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“A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE AND

ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS’ TOWARDS PLAY NEEDS OF CHILDREN


(3-6 YEARS) IN SELECTED COMMUNITY AREAS OF JALANDHAR.”

Thesis submitted to

BABA FARID UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND SCIENCES,

FARIDKOT, PUNJAB.

In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING

2018

By:-

Ms. GURLEEN KAUR, Ms. GURPREET KAUR, Mr. GURSEWAK SINGH,


Ms. GURWINDER KAUR, Ms. HARJINDER KAUR, Ms. HARMANJEET KAUR,
and Ms. HARPINDER KAUR

SANT BABA BHAG SINGH INSTITUTE OF NURSING, KHIALA,


JALANDHAR
DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATES

We hereby declare that this dissertation entitled “A descriptive study to assess the
knowledge and attitude of mothers’ towards play needs of children (3-6 years) in
selected community areas of Jalandhar” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried
out by us under the guidance of Ms. Gurchetan (Assistant Professor), Department of Mental
Health Nursing, at Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Nursing, Khiala, Jalandhar submitted to
Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot in partial fulfilment of the requirement
for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing.

Date: Candidates:-

Place: Gurleen Kaur

Gurpreet Kaur

Gursewak Singh

Gurwinder Kaur

Harjinder Kaur

Harmanjeet Kaur

Harpinder Kaur
CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISOR

This is to certify that Ms. Gurleen Kaur, Ms. Gurpreet Kaur, Mr. Gursewak Singh,
Ms. Gurwinder Kaur, Ms. Harjinder Kaur, Ms. Harmanjeet Kaur and Ms. Harpinder Kaur has
carried out research study titled “A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitude
of mothers towards play needs of children (3-6 years) in selected community areas of
Jalandhar” is the original work of above said person conducted under my guidance and
supervision.

Supervisor:
Ms. Gurchetan
Assistant Professor
Psychiatric (Mental Health) Nursing
Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Nursing,
Khiala, Jalandhar
ENDORSEMENT BY THE PRINCIPAL

HEAD OF THE INSTITUTION

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A descriptive study to assess the knowledge
and attitude of mothers’ towards play needs of children (3-6 years) in selected
community areas of Jalandhar” is a bonafide research work done by the students of B. Sc.
Nursing, IVth year, under the guidance of Ms. Gurchetan (Assistant Professor), M.Sc.
Psychiatry, Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Nursing, Khiala, Jalandhar.

Signature of the Guide Seal and Signature of the Principal

Ms. Gurchetan Prof. M. Chinna Devi

Assistant Professor Principal

SBBSIN SBBSIN

Date: - Date:-

Place: - Place:-
WITH HUMILITY AND REVERENCE,

WE DEDICATE THIS BOOK TO

“ALMIGHTY GOD”

OUR

“BELOVED PARENTS”

AND OUR

“TEACHERS”

WHO ARE ALWAYS THERE TO

ENCOURAGE, GUIDE,

LOVE AND CONTINOUS

SUPPORT.....
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“Praise and glory to the God almighty, which is the source, strength and inspiration in
every walk in my life”.

We praise and bow in reverence to Lord Almighty for His abundant blessings showered
upon us to complete this venture. His felt presence gave us strength to successfully complete
this study.

It is with gratitude that we wish to acknowledge all those who have enriched and crystallized
our study.

It is our bounden duty to express our heartiest gratitude to Prof. M. Chinna Devi,
Principal, Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Nursing, Khiala, Jalandhar. We owe incalculable
debt to her for her expert guidance, valuable suggestions, keen interest and constant
encouragement throughout the period of study.

We are indebted to Ms. Gurchetan, for his valuable guidance, encouragement, and
continued support with sincere interest.

Our sincere thanks to all faculty members of Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of
Nursing, for their kind help, co-operation and suggestions.

We express our whole hearted gratitude to all the experts who validated the content of
the tool for their judgement, constructive criticism and enlightening suggestions.

It is a pleasure to pay tribute to all the participants of this study who formed the core
and basis of this research study.

We are extremely thankful to the librarian Mr. Surinder Singh, for his whole hearted
co-operation and help in the literature search.

We would like to extend deepest appreciation to all our friends and colleagues who
have contributed for the success of the study.

Let us express our love and sincere gratitude to our beloved parents, who instilled in
us a spirit of confidence and encouragement throughout the study. Without their love and
never ending support our education would be a dream.

Our heartfelt thanks, to all those who have given us support and valuable guidance to
make this thesis, a reality.

Last but not the least, we extend our thanks to all those who directly or indirectly helped
us to complete this study but not mentioned in this acknowledgement.

With heartfelt gratitude and prayers – Group B


TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. No. CHAPTER PAGE NO.

I BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 Introduction of the study


 Need of the study
 Statement of the problem
 Objectives
 Delimitations
 Operational definitions
 Assumptions
 Conceptual framework

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

III METHODOLOGY

 Research approach
 Research design
 Research setting
 Variables
 Target Population
 Sample and sampling technique
 Criteria for sample selection
 Selection and development of tool
 Description of tool
 Validity of tool
 Try out
 Reliability of tool
 Data collection procedure
 Ethical considerations
 Plan for data analysis
IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

 Sample characteristics
 Main analysis and interpretation
 Major findings

V DISCUSSION

VI SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND
IMPLICATIONS

 Summary
 Limitations
 Implications
 Recommendations

VII REFERENCES

VIII ANNEXURES

 Letter to expert for content validity of the tool


 Letter for seeking permission to collect data from
Village Khurdpur
 Letter for seeking permission to collect data from
Village Fatehpur
 Letter for seeking permission to collect data from
Village Damunda
 Letter for seeking permission to collect data from
Village Kandola
 Letter for seeking permission to collect data from
Village Ghurial
 Consent
 Tool for data collection (English)
 Tool for data collection (Punjabi)
 List of experts
 List of formulas
LIST OF TABLES

S. No. Title Page No.

1. Frequency and Percentage distribution of subjects as per socio-

demographic variables.

2. Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their

level of knowledge regarding play needs of children.

3. Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their

attitude towards play needs of children.

4. Association between knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of

children with their selected socio-demographic variables.

5. Association between attitude of mothers towards play needs of children

with their selected demographic variables.

6. Correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play

needs of children.
LIST OF FIGURES

S.NO FIGURES PAGE NO


1. Conceptual Framework of knowledge and attitude of parents
regarding play needs of children based on Barnard’s
parent-child interaction model.
2. Schematic Presentation of Research Design.
3. A bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to age.
4. A pie chart showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to their educational status.
5. A bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to occupation.
6. A stacked cone chart showing the percentage distribution of
subjects according to area of residence.
7. A clustered horizontal cylinder graph showing the percentage
distribution of subjects according to type of family.
8. A clustered cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution
of subjects according to monthly family income.
9. A stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to religion.
10. A stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to source of previous knowledge.
11. An exploded pie chart showing the percentage distribution of samples according
to the level of knowledge score.
12. A column chart showing the percentage distribution of samples according
to their attitude towards play needs of children.
ABSTRACT

Play is a very important part of development for the growing child. Not only is play time
entertaining for the child, but it also provides stimulation, increases skills and coordination,
provides an outlet for child's energy, and helps to encourage exploration by the child. A
descriptive research design was adopted for the study to assess the knowledge and attitude of
mothers towards play needs of children (3-6 years) in the selected community areas of
Jalandhar. Tool was prepared with the guidance and suggestions of experts of different fields.
The feasibility and the reliability of the tool were calculated by Karl Pearson’s Correlation
Coefficient and the value of questionnaire is 0.90 and the value of attitude scale is 0.86 which
means both the tools were highly reliable. The study was carried out at the selected
community areas of Jalandhar. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 mothers,
who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, after obtaining written permission from the
Sarpanchs of villages Damunda, Kandola and Ghurial. Data was collected by administering
structured questionnaire and modified attitude scale to assess the knowledge and attitude of
mothers towards play needs of children (3-6 years) respectively. The data was analysed by
using both descriptive and inferential statistics. There was significant statistical association
between knowledge and attitude of mothers with their selected socio-demographic variables.
The significant correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers was found with the
value of 0.055425. Based on the analysis of data, the researcher identified that the samples
had adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards the play needs of children. The results
of analysis proved that as knowledge level increases parents possess positive attitude towards
play needs of children.

Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude and Play needs


Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION

“We worry about what a child will become tomorrow,

Yet we forget that he is someone today.”

Play is a universal language of children. It is one of the most important forms of


communication and can be an effective technique in relating to them. Play empowers
children, supports their right to make choices to discover their own solutions and to develop
at their own pace. All children need to play irrespective of age, culture, and social
background, economic circumstances. Parents must know the play needs of their children to
maintain sound mental and physical health.

Play is a legitimate right of childhood, representing a crucial aspect of children’s physical,


intellectual and social development. Play is a spontaneous, voluntary, pleasurable and flexible
activity involving a combination of body, object, symbol use and relationships. In contrast to
games, play behaviour is more disorganized, and is typically done for its own sake (i.e., the
process is more important than any goals or end points).

Play is by no means a trivial and simple set of behaviours. "It is a complex, multidimensional
sequence of behaviours that changes considerably in process and morphology, particularly
during infancy and the early childhood years".

Hammersmith and Fulham councils in UK defined, “Play is freely chosen, personally


directed, intrinsically motivated behaviour that actively engages the child. Play can be fun or
serious. Through play children explore social, material and imaginary worlds and their
relationship with them, elaborating all the while flexible range of responses to the challenges
they encounter”.

Play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated


with recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Play is commonly associated with children and
juvenile-level activities, but play occurs at any life stage, and among other higher-functioning
animals as well, most notably mammals.

Many prominent researchers in the field of psychology, including Melanie Klein, Jean
Piaget, William James, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Lev Vygotsky have viewed play as
confined to the human species, believing play was important for human development and
using different research methods to prove their theories. Play is often interpreted as frivolous;
yet the player can be intently focused on their objective, particularly when play is structured
and goal-oriented, as in a game. Accordingly, play can range from relaxed, free-spirited and
spontaneous through frivolous to planned or even compulsive. Play is not just a pastime
activity; it has the potential to serve as an important tool in numerous aspects of daily life for
adolescents, adults, and cognitively advanced non-human species (such as primates).

Not only does play promote and aid in physical development (such as hand-eye
coordination), but it also aids in cognitive development and social skills, and can even act as
a stepping stone into the world of integration, which can be a very stressful process.
Play is something that most children partake in, but the way play is executed is different
between cultures and the way that children engage with play varies universally.

In young children, play is frequently associated with cognitive


development and socialization. Play that promotes learning and recreation often
incorporates toys, props, tools or other playmates. Play can consist of an amusing, pretend or
imaginary activity alone or with another. Some forms of play are rehearsals or trials for later
life events, such as "play fighting", pretend social encounters (such as parties with dolls), or
flirting. Modern findings in neuroscience suggest that play promotes flexibility of mind,
including adaptive practices such as discovering multiple ways to achieve a desired result, or
creative ways to improve or reorganize a given situation (Millar, 1967; Shonkoff & Phillips,
2000).

An understanding of the benefits of play can help parents and teachers allow for maximum
potential in enhancing children’s all-round development. Play is an essential human function.
Play is an essential human function. From the first playful face-to-face interactions with a
newborn infant to the last breath of an elderly person, play and playfulness illustrate
humanness. "Man only plays when he is in the fullest sense of the word a human being; and
he is only fully a human being when he plays".

Toddlers need a safe, healthy environment and warm, responsive adults to stimulate their
growth and development. It is ‘nature and nurture’ working together that enhance physical,
social, emotional, cognitive, cultural, and creative growth in children.

Play is a universal phenomenon and a right of childhood. It is a spontaneous, rewarding and


fun with several benefits:

 Education: helps children learn and build skills that lay the foundation for learning to
read, write and do math.

