen Paper 1.

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Write the marking notes as you think they would have been written for the third task, which the
student has responded to in the sample answer. Share your bullet-point list of notes with your
teacher and classmates. Identify any points your lists have in common.

Marking notes
1 Travel writing
A good answer will:
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• adopt a persona that speaks to an audience who care about travel and adventure
• adopt a ‘voice’ or use of language that sounds popular
• deliver a message about the author’s new outlook on life
• explain how events have led to this new outlook on life
2 Healthier food in the canteen
A good answer will:
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• comment on the current offering in the school’s canteen
• raise awareness about the dangers of unhealthy food
• make recommendations for healthier foods in the canteen
3 Cooking robot
A good answer will:
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• ...
• ...
• ...

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7
Paper 1

1.7 Imagine you are an examiner, setting the writing tasks for Paper 1. Write three writing tasks
for your classmates. Study the specimen Paper 1 in this unit as a model. Consider the topics you
TIP have studied in this coursebook and the text types the IB recommends, as shown in the table
below. Creating a writing task means writing a prompt in which three text types are suggested for
If you are taking
a particular topic.
your Paper 1 exam
offline, on paper, it is
recommended that you Topics Text types
practise writing the
task by hand within 1 Identities: • advertisement
the allocated time. You • citizens of the world
might find that this is
• article

a skill that you are not


• belief and identity • blog

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used to using. Build • beauty and self-esteem • brochure
up the muscles in your 2 Experiences: • diary
hands in the weeks
before the exam! • pilgrimages • e-mail
• extreme sports • essay
• migration • invitation

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Human ingenuity:
• future humans
• technology and human interaction
• redefining art
Social organisation:
• minorities and education






interview
letter of recommendation
letter to the editor
news report
opinion column
personal letter
• review
• partners for life • report
• the future of jobs • set of instructions
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5 Sharing the planet: • travel guide
• ending poverty • web page
• climate change
• human rights
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1.8 It is time for you to practise writing your own Paper 1 response.You should write a
response to one of the three tasks in the specimen Paper 1 in this unit. Alternatively, you can use
one of the stimulus writing tasks that you or a classmate wrote in Activity 1.7.
You can also look through this coursebook and find a writing task that interests you in the
‘Writing’ sections of Units 1.1–5.3.
Practise for exam conditions by writing your task in one hour and fifteen minutes.
Ask your teacher to assess you according to the assessment criteria for Paper 1. After you have
received feedback from your teacher, rewrite your work so that you learn from your mistakes.
It is recommended that you practise this form of assessment as often as possible before the
actual exam.

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

Introduction to the IB
English B Teacher Book

The aim of this teachers’ book is to support busy teachers in delivering their IB
English course and in their use of the coursebook.Your particular school context,
the language level of the students in your class and your own experience with

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the IB programme are just a few of the factors which will affect your course
plan. The hope is that the teachers’ book will save you time in your planning and
help you incorporate all facets of the IB curriculum into your English language
acquisition classes.

examinations in 2020.
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The Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma is a complete course for SL and HL
students studying English in Group Two. It is fully in line with the IB curriculum,
incorporating the new syllabus and assessments for first teaching in 2018, first

As an IB teacher you have access to the IB webpage, My IB.You get your


login information from your school’s IB co-ordinator and can open the DP
Programme Resource Centre. There you can find the Diploma Programme
Language B Guide and the Teacher Support Material, which give detailed information
about syllabus and assessment. If you look at the Introduction to English B
for the IB Diploma you will find a summary and simple explanation intended
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for students.

Key features that you will find in the


teacher’s book:
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• Schemes of work for the thematic units in the coursebook. These


include the guiding questions and learning objectives for the unit. They
also indicate where the coursebook contains links to the IB diploma core:
Extended Essay (EE), Theory of Knowledge (TOK) and Creativity, Activity
and Service (CAS). The IB encourages teachers to make connections for
their students to these parts of an IB education, encouraging them to see
beyond the classroom and extend their learning. The Teacher Resource suggests
ways of integrating the core into your classes and also includes references
to the Learner Profile, Approaches to Learning and, especially, Approaches
to Teaching.

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English B for the IB Diploma

• Proposals for how you might group the activities in a unit into a
number of lessons. These are intended to indicate how the various texts
and activities are connected so that you can form them into coherent lessons
and homework assignments. They also suggest additional resources for use in
class and further reading for teachers.
• Teaching notes for each activity in a unit. The instructions in the
coursebook are directed at students. The notes in the Teacher Resource
give more detail; they provide support for each activity, clarify links to IB
assessment components and point out connections between activities in the
unit. In addition, you will find suggestions for differentiating tasks to meet the

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needs of less fluent students, and alternative ideas for video activities where
access to online video may not be available.
Full answers to activities are provided, where appropriate, with indicative
responses for more open tasks.

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The teaching notes reference the IB document: Approaches to Teaching, which
can be found online (My IB) in the DP Programme Resource Centre.
It presents six pedagogical principles that form the foundation for an IB
education. The expectation is that teaching in all subject areas is:
• based on inquiry
• focused on conceptual understanding
• developed in local and global contexts
• focused on effective team work and collaboration
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• differentiated to meet the needs of all learners
• informed by assessment (formative and summative)
The activities in the coursebook model how these principles can be applied to
the work in language acquisition classes.
• Transcripts of audio tracks from the Listening section in each unit as well
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as the mock Paper 2: receptive skills – listening at SL and HL (Chapter 8)


• A glossary of all the key terms in the Word Bank features at the start of each
unit, including a full definition and page reference for every term.

Using online video content for language


development
Each unit in Chapters 1-5 has a Watch and Listen section with skill development
activities relating to online videos and audio recordings. Although there was
some discussion during the IB curriculum review of using video clips for
Paper 2: receptive skills – listening, it was decided that audio recordings would
be sufficient. Therefore, including video in your English B course is an option
rather than a requirement. Of course there are advantages to using short video
clips with language learners. They engage the students plus the visual component

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

provides context and supporting images which help listening comprehension.


The videos selected for each unit in the coursebook present viewpoints on
the specific topic. The activities are designed to develop vocabulary and invite
students to compare their own opinions with those expressed in the videos.
The overall goal is to stimulate ideas and create an authentic reason for students
to practise interactive skills.
However, in some situations it might be difficult to access online videos and,
over time, resources available on the internet may change. For these reasons
the teacher’s notes suggest ways to adapt the activities in the Watch and Listen
sections in each unit. Keep in mind your objective of helping students explore a

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topic and develop the language they will need in order to talk about their own
opinions and those of others.
In addition, it’s worth exploring other ways of obtaining video resources for your
classroom. Here are a few suggestions:

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• Other academic departments in your school may have DVDs which link
to the prescribed IB themes. Perhaps your school library has a collection of
documentary films. If they aren’t in English you might be able to turn on
subtitles in English so your students can watch a short clip without sound.
• You could contact other English teachers in your area and find out what
video resources they use in their language acquisition classrooms. If you
have regional meetings for IB teachers you could bring up the idea of
sharing resources.
• Popular movies in English and films of literary texts might be easier to obtain.
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Look at the way the activities in the coursebook use the techniques of pre-
teaching vocabulary, predicting content and expressing opinions prior to
watching a short section of film.You could design the same kind of exercises
and substitute your own video clip for that proposed in the coursebook.
• Perhaps you could persuade English-speaking friends or colleagues to video
record themselves talking about the topic in a unit you are studying. The
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advantage of a recording over a live chat is that your students can replay as
needed to catch the meaning.
Finally, it’s worth remembering the IB emphasis on students taking responsibility
for their own learning. Both the Learner Profile and the document Approaches
to Learning draw attention to characteristics of collaboration and initiative.
Involving students in the search for appropriate videos, the choosing of short
sections for study and the designing of activities can be a very successful way
to deal with challenges of access to the specific online videos used in the
Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Language Acquisition in the IB


diploma programme

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As you can see from the diagram (from the Language B Guide) the English B
course is focussed very much on communication skills – receptive, productive
and interactive. In order to develop these competencies the syllabus is comprised
of four aspects: themes, texts, concepts and language. Each of these aspects is fully
integrated into the Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma as you can see in the
following overview:

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

IB syllabus content
Themes for Language B
Here is how the Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma coursebook conforms
to the five IB prescribed themes:
The five IB prescribed themes The topics in the Cambridge English
for Language B B for the IB Diploma coursebook

Chapter 1 Identities Unit 1: Citizens of the world

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Unit 2: Belief and identity
Unit 3: Beauty and health
Chapter 2 Experiences Unit 1: Pilgrimage
Unit 2: Extreme sports

Chapter 3

Chapter 4
Human ingenuity
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Social organisations
Unit 3: Migration
Unit 1: Future humans
Unit 2: Technology and human
interaction
Unit 3: Redefining art
Unit 1: Minorities and education
Unit 2: Partners for life
Unit 3: The future of jobs
Chapter 5 Sharing the planet Unit 1: Ending poverty
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Unit 2: Climate change
Unit 3: Power to the people

The coursebook also contains four chapters dedicated to exam preparation:


Chapter 6 Exploring text types. Preparation for Paper 1: productive skills-
writing
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Chapter 7 External assessment. Paper 1: productive skills – writing


Chapter 8 External assessment. Paper 2: receptive skills – listening
and reading
Chapter 9 Internal assessment: the oral examination

Text types
IB defines a text as “… anything from which information can be extracted,
including oral, written and visual materials” (Language B Guide). The texts in the
coursebook are authentic and from a variety of cultures where English is spoken.
They conform to the personal, professional and mass media categories stipulated
in the Language B Guide. All are linked to activities designed to help students
explore how meaning is conveyed. Experience with the written texts develops
skills needed for success in Paper 2: Receptive skills – reading. The video and

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English B for the IB Diploma

audio tracks (referred to by IB as ‘oral texts’) build competence for the listening
section of Paper 2. These receptive skills require students to consider the five
concepts and reflect on differences between the way texts are constructed in their
first language and English.
In addition, Chapter 6 examines nine specific types of text in greater detail,
with models, lists of key features and activities designed to draw attention to the
conventions of the genres in English. Using the models as support, students can
practise writing their own texts in preparation for the important assessment in
Paper 1: Productive skills – writing.
At higher level students study two literary works, not from the perspective of

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literary analysis but rather as a way of going deeper into aspects of the culture
and discovering the attitudes and experiences of people in English-speaking
countries. Accordingly, the coursebook contains extracts from several literary
texts with activities which function as skill-building exercises that can be applied
to complete literary works which you will select for your course.

Concepts
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One of the major changes to come out of the curriculum review completed in
2017 was the addition of conceptual understanding to the Language B Guide.
The five concepts -Audience, Context, Purpose, Meaning and Variation – are
described as fundamental to successful communication.You’ll find that the
coursebook refers frequently to these syllabus concepts both in receptive and
productive activities. As you use the Teacher Resource you’ll notice that it includes
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additional notes clarifying how activities in the coursebook relate to these five
essential conceptual understandings

Language
Students who take the English B course will already have some experience in
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using the language. The degree to which they can communicate will vary with
the individual and the context in which you are teaching. In terms of study of
the mechanics of the language, English B focuses on development of interactive
skills and learning how to adapt language to fit context and audience, rather
than introduction of grammatical forms for their own sake. The Teacher Support
Material states that grammar should be taught in context with the purpose of
enhancing communication, not as an end in itself. Of course, you will likely
need to set aside time for teaching of problem structures and correcting errors,
as needed by your particular students. In the coursebook, each unit contains a
Form and Meaning section which highlights a specific structure in one of the
written texts. Practice exercises are included so that students can extend their
language skills.

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

Structuring your English B course


while using the coursebook
The Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma coursebook follows the IB
Principles of course design and Best practices in language acquisition
instruction (Teacher Support Material). The essential principles to bear in mind
when designing an IB language acquisition course are variety of activities,
integration of skills and transparency of assessment. The coursebook demonstrates

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ways in which this can be achieved. The units within a chapter follow the same
structure of communication skills so they are easier to navigate. Each unit can
stand alone as three or four weeks of classwork, depending on such factors as
how many students you have, how much homework you assign or how much
time you allocate for discussions. The way you use the coursebook might vary

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with the stage of the two-year course.
• You might choose to use a complete chapter exploring each of the three units
sequentially. In this way you complete one IB prescribed theme and practise
all of the receptive and productive skills.
• Alternatively you could take a cyclical approach, selecting a thematic chapter,
working with one unit and then moving to another theme. Later in your
course you could return to the earlier theme and study a different unit in
that chapter.
• You are encouraged to adapt the units and include your own materials on a
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topic that engages your students in deeper exploration and research.
• You can even select a single text and the associated activities and use them
without studying the complete unit. For instance, if you are preparing a
second-year class for Paper 2: Receptive skills – listening, you could use the
audio tracks and listening activities from units in the coursebook which you
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have not studied with the class. The materials are authentic and specifically
designed to develop skills which will be assessed in Paper 2.

