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Three-Reservoir Problem

Th ree- R eservo i r P ro blem Lecture 22

Lecture 22

T.E.L Branching Pipes: three-reservoirs problem Res. A Res. B D 1 F 1 Q 1
T.E.L
Branching Pipes: three-reservoirs
problem
Res. A
Res. B
D
1
F
1
Q
1
Q
L 1
p
D
2
D
γ
3
L F
3
3
Q
D
Res. C
H
H
3
B
A
Z
H
D
C
Datum
D L F
2
2
2

Branching Pipes: three-reservoir problem

Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoir problem We have three cases: 1- Flow from A B to C
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoir problem We have three cases: 1- Flow from A B to C
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoir problem We have three cases: 1- Flow from A B to C
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoir problem We have three cases: 1- Flow from A B to C

We have three cases:

1- Flow from A B to C

Q

1

,

+ Q = Q

2

2- Fl

w fr

ow

o

m A t

o

Q

1

= Q + Q

2

3

3

B C

,

3- Flow from A to C

Q

1

= Q

3

and

Q = 0 (

2

H G L at BD horizontal )

.

.

The slope of the hydraulic gradient line gives the direction of flow

Three-reservoir Problem Given elevations of three tanks and pipes that lead from three or more
Three-reservoir Problem Given elevations of three tanks and pipes that lead from three or more

Three-reservoir Problem

Three-reservoir Problem Given elevations of three tanks and pipes that lead from three or more tanks
Three-reservoir Problem Given elevations of three tanks and pipes that lead from three or more tanks

Given elevations of three tanks and pipes that lead from three or more tanks to a common junction "j“ It is required to determine the discharge Q 1 , Q 2 , Q 3 (or Q A ,Q B , Q C ) both magnitude and direction Assumptions 1-minor losses are neglected 2-velocity head is neglected, i.e. T.E.L =H.G.L

both ma gnitude and direction Assumptions 1-minor losses are neglected 2-velocity head is neglected, i.e. T.E.L
Three reservoir Case I Flow from A to both B and C h F =
Three reservoir Case I Flow from A to both B and C h F =

Three reservoir

Three reservoir Case I Flow from A to both B and C h F = K
Three reservoir Case I Flow from A to both B and C h F = K

Case I

Flow from A to both B and C

h

F =

K Q

2

where

K

=

f L

2 gDA

2

2

2

C

2

Z

Z K Q = Z + K Q

K Q = Z + K Q

A

C

C

2

A

B

B

B

A A

A A

(1 )

(2 )

Q

A

= Q + Q

B

C

(3 )

Three reservoir - cont Case II Flow from A and B to C Z A
Three reservoir - cont Case II Flow from A and B to C Z A

Three reservoir - cont

Three reservoir - cont Case II Flow from A and B to C Z A Z
Three reservoir - cont Case II Flow from A and B to C Z A Z

Case II

Flow from A and B to C

Z

A

Z

A

2

2

C

K Q = Z + K Q

A

A

C

C

2

2

B

K Q = Z K Q

A

A

B

B

(1)

(2)

Q

A

= Q Q

C

B

(3)

Three reservoir - cont Case III Flow from A into C with no inflow or
Three reservoir - cont Case III Flow from A into C with no inflow or

Three reservoir - cont

Three reservoir - cont Case III Flow from A into C with no inflow or outflow
Three reservoir - cont Case III Flow from A into C with no inflow or outflow

Case III Flow from A into C with no inflow or outflow from B,

i.e.

Q B = 0.0

2

A

Z

Z

Q

A K Q

K

A

2

A

A A

A

=

Q

C

Q

=

=

Z

C

Z

B

+

K Q

C

2

C

(1)

(

2

)

(3)

Only one of the above cases (based on the physical flow picture) can be satisfied. - Start with case III get Q A and Q C from (1) & (2). - Check the value of Q A and Q C .