 Social skills: provides opportunities to socialize with peers of the same age, and to
learn to understand others, to communicate and to negotiate.

 Cognition: encourages children to learn, imagine, categorize and problem solve.

 Therapeutic benefits: Gives children the opportunity to express troubling aspects of


their daily life, including stresses, trauma, family conflicts and other dilemmas.

Young children work hard at play. They invent scenes and stories, solve problems, and
negotiate their way through social roadblocks. They know what they want to do and work
diligently to do it. Because their motivation comes from within, they learn the powerful
lesson of pursuing their own ideas to a successful conclusion.

Not only play helps children develop pre-literacy skills, problem solving skills and
concentration, but it also generates social learning experiences, and helps children to express
possible stresses and problems.

Children need only stimulation, play and adequate space to develop their motor abilities.
Although it is important to the children to have opportunity to explore, it is also important
that some limitations be placed on play, both for the sake of safety and for the establishment
of necessary routines. They need to have some limits set to feel secure enough to trust their
own creativity.

Throughout the preschool years, young children engage in different forms of play, including
social, parallel, object, socio-dramatic and locomotors play. The frequency and type of play
vary according to children’s age, cognitive maturity, physical development, as well as the
cultural context. For example, children with physical, intellectual, and/or language disabilities
engage in play behaviours, yet they may experience delays in some forms of play and require
more parental supervision than typically developing children.

Plays are also utilized to get rid of many mental problems and character difficulties of
children. The reason behind this is therapeutic power of play. The emotions that the child is
unable to express due to the necessity of social life and general conformity and is forced to
repress, causes many abnormalities in his personality and behaviour.

In contrast to the popular belief, play fighting lacks intent to harm either emotionally or
physically even though it can look like real fighting. In fact, during the primary school years,
only about 1% of play-fighting turn into serious physical aggressions. Nevertheless, the
effects of such play are of special concern among children who display antisocial behaviour
and less empathic understanding, and therefore supervision is warranted.

If play is associated with children’s academic and social development, teachers, parents and
therapists are encouraged to develop knowledge about the different techniques to help
children develop their play-related skills. However, in order to come up with best practices,
further research on the examination of high-quality play is warranted.

Depending on the type of play, researchers suggest providing toys that enhance children’s:
 motor coordination (e.g., challenging forms of climbing structure);
 creativity (e.g., building blocks, paint, clay, play dough);
 mathematic skills (e.g., board games “Chutes and Ladders” - estimation, counting and
numeral identification);
 language and reading skills (e.g., plastic letters, rhyming games, making shopping
lists, bedtime story books, toys for pretending).

As children invest time and energy in play, and there are opportunities for learning when they
do play, there seems to be a need for play. This is true of young mammals generally, although
other mammals show much less variety of play forms than human children. These findings
suggest that play has developmental benefits. Benefits might be immediate, long-term, or
both. However, the exact role of play in learning is still debated. A prevailing “play
ethos” has tended to exaggerate the evidence for the essential role of play. Nevertheless,
correlation and experimental evidence suggest important benefits of play, even if some
benefits can also be obtained in other ways.

Social play refers to playful interactions between children and parents or caregivers in
children up to 2 years old, but increasingly with other children as social play increases
dramatically from 2 to 6 years of age. At first, playing with one partner is complex enough,
but by 3 or 4 years old a play group can consist of three or more participants, as children
acquire so Parallel play, common in 2- and 3-year-olds, is when children play next to others
without much interaction.

Exercise play increases from toddlers to preschool and peaks at early primary school ages,
when the neural and muscular basis of physical coordination and healthy growth is important,
and vigorous play obviously provides good opportunities for this; later, it declines. There is
evidence that active, playground-type breaks can help young children concentrate better at
subsequent sedentary tasks, consistent with the cognitive immaturity hypothesis that the
“need to exercise helps young children to space out cognitive demands for which they have
less mature capacities.”

Locomotors play, including exercise play (running, climbing, etc.), involves large body
activity and is generally thought to support physical training of muscles, for strength,
endurance, and skill.
Some play is solitary. This type of play can be physical, incorporate objects or language, be
pretend, or include all of these aspects. Rough-and-tumble play, including play fighting and
chasing, can look like real fighting, but in play fighting children are often laughing, kicks and
blows are not hard or do not make contact, and it is usually done with friends.

Object play refers to playful use of objects such as building blocks, jigsaw puzzles, cars,
dolls, etc. With babies, this play is mouthing objects and dropping them. With toddlers, this is
sometimes just manipulating the objects (e.g., assembling blocks), but sometimes involves
pretend play (e.g., building a house, feeding a doll). Play with objects allows children to try
out new combinations of actions, free of external constraint, and may help develop problem
solving skills. Any benefits of object play need to be balanced against those of instruction,
bearing in mind the ages of the children, the nature of the task, and whether learning is for
specific skills, or a more general inquisitive and creative attitude. The more marked benefits
may be for independent and creative thought, though the evidence is equivocal.

Language play -- At around 2 years old, toddlers often talk to themselves before going to
sleep or upon waking up. This is playful, with repetition and sometimes laughter. Children
use language humorously at 3 and 4 years old. (“I’m a whale. This is my tail.” “I’m a
flamingo. Look at my wingo.”) Language skills--phonology (speech sounds), vocabulary and
meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax), and pragmatics (using language appropriately in
social situations)--are rapidly developing in the preschool years. Some phonological skills
can be developed in the solitary monologues when children babble to themselves in their cot,
but most benefits of language learning probably come in sociodramatic play.

Pretend play involves pretending an object or an action is something else than it really is. A
banana is a telephone, for example. This play develops from 15 months of age with simple
actions, such as pretending to sleep or putting dolly to bed, developing into longer story
sequences and role play.

Sociodramatic play, common from around 3 years of age, is pretend play with others,
sustained role taking, and a narrative line. It can involve understanding others’ intent,
sophisticated language constructions, and development of (sometimes) novel and intricate
story lines. Children negotiate meanings and roles (“You are daddy, right?”) and argue about
appropriate behaviour (“No, you don’t feed the baby like that!”).