How does the coursebook prepare students for the


IB assessments?
There are three assessment components at both SL and HL. Two are externally
assessed during the final examination session (May for the northern hemisphere
or November for schools in the southern hemisphere). These are titled: Paper 1:
Productive skills – writing and Paper 2: Receptive skills, with separate sections
for listening and reading. Candidates around the world take the same exam
papers on the same day, which is set by the IB Curriculum and Assessment
Centre (IBCA). Examination scripts are sent to IB examiners who will use the
same set of assessment criteria as you will use in your classes.

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English B for the IB Diploma

The third component is the individual oral assessment, which is marked by you, the
classroom teacher. Explanation about how this is to be handled can be found below.
The design of the English B for the IB Diploma coursebook carefully creates practice
for the assessment components in every chapter. As you can see in the following
table, each unit in Chapters 1 to 5 is divided into sections which correspond to the
skill development needed for success in the assessment tasks.

Each unit in the coursebook opens with a statement of learning objectives


and guiding questions so that students clearly understand the goals that you
are setting for them. The Teacher Resource contains a summary of the same
information in the notes for each unit

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Each unit is The communication skills addressed in each The link to the IB
divided into section: assessment:
the following
sections:
Getting Vocabulary development through a All assessments
started

Watch and
listen
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Questions and activities to stimulate
curiosity and activate prior knowledge
Receptive skills: listening using video
and audio recordings. The transcripts
for the audio tracks are provided in the
Teacher Resource
– productive and
receptive

Paper 2: listening

Exploring Receptive skills: text-handling of authentic Paper 2: reading


texts texts
Form and Language development: focussed All assessments
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meaning on phrases and sentences in the
authentic texts
Discussion Interactive skills: presentations, debates, Individual oral:
collaborative activities SL and HL
Writing Productive skills: practice in creating texts Paper 1- writing
in the specified categories of personal,
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professional and mass media.


Higher level Receptive and productive skills: further All assessments at
extension texts and activities a more advanced
IB recommends that HL students receive level than SL
240 hours of instruction, whereas SL
students should have 150 hours of class
over the two year course.
Literature Receptive and productive skills. The Oral exam: HL only,
coursebook provides extracts from literary a 3 to 4 minute
works. The activities develop the students’ presentation
ability to analyse and discuss the content of
the passages.
Study of complete literary works is not part
of the syllabus for SL students so it is not
part of the assessment.

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

The teacher’s role in internal


assessment
Your role as a DP English B teacher includes conducting and assessing the
individual oral exam – hence the term ‘internal assessment’. It can be somewhat
intimidating to be responsible for 25% of a student’s final IB grade. For this
reason, the instructions in the Language B Guide explain the process in great
detail. If you’re new to IB you also need to know that the system of moderation

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of teachers’ marks is not intended to further intimidate you; it is simply a system
designed to produce parity and correct any deviation from the IB standard.
In addition to the Guide you should look at the Teacher Support Material (online
at My IB) which has recordings of sample exams with comments and marks from
an IB moderator.

In summary:
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If you are an experienced IB teacher you probably know that the IB curriculum
review led to a number of changes in the system of assessing a student’s oral
skills The Language B Guide (first examinations 2020) sets out the new protocols.

• You have the freedom to decide when you will schedule the IB oral exams.
However, they should happen in the second year of the course and must be
completed before the IB deadline for submission of marks, generally mid-
March for the northern hemisphere exam session and mid-September for the
southern hemisphere exam session.
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• For SL oral exams you select photographs related to the topics which you
have studied in your class and label each with the IB prescribed theme.
The coursebook contains a range of photographs associated with the IB
themes which you can use for practice exercises.
• For HL oral exams you choose several extracts (each should be about 300
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words) from the literary works studied in class.You’ll find that each unit of
English B for the IB Diploma has a Literature section containing extracts and
activities which help students understand how to talk about a literary passage
in an IB English B exam.
• On the day of the oral exam students are given a choice of two stimuli.
They select one and prepare a short presentation. After the preparation
time (15 minutes for SL and 20 for HL), the first part of the exam is the
presentation which should last 3 to 4 minutes.
• Parts two and three of the exam, for a total of approximately 10 minutes, are
intended to be interactive with the student and the teacher engaged first in
a follow-up discussion after the presentation, then in a conversation about a
topic that was studied in class. The way you should handle the discussion is
explained in the Language B Guide.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Marking the oral exams and the moderation


process
If you incorporate regular oral activities into your course throughout the
two years, your students will be less intimidated by the final oral exam. The
Cambridge English B for the IB Diploma coursebook has practice exercises in each
unit. As time for the final oral assessment approaches, you can use Chapter 9
which is dedicated to preparation for the individual oral exam. Unit 9.1 focuses
on standard level and unit 9.2 on higher level.
Another advantage of practising the oral exams is that you’ll become familiar

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with the assessment criteria (new for first exams in 2020) and skilled at the
system of ‘best-fit’ when awarding marks. When teachers are consistent with
the way they apply marks in the oral exams any adjustments can be easily made
during the moderation process.You make an audio recording of each oral exam
then enter your marks on the secure webpage, IBIS. Once this is completed,

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your IB co-ordinator will be able to access information about which recordings
(with the images/literary extracts) you will upload on IBIS as a sample of your
marking. These sample recordings are marked a second time by a moderator.
If necessary, marks for all of your students are adjusted up or down.You will
get some feedback on your marking a few weeks after the IB exam session
is completed so that you’ll know if you were too generous or strict in your
application of the assessment criteria.
The assessment criteria are in the Language B Guide and in the English B for
the IB Diploma coursebook. It’s important that students also become familiar
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with the criteria. In fact, transparency about all assessments is central to the IB
philosophy. The units in each of the thematic chapters (1 to 5) in the coursebook
include activities which set students to mark their own oral exercises, as well
as those of peers. In addition, as you prepare your classes for the final IB oral
exam, you can refer to Chapter 9: the individual oral. It contains audio tracks of
mock oral exams (SL and HL) with activities in units 9.1 and 9.2 which guide
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students through the process so that they can apply what they learn to their own
oral exam.
One thing to notice about the oral assessment criteria B2 and C (first exams
in 2020) is that they are identical at SL and HL.

Criterion A: Language Descriptors differ at SL and HL


Criterion B1: Message Descriptors differ at SL and HL
SL – stimulus photograph
HL – literary extract
Criterion B2: The same at SL and HL
Message – conversation
Criterion C: The same at SL and HL
Interactive skills – communication

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Introduction to the IB English B Teacher's Book

It’s also interesting to note that in Criterion A: Language, the descriptors in


mark band 10–12 at SL (the highest mark band) are almost the same as those in
mark band 7 to 9 at HL, which gives an indication of the extent to which HL
students are expected to be more fluent than those at SL. The difference in the
recommended number of teaching hours – 240 for HL and 150 for SL – means
that students may have similar language competencies at the start of the diploma
course but HL candidates will develop greater fluency over the two years.

Literary works for higher level

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students in your English B course
The study of at least two literary works originally written in English is a

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requirement of English B higher level. Students are expected to understand the
basic elements of the literary works studied, such as themes, plot and characters.
However, remember that literary criticism is not the objective. In their DP
Group One course, students study literary conventions and explore the stylistic
choices of a number of writers. In language B classes your aim is for students to
understand and enjoy a literary work in English.You also want them to discover
more about the people who speak the language and their cultures.Your purpose
is to stimulate students to express ideas and opinions, to generate language. The
assessment of this part of the course is in the individual oral exam when students
present their ideas about a short extract (referred to by IB as a ‘literary text’) and
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have a discussion with you about the same passage.
There is no requirement that the literary works come from a prescribed list of
authors (as is the case with Group One courses).You have the freedom to choose
works which you think your students will enjoy. Here are a few considerations:
• Are the topics in the literary works likely to meet the interests of your
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students and be appropriate for the context of your particular school?


• Are the works written at a language level that is accessible to your
students? Literature which contains passages of dialect and regional
variations of English can be suitable as long as they are not a barrier to the
students’ comprehension.
• Are the works related to an English-speaking culture? In the spirit of
international-mindedness you could choose literary works from countries
where English is an official language, such as India, South Africa or Singapore.
• How do the works connect to the IB prescribed themes? One of the
objectives of literary study in English B is to broaden vocabulary for discussion
about these themes and create opportunities for students to continue
exploring ideas and expressing opinions about the topics.

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English B for the IB Diploma

• The literary works must be originally written in English and they must not be
adapted or simplified versions.
• Graphic novels are appropriate as long as there are enough literary
characteristics (plot and character development, thematic complexity) for the
HL oral examination
• Short stories do not have to be by the same author. Depending on length, 7 to
10 short stories can be considered as one literary work.
• Poems do not have to be by the same poet. A number of short poems, adding
up to about 600 lines, is preferable to a long poem which might be too

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challenging for a language acquisition class.
• Non-fiction works can also be chosen. For instance, the extract from the
memoir Wild by Cheryl Strayed is explored in Unit 2.1 in the chapter on the
IB theme, Experiences.
Given these parameters you might find that a literary work you have used in

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your classes no longer fits in an IB course. For example, The Book Thief – Markus
Zusak (2005) and The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas – John Boyne (2006), both
popular in English language learning courses, do not meet the requirement
that the work be set in an English-speaking culture. The language acquisition
discussion forum on My IB often has a thread about literary works which have
worked well in English B classrooms.You can find this collaborative forum by
going to My IB and choosing the Programme Communities button.

The Literature sections in English B for the


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IB Diploma
Each unit in chapters 1 to 5 contains extracts from literary works which can be
related to one or more of the prescribed IB themes. When you select literary
works for your course it is beneficial for the language development of your
students if there is an overlap in theme and perhaps, topic. As well as giving an
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overall sense of coherence to your course, it creates further opportunities for the
students to explore a topic, acquire a broader vocabulary for discussing it and gain
insights into the perspectives of people from another culture. Here are the literary
works which appear in the thematic chapters of the Cambridge English B for the
IB Diploma coursebook, followed by a few suggestions of literary texts which
have worked well in English acquisition classrooms.
Chapter 1: Identities
Unit 1: Citizens of the World
Black Boy – Richard Wright (1945)
Unit 2: Belief and Identity
A River runs through it – Norman Maclean (1976)
Unit 3: Beauty and health
The Diet – Carol Ann Duffy

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Suggestions for other literary works related to the theme of Identities


“Master Harold” … and the boys – Athol Fugard (1982)
The Absolutely True Diary of a part-time Indian – Sherman Alexie (2007)
Half of a Yellow Sun – Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (2006)
How the Garcia Girls Lost their Accent – Julia Alvarez (1991)
The Secret Life of Bees – Sue Monk Kidd (2003)
The Namesake – Jhumpa Lahiri (2004)
Immigrant Picnic – Gregory Djanikian (and other poems)

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Chapter 2: Experiences
Unit 1: Pilgrimage
Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail – Cheryl Strayed (2012)
Unit 2: Extreme sports
Karoo Boy – Troy Blacklaws (2004)
Unit 3: Migration
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House of Sand and Fog – Andre Dubus III (1999)
Suggestions for other literary works related to the theme of Experiences
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain – Olen Butler (1992 short stories)
Self Help for Fellow Refugees – Li-Young Lee (2012 poem)
The House on Mango Street – Sandra Cisneros (1984)
Room – Emma Donoghue (2010) see chp 6 p 310
The Secret Side of Empty – Maria Andreu (2015)
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A Walk in the Woods – Bill Bryson (1998)
The Perks of being a Wallflower – Stephen Chbosky (2012)

Chapter 3: Human Ingenuity


Unit 1: Future humans
Ender’s Game – Orson Scott Card (1985)
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Unit 2: Technology and human interaction


Us and Them – David Sedaris (2004)
Unit 3: Redefining art
Introduction to Poetry – Billy Collins
Suggestions for other literary works related to the theme of Human Ingenuity
Fahrenheit 451 – Ray Bradbury (1953)
The Road – Cormac McCarthy (2006) see chp 6 p 313)
The Hunger Games – Suzanne Collins (2008)
The Giver – Lois Lowry (1993)
Oryx and Crake – Margaret Atwood (2003)
Never let me Go – Kazuo Ishiguro (2005)
Hidden Figures – Margot Lee Shetterly (2016)

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English B for the IB Diploma

Chapter 4: Social Organisation


Unit 1: Minorities and education
Studies in the Park – Anita Desai (1978)
Unit 2: Partners for life
Defining Moments – Isobel Harwood (2012)
Unit 3: The Future of jobs
The Metamorphosis – Franz Kafka (1915) (translated text)
Suggestions for other literary works related to the theme of Social Organisation
Follow the Rabbit-proof Fence – Doris Pilkington (1996)

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The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night Time – Mark Haddon (2003)
I Know why the Caged Bird Sings – Maya Angelou (1969)
The Help – Kathryn Stockett (2011)
The Fault in our Stars – John Greene (2012)
Mr Pip – Lloyd Jones (2006)

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Chapter 5: Sharing the Planet
Unit 1: Ending poverty
Untouchable – Mulk Raj Anand (1935)
Unit 2: Climate change
The Lake – Roger McGough
Unit 3: Power to the people
Blowin’ in the Wind – Bob Dylan
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Suggestions for other literary works related to the theme of Sharing the Planet
The Carbon Diaries 2015 – Saci Llyod (2011)
Girl in Translation – Jean Kwok (2011)
The Book of Unknown Americans – Christina Enriquez (2015)
The Beautiful Things that Heaven Bears – Dinaw Mengestu (2008)
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All Summer in a Day – Ray Bradbury

In conclusion, the IB English B course is not a rigid set of requirements; rather


it invites teachers and students to engage in genuine communication about
topics that are relevant and thought-provoking. The way you use the Cambridge
English B for the IB Diploma, the order in which you approach the prescribed
themes and the additional materials you create, will be unique to your own
classroom. However, as an IB teacher you are not isolated; you become part of
an international community of educators meeting face-to-face at national and
regional conferences, at IB workshops and online in the discussion forums. We
hope the Cambridge materials support and inspire you in your work as you
prepare your students for the diploma programme assessments.