Three reservoir-cont IF Q Q Q A A A = > < Q Q Q
Three reservoir-cont IF Q Q Q A A A = > < Q Q Q

Three reservoir-cont

Three reservoir-cont IF Q Q Q A A A = > < Q Q Q C
Three reservoir-cont IF Q Q Q A A A = > < Q Q Q C

IF

Q

Q

Q

A

A

A

=

>

<

Q

Q

Q

C

C

C

Case II I Case I Case II

Having decided about the case, the direction is known and the identified set of equations can be used to solve (by trial and error) to determine the discharges Q A ,Q B , Q C . Assume junction pressure elevation i.e. elevation of point P. If case I (P in between B and A) If case II (P in between B and C)

Branching Pipes: three-reservoirs problem

Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem These types of problems are most conveniently solved by trial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem These types of problems are most conveniently solved by trial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem These types of problems are most conveniently solved by trial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem These types of problems are most conveniently solved by trial

These types of problems are most conveniently solved by trial and error method.

Step 1: Not knowing the discharge in each pipe, we may first assume a piezometric surface elevation, P, at the junction.

Step 2: This assumed elevation gives the head losses h f1 ,

h

f2 ,

h

f3

for each of the three pipes .

Then, the trial computation gives a set of values for discharges Q , Q , and Q . Check on the mass balance to see if Q =Q 2 +Q (Case1) or Q +Q 2 =Q (Case2) would be satisfied.

1

1

3

2

3

1

3

Branching Pipes: three-reservoirs problem

Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem Ste p 3: If not , adj ust the initial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem Ste p 3: If not , adj ust the initial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem Ste p 3: If not , adj ust the initial
Branching Pipes: three - reservoirs problem Ste p 3: If not , adj ust the initial

Step 3: If not, adjust the initial guess of the assumed elevation (P) and retry it in an iterative procedure.

Step 4: If the assumed elevation is correct, the conservation of mass flow rate would hold at the junction eventually.

Branching Pipes Final solution
Branching Pipes Final solution

Branching Pipes

Branching Pipes Final solution
Branching Pipes Final solution
Branching Pipes Final solution

Final

solution

Branching Pipes: three-reservoirs problem

Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoirs problem
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoirs problem
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoirs problem
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoirs problem
Branchin g Pipes: three-reservoirs problem

Numerical Example I

Gi th e sys em t
Gi
th
e sys em
t

ven Pipe 1 is 6,000 ft of 15 in diameter, Pi e 2 is 1,500 ft of 10 in diameter, Pipe 3 is 4,500 ft of 8 in diameter, all asphalt- dipped cast iron. The elevations of the water surfaces in reservoirs A and C are 250 ft and 160 ft, respectively, The discharge Q 2 of 60 o F water into reservoir B is 3.3 cfs. Find the surface elevation of reservoir B.

Numerical Example I For water at 60 o F: ν = 12.17x10 - 6 ft
Numerical Example I For water at 60 o F: ν = 12.17x10 - 6 ft

Numerical Example I

Numerical Example I For water at 60 o F: ν = 12.17x10 - 6 ft 2
Numerical Example I For water at 60 o F: ν = 12.17x10 - 6 ft 2

For water at 60 o F:

ν = 12.17x10 -6 ft 2 /sec

Pipe

1

2

3

L

(ft)

6000

1500

4500

D

(ft)

1.25

10/12

8/12

e

(ft)

0.0004

0.0004

0.0004

 

L/D

4800

1800

6750

A ft 2

1.227

0.545

0.349

 

e/D

0.00032

0.00048

0.0006

Absolute Pipe Roughness

Ab so lut e Pi pe R oug h ness
Ab so lut e Pi pe R oug h ness
Ab so lut e Pi pe R oug h ness
Ab so lut e Pi pe R oug h ness
Ab so lut e Pi pe R oug h ness
Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P
Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P

Numerical Example I

Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P lies
Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P lies

Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P lies between 160 and 250 ft. Calculate V or Q out of reservoir A and V or Q into reservoir C, and the surface elevation at reservoir B

Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error . Elevation of
Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error . Elevation of

Numerical Example I

Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error . Elevation of P
Numerical Example I Find the elevation of P by trial and error . Elevation of P

Find the elevation of P by trial and error. Elevation of P lies between 160 and 250 ft. Calculate V

Elev. P

h

1

h

3

V

1

V

3

Q

1

Q

3

 

ΣQ

Move P

200

50

40

6.444

4.481

7.907

1.564

+3.04

 

Up

230

20

70

4 013

5 984

4 925

2 088

 

0 463

D

-

 

own

.