One hypothesis is that it is useful for developing preliteracy skills, such as awareness of
letters and print, and the purpose of books. The narrative structure of sociodramatic play
sequences mirrors the narratives of story books. For these benefits, some structuring by adults
is helpful.

Another hypothesis is that pretend play enhances emotional security. A child, who is
emotionally upset, for example, by parents arguing or the illness or death of someone in the
family, can work through the anxieties by acting out such themes in pretend play, with dolls
for example. Play therapists use such techniques to help understand children’s anxieties; and
most therapists believe that it helps the child work towards a resolution of them.

A relatively recent hypothesis is that pretend play enhances theory of mind development.
Theory of mind ability means being able to understand (represent) the knowledge and beliefs
of others; that is, that someone else can have a different belief or state of knowledge from
yourself. This does not happen until the age of late 3 or 4 years old. Social interaction with
age-mates seems to be important for this, and social pretend play (with siblings or with other
age-mates) may be especially helpful, as children negotiate different roles and realize that
different roles entail different behaviours.

While these benefits are plausible, there is little experimental evidence; the correlation
evidence suggests that social pretend play is helpful but is only one route to acquiring theory
of mind. Around 2½ to 3 years, a preschooler starts to play sitting next to another child,
often someone with similar interests. This naturally shifts, through the use of language,
to the beginnings of cooperative play.

Between 4 and 5 years, preschoolers discover they share similar interests and seek out
kids like them. They discuss, negotiate and strategize to create elaborate play scenes ;
take turns; and work together toward mutual goals.
Children’s play can be divided into categories, but the types of play often overlap.

 Dramatic — Fantasy-directed play with dressing up in costumes, assuming roles as


characters, using toys to represent characters in stories, creating imaginary settings,
and pretending to take on the roles of adults.

 Manipulative — Holding and handling small toys often used to build objects but also
found in puzzles, characters, beads, etc.

 Physical — Using the whole body in activities with bikes, balls, jump ropes, hoops,
play structures, etc.

 Creative — Using art materials such as paint, clay, markers, pencils, glue, etc. The
play takes place in the process of using the materials, not in the end product.

Babies and young children are learning all the time. They learn through looking, listening,
touching, tasting, investigating, exploring, experimenting and through playing and talking.
This means that young children need to have opportunities to:

 look at interesting things such as birds, animals, plants, trees, mobiles, shells, stones,
boxes, tubes, mirrors

 listen to a range of sounds such as songs, rhymes, jingles, stories, music

 touch a variety of objects – hard, soft, bumpy, smooth, rough, cold, warm

 taste a range of flavours such as those in fruit, milk, vegetables, bread

 investigate things that open, close, float, sink, twist, turn

 explore objects such as large boxes, things that make noises, things that move

 experiment with water, sand, clay, dough, paint, glue, felt pens

 play for uninterrupted periods of time, alone or alongside others, with help from
adults, and in their own way

 talk to other children and adults and to have their efforts rewarded

PLAY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT


Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and
emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents
to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children
and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced.

Children today receive less support for play than did previous generations in part because of a
more hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and
enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free play.

What are the benefits of play in a child’s life? According to play therapist O. Fred Donaldson,
a child who has been allowed to develop play resources receives many enduring advantages.
She develops a universal learning skill. Play maximises her potential by developing creativity
and imagination. Play promotes joy, which is essential for self-esteem and health. The
learning process is self-sustained based as it is on a natural love of learning and playful
engagement with life.

Emotional-behavioural benefits of play

 Play reduces fear, anxiety, stress, irritability


 Creates joy, intimacy, self-esteem and mastery not based on other’s loss of esteem
 Improves emotional flexibility and openness
 Increases calmness, resilience and adaptability and ability to deal with surprise and
change
 Play can heal emotional pain.

Social benefits of play

 Increases empathy, compassion, and sharing


 Creates options and choices
 Models relationships based on inclusion rather than exclusion
 Improves nonverbal skills
 Increases attention and attachment

Physical benefits

 Positive emotions increase the efficiency of immune, endocrine, and cardiovascular


systems
 Decreases stress, fatigue, injury, and depression
 Increases range of motion, agility, coordination, balance, flexibility, and fine and
gross motor exploration

A review of more than 40 studies found that play is significantly related to creative problem
solving, co-operative behaviour, logical thinking, IQ scores, and peer group popularity. Play
enhances the progress of early development from 33% to 67% by increasing adjustment,
improving language and reducing social and emotional problems (Fisher 1992). As the
developmental biologist Jean Piaget observed, ‘We can be sure that all happenings, pleasant
or unpleasant, in the child’s life, will have repercussions on her dolls’ (Piaget 1962).

PLAY AND CULTURE:-

Understanding play as a basic human motivation and a locus of individual development and
of culture assimilation and construction leads to a particular view on childhood and early
education. Play should not be opposed to learning activities or to “serious” work, but rather
seen as an important arena of children’s lives, a condition for children’s welfare and a
legitimate right of childhood.

Play has been observed in every society where children were studied. It can be considered a
universal trait of human psychology. However, like every human activity, it is affected by our
cultural context. Different cultures value and react differently to play: play can be recognized
by adults as having important consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development,
and adults can engage as playmates; play can be seen as a spontaneous activity of children,
which adults do not structure or participate in; or else play can be seen as a spontaneous
activity, but the amount of play is limited because other activities are considered more
important. Children at play reproduce and also recreate the specificities of their cultural
environment.

Studies on play in different cultural contexts enlighten the various ways in which culture
flows throughout play activities. The availability of time and space, of objects and playmates;
adult role models and attitudes toward play are some of the contextual aspects that affect the
frequency, duration and nature of children's play. In a South American Indian community,
boys often play bow-and-arrows; boys and girls of varied ages dive and swim in the river and
play chase around the village, with little or no adult supervision. They use primarily natural
objects in their pretend play (i.e., sand, water, stone, and plants). Urban children in large
towns play more often with manufactured toys, at home, at school or playgroups,
playgrounds or parks, usually with some adult supervision, especially when they are younger;
loco motor play and chase play tend to occur in protected spaces.