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Unit 1.1
Citizens of the world

Unit 1.1: Identities: Citizens of the world


In this unit students will explore how individual identities are shaped by the
diverse cultures in which we are raised.

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Learning Objectives Guiding questions
Develop language proficiency skills • What is your identity in a globalised
Develop international mindedness and world?
inter-cultural awareness • How are cultural stereotypes
Language Focus constructed?

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Form and Meaning: Present tenses

Resources referred to in the activities:


• To what extent do you identify with
a culture or nation?

Taiye Selasi: don’t ask me where I’m from; ask where I’m a local. (TED.com video)
Audio track 1: speech on ‘Identity in a globalised world’
Transcript of Audio track 1
Additional resources
Yanko Tsvetkov, “Alphadesigner” – maps of stereotypes
The Gods must be Crazy (film) 1980 comedy about culture shock
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Nike just came out with its first ever athletic hijab Huffpost. 5th Dec 2017
Further Reading
The Culture Map by Erin Meyer
Beyond Culture Edward T Hall
Geert Hofstede’s work on cultural dimensions
Learner English Michael Swan and Bernard Smith (eds)
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Lesson planning
Your course design and lesson plans will be unique to your own classroom.
However, here is a basic schema for how you could combine the various activities
in this unit into hour-long lessons.
Of course you may need to abbreviate some exercises or decide to add extra texts
or research to others. Some activities would work well as homework.
Adapt as you see fit to meet the needs and interests of your students.

Lesson 1
Stereotypes and identity. Activities 1.1 to 1.4 discovery and discussion.
Watch a Ted Talk video by Taiye Selasi: Activities 1.5 and 1.6
Complete the lesson with Activity 1.7

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English B for the IB Diploma

Lesson 2
Audio Track 1. Globalisation. Activities 1.8 to 1.11
Lesson 3
Text 1.1 Living Abroad. Activities 1.12 to 1.16
Form and meaning. Activities 1.17 and 1.19
Lesson 4
Text 1.2. A blog post. Review of grammar focus from previous lesson by analysing
verbs in the text. Activity 1.20 Discussion of student reactions to statements made

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by the author of the text: Activity 1.21
Discussion comparing two cultures using Hall’s iceberg theory. Activity 1.22
Lesson 5
Activity 1.23 Same photograph, different captions. Discussion
Writing choosing from Activity 1.24 (a letter to the editor) or 1.25 (a blog post)

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Lesson 6 (higher level extension)
Discussion linking the topic to the IB mission statement: Activities 1.26 and 1.27
in preparation for reading Text 1.3: Activities 1.28 and 1.29
Concluding the lesson by talking about personal experience: Activity 1.30
Lesson 7 (literature)
Text 1.4 Preparation for reading an extract from Black Boy: Activities 1.31 and
1.32 The Learner Profile applied to the main character: Activity 1.33
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The context of the novel (1920’s American South).

Unit teaching guidance


Getting started
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Activity 1.1
This is a variation on an information gap activity, perfect for ‘breaking the ice’ at
the start of the year. Make sure the students don’t write their names on the papers
they hand to you. If the students already know each other you might want to skip
questions a-b. Write the countries from the papers they give you in an alphabetical
list on the worksheet.

Activities 1.2 and 1.3


The objective of these two activities is to let students discover the associations
– and stereotypes – they hold about different countries. The simplest way to
organise things is by getting students to write down the first thing that comes to
their mind as you read each country from the worksheet. Then, depending on
the number of students, they add their association to the table on the whiteboard.

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

It would look like this:


Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 …
Country 1 association association association
Country 2 association association association

Teaching idea ATT


One of the pedagogical
With a larger group of students you could create a gallery walk in which principles of the IB
large sheets of paper are attached to the classroom walls and labelled with approach to teaching

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the names of countries from your list. Students circulate, adding their and learning is that
associations to the poster. It’s likely to create some surprise and hilarity as of Inquiry. In fact, it is
the first characteristic
they see what their peers have added, which perfectly sets up the discussion of the Learner Profile.
on stereotypes. Designing lessons
If you start with the map in the EXTRA box, the discussion would begin around questions such

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by trying to identify which countries are labelled with the stereotypes. If
these same countries came up in Activity 1.1, then a comparison with the
class associations would be interesting. Question c gets to the essence of the
topic: How do stereotypes originate? Encourage students to go deeper than
simply ‘the media’. For instance, do they mean ads or TV shows or movies?
Can they give specific examples?
as the ones proposed
in the coursebook
will lead to students
generating their own
questions and, through
that, a genuine need for
language development.

Activity 1.4
This exercise asks students to create a mind map around the word ‘identity’.You
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could draw one mind map on the board as students propose aspects they feel are
important to identity. Alternatively, it would work as a quick, small group exercise
with one student adding the identifying characteristics suggested by the group to a
large sheet of paper. It could look like this:

culture values
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achievements

religion
indentity
country
family
school political views

Comparison with the mind maps of other groups gives further insight into how
individuals see various aspects as important to their identity.
The coursebook has quotations from four famous people (Barak Obama, Mother
Theresa, Albert Einstein and Nelson Mandela). Students should notice which
aspects of their mind map the quotations emphasise. Additionally, they should
consider in what ways the speakers have identified with the countries they
are from.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Teaching idea
If you are working with students who are less fluent in English a simple
homework exercise could be to ask them to prepare a few statements about
themselves, similar to the quotations from the famous people. If posted
anonymously on the classroom noticeboard, peers could try to identify
the writer. Students should find it interesting to see how their peers
identify themselves.

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Watch and listen
Activity 1.5

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This vocabulary exercise is designed to help with comprehension so it’s best done
before watching the video of Taiye Selasi speaking at TED. If they don’t know
the answers to all of the questions, you can ask them to leave it unfinished, watch
the recording and see if hearing the words in context helps them to complete
the exercise.
a take away from = remove
b to belie = to not quite work
c it hit me = finally the penny dropped
d fixed point in place and time = constant
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e using short hand = it’s quicker to say
f overlap = layers that merge together
g at home = familiar
h to pass as = to look like
i environment = milieu
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Activity 1.6
These questions ask the students if they have understood the video and also for
their own personal response. There are no ‘correct’ answers to the latter but here
are some possible responses to the comprehension questions:
a For Selasi, the question, ‘where are you from’ is very difficult to answer because
she has lived in different countries and doesn’t identify with any nation states.
‘Where are you a local’ is a more relevant question for her, because she feels that
in different places have shaped her identity.
b Selasi describes rituals as the daily activities that one does, such as making coffee
or harvesting crops.
c Selasi describes relationships that define her identity, and describes the places in
which these relationships take place
d Selasi describes the restrictions that limit her relationships, travel and
experiences such as visas, borders and even racism.

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

Activity 1.7
This interview activity builds on the ideas about identity that have been explored
in the Selasi video. Using a copy of the table, students learn more about each other
by focusing on ‘rituals’, ‘relationships’ and ‘restrictions’. There is a logical connection
to th TOK feature on this page which asks students if their personal experiences in
a local context have shaped who they are.

Teaching idea
If you can’t access the video of Selasi’s TED talk you can still use her

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thought-provoking comments on identity. Write the title of her TED talk on
the board as the theme of your lesson: Don’t ask me where I’m from, ask where
I’m a local.You could begin by asking if the statement resonates with anyone
in the class. This sets the focus for your students to consider the questions
in Activity 1.6. Each question contains a summary of Selasi’s own views

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which guide the students’ reflection to a deeper level. The link to Theory of
Knowledge in the side bar will also stimulate thought about how experience
and identity are inter-connected.Your students will then be ready for
Activity 1.7. Filling out the table prepares them to articulate how their own
life experiences influence how they see themselves and also how others
might see them.
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Listen
Activity 1.8
This activity asks a few questions to prime students for Audio track 1. These
questions are related to globalisation, which is a theme that runs throughout the
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coursebook. Here are some ideas for use with the five questions:
a It will prove valuable to collectively define globalisation, write the definition on
a large sheet of paper, posting it in your classroom for future activities.
b Furthermore, the activity asks students to think of three main problems in the
world. These might include: poverty, social injustices, natural disasters, global
warming, disease or any other problems that one single country cannot solve.
c The question of giving up one’s national identity in a globalised world is very
relevant. Ask students why teenagers all around the world wear jeans and trainers
from the same brands. Is this an example of giving up one’s identity?
d Customs and values are different. Customs, like rituals, are activities that people
do and have done for years, as tradition. These customs may reflect their values,
i.e. the intangible ideas that they hold dear.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Activity 1.9
a adapt b commence
c privilege d adopt
e boundaries f aspiration
g possess h sacrifice
i esteemed

Activity 1.10
a eager b identity

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c third-culture kid d worldly
e challenges f global warming, terrorism and unemployment
g accept h traditions
i identity

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Activity 1.11
This activity asks students to make one, long meaningful sentence using as many
words as possible from Activity 1.10. Students can show creativity in this activity.
There are no right or wrong answers, but they should use the words in the
right context.
Depending on the sentences they produce, you might take the opportunity to
point out the basic sentence structures (simple, compound, complex, compound-
complex) and do a review of punctuation. This may also be a good moment to ask
if they agree or disagree with the ideas of Audio track 1.
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Exploring texts
Activity 1.12
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This is a pre-reading activity inviting students to speculate about how they would
change if they left their home country and lived abroad. This method of preparing
students to investigate a new text is helpful to language learners because it sets
a context for their reading and creates curiosity to see if their own ideas are
mentioned in the text.
Note: Activity 1.16 asks students to look back at their notes from this exercise

Activity 1.13
In Activity 1.13 make sure that your students study the seven paragraph headings
before they begin reading the text. The headings function as a form of summary,
giving the students a way into a long text. Depending on the level of your students,
you might put them in pairs to support each other.