.

.

.

 

.

 

Interpolation: (230-P)/(230-200) =0.463/(0.463+3.04) P= 226.03

Q 2 =3.3 cfs

. . . .   .   Interpolation: (230-P)/(230-200) =0.463/(0.463+3.04) P= 226.03 Q 2 =3.3 cfs
Numerical Example I Elev. P h 1 h 3 V 1 V 3 Q 1
Numerical Example I Elev. P h 1 h 3 V 1 V 3 Q 1

Numerical Example I

Numerical Example I Elev. P h 1 h 3 V 1 V 3 Q 1 Q
Numerical Example I Elev. P h 1 h 3 V 1 V 3 Q 1 Q

Elev. P

h

1

h

3

V

1

V

3

Q

1

Q

3

ΣQ

Move P

226

24

66

4.412

5.805

5.414

2.026

+0.088

Up

V =Q /A =3 3/0 545= 6 055 f

. R 2 =D 2 V 2 /ν = 416,500 f = 0 01761 in Moody Diagram

. So, h 2 = 18.05ft Elevation of B = Elevation P-h = 226.64- 18.05 = 208.59 ft

2

2

2

.

.

ps

2

2

Numerical Example II
Numerical Example II

With the sizes, lengths, and material of pipes given in last example, suppose that the surface elevations of reservoirs A, B, and C are 525 ft, 500 ft, and 430 ft, respectively. (a) Does the water enter or leave reservoir B? (b) Find the flow rates of 60 o F water in each pipe.

(a) Does the water enter or leave reservoir B? (b) Find the flow rates of 60
Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 500 ft Pipe 1 23   h (ft)
Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 500 ft Pipe 1 23   h (ft)

Numerical Example II

Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 500 ft Pipe 1 23   h (ft) 25
Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 500 ft Pipe 1 23   h (ft) 25

(a) Assume P = 500 ft

Pipe

1

23

 

h (ft)

25

0

70

(2gDh/L) 1/2

0.579

0

0.817

V (fps)

4.51

0

5.98

Q = AV, cfs

5.53

0

2.09

V =− 2

2 gDh e D / 2.51 ν L f log( + ) L 3.7 D
2 gDh
e D
/
2.51
ν
L
f
log(
+
)
L
3.7
D
2 gDh
f

At J, Σ Q = 5.53- 2.09 = 3.44 cfs. P must be moved up.

Numerical Example II (a) A ssume P = 510 ft Pipe 1 2 3 h
Numerical Example II (a) A ssume P = 510 ft Pipe 1 2 3 h

Numerical Example II

Numerical Example II (a) A ssume P = 510 ft Pipe 1 2 3 h (ft)
Numerical Example II (a) A ssume P = 510 ft Pipe 1 2 3 h (ft)

(a) Assume P = 510 ft

Pipe

1

2

3

h (ft)

15

10

80

(2gDh/L) 1/2

0.449

0.598

0.874

V (fps)

3 46

.

4 49

.

6 41

.

Check R

355,000

307,000

351,000

Q = AV, cfs

4.24

2.42

2.24

At J, Σ Q = 4.24 - 2.42 - 2.24 = -0.42 cfs. down

510 El

ev .

P

0 42

.

=

510

500

0.42

+

3.44'

P must be moved

Elev P

.

=

508.91

ft

Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 508.9 ft Pi pe 1 23   h
Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 508.9 ft Pi pe 1 23   h

Numerical Example II

Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 508.9 ft Pi pe 1 23   h (ft)
Numerical Example II (a) Assume P = 508.9 ft Pi pe 1 23   h (ft)

(a) Assume P = 508.9 ft

Pipe

1

23

 

h (ft)

16.1

8.9

78.9

(2gDh/L) 1/2

0.465

0.564

0.868

V (fps)

3.59

4.19

6.36

Check R

339,000

287,000

348,000

Q = AV, cfs

4.40

2.28

2.22