Many common play activities, such as marbles, kite-flying, dolls, houses, hopscotch and so
forth, reappear with their deep structure preserved in different cultural contexts, but are
modified in varied ways, creating local versions, using local resources and called by different
names (even within a single language). In different regions of Brazil, for instance, marbles
are called búrica, búlica, papão, peteca or gude, and are practiced with local rules, with glass
balls, mud balls or even cashew nuts.

Besides the deep structure of many play activities, gender differences regarding choice of
partners and the nature of play activities are another very recurrent cross-cultural similarity.
Preference for companions of the same gender appears to arise around age 3. It is usually
attributed to processes of social identification, of which gender identity is one of the main
aspects, and tends to increase as children deepen their understanding of gender
differences. Gender preferences, as expressed in the imitation of same gender activities, are
resistant to adult encouragement to inter-gender imitation.

These preferences tend to occur even when there are few available same age partners and it
implies interacting with varied age companions. In larger groups, children of the same gender
and age similarity tend to be drawn together to form play subgroups.

Gender differences can also be explained by similar preferences for play activities, regardless
of cultural contexts. Boys tend to occupy larger spaces, play in larger groups and farther
away from home, and engage in activities that involve gross movements. Girls occupy
internal or more restricted spaces play in smaller groups, near their houses and with themes
related to social and domestic activities. Pretend play themes are more varied among girls
than among boys, which may be due to lack of male models in some cultural contexts: even
when mothers work out of home, they still offer female models of domestic chores.

There is evidence that sexual hormones may contribute to gender differences in play
behaviour, but also of strong cultural influences regarding the appropriateness of certain
types of play for boys and girls. These perceptions vary in different cultural contexts: in some
societies, gender roles are well defined and children's choice of play activities17 closely
mirror adult practices.

Structural aspects of the immediate environment (time and space availability, social
environment, etc.) are easily identifiable factors affecting the frequency, duration and nature
of play activities.

The time allowed for play activities varies widely in different contexts. In rural societies, in
low-income families and in isolated communities such as African-Brazilian “quilombos” and
South-American Indian groups, children (particularly girls) are often required to help adults
in varied chores, which leave less free time to play – although they often insert play activities
into their tasks.

The amount of proximity with adult activities in different ways of life affects the degree of
realism in their representation of these activities in pretend play. In hunter-gatherer societies,
children are in close contact with adults as they perform their daily chores. In urban contexts,
where fathers work out of home, boys tend to represent male activities in vague, poorly-
specified manners, such as “Daddy is driving to work.” The representation of female
activities, especially domestic chores, tends to be richer. The influence of media characters
(superheroes, space travellers) is more noticeable in boys' pretend play.

Most modern societies limit children’s play due to safety concerns. Young children are not
allowed to play freely because parents are afraid of accidents or do not have time to take
them to a playground. Parents prefer to keep their children safely at home, for example,
playing videogame or watching TV. When television is not available, children spend more
time playing. The time spent in play by Japanese boys outside the house is inversely
proportional to the time spent in video games. South American, Indian children and those
who live in rural areas, even with some access to the media, often have more freedom, little
adult intervention, large spaces and many available companions, factors which favour the
occurrence of play.

NEED OF THE STUDY

Play is a very important part of development for the growing child. Not only is play time
entertaining for the child, but it also provides stimulation, increases skills and coordination,
provides an outlet for child's energy, and helps to encourage exploration by the child.
Mothers are child’s first and best play mates. Not only do mothers have an important role in
choosing good toys, but research shows that the most creative children are those who have
had mothers involved in their play. The mother’s role in play is as a responder and facilitator,
not a director which many of parents are unaware. The parents should know about various
forms of social behaviour in play, sex role behaviour in play and must have the abilities,
experiences and interests in selection and care of play things.
A study shows that children express their problems symbolically in their play. The analysis of
these symbols of abnormalities can help in their cure of mental problems and character
difficulties in children. It is for this reason that researcher has supported the cure of mental
disorders through the medium of play.
Some parents even today regard children’s play as a waste of time and feel that their time
could be better spent in learning something useful that will prepare them for adult life. Some
may insist their children always be learning something or trying something new which makes
play a stressful rather than a rewarding experience for the children. These parents fail to make
their children to interact with others or other children.
As the children continue to grow they also develop the capacity of continuous concentrations
and attentions. The retention and widening of attention is open to many influences. A child of
two can attend to any game from one to seven and a half minutes, a child of three from one to
twelve minutes.
An important part of play for young children is play with mothers and there should be
sometime for this every day. A toy company some years ago asked a large number of young
children and their survey found that many children wanted more time with their parents.
“Play is freely chosen, personally directed, intrinsically motivated behaviour that actively
engages the child. Play can be fun or serious. Through play children explore social, material
and imaginary worlds and their relationship with them, elaborating all the while flexible
range of responses to the challenges they encounter”.
A study on “Getting Serious About play-A Review of children’s play” was released in U.K.
This shows the importance of children’s play in their lives; also helps to recognize the
importance of understanding the diversity, complexities and richness of children’s play.
The main focus of 17th IPA World Conference 2008 was on what play is: alarming trends
affecting childhood. IPA is deeply concerned by a number of alarming trends and their
negative impact on children's development such as society’s indifference to the importance of
play, overemphasis on theoretical and academic studies in schools, increasing numbers of
children living with inadequate provisions for survival and development. Hence following
proposals are listed such as play is essential for the physical and mental development of child,
play is a part of education, play is an essential part of family and community life, child needs
opportunities to play at leisure, the needs of the child must have priority in the planning of
human settlements.
Play during the toddler period stimulates all areas of growth & development. As the child,
grows the social importance of play increases. Gross & fine muscle development is
encouraged through active play an exercise is given to all parts of the body. The toddler who
plays with various types of toys learns to recognize shapes, sizes & textures of play materials
therefore play assists in cognitive development.
Play has also therapeutic value because negative feelings and tensions can be released in an
approved way. For instance, an angry child can find relief by pounding soft balls & pegs
through holes in a board or tossing bean bags.
Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active; it helps in
improving the skills and balancing in various positions. The play helps to lessen the
egocentrism; children increase the language ability and the rules of social living, through the
play. The play has special importance in the hospital to help sick children to continue to grow
and develop, to preserve their sense of wholeness, to understand hospital procedures and to
act out emotions. The play helps temporarily to divert their mind from pain and loneliness.
Play has its significance in over all development of children including its physical,
psychological, intellectual, social, cognitive, moral, language and speech development.
The American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) published a study in 2006 entitled: "The
Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-
Child Bonds". The report states: "free and unstructured play is healthy and – in fact –
essential for helping children reach important social, emotional, and cognitive developmental
milestones as well as helping them manage stress and become resilient".
Children are growing up in a rapidly changing world characterized by dramatic shifts in what
all children are expected to know and be able to do. Higher and tougher standards of learning
for all populations of students are focusing on a narrow view of learning. Consequently,
students have less time and opportunity to play than did children of previous generations.
Few would disagree that the primary goal of education is student learning and that all
educators, families, and policymakers bear the responsibility of making learning accessible to
all children.
Decades of research has documented that play has a crucial role in the optimal growth,
learning and development of children from infancy through adolescence.
Yet, this need is being challenged, and so children's right to play must be defended by all
adults, especially educators and parents. The time has come to advocate strongly in support of
play for all children.
Hence, it is very important for an educator to know regarding importance of play in all-round
development of young children.