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

Answers
a The life of a new immigrant – 2 EXAM-RELATED TIP
Placing sub-headings
b We’re all just human – 6
in the correct
c Adventures in fitting in – 3 place in a text is a
d The inevitable pep talk – 7 common task on
e Questions of belonging – 4 Paper 2: Receptive
skills – reading.
f 10 years of living abroad: How moving to Australia changed my life – 1 It requires that
g Finding myself – 5 students synthesize
the content of a
section of a text to

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Activity 1.14 find the main topic
Having completed the previous activity, students have an overall comprehension and then choose
of Text 1.1. This activity asks for close reading with the objective of adding to a heading which
students’ vocabulary as they search for synonyms. summarises it. Point
out the Reading
insincere – superficial Strategy box in the
detached – distant
well-mannered – polite
adorn – embellish
timid – shy
slang – jargon
extremists – bigots
obliviousness – ignorance
PPLL coursebook. The
strategies and tips
boxes are intended
not only to help
students handle
the work within
the unit but also to
help them build a
set of skills for the
compassionate – empathetic final assessments.
excitement – thrill Chapter 8 provides
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evidently – apparently further insights into
worry about – dwell on Paper 2.
bravery – courage

Activity 1.15
While students may make their own interpretation of the following phrases,
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they should come up with phrases that are similar to the ones below.
a to mind your Ps and Qs.
b all the ups and downs
c to roll your eyes
d to be put into a box
e its’ not all rainbows and unicorns
f good things never came out of comfort zones

Activity 1.16
This section of Unit 1.1 concludes with a discussion topic intended to provide
an opportunity for students to practise some of the vocabulary as they compare
the comments made by the writer of Text 1.1 with the ideas they expressed in
Activity 1.12.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Form and meaning: Present tenses


Activities 1.17–1.18
Asking students to change roles and become the ‘grammar expert’ can work well
if it’s a structure they are familiar with. In the first exercise they have five example
sentences from Text 1.2 for each tense and must come up with rules for use of
present continuous and present simple verb tenses, Activity 1.18 follows on from
this task. By the end of both activities they should have a table that looks like this:

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Present simple Present continuous
a general statement b something temporary
d a state of being c something happening right now.
f something permanent e something annoying
g something that happens again and again

a
c
e
suffer
grants
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Activity 1.19
The correct tenses are as follows:

are living
b
d
f
I’m living
speak
are running
g is constantly making h am suffering
i find
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Teaching idea
Students bring different attitudes to the study of grammar. Some might find
it intimidating because of a past association with quizzes and tests; others
might enjoy the sense of order and logic in a study of ‘rules’. A new way of
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approaching grammar in the IB classroom could change attitudes and foster


a positive curiosity about the grammar of English. Since students are ‘natural
experts’ in the grammar of their first language they can be asked to consider
how that language expresses the concepts in the table (Activity 1.18). Does
their first language have two present tense forms? The book Learner English
by Swan and Smith (eds) is a fascinating resource for information about the
ways in which other languages differ from English. It contains analysis of 22
different languages in accessible and easily understood English.You might
want to have a copy in your classroom so that students can refer to it when
you ask them to become ‘comparative linguists’

Activity 1.20
Having focused on the importance of tenses in communicating, among other
aspects, the speaker’s indication of a situation as either temporary or permanent,

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

this short exercise asks students to apply their understanding to the blog in Text 1.2.
The penultimate paragraph in the blog is a good section of the text in which to ATL
Before moving on
find the answers. Possible answers could be:
from Text 1.2, you may
a She will probably live in Beijing forever, as she refers to living like a ‘nomad’, want to go through
not knowing where she will ‘settle’, or even if she will. the five characteristics
emphasised in the I.B.
b She does not feel at ‘home’ in China, in fact she refers to ‘back home’ implying ‘approaches to learning’
the United States is home. (ATLs) with students, to
find evidence of them in
Guo’s story. Where does
she show these skills?
Discussion

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• thinking skills 
• communication 
Activity 1.21  skills 
Discussion questions that ask students to agree or disagree, as in Activity 1.21, • social skills 
can be fun and engaging. If you think that asking students to stand and move • self-management

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around would energise the group you could have two sides of the room labelled
‘agree’ and ‘disagree’. Students move to the appropriate side of the room as you
read each question. Then they can collaborate in preparing a statement with their
like-minded classmates, before sharing it with the students on the opposite side of
the room.

Activity 1.22
skills 
• research skills

The iceberg model of culture, developed by Edward T. Hall is the starting point for
discussion. The labels on the diagram should help students compare and contrast
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two cultures. In their presentation of these cultures, it is important that they do
not stereotype – or at least, they describe how stereotypes of these cultures have
come about. The two sources that are mentioned in the EXTRA box are highly
recommended for teachers: Geert Hofstede’s research on ‘cultural dimensions’ and
Erin Meyer’s book titled: The Culture Map.
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Writing
Activity 1.23 
The image of the women playing volleyball at the 2016 Olympic Games should
create interesting discussion, especially in combination with the five different
captions. It is worth showing the students how one image can have such different
captions and interpretations. It is recommended that they take notes during their
discussion, as they can use them as a springboard for Activity 1.24. Write key
phrases and words that come up during the discussion on the board.  

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a Here are some guideline comments on the intentions of the writers of the
headlines:
A This heading by the Daily Mail aims to divide the West and the Islamic
world by using the words ‘cover-ups’ and ‘cover-nots’ in combination with
‘massive cultural divide’
B This heading by Global news in Canada seems to celebrate the women’s
differences by stating that they exemplify the ‘beauty of diversity’.
C The Sun also presents a very divisive interpretation of the image by using the
words ‘shock’ (in capital letters) and ‘colossal cultural divide’
D Report UK focuses on the women’s common ground by using the phrase

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‘coming together’
E Ben Machell’s tweet raises an interesting point that the women share more
values (i.e. hard work, fitness of body and mind, perseverance, competitive-
ness) than they have differences.
b This question asks students to express their own opinion on the headlines. Be

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careful to keep the conversation critical and constructive. While captions b, d
and e are more aligned with the IB value of international-mindedness, students
may be able to provide good reasons why they agree with captions a and c.
c The phrases ‘cultural divide’ and ‘culture clash’ are more divisive than ‘culture
contrast’ since they suggest a problem that cannot be overcome. ‘Contrast’ on
the other hand, simply suggests that the two opposite women highlight their
differences.
d Students may or may not agree with Ben Machell’s point but it is worth
discussing which character traits and values these women share.
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e The final discussion question is an invitation to comment on the cultural
values of Germany and Egypt, as expressed by the clothing they have given
their women athletes to wear in this competition. Students may use words
such as ‘sexy’, ‘exposed’ and ‘athletic’ to describe the German woman’s bikini.
They may use words such as ‘covered up’, ‘modest’ or ‘conservative’ to describe
the Egyptian athlete’s outfit. It becomes quite challenging linguistically if you
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steer students away from simple value judgements such as ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and
encourage them to give reasons why the women may be dressed so differently.

Teaching idea
It would be interesting to extend the topic by looking at articles about
Nike’s creation of an athletic hijab in late 2017. An online search will
produce a number of articles. For example, the article from the Huffington
Post (December 2017) Nike just came out with its first ever athletic hijab

Activities 1.24 and 1.25


You may want to give students a choice of doing Activity1.24 (a letter to the
editor) or 1.25 (a blog entry). The Language B Subject Guide categorises the

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Unit 1.1 Citizens of the world

former as a Mass Media text and the latter as a Personal text. More detail about
the way texts are included in the IB syllabus can be found in the IB Programme
Resource Centre (PRC).
If you have already introduced these text types you may feel that your students
are ready to approach the task as practice for the Paper One examination. In this
case, make sure they are familiar with the assessment criteria for Paper 1 before
they write. These can be found in Chapter 7 of the coursebook (Paper 1) so that
students can easily access them.
For Activity 1.24 students should be able to find the original articles that went
with these headlines (a-e) through an online search, using the headlines as search

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terms. As they read one of the articles, they should highlight the main points that
they agree or disagree with. Generally speaking, disagreement tends to lend itself
well to writing a letter to the editor. There are sample letters in Unit 6.1 (Formal
letter); since students don’t often write letters in their everyday lives, it’s helpful
to give them a model text. These letters do not have to be long, as many letters

Activity 1.25 
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of complaint are only 200-300 words. Encourage students to include phrases and
vocabulary from this unit and Activity 1.23 so that new words are introduced into
their active vocabulary.  

This writing stimulus asks students to write in the style of Text 1.1 and 1.2, both
EXTENDED ESSAY
The three categories
blog entries from people living abroad, sharing the value of their experiences. of extended essays
This activity may appeal to students who have lived abroad. If they have not for Language B are
described. Even if you
had such experiences, they may wish to do Activity 1.24 only. Unit 6.3 provides
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are using this chapter
students with a model for blog writing.   early in the two-year
course, it is important
to introduce students
to the possibilities of
Higher level extension writing an extended
essay for English B. If a
topic you have studied
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Activity 1.26  in class really interests


When teachers in different academic departments refer to the IB Mission them they might want
to go more deeply into
Statement or the Learner Profile in their classes it imparts a sense of shared
it as their EE topic. Some
understanding and purpose to the academic programme. This short research schools require students
exercise begins by emphasising the last sentence of the mission statement, which to select their EE subject
usually intrigues young people. area in the first year so
that students can write
Students may do basic searches online to find out more about these famous drafts and complete
individuals. In this exercise sources such as Wikipedia are appropriate.You may also their essay before the
wish to put students into groups and assign each group a different person to make busy second year of
the activity more engaging and interactive. Be sure that students write notes, as diploma work begins. 
they listen to other group representatives speak about their findings.  

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Activity 1.27 
This discussion invites students to think about different cultural practices that
they have seen when travelling or living abroad. Again, the underlying idea of this
discussion should be that ‘different’ can be ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ or simply ‘different’
(neither ‘right’ nor ‘wrong’). It is important to focus on actual cultural practices
rather than vague stereotypes. The discussion need not be a long one since it is
intended to prepare students for reading Text 1.3.

Activity 1.28
CONCEPTS 1 funny 2 rubs

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Comprehension of 3 niceties 4 mundane
a text can depend
upon how well the 5 outspokenness 6 sense
reader understands 7 ulterior 8 repercussion
the purpose for 9 blunt 10 self-development
which it was written.
In mother-tongue
this is more easily
managed than
when reading in
one’s additional
languages. One of
the five conceptual
understandings
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13
15
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re-examine
abundance
deception

Activity 1.29
12
14
16
apology
superficiality
reconfigure

a The Russian people are direct and blunt. They say honesty what they think
b People in the West hide their true feelings behind smiles and polite expressions,
which IB emphasises
in the Subject Guide whereas Russians are absolutely honest about their feelings.
is ‘Purpose’. Mark c Westerners tend to insulted by the Russian bluntness, while the Russians think
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Manson’s story (Text the Westerners are fake and full of pretence.
1.3) is a good text
on which to practise
d Under communism, Russians had to trust each other and this could only be
this skill. In light of achieved if everyone was absolutely direct and blunt. By contrast, in the West
the title of his book, ‘appearances and salesmanship’ became more important if one were to succeed
his story is probably in the capitalist economy.
used to illustrate
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the importance of
honesty in life. The Activity 1.30 
Concept feature for This question asks students to discuss how ‘others with their differences’ (see the
‘Purpose’ suggests IB mission statement) have helped shape their identity. They might choose to talk
ways of drawing
student attention
about family relatives, experiences meeting people abroad or strangers who have
to the concept of become friends.  
‘purpose’ using Texts
1.1–1.3 in Unit 1.1.

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Literature
Activity 1.31 
These questions aim to encourage students to make a connection between race
and identity before reading Text 1.4 (Black Boy). Racism, in this sense, is a way of
robbing someone of their identity by not providing people of different races the
same opportunities. Through discussion, students can reflect on how this form of
racism is relevant to the place in which they live.  

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Activity 1.32
LEARNER PROFILE
The sentences refer to the following words from Text 1.4:
If you are looking
a circulated b paternal for a good way
c nuisance d stoutly to integrate the
e
g
i
brooded
naively
trivial

Activity 1.33
PPLL f
h
kin
tardiness

The notion that recognising the context of a literary work is essential to its
meaning is explored in depth in IB Group One courses. Therefore, students may
learner profile into
your curriculum,
you can always ask
how characters from
the literary works
that you’re reading
exemplify one or
more of the qualities
of the learner
profile. Richard, the
already be familiar with discussion of the context of production and the context of
main character in
reception. Text 1.4, could be
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In this activity the focus is more on comparing attitudes presented in the literary considered reflective,
extract with attitudes in their own communities or nation. However, they might be as he writes his
memoir. He could be
able to explain how their own experience influences the way they react to the text. considered a risk-
taker for standing
up to injustice. He
REFLECT could be considered
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Each unit ends with a reflection activity or set of questions, encouraging principled for not
students to look back on what they have learned in the unit. The three letting anyone beat
questions at the end of this unit ask students to return to the title, ‘Citizens of him.  
the World’, to consider its meaning in their own lives. You may want to reiterate
and discuss the importance of the IB mission to them, with respect to the last
line: “others, with their differences, can be right.” 

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Unit 1.2
Belief and identity
Unit 1.2. Belief and identity
In this unit students will explore the question of whether one’s sense of identity is
shaped by one’s beliefs.
Learning Objectives Guiding questions

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• Become more aware of different • To what extent is your identity
beliefs and more conscious of how defined by what you believe?
they shape identity. • How have you come to believe what
• Develop a command of language you believe?
that enables you to discuss religion • How do people express their beliefs

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and faith appropriately.

Language Focus
Form and Meaning: adverbs and
adjectives

Resources referred to in the activities


through language?