“While we try to teach our children all about life, our children teach us what life
is all about.” - Angela Schwindt

The investigator is intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children of 3-6 years of age.
There are limitations, failures occur in this group, and the corrective measures may be based
on best judgment and practices or from the previous data available from some other studies.
Due to these limitations, failures in meeting the play needs of children, they end up with
delayed or poor physical and intellectual development. In India, the researcher could find
very few studies regarding play needs of children. As a nurse, the researcher has a pivotal
role in recognizing these concerns and implementing measures to understand the value of the
play needs, development of social forms of play behaviour, characteristic of play, sex role
behaviour in play, selection and care of play things to the mothers.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:-

A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers’ towards play needs of
the children (3-6 years) in selected community areas of Jalandhar.

OBJECTIVES:-

1. To assess the knowledge of the mothers regarding play needs of children (3-6 years).
2. To assess the attitude of the mothers towards play needs of children (3-6 years).
3. To find out the association between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children with their selected socio-demographic variables.
4. To determine correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children (3-6 years).

DELIMITATION:-
 The study is exclusively to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers only.
 The mothers should have children of 3-6 years of age group.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:-

1. Knowledge: Knowledge refers to the information possessed by mothers regarding the


meaning of the play needs, its value in their children’s life, and various types of
playing, how they select and care for the play things at the time of data collection.
2. Attitude: Attitude refers to reflection of mothers’ mindset regarding the selection of
toys, interaction with their children in the use of toys, maintaining safety needs during
play.
3. Play needs: Play needs refers to one of the requirements of the children to relax and
to let out their feelings through various means such as playing with toys, playing with
peer group, interaction with parents and cuddling by the parents.
4. Mothers: In this study, it refers to the mothers of children of 3-6 years of age group
from the selected community areas of Jalandhar.

ASSUMPTIONS:-
 Mothers of children (3-6 years) may have inadequate knowledge on importance of
play needs.
 Mothers need education regarding importance of play needs.
 Mothers’ knowledge may increase after the study.
 Mothers may possess positive attitude towards play needs of the children after the
study.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Conceptual framework and Nursing theories are important for nursing profession. The
description of nursing theory has provided direction for the structure of professional nursing
practice, education and research. Throughout the history, nursing theories have been
becoming increasingly sophisticated. Some theories and frameworks are easily adopted to
practice setting, while others are better studied as framework for research.for the present
study Conceptual Framework of knowledge and attitude of parents regarding play needs of
children based on Barnard’s parent-child interaction model is used. This model is consist
of following:

a. Children’s characteristics

Child’s clarity of cues:

Children send cues of many kinds: sleepiness, fussiness, alertness, hunger, satiation to mother
so that she can make appropriate modification of her own behaviour (ambiguous or confusing
cues sent by a child can interrupt mother’s adaptive abilities).

Child’s responsiveness to mother:

Child must respond to the mother adaptive abilities. This makes adaptation fully possible.

b. Mother’s Characteristics

-Mother’s sensitivity to child’s cues.

-By meeting the play needs of children, mother can alleviate child’s distress.

-Mother must have the ability to initiate social and emotional growth by meeting the play
needs of children.

Projected outcome/Behavioural modification:

The study will provide adequate knowledge and positive attitude of mother towards play
needs and thereby contributes optimal growth and development of their children.

Assessment Investigators assesses the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards the play
needs of their children (3 -6years).
M others who are greatly concerned about different aspects of their lives such as occupational
or financial problem, emotional problems, marital stress, may be unable to be as sensitive be
as they would be otherwise. Only when these stresses are reduced the mother are able to
identify the cues of the play needs of the young children and thus able to meet those.

Mother’s ability to alleviate the child’s distress:-

Child’s distress can be minimized by timely response from mother by meeting child’s play
needs.

Mothers’ social and emotional growth-fostering activities:-

In order to meet the demands of the play of the child, the parent must involve affectionately
with the child, engage in social interaction and to provide appropriate social reinforcement of
desirable behaviour. To do these things parents must be aware of the importance of play, type
of play according to the age, selection and safety of play materials. This depends as much
upon the mother’s available energy as on his/her knowledge and attitude.

Mothers’ cognitive growth-fostering activities:-

Mothers must have a good grasp of child’s need for play. For this they should have good
knowledge and attitude.

c. Nurse’s Actions

The investigators assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards the play needs of
their children of 3-6 years of age.

d. Projected outcome

The study will provide adequate knowledge and positive attitude to the mothers towards play
needs and thereby contributes optimum of growth and development for their children of 3-6
years.
Children’s Characteristics Mother’s Characteristics

Nurse’s Action

-Mothers are sensitive (react –respond) towards the play needs of


- Child sends cues /signals to her mother their children without any delay.
with adequate skills and clarity. -By meeting the play needs of children, mother can alleviate child’s
-Child send cues to her mother so that she distress.
can modify her behavior. -Mother must have the ability to initiate social and emotional growth
So
by meeting the play needs of children.