Video: Rainn Wilson’s Spiritual Journey. Published by Big Think. Activity 2.5
Audio track 2: Interview on the link between spirituality and happiness.
Transcript of Audio track 2.
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Additional resources
TedTalk India: East vs West: the myths that mystify. Devdut Pattanaik 2009

Further Reading
Making Thinking Visible – Karin Morrison, Mark Church and Ron Ritchhart
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Passive Vocabulary by Richard Nordquist: The Thoughtco Website


Action Research. Geoffrey E. Mills
Teaching and Researching Reading – William Grabe and Fredericka Stoller

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

Lesson planning
Your course design and lesson plans will be unique to your own classroom.
However, here is a basic schema for how you could combine the various activities
in this unit into hour-long lessons.
Of course you may need to abbreviate some exercises or decide to add extra texts
or research to others. Some activities would work well as homework.
Adapt as you see fit to meet the needs and interests of your students.

Lesson 1

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Word bank: Activity 2.1
Belief and religions Activity 2.2
Extending the concept of belief: Activity 2.3

Lesson 2

Lesson 3
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Watch the video about a personal experience with faith. Activity 2.4 to 2.6
Set the Extra activity for homework

Listen to Audio Track 2. Activities 2.7 to 2.9


Prepare for the study of Text 1.5 (next lesson) by using Activity 2.12 and the
side bar (p 31)

Lesson 4
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Text 1.5: Activities 2.10 to 2.11
Form and Meaning Activities: 2.13 to 2.15

Lesson 5
Discussion. Belief and TOK: Activities 2.16 and 2.17

Lesson 6
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Writing. A personal letter (based on Text 1.5): Activity 2.18 or an opinion piece
(based on Audio Track 2): Activity 2.19
Homework: Activities 2.20 and 2.21 (preparation for a short presentation)

Lesson 7 (higher level extension)


Short presentations related to brand loyalty: Activities 2.20 and 2.21
Text 1.6 Activities 2.22 and 2.23
Further consideration of brands and belief: Activity 2.24

Lesson 8 (literature)
Text 1.7 Literary style and authorial choices: Activities 2.25 to 2.27

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English B for the IB Diploma

Unit teaching guidance


Getting started
Activity 2.1
This fill-in-the-blank exercise focuses attention on words found in the word bank
and is followed by a short discussion in which these lexical items will be needed.
The suggested topic here is something that students might not have considered:
Why do religions need religious leaders?

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Answers
a cult b sceptical
c secular d hymn
intuition convert
e
g
i
k
dogmas
devout
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principles

Teaching idea
f
h
j
l
atheist
evangelism
grace

The ATL box is intended to get students to think about their own
responsibility for learning.You could explain to students the difference
between a passive vocabulary (words someone might recognise and
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understand when they see them in a text) and active vocabulary (words
that come easily to mind when speaking or writing). Ask them if they have
noticed this when they are communicating in their first language. What
LANGUAGE FOCUS strategies do they use to remember new words? Will these strategies add
In their responses words to passive or active vocabulary?
to Activity 2.2, you
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If you’re interested in reading more about passive versus active vocabulary


might ask students
to begin with an the Thoughtco website has a good article by Richard Nordquist entitled
adverb, for example: Passive Vocabulary.
• Surprisingly,
the class is split
equally on this Activity 2.2
topic. The six declarative statements can be used in different ways depending upon
• Interestingly, only the time you have available. Here, the suggestion is for a class poll rather than an
one person … in-depth discussion.You could use the technique in which students create simple
• Unfortunately, posters for each statement and post them around the room. If necessary, they begin
there’s nothing by clarifying their statement for the class. After everyone has circulated and entered
to discuss here as
a tick in the appropriate agree or disagree column, the creators of the poster make
the whole class
disagrees with a statement summarising the data in one or two sentences.
the statement.

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

Activity 2.3
Students de-code images and try to use them to expand the concept of belief.
No particular answers are expected but if you use the example response to Image A
as a template you can keep the class on track with the topic of beliefs.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
Perhaps list similar expressions on the white board for students to use for
support:
• I think it’s true that …

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• People believe that …
• I think it’s obvious that …
• I don’t think there’s any proof that …
• In my view / from my point of view …
• Is there any evidence that…
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Image A – the stock market; capitalism.
Image B – political belief; belief in democracy.
Image C – meditation; mindfulness.
Image D – consumerism; technology; multi-national corporations
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Watch and listen EXTRA
The feature following
Activity 2.3 has the
Teaching idea same purpose of
removing the topic
Activities 2.4 and 2.5 are primarily intended to introduce vocabulary from the controversies
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necessary for discussion about the topic of this unit: Belief and identity. of which organised
If you can’t access the video, Rainn Wilson’s Spiritual Journey, you can still religion is the “right
one” by imagining a
use the exercises as a way of extending student vocabulary so that they true ‘outsider’ – an
can express ideas which they may never have discussed in English. Set up alien from another
Activity 2.5 to function as definitions for the lexical items listed in Activity planet.
2.4. When you move on to Activity 2.6 allow time for students to plan their
statements so that they use the vocabulary you have just studied.

Activity 2.4
We often give students a text with words missing and ask them to fill in the blanks
from context. Here, you do the opposite: give students a list of words from a text
(here, a video: Rainn Wilson’s Spiritual Journey) and ask them to predict the topic.

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English B for the IB Diploma

In addition to preparing students to understand the video, they will need these
words in order to complete the next exercise. It might be useful to remind them
of any discussion you had about ways to remember new vocabulary when you did
Activity 2.1.

EXTRA Activity 2.5


Depending upon The following words from Activity 2.4, and used in the Rainn Wilson video,
the specific situation correspond to sentences a–m.
in which you are
teaching, the focus in a faith b progressive
c cauldron d abandon

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this extension exercise
about Baha’i is on a e suffering f perpetrate
religion with which
students may be less g journey h fervour
familiar and may i crossroads j unease
therefore find easier to k devout l transcend
explore objectively.

LEARNER PROFILE
One aspect of the
learner profile is
m temple
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Activity 2.6
This discussion functions as a concluding exercise for the topic raised in the
Rainn Wilson video. Questions a and c encourage students to articulate their own
experience after listening to Rainn Wilson talk about his own faith. Alternatively,
question b is less personal.
open-minded. The IB
document describes
it as including Activity 2.7
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the willingness to This activity proposes three questions to prime students for listening to
“critically appreciate
our own … personal Audio track 2, about the effect of spirituality on happiness. If you have a class
histories”. The of enthusiastic talkers you might want to set a time limit so you can get to the
implication is that listening exercises. With a weaker group perhaps one question (question b?) will be
one can’t be ‘open- enough to set the focus of listening. Whatever you decide, as you plan, notice that
minded’ about the the concluding Activity 2.9 links back to these questions.
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views of others
unless one has
reflected on how Activity 2.8
one’s own beliefs If students have access to Audio track 2 on their own devices, they can listen and
have been created.
re-play at their own pace.You could also set this as homework. As the Tip feature
advises students, the words they need for e, f and g come too quickly for them to
write them all down. Therefore, if you use the audio as a whole-class exercise you
need to consider how you will help them succeed in answering those questions.

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

Answers
a The podcast is usually about money, wealth and the economy.
b Jason Botswain conducted his research by interviewing 300 spiritual people
across the economic spectrum and 300 self-acclaimed atheists / 600 in total
c Atheists and spiritual people do not spend more or less than the other.
d Religion reduces corruption and increases respect for law, which acts as an
overall economic boost.
e gracious
f flourish

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g savour
h Spiritual people are less likely to spend money on cheap gadgets and gym
memberships.
i Spiritual people are more value-driven.

Activity 2.9
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Now that some vocabulary has been clarified, the second listening exercise asks the
student to listen to Audio track 2 again and identify answers to the same questions
used in Activity 2.7. How you set up the activity will depend on the group you are
teaching and the degree of support they will need. Assigning just one question to
different groups of students is one way of making sure that students can succeed
and build confidence in their ability to listen to an authentic text.
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Exploring texts
Activity 2.10
Although it is possible to match the words without studying their context in
Text 1.5, encourage students to check the way they are used in the article. They
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are underlined to make it easier to find them.You could remind students of the
conversation about ways of retaining vocabulary in Activity 2.1
a reveal – show b extent – degree
c dear – precious d component – part
e scenario – situation f unavoidable – obvious
g extrovert – outgoing h handle – understanding
i capacity – ability j innate – instinctive
k fulfillment – contentment l tantrum – frenzy
m predisposition – tendency n bigotry – intolerance
o bemused – confused p revelation – surprise
q secular – irreligious r fervour – passion

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Activity 2.11
Before they begin reading Text 1.5, draw attention to the Text and Context box.
Note: this text is also used as a writing stimulus in Activity 2.18.
a False – Justification: “I am frequently asked by journalists to recall the most
surprising finding of our twin studies. The study of religion and belief
in God is the one that always comes to mind.” The researcher studies twins
predominantly, not religion.
b True – Justification: “For example, in the latest surveys in the U.S., when
asked, 61 percent of white Americans say they firmly (i.e. without any doubt)

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believe in God, compared with only 17 percent of firm believers in similar
populations in the U.K. greater than a threefold difference.”
c True – justification: “However in one study of adopted twins, the researchers
looked at religious belief in a number of adopted twins raised apart.”
d False – Justification: “They defined this as “the capacity to reach out beyond

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oneself and discover or make meaning of experience through broadened
perspectives and behaviour.” ‘Making meaning of experience’ and ‘having
meaningful experiences’ are two different things.
e False – Justification: “They estimated the heritability of spirituality to be
around 40 to 50 percent, which is quite high considering how tricky it is to
measure.” This means that people have a 40-50 percent chance of inheriting
their spirituality genes from their parents, not that they only get half of their
parents’ genes.
f True – Justification: “Studies show that for twins living at home, there is no clear
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genetic influence or difference from their parents in their practice. However,
genes start to play a role, once the twins leave the nest.”
g True – Justification: “At primary school, they both became interested in
Christianity and much to their father’s surprise and displeasure they were
baptised and prayed regularly. Their parents split up soon after and
their father left home.”
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h False – Justification: “Elizabeth began discussions with an Islamic group,


initially arguing against religion, read the Quran to dismiss it and then
found herself being drawn to and then converted to Islam.”
i True – Justification: “they have much more in common genetically with each
other’s children than other aunts and share the same proportion of genes
with them.”
k True – Justification: “Annie’s genetic predisposition for faith, likely
suppressed by her secular surroundings and her dominant atheist
husband, may have been the crucial factor that influenced her daughters’
uncompromising beliefs.
l False – Justification: “Other twin studies have shown that after leaving home,
children with the right predisposition can often switch religions, and that
which form they then choose is not down to the genes but to life
events or some mysterious unknown force.

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

EXAM-RELATED TIP ATT


The true/false with justification exercise comes up quite often on the reading A key focus of the
section of Paper 2. The Tip feature on p. 32 clarifies the task. Students copy short IB approach to
phrases from the text as justification; they should not use their own words. The teaching is on creating
IB examiners try to avoid a “good guess” justification by specifically requiring a opportunities for
phrase not a complete sentence. If you want to use this activity to build exam student teamwork
skills you could do the same. In any case, it might take a while for less-fluent and collaboration. In
students to complete the whole exercise; if time or variations in student level the language learning
are problems, then putting students in pairs could be an efficient way to get classroom, from the
through the exercise. students’ point of
view, this can be both

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a support and an extra
layer of challenge in
Activity 2.12 trying to understand
a peer’s English and
negotiate a shared
Teaching idea answer.

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The image of the sports crowd sets the tone for the exercise. Since talking
about a photograph is part of the standard level oral exam, you can use the
images in the coursebook to build skills of description. Here you could ask
students to speculate about the setting, describe the kinesics (linguistic term
for body language and facial expressions), clothing.
Filling in the table is best done in small groups or as a whole-class so that
students can brainstorm ideas. Their notes will serve to answer the question
Observing your students,
noticing how the
separate pairs deal
with the task, is an
interesting piece of
Action Research. Does it
work better to pair a less
fluent student with one
who is more confident in
in the caption under the photograph. the language or create
pairs of equivalent
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fluency? If you’d like
to read more about
Form and meaning – adverbs and the topic, Geoffrey E.
Mills has written several

adjectives texts on the subject of


Action Research, both
theoretical and practical.
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Activity 2.13
Students might be able to use these parts of speech but can they explain the rules?
You might tell them the expression in English: “You never really understand
something until you try to teach someone else”. Is there a similar expression in
their languages?

Activity 2.14
Adverbs Adjectives
b a
d c
e
f

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English B for the IB Diploma

Activity 2.15
a pointedly b terribly
c personal d shortly
e initially, fierce f uncomfortable
g likely, uncompromising

Discussion

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Activity 2.16

TOK
Although most of the topics in this coursebook can be linked to the TOK syllabus,
this activity does so overtly. The TOK feature alongside this activity might help if you

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are unfamiliar with the TOK syllabus. If English is the medium of instruction in your
school, then this kind of activity helps English B students develop the linguistic skills
to participate in the TOK classes.
Who teaches TOK in your school? How are subject teachers involved in the
TOK programme? Could you invite a TOK teacher to be a surprise guest in your
classroom to lead this short introductory discussion on belief?

ATT
Activity 2.17
If you need to
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generate a mark from
the presentation in
Differentiation
Activity 2.17, it’s a good If you are using this unit in the second year of the English B course students should
idea to use at least part be able to handle this activity. The captions (the topics of the short presentations)
of the IB Assessment
Criteria. Transparency
are quite sophisticated but similar to the type of topic they would use as their
is an important aspect formal TOK presentation. If you need to, adapt the captions to suit the linguistic
of the IB approach to level of your students.
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assessment and is one


of the six considerations
stated in the Approaches
to Teaching document
(you can find this on the
Writing
PRC). Student learning
should be informed by Activity 2.18
formative assessment
When asking students to write on topics which could be very personal, it’s worth
using the same criteria
that will be used in remembering that the objective is language development. Therefore, setting up the
summative assessment. task so that the individual’s personal beliefs are not the focus, is less threatening.
For this reason, the Here, students choose the role of one of the twins in Text 1.5. If you previously
individual oral exam used Activities 2.10 and 2.11 with your class then they will already be familiar
criteria are provided
with vocabulary.
in the coursebook, for
students’ reference. The structure of letters in English and a model that students could refer to, can be
found in Unit 6.1 (Formal letter).

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

Activity 2.19
EXTENDED ESSAY
The stimulus for this writing exercise is Audio Track 2, already used in Activities The EE box on this page
2.7 and 2.8. The suggested text type is an opinion piece for a newspaper. The of the coursebook is a
instructions for this activity remind students about the word bank. reminder to students
that a topic that has
been explored in English
class could become the

Higher level extension inspiration for their


Extended Essay. Here
the link is made to a
Activities 2.20 and 2.21 Languages B Category

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One topic. Remember
This part of the unit extends the concept of belief to the choices one makes in that a Group Two EE
consuming products. English has idioms such as ‘brand loyalty’ and a ‘trusted brand’; must use texts originally
do these idioms exist in the other languages spoken by students in your class? written in the target
language so that the
student researcher can
Teaching idea
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The activity of collecting logos and making a collage is not only a break
from using ‘words’ but requires the reflection and self-awareness that will
provide a good basis for the following activities. The task could be done over
the weekend so that the next lesson begins with a ‘show and tell’ approach:
students posting their collages on the board and blending answers to the
go deeper into a culture
in which the language
is used. This can be
tricky since English is
also spoken as a global
lingua franca. Use the
guideline of limiting to a
country where English is
an official language.
three questions in Activity 2.21 into a brief presentation.
It’s important that every student completes their own collage even if there’s
no time for everyone to present. Their work will be needed for Activity 2.24
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Activity 2.22
This fill-the-gaps activity using Text 1.6, revisits the Form and Meaning work on
adjectives and adverbs (Activity 2.13–2.15).
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Answers
a entire b coincidentally
c easily d possibly
e deliberately f emotionally
g firm h considerable
i modest j valuable
k uniquely l oral
m particularly n vibrant
o unambiguously p fast

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Teaching idea
When it comes to giving the answers, you could generate more language
use by putting students in small groups. If they disagree and cannot decide
which answer is correct, they write their varying answers on a card and
pass it to another table for ‘advice’. The answer is written on the card and
returned. Time limits on the whole activity make this a race-against-the-
clock game and will keep up the energy in the class.

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Activity 2.23
Students should refer to Text 1.6.
a The author starts with the story of Mark in order to illustrate the level of
dedication held by fans of certain brands like Apple.

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b Martin Lindstrom studied the brain activity of brand fans and religious people
by using MRI scans. He also interviewed 14 religious leaders.
c In Lindstrom’s study, brands such as BP and KFC did not stimulate as much
brain activity as brands such as Apple and Harley.
d Lego lets their fan base do all of the marketing for them through word
of mouth.
e Hymns and church windows tell stories. Successful brands also tell their stories
to build holistic identities.
f The author makes the argument that the size of the place of worship, or its
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‘grandeur’ is important to its success. This is why both cathedrals and stores must
be big.
g According to the author, holding an iPod is like holding a page from the Bible,
because one can quickly recognise it without much context or a logo.
h Pushing a lime into a bottle of Corona is a ritual, and rituals help build brands.
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Activity 2.24
This reflective activity should be approached with sensitivity to the specific context
in which you are working. If you feel it would be considered disrespectful for
students to compare the religion of the community to something commercial, then
perhaps they could focus on a religion from another culture.

Literature
Activity 2.25
As befits a higher level class, these questions are challenging because they require
abstract terms. If your group is capable of discussing without your involvement
then you could listen and write words they are struggling to find on the board.

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Unit 1.2 Belief and identity

Within the section of the coursebook, this activity is intended as a preparation for
reading the literary extract. However, with all discussions it helps if you decide on
the importance of the task to the other parts of your lesson plan so that you can
set a time limit. Will you choose to use this activity as a relatively short ‘warm-up’
or, knowing your students, will they want to go deeper and, therefore, you allocate
more time?

Activity 2.26
Text 1.7 A River Runs Through It
Make a large table on the white board with the three columns labelled as shown in

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the coursebook. As students complete their individual reading of Text 1.7 they can
write responses on the board so the whole group can see the variety of comments.

Activity 2.27

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Students should refer to Text 1.7.
a There’s reason to believe that the author is old enough to read and young
enough to be told what to read (The Westminster Shorter Catechism) by his
father. He receives ‘hours of instruction’ from his father on how to fly fish. One
might think he and his brother Paul are between 8 and 15 years old. One of the
final lines of the passage also describes the boy’s impression of ‘man falling from
grace’ as a man falling out of a tree. This understanding is very child-like.
b Even though the narrator must study the Catechism every Sunday, his father is
not very intent on hearing him and his brother recite long passages. The boys
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only have to say: “Man’s chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy Him forever.”
The text further states: “This always seemed to satisfy him, as indeed such a
beautiful answer should have, and besides he was anxious to be on the hills.”
c They did not go fishing on Sundays. The boys went to Sunday school and then
to ‘morning services’ at the church where they would hear their father preach.
After church, the boys were made to study the Catechism for an hour. Then
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they would go for a walk on the hills, where the boys had to listen to their
father prepare for his evening sermon.
d The second to last paragraph reads: “After my brother and I became good
fishermen, we realised that our father was not a great fly caster, but he was
accurate and stylish.” This gives some indication that he was ‘good’ but not
‘great’. Earlier in the passage, it is mentioned that he is a fly fishing instructor.
e The narrator’s father believed that by “picking up God’s rhythms, [people] were
able to regain power and beauty.” Furthermore, he was a unique Presbyterian,
because he used the world ‘beautiful’. He seemed to take pride in his stylish way
of casting, and it allowed him to get closer to God.

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Activity 2.28
This exercise encourages students to apply skills of literary analysis to a text
CONCEPTS in English. Since students are most likely taking an IB Group One course and
One of the five studying literary texts in their mother tongue, they’re aware of the way that a
conceptual writer’s choices affect the reader. However, reading in a language that one is
understandings in
the syllabus section
still learning differs from reading in mother tongue. For instance, students may
of the Language understand the denotational meaning of words but the connotational meaning,
B Subject Guide the emotional impact, of the diction is not as immediately obvious. The work by
is Purpose: “… William Grabe and Fredericka Stoller provides interesting insights into the process
language should of reading in L2 and how it differs to the process in L1.

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be appropriate to
achieve a desired
intention, goal
or result …” The REFLECT
study of a literary It’s worth taking as long as a complete class period for quiet review of all the
text invites the ideas that have been explored in Unit 1.2 and the language that has been
question of what the
author’s purpose, in
a particular passage
could be. What
effect on the reader
is the writer aiming
for?
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acquired in the process of reading, listening and talking. The five questions
guide students through the process.
It’s also an opportunity for students to look again at written work that has been
marked and self-evaluate their progress.
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Unit 1.3
Beauty and health
Unit 1.3: Beauty and health
In this unit students will study how the media and the advertising industry shape
people’s definition of beauty and impact their self-esteem.

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Learning Objectives Guiding questions
• Become more aware of the adverse • To what extent is your definition
effects of the beauty industry on of ‘beauty’ shaped by the media,
people’s physical and mental health, including print advertisements,
as caused by an unrealistic depiction movies and TV commercials?
and the narrow definition of • What are the effects of the media’s
‘beauty’ in the media

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• Be able to articulate ideas about the
beauty industry and the pressures
on individuals to conform to
idealised images presented in the
media.

Language Focus
narrow definition of ‘beauty’
on people’s mental and physical
health?

Form and meaning: Parallelism.


Correlative Comparative.
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Resources referred to in the activities:
Dove Real Beauty Sketches (3-minute videos)
Dove Evolution (video)

Additional resources
Killing Us Softly 4 by Jean Kilbourne (film)
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Miss Representation by Jennifer Siebel (film)


Adbusters website.
Buyology by Martin Lindstrom

Further Reading
Learner English Michael Swan and Bernard Smith (eds)

Lesson planning
Your course design and lesson plans will be unique to your own classroom.
However, here is a basic schema for how you could combine the various activities
in this unit into hour-long lessons. Of course you may need to abbreviate some
exercises or decide to add extra texts or research to others. Some activities would
work well as homework. Adapt as you see fit to meet the needs and interests of
your students.

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Lesson 1
‘Getting started’ and the Word bank. Activity 3.1 and 3.2
Watch video clips Dove Real Beauty Sketches. Activities 3.3.and 3.4

Lesson 2
Listen to Audio Track 3. Activities 3.5 and 3.6
Assessing images: Activity 3.7

Lesson 3
Text 1.8: self-esteem and body image: Activities 3.8 and 3.9

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How are men targeted by the beauty industry? Activity 3.10

Lesson 4
Text 1.9 Pre-reading: Activity 3.11. Comprehension questions: Activity 3.12
Assessing the reliability of a source: Activity 3.13

Lesson 5
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Form and Meaning. Activities 3.14 and 3.15
Discussions on key issues in this unit: Activities 3.16 and 3.17

Lesson 6
Oral exercises. Analysing a cartoon: Activity 3.18
Mini-debates: Activity 3.19
Proposing captions: Activity 3.20
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Lesson 7 (or a homework assignment)
Writing. A formal letter: Activity 3.21

Lesson 8 (higher level extension)


Analysis of an ad picturing an anorexic model. Activity 3.22
Text 1.10: pre-reading: Activity 3.23
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Comprehension exercise: Activity 3.24


Vocabulary extension: Activities 3.25 and 3.26
Summative discussion of topics within this unit: Activity 3.27

Lesson 9 (literature)
Text 1.11. The Diet by Carol Ann Duffy. Focus on figurative language: Activities
3.28 and 3.29

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

Unit teaching guidance


Getting started
Activity 3.1
Students might have come across the term ‘fashion industry’ but they may be
surprised that the terms ‘beauty industry’ and ‘health industry’ are common in
English.You could ask them to brainstorm the professions that go along with

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‘industry’ steering them towards post-production such as marketing, advertising,
copy writing, graphic designer. This will serve as a launching point into the
activities which focus on the media and its influence on beauty and health.

Suggested answers for guidance:


a
b
c
d
e
f
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Insecure. It suggests that the reader has something to hide.
There is a list of bad facial features that the reader must address.
Can make your skin shine evenly or perfectly.
Buy this product. It makes the reader believe that it has been scientifically tested.
That she is beautiful and confident as a result of using the product.
Insecurity / guilt / envy in the reader

Activity 3.2
This short exercise is intended to draw attention to the word bank and to generate
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curiosity by giving an indication of the topics that students will be invited to
explore in the unit.
Answers
a media b beauty
c diet d expectations
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e self-esteem

Watch and listen


Activity 3.3
The video ‘Dove Real Beauty Sketches’ is short so it can be played more than
once to enable students to write down the adjectives that precede the nouns in the
list.You could ask students to jot down the sound of adjectives they can’t catch –
guessing at spelling – rather than leaving a blank.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Answers
a forensic artist b drafting board
c big jaw d prominent feature
e fat, rounder face f pretty big forehead
g general questions h nice thin chin
i blue eyes k cute nose
l natural beauty

Activity 3.4

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This is proposed as a whole class discussion so that you can facilitate and steer it
into an objective, analytical direction.
Guidance for discussion:
a Students are free to give their first impressions.You may want to ask what they

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literally ‘see’ in this video in order to initiate discussion. They may want to
comment on the nature of the experiment and the extent to which women are
aware of their experiment conditions.
b Generally speaking, the women use negative words to describe their own
features and nice words to describe other women’s features.
c It could be said that the main message of this video is that women are overly
critical of their own appearance. Whether or not this is true is subjective, but it
is worth noting.
d and e For these discussion points, be sure that students feel comfortable
speaking about their own self-image with classmates. If they cannot trust each
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other, then you may want to skip points d and e.