Assessment

Investigators assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers


regarding the play needs of children (3-6 years).

Projected outcome /Behavioral modification

The study will provide adequate knowledge and moderately positive attitude
of mother’s regarding play needs of children and thereby contribute optimal
Feedback
growth and development of their children.

Fig 1: Conceptual Framework of knowledge and attitude of parents regarding play needs of children based on Barnard’s parent-child
interaction mode
CHAPTER-II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The review of literature for the present study has been organized under the following
headings.

I. Review related to importance of play needs of children.

II. Review related to mother’s knowledge and attitude regarding play needs of children.

III. Review related to the role of parents in early childhood learning

IV. Review related to learning through play

V. Review related to different economic groups regarding the play needs of children

I. REVIEW RELATED TO IMPORTANCE OF PLAY NEEDS

 S. Vasanthakumari (2014) conducted a descriptive study to assess the effectiveness


of play therapy in promoting socialization among the mentally challenged children at
Mugappair East, Chennai. 60 moderately challenged were selected as subject using
simple random sampling technique where lottery method was used to select the
subjects for this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Majority of the
children 43 (71.7%) had inadequate level of socialization, 10 (16.7%) had moderate
level of socialization and 7 (11.6%) had adequate level of socialization in pre-test.
After play therapy, 17 (28.3%) had adequate level of socialization and 43 (71.7%) had
moderate level of socialization. The effectiveness of play therapy was statistically
tested by paired t test and the result was found to be statistically significant at
P<0.001 level. The study demonstrated that the level of socialization among the
moderately mentally challenged children was inadequate before the play therapy and
it significantly improved after the play therapy. Therefore, play therapy is to be
provided as a planned program in periodic sessions as the moderately mentally
challenged children are trainable group where play therapy helps to enhance an
optimal level of socialization.

 Mrs. K. Jenifer Priscilla (2013) conducted a true experimental study to assess the
effectiveness of child centered play therapy on adjustment difficulties among primary
school children in selected schools at Viruthunagar. 60 samples were selected through
simple random sampling technique. The result of the study shows that the mean post
test level of adjustment difficulties among primary school children in experimental
group was lower i.e. 6.43 than the mean post test level of adjustment difficulties in
control group i.e. 14.6. The investigator felt that more importance should be given for
child centered play therapy to reduce the adjustment difficulties among primary
school children.

 Mercy (2012) conducted a quasi experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of


kaleidoscope vs. toy mobile phones as distraction technique on pain among children
during IV infusion at selected hospital, Salem.60 samples were selected through non
probability convenience sampling technique. Pain observation scale was used to
assess the level of pain. Kaleidoscope was given to children in experimental I and
experimental II toy mobile, phone was given to children at the onset of procedure.
The study reveals that mean score for experimental I was 3.58 +/- 1.15 which was
lower than mean score of experimental II of 2.73 +/- 0.94 which revealed the toy
mobile was more effective compared to kaleidoscope in reducing the pain among
children. The t value was 4.25which was significant at PC 0.05 level. It was
concluded that non pharmacological measures are effective in distracting pain of
children without any complication

 Pragathi.G (2012) conducted a quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness


of play therapy in reducing stress and anxiety in children in C.S.I. Mission hospital at
Martha dam. 30 samples were selected through probability sampling technique among
hospitalized children. The paired t test was performed to compare the post test value
of stress and anxiety. The calculated value of t was 16.40 and 10.70 respectively
which is greater than table value. This shows that there was significance difference in
post test value. The study revealed that there is decreased level of stress and anxiety
after play therapy. So the play therapy was effective in reducing stress and anxiety
among hospitalized children.

 Ms. Shiny Isaac (2011) conducted an experimental study to assess the effectiveness
of therapeutic play during intravenous cannulation on level of pain among children
admitted in a selected hospital at Salem. 40 samples were selected through random
sampling technique which undergone intravenous cannulation. The study reveals that
therapeutic play was 56% effective showed statistical significance at p<0.05. It is
recommended that therapeutic play can be given to children.

 Ms. Shahila Shawkath (2011) conducted a quasi experimental study to assess the
effect of self instructional module on play stimulation among mothers of children in
selected village areas of Kanyakumari district. 60 samples were selected through
purpose sampling technique. The result shows that mean score of knowledge was
10.35 and mean score of knowledge after administration of self instructional module
was 19.05. The mean difference is 8.7. The t value is 20.7 that was a significant
increase in the level of knowledge among mothers of children on play stimulation
after the administration of self instructional module.

 SA. Sangeethajanani (2011) conducted a true experimental study to assess the


effectiveness of therapeutic play and hospital routine in reduction of anxiety among
hospitalized children at selected hospital Chennai. 40 samples were selected at
findings of the study revealed that in experimental group the mean difference score
was 20.1 with calculated t value of 13.46 which showed that there is significant effect
in reduction in the level of anxiety at p<0.001 and in control group the mean
difference score was 8.8 with t value of 7.80 which also showed significant reduction
in level of anxiety at p<0.001, however therapeutic play was found to be more
effective than hospital routine at level of p<0.05 with table value of 5.22. Therapeutic
play can be used effectively in reducing the level of anxiety among hospitalized
children.

 Marlow DR, Redding BA (1995) suggested the variety of toys listed as suitable for
infants is based on the assumption of normal growth and development. It is essential,
therefore, that toys selected for an individual infant be the ones best adapted to the
particular infant’s needs. Toddlers are likely to be destructive of their toys because of
poor motor coordination.