Teaching idea
The video Dove Real Beauty Sketches was selected for inclusion in this unit on
Identities to stimulate discussion on self-image. The language in the video is
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not too difficult, which makes it a good choice as a listening exercise if you
have students who are less fluent. However, if you can’t access the video you
should be able to find a number of magazine articles written in reaction to it.
It was controversial because it was produced by a company which makes
beauty products and has characteristics of an advertisement for the company.
One way of altering the lesson from that laid out in the coursebook is to ask
your students to work in pairs or small groups to find print advertisements
or television commercials and make short presentations to the class about the
unrealistic images of women that are portrayed. Their ideas don’t have to be
particularly unique; the purpose of the activity is to practise making statements
about the issue with reference to visual examples.
This work will provide a background for the listening activity based on
Audio Track 3.

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

Activity 3.5
The focus on specific lexical items is preparation for the listening activity which LANGUAGE FOCUS
follows. Asking students to predict the topic of Audio track 3 is a more dynamic The words in
Activity 3.5 lend
way to focus on meaning of new words.
themselves to a
Note that there is a follow-up to this predicting exercise in the next activity. quick session on
pronunciation –
why don’t you hear
Activity 3.6
the ‘p’ in the word
Answers ‘psychology’ (or
pneumonia) or the
a Popular Science b an age-old problem
‘b’ in ‘subtle’ (or

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c depressed d products debt, numb, climb)?
e more f mechanism If you have students
g fortify h subtle whose first language
is syllable-timed or
a tonal language,
EXAM-RELATED TIP

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As the Tip feature in the coursebook explains, Paper 2 assesses listening skills, so
developing strategies for this assessment is an important part of the course. It’s a
good idea to use the questions in the exam paper to help predict the topic and
focus of the audio track. This skill is practised as the first step in this activity.
then differences
in intonation
patterns can become
a hindrance in
communication. In
these multi-syllabic
words, where does
the stress fall?
Teaching idea If you’d like to
know more about
Listening to audio without visual clues can be daunting for language the differences in
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learners. One technique you might try when listening to interviews is to intonation between
begin by focusing just on the questions that are asked. Stop and replay after students L1 and
each question, getting the class as a whole to repeat in a chorus. This is a English, the book
Learner English
noisy start to a quiet activity which also gives the students a chance to ask if
edited by Michael
they don’t understand the interviewer. Swan and Bernard
Smith is very
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accessible.
Activity 3.7
Students are asked to rank images A–C from ‘subtle’ to ‘blatant’. They met these
words in Activity 3.5 and heard them used in Audio track 3. Now they need to
start using them to convey their own opinions. They may have reasons for ranking
the images the way they have. Generally speaking, image A is rather subtle, image B
is slightly more focused on the model’s figure, and image C blatantly focuses on the
body of the model.

CONCEPTS
One of the five concepts that IB indicates as essential to successful
communication is recognising variation within a language. Introducing the idea
of variation through images makes the concept clear to students and prepares
them for the same kind of analysis of spoken and written communication.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Exploring texts
Activity 3.8
Text 1.8

CONCEPTS EXAM-RELATED TIP


The questions in the The task of inserting headings into a text sometimes appears in Paper Two and
Reading Strategy students tend to find it time-consuming. This exercise uses the questions by the

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focus attention on interviewer as the ‘headings’. The activity models a possible strategy: arrange
Audience, Context the questions in the most logical order before trying to fit them into the text.
and Purpose, three Students should make their list on a piece of paper, then read the text and see if
of the conceptual their preliminary ordering was appropriate. They then complete the table.
understandings
fundamental Space in the text Question
to successful
communication.
These considerations
are also important
to written
communication;
students should ask
themselves the same
questions before
1
2
3
4
5
6
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C
A
F
D
H
7 E
they start writing
8 B
their own texts.
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Activity 3.9
1 c 2 h
3 g 4 a
5 f 6 d
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7 e 8 b

Activity 3.10
The focus of the unit shifts to examine how men are also targeted by the beauty
industry. Here are some possible responses to the stimulus questions:
a This ad targets men, as it appeals to a male desire to be tough. However, it could
also target women to purchase the product for the men in the family (it is, after
all, a kind of soap).
b Students may say that the man in the ad looks ‘tough’. In several American
sports, such as baseball and American football, it is common to use ‘eye black’.
While it is technically used to reduce glare from sun and stadium lights, it also
acts as a kind of ‘war paint’.

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

c Students may have many associations with these words:


charcoal = fossil fuel, dirty, black
hydra energetic X = modern, unclassified, water, mysterious, technical
fight = tough, rough, strong
magnetic effect = scientific, physical attraction
black = dark, strong, bold
expert = knowledgeable, experience, smart.
d ‘Expert is being a man.’ This suggests that a man’s manliness is defined by his
level of expertise. (Note: It is not clear in which field one must be an expert).

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e It suggests that if you buy this product you will turn into the person described.
Another answer might be that it’s not just women who need specific
beauty products.
f One could argue that this ad is not too dissimilar from those that target women.
Like previous images in this chapter, this one focuses on appearance. If they

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focus on femininity, this one focuses on masculinity.
g This question asks students to consider how men’s self-esteem is or is not
affected by the media. This is an opportunity for a meaningful discussion on
identity, gender and the media.

Activity 3.11
This activity prepares students for studying Text 1.9 on skin-lightening creams. The
definitions for specific words from the text that the students may not have come
across are highlighted in this exercise. They should check the definitions as they
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read the text.
a dermatologist b domain
c reaction d blister
e bleach f photosensitive
g rash h texture
i pigmentation j deteriorating
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Activity 3.12
Answers
a “Dermatologist Dr Amit Vij, says, ‘Face whitening creams are harmful for all
– be it man or woman. They might be in great demand for the fair look they
promise but the only ones who’ve been regular in using it would know the
harm that the creams have caused to their skin. That’s not to say that the
person didn’t achieve his goal – of looking fair, but at what cost?’” This
suggests that the creams actually work.
b The following quotation from Dr Amit Vij suggests that creams are equally bad
for men and women. “Like I said, these fairness creams are bad for men
and women alike. And as for men, their skin is only slightly rough on the
beard area, the rest is as sensitive and prone to reactions.”

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English B for the IB Diploma

c Bleach makes fairness creams harmful. “Dr Amit Vij continues, ‘The main
ingredient of these fairness lotions is bleach, so you can understand how people
turn fair. And it is just that, that causes all the harm.’”
d The text elaborates on the effects of fairness creams: Dr Vij says, “The obvious
side-effect is thinning of the skin. Daily use of these creams leads to the
skin losing its tightness and becoming thinner in return. Growth of acne is
another harm that these creams cause to the skin.
“Elaborating further, he says, “Also, most fairness cream consumers are unaware
of the photosensitive reaction which these creams cause. Due to this the
more exposed one is to the sun, [the] worse one’s skin condition becomes. This

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would mean anything from getting pink and red rashes – the degree of
which would vary from person to person – to sun burns, blisters, itchiness
to burning sensations, each time the person steps out in the sun.”
“Such a skin, that has become photosensitive, could also lead to one having
problems if he went in for any kind of packs or massage treatments, for

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those oils or packs could further react on the skin.”
e The last two paragraphs from the previous question are relevant for this answer
as well:
Due to this the more exposed one is to the sun, [the] worse one’s skin condition
becomes. This would mean anything from getting pink and red rashes – the
degree of which would vary from person to person – to sun burns, blisters,
itchiness to burning sensations, each time the person steps out in the sun.
“Such a skin, that has become photosensitive, could also lead to one having
problems if he went in for any kind of packs or massage treatments, for
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those oils or packs could further react on the skin.”
f Men are tempted to use fairness creams because they think that they will
permanently treat skin pigmentation. “the best way to acquire fair skin is ‘by
doing away with the pigmentation,’ advises Dr Vij. ‘Fairness creams only hide
them, but that’s definitely not a permanent treatment and that’s the reason why
people are tempted to use them regularly.’”
SSA
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Activity 3.13
The coursebook links this activity on finding evidence for one’s beliefs to TOK.
It’s not necessary to digress from the focus of the English lesson but it is valuable
to make these connections to other parts of the IB curriculum so that students can
see the inter-connectedness of their academic work. Here the focus is on being a
critical audience – for the written article and the visual advertisement.

Teaching idea
Each student writes their reasons on sticky notes and posts them on a table
you’ve made on the white board, similar to the one below. There’s likely to
be a difference in the number of sticky notes in each box which makes a
point about the difference in type of text.

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

Reasons why you believe Reasons why you do not


the claims made in the text believe the claims made in
this text
Text 3.2
Fairness creams ad

Form and meaning – parallelism and LANGUAGE FOCUS

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In English, parallel
correlative comparisons structures are
regarded as
rhythmically
pleasing and even
Teaching idea sophisticated. They

PPLL
A good way to introduce this section of grammar focus is to ask students to
consider their mother tongues; is parallelism admired or avoided?
You could then emphasise the rhythm that is created through parallelism by
getting students to read aloud the model sentences in the textbook. Where
do the pauses come? It makes a fun choral activity because inevitably one
or two students are going to take a breath at the ‘wrong’ moment. Since
the models demonstrate both a declarative statement and a question, the
appear in texts such
as rousing speeches
and irritated letters
to the editor. This
is not the same in
other languages
and is one reason
students might
make the error
intonation will also differ; this might be a further focus for a more advanced termed ‘faulty
parallelism’. Spanish,
class. for example, tends
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to use varying
grammatical forms
Activity 3.14 rather than parallel
forms.
Here are some possible sentences using parallelisms. If you tried the reading aloud
activity suggested above, students could do the same with their own sentences.
a Completed in the coursebook as an example.
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b Men are not spared by the beauty industry, targeting them as much as women,
exposing them to unrealistic body images, pairing financial success with the
perfect body.
c Adbusters spreads awareness about the beauty industry by creating spoof ads,
organising events and writing articles in their magazine and on their website.
d Dove has received criticism for their campaign, for airbrushing their full-
figured models, including no large women, and for showing their models in
their underwear

Teaching idea
The Adbusters website has many spoof ads which students will find
entertaining and provocative.

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Activity 3.15
As well as focussing on accuracy in grammar, this exercise aims to encourage
students to add the structure to their own repertoire of sentence types.
Students may write correlative comparative sentences similar to the following:
a is completed in the coursebook as an example):
b The more popular beauty pageants become in West Africa, the worse the weight
problems, such as anorexia, become in these countries.
c The more advertisements are banned for sexual content, the greater the
attention they receive.

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d The more Bollywood stars promote skin-whitening cream, the more Indians
will suffer from the side-effects of these creams.
e The more parents talk to their young children about the portrayal of ‘beauty’ in
the media, the more likely they are to have a stronger self-esteem.
f The more new innovations in beauty products, the more women are likely to

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feel they need to keep up with these trends to look beautiful.
g The more awareness campaigns show anorexic people to shock viewers, the
more this stimulates anorexic behaviour in patients with anorexia.

Teaching idea
In the last few minutes of the lesson, ask students to memorise one of
their sentences, look at the group (not the paper) and say the sentence in a
firm, persuasive tone. Because they rarely use this structure in conversation,
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the effect can be quite startling; their peers think that they ‘sound
really different’.

Discussion
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Activity 3.16
Encourage students to have a conversation that explores the effects of airbrushing
in advertising. The conclusion may be that the use of airbrushing creates unrealistic
expectations of ‘beauty’. A comparison clearly indicates that photographs of models
are manipulated. What’s more, it seems that in the context of India, fairer skin is
perceived as more desirable. Do an online search for Dove Evolution for a video that
explores this theme further.

Activity 3.17
This conversation may point to the perceived hypocrisy of Dove’s Campaign for
Real Beauty. While their ads seem inclusive of wrinkled, freckled and more robust
models, their images are also airbrushed. The fact is that they are a commercial

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

enterprise that benefits from a broader definition of ‘beauty’. Students will,


hopefully, come to this conclusion through a discussion on Text 1.8 and the image. EXAM-RELATED TIP
The Tip feature in
the coursebook
Activity 3.18
introduces students
Students should carefully study the cartoon below the activity to answer these to the standard level
questions. The following give indicative responses: oral examination.
It’s a good idea to
a The man seems to be in a position of power. The woman seems to be a mother. mention the various
Together with her child she may have been waiting in a waiting room of an IB assessments at
office building, where he is the manager. appropriate times in
b The man may be referring to his company or firm with ‘we’. your course so that

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students recognise
c The man’s arms behind his back seems defensive. The woman’s gestures suggest that even short
that she is attacking him with questions. exercises like 3.19
d The cartoon is about the portrayal and degradation of women in magazine and are developing skills
advertisements. While the man understands that children should not be exposed for future IB exams.

exposed to such images.


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to such images, the woman questions whether anyone of any age should be

e Hopefully students see the woman’s point, that the degradation of women in
advertisements is not permissible in any context.

Activity 3.19
This is not intended to be a full debate but a series of short oral exercises. The
Chapter 9 focuses on
the individual oral
exam if you would
like further ideas for
practice.

focus is on expressing a stance (given in the caption which is assigned to the EXTENDED ESSAY
debate team) and responding to the arguments of an opposing team. Think of it as A study of
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opening statements and a rebuttal. Organising the sequence will take some thought advertisements from an
as it will depend on the number of students in your class; some may have to be in English-speaking country
more than one team. The table in the coursebook shows a possible sequence. could make a good topic
for an EE in Language
B, as the feature in the
coursebook suggests.
The primary objective
Writing
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of the extended essay


requirement is for
students to learn how to
Activity 3.20 write a formal research
This activity encourages students to write their own captions to a photograph, paper. It is hoped that
focussing on how choice of words and phrasing “steer the reader in they pursue a topic that
has caught their interest
opposite directions”. in one of their DP
courses and view the EE
Activity 3.21 as an opportunity to go
deeper and learn more.
Chapter 6 (Text types) in the coursebook analyses and models nine of the types of
Mentioning ideas for an
written text that the student may encounter in the course and in assessments. Unit EE as you move through
6.1 focuses on formal letters. Since students rarely write or receive letters these the topics in your class
days, you might need to spend time on familiarising them with the conventions of could help to inspire
structure and layout for a formal letter in English. students.

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English B for the IB Diploma

Higher level extension


Activity 3.22
The aim is to stimulate a conversation on eating disorders and their causes. The
image Put some weight on seems to make light of a woman’s slim figure. Interestingly,
research from Martin Lindstrom (Buyology) suggests that anorexic and bulimic
women are triggered by such advertisements to engage in their eating disorders
further. Encourage students to do online research to learn more about the
percentage of women (and men!) who suffer from eating disorders in the country

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where they live.

Activity 3.23
This activity primes students for reading Text 1.10 about Isabelle Caro by asking
them to generate interview questions, which actually become ‘reasons for reading’



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questions. They can then approach the reading with the objective of finding out if
their questions can be answered.
Students may come up with questions such as:
• What caused her anorexic behaviour?
When and where did she die?
How can we be certain that anorexia killed her?
• Who knew about her eating disorder?
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Activity 3.24
Students may suggest the following words and phrases to complete the sentences,
based on information from Text 1.10.
a Isabelle Caro worked as a model.
b When she posed for Nolita in 2007, she weighed about 60 pounds.
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c The Nolita campaign shocked many people because it showed Isabelle Caro in
an emaciated condition.
d Caro decided to participate in the campaign because she wanted to warn girls
about the dangers of dieting and the influence of fashion.
e Fabiola De Clerq felt that the Nolita campaign was too crude.
f Isabelle Caro’s TV career included working as a reality show judge and as
an actress.
g Isabelle’s mother kept her out of school because she wanted to protect her from
picking up an illness from other children.
h During her self-imposed diets, Isabelle would lapse into a coma and
become delirious.
i After talking to a psychologist, Isabelle moved to Marseille to break away from
her parents.

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Unit 1.3 Beauty and health

Activity 3.25
Nouns Verbs
commandment battle
disservice pronounced
ban
exploit
exhibit
dominated
dwindle

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Adjectives Adverbs
ravaged balefully
emaciated lest
provocative
crude
delirious
haunting

Activity 3.26
a ravaged/devastated
PPLL b balefully/darkly
c battle/fight d emaciated/thin
e provocative/shocking f commandment/rule
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g disservice/harm h pronounce/say
i crude/obscene j ban/forbid
k exploit/take advantage of l dominate/control
m lest/in case n delirious/confused
o dwindle/decrease p exhibit/show
q haunting/unforgettable
SSA
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Activity 3.27
The emphasis on inferring context, audience and purpose, which was discussed in
earlier activities, could be re-iterated in this activity. There are no right answers to
this activity, but students may offer responses similar to the following:
a This text might be part of an awareness campaign or a public service campaign,
which aims to make people more aware of the adverse effects of ads for
beauty products.
b The target audience might be young people who are susceptible to ads for
beauty products.
c This might appear on a website or magazine that promotes public health (and
not beauty products)

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d The white boxes on the blue background really stand out. They make one read
the text carefully, in a particular order, encouraging thought and understanding.
e The capital letters stress a point that everyone is beautiful or at least everyone
has a part of him or her that is beautiful.
f Students may agree or disagree with this campaign. It certainly
instigates discussion.

Literature

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Activity 3.28
If this exercise seems difficult for the language level of your students you could
reserve the exercise for later in your course, perhaps when you start reviewing
topics before school exams. However, remember that students will be familiar with

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stylistic devices from their work in IB Group One courses and in this exercise, the
focus is on language comprehension rather than literary analysis per se.

Activity 3.29
It’s advisable to steer the students away from trying to understand or explain every
line in the poem. The questions in this activity aim to keep the conversation within
the topics they should be able to manage as second language learners.Your goal is
to build students’ confidence in their ability to deal with a literary text in English.
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REFLECT
This short reflection is designed to move the topic from the classroom to the
students own experience. Through their work in this unit, students will have
gained the vocabulary and expressions in English to express their thoughts
and insights.
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Unit teaching guidance

Unit 6.1 – Formal letter


Model Text

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The model text (Text 6.1) is for a letter of complaint which is a useful form to
highlight how cultures use different conventions. For instance the salutation in the
model is To whom it may concern but in English it is also appropriate to begin with
Dear Sir or Madam. This surprises many students who interpret the salutation ‘Dear’
as friendly and something that would be reserved for friends.

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Activity 1.1
Text 6.2
Having studied the model letter students are asked to analyse a letter with a similar
purpose, filling out the chart with lists of things that are ‘wrong’ with the letter and
then ideas for how they would edit it.

Teaching idea
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The objective of Activity 1.1 is to develop a critical awareness of the
conventions of formal letter writing. Since most of the unit is focused on
individual writing practice you could organise this activity as a small group
exercise. Groups of 3 or 4 students draw the two columns on a large sheet
of paper attached to the wall; they fill in the ‘errors’ and their proposed
improvements. When time is up, the groups circulate comparing their ideas
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with those of other groups. Encourage the groups to ask for clarification or to
disagree with each other.

Activity 1.2
The next stage is to rewrite the letter (Text 6.2). Before the class begins to write,
it is suggested that you help them gather ideas and the vocabulary to express them.
What exactly is the complaint they want to make to Barnardo’s? Is it the image of
force-feeding poison? Is it the distress of the baby?

Activity 1.3
Having improved the model letter in the coursebook, students consolidate their
understanding of the genre by writing their own letter to Barnardo’s. Ideas have

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6 Exploring text types

been generated in the previous activity and the model text (Text 6.1) supplies some
standard expressions. The objective is to practise the text type so that it becomes
more familiar.

Activity 1.4 – SL Exam Preparation


EXAM-RELATED TIP
Students are offered a choice of three letter-writing tasks. The first two are
The time limit for
again letters of complaint; however, the third option is the opposite: a letter of
Paper 1 is an hour
appreciation to a gallery for holding a pleasing exhibition. and 15 minutes.
Each of the tasks is supported by units in the coursebook. Even if you did not However, students
are expected to
study those sections with your class they could use the texts for inspiration.

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use plenty of time
in planning before
Activity 1.5 – HL Exam preparation they begin writing.
At higher level students are expected to write more words (450–600 words) about Chapter 7 has
more information
rather more complex topics. They have an additional 15 minutes compared to the about guidance

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standard level exam. The three tasks offered here – letters to a public speaker, a
university and a politician – are related to topics within the IB set themes. It is not
necessary that students have studied the indicated sections in the coursebook; these
are offered as a source of ideas for the opinions in the letters. Students may have
their own arguments.

Teaching idea
and preparation for
Paper 1.

If your classes are not long enough to allow for a full exam practice you
could set it up that the researching of ideas (potentially from the sections of
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the coursebook indicated in each question) and the planning take place in
one lesson. At the end of that class, collect the notes and hand them back in
the following class for students to write their letters.
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Unit 6.2 – Review


The introduction to this unit in the coursebook points out that internet sites are
full of reviews written by people who want to share an experience or opinion.You
could start by asking students to brainstorm as many types of review as they can
think of.
The word bank sets the vocabulary for the essential characteristics of any review.
In addition, the concept box emphasises the purpose of a review and gives one
example of how the decision about purpose affects language: ‘I think…’ is not
appropriate in a formal review although it may appear in short consumer reviews
in an online site.
The model Text 6.3 is a film review. The key features are annotated on the text and
explained in the adjacent table.

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Activity 2.1
This activity focuses on book reviews. It asks students to think about the difference
between three types of writing about a book: a journalistic review, notes in a study
guide and an academic essay. They place statements in the relevant column(s) on
a table. If students work individually and then compare their answers in a whole
class discussion it allows you to clarify each point, linking it to purpose, audience
and context, so that they are prepared for the next activity in which they will
annotate Text 6.4.

Activity 2.2

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Using the table they have completed in the previous exercise, students carefully
read the review of Room (Text 6.4) and mark sections where they notice the
characteristics they listed in the review column. Discussing their annotations with
other students, exploring differences and defending their work, is a good way to
consolidate their understanding of the elements of a review.

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Activity 2.3

Teaching idea
The list of 15 interesting words taken from Text 6.4 could be used first
for pronunciation practice. Ask students if they can tell whether a word is
positive or negative from the sound. Ask them each to choose their favourite
word based on its sound. Encourage them to practise saying the words out
M
M
loud. Then you can move on to the specified task of finding synonyms.

Answers
1 acquisition: b purchase 2 incarceration: a imprisonment
3 lurid: b shocking 4 voyeuristic: a nosey
5 quirky: d strange 6 abducted: c captured
SSA
A

7 exquisitely: d creatively 8 precocious: a clever


9 macabre: c horrific 10 crass: b insensitive
11 plight: a dilemma 12 grotesque: d weirdness
13 ferocity: c fierceness 14 vile: b disgusting
15 audacious: a daring

Activity 2.4
The objective of the activity is to draw attention to the various ways in which a
review can make a recommendation to the reader, indirectly as well as directly.
Answers will vary.You might want to turn the activity into a quick oral exercise
with students reporting on the notes in their table.

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6 Exploring text types

• I think I’ll look for a copy of Room because…


• I really don’t think I want to read it because…
• I’m curious to read it because…
• The comment in the review that caught my attention is …

Activity 2.5 – SL Exam Preparation


Text 6.5 is a book review of The Road written by a student. The task is to mark ATT
it according to the Paper 1 assessment criteria which are available at the front of ‘Teaching informed by
assessment (formative
the coursebook. and summative)’ is one
of the six IB Approaches

EE
to Teaching. The full
Teaching idea document is in the
If you want to extend this exercise you could set it up as a 1 – 2 – 4 activity. Programme Resource
Centre. It states that
Each student marks the text individually and then finds a partner. The pair
teachers must find ways
must come to an agreement over the marks they award, plus a justification to include “assessment

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for their decision. Finally, two pairs combine and try to agree. Evidence from
the text is essential.You might remind students of the annotation system
they used in Activity 2.2.

Activity 2.6 – HL Exam Preparation


Although the section is addressed to higher level students the suggestions for
for learning rather than
simply assessment of
learning.” Changing
roles so that students act
as examiners requires
them to become very
familiar with the
assessment criteria and
is an interesting way
writing a review could equally-well be used with standard level students. However,
for them to think more
if you intend it as an exam practice, remember that for Paper 1 SL students write deeply about assessment
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250–400 words in an hour and 15 minutes. The third option, reviewing a piece of and evaluation of their
technology, extends the skill of review writing beyond film and book. As always, own work.
students should consider the intended audience.

Unit 6.3 – Blog


SSA
A

Activities 3.1 and 3.2


Before students experiment with writing their own blogs it’s important to clear
up any misunderstanding about how the text type is distinct from other forms
of written expression on topical matters. The introduction to this unit includes
information about the origin of this text form and the word bank, as well as
Activity 3.1, mentions other texts which might have similar purposes.
The point is to lead students towards an understanding that blogs might contain
elements of other text types. In this activity they have not yet studied a blog so they
are making statements based on their own experience of reading them.
Next, the class reads Text 6.6 – a blog post from the website of The Guardian
newspaper. The task is to identify overlap between a blog and the other text types
listed in Activity 3.1. There are no right answers. The goal is for students to see how
a blog might contain characteristics of different text types.

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