 Martin G, Elena M (1999) focused on the use of toys to teach social studies to
elementary school students. The object of the activities is to involve the child in the
active learning of the curriculum. Ultimately this helped to examine the basic needs,
dependence, wants, responsibilities and consequences of the children.
 Gottman J, Parkhurst J (2002) carried out a study on “extensive home observations
of preschoolers between ages 3 and 6” as the children played with friends and new
acquaintances. Play between younger children and their friends included frequent and
fantasy role playing, whereas older children’s friendship focused more on the actual
activities they were doing than on make-believe roles. The study concluded that older
children were better able to tolerate differences and disagreements and had less need
to use positive social comparisons to manage conflict in their friendship.

 Parten M (2004) studied social participation among children aged two to five and
proposed that children’s play develops in six stages or levels of sociability such as
unoccupied play, solitary play, onlooker play, parallel play, associative play and
cooperative play. Her studies showed how social play is that is, how much and in
what ways children involve others in their play activities. Her distinctions continue to
be useful to people who study young children

 Cummings HM, Arbor A, Vandewafer EA (2000) conducted a study to examine


video game play among adolescents. The researchers focused on the relationship
between time spent in videogame play and other activities among adolescents. Results
indicate that videogame play has different social implications for girls and boys who
play.

 Boyle K, Jeavons M, Tindale J (1990) of the Playgrounds and Recreation


Association of Victoria Incorporate documented in “Outdoor play: A guide for
children’s services centers – Introduction” outlines by outlines issues relating to the
planning and design and quality outdoor play spaces in Victorian children’s services
centers. It will assist designers and management committees to make informed
decision and understand the range of needs of day-to-day uses. This applies to the
planning and designs of new centers as well as to the modification and upgrading of
existing once.

 Dunn S, Morgan V (2001) reported gender differentiation in the early years


schooling among children. The provision for play, and the way in which children
make use of the facilities provided, were among a number of aspects nursery and
infant education observed and analyzed. The Results shows there were important
differences in the play patterns of girls and boys and that these had possible long term
educational implications.
 Reece LH (1994) in an article on the play needs of children aged 6 to 12 identified
children of elementary school age are the forgotten children today. The play needs of
preschoolers and of adolescents are recognized and to some extent provided for. The
number of nursery schools and child care centers has grown and is still growing. At
the other end of the scale, doesn’t of youth organizations and municipal park and
recreation departments are providing programs for teenagers. Little is done for them.

 Ryan, Wilson (1995)in their writing on non-directive play therapy have tried to
develop theory and research, including the way in which symbolic play serves and
adaptive function in normal development. For troubled and abused children, these
schemas are enabled to become more developed and more flexible with the therapist’s
help during play therapy intervention.

 Wang YL, Lo LH (1997) conducted a study to assess the effect of therapeutic play
in traumatic care of children as an effective nursing intervention in pediatric nursing.
Through therapeutic play, children can acquire opportunities to express themselves
and deal with stress related to health experiences. Also, parents can gain insights into
children's cognition, perception, and needs. The study concluded that the possibility
of the nurse to incorporate it into pediatrics nursing practice and provide care as a
traumatically as possible.

II. REVIEW RELATED TO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE REGARDING


IMPORTANCE OF PLAY NEEDS AMONG PARENTS OF PRESCHOOLERS

 Mr.Prasannakumar D.R (2014) conducted a comparative study to assess the


knowledge of mothers of fewer than five children regarding importance of play in
growth and development in selected rural and urban areas, Bangalore. A comparative
survey design was adopted for the study. Samples were selected using non-probability
convenient of 80 mothers of fewer than five children. Out of which 40 from
Bommasandra and Masthenahalli rural areas under Chandapura primary health center
and Hongasandra and Begur urban areas under Begur primary health center,
Bangalore. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics
findings of the study revealed that majority 55% of the rural mothers and 30% of the
urban mothers had moderate knowledge while 62.5% of urban mothers and 30% of
the rural mothers had adequate knowledge regarding the importance of play in growth
and development of under five children. The total difference in the mean of overall
knowledge score was 3.32 with the t value of 3.341and found to be significant at the
level of P<0.01. The study findings, it is understood that the samples had moderate
knowledge regarding the importance of play in growth and children. .

 Catherine. S & Lisa (2013) conducted a descriptive study to analysis mothers’


knowledge about children's play activities and language development at Bangalore.
The total samples selected for this study were Sixty-four mothers of children ranging
in age from 6 to 58 months (under 5 children) were asked to determine, for pairings of
play and language items, which item was more advanced developmentally .This study
reveals that 60% of mother had moderate knowledge about play activities and 30%
mother had average knowledge about play activities. Finally, Mothers knowledge
about language development was stronger than knowledge about play, suggesting that
maternal knowledge about developmental domains is inadequate.

 Aruna (2011) conducted a descriptive study was to assess the knowledge, attitude
and practice among mother of hospitalized children regarding play needs at Kovai
medical center and hospital, Coimbatore. 60 samples were selected by using non-
probability sampling technique. Data collection was done by structured interview
schedule. Results shows that 41 (68.5%) of mothers had an excellent attitude.19
(31.6%) of them had a good attitude towards play needs of children. The t value 6.904
was significant at 0.01 level shows that mother with graduation had more knowledge
regarding play needs than mothers with primary education. The t value 2.82 was
significant at 0.01 level shows that the knowledge was more among mothers who got
information from the mass media than family members. Regarding the practice among
mother towards play needs of children, 16 (26.7 %) of mother had good skilled
practice about play needs and 44 (73.3%) of them had poor skilled practice regarding
play needs. The study reveals that although mothers had good knowledge and attitude
towards play needs, they had poor application skills of play in their daily practice.

 Ms. Cinthol Kumar (2008) conducted a descriptive and explorative study to assess
the knowledge, attitude and practice among mother of children regarding play needs
at KMCH hospital Coimbatore. 60 samples were selected through non probability
purposive sampling technique. The factors that affect the play needs of children are
lack of time, unaffordable cost of play materials. This study reveals that 25 (41.59%),
wrong concept regarding the role of play in developing fatigue disease 60 (100%) bad
habits, misunderstanding between the neighbors, injury and accidents 57 (97%). The r
value was 0.86.

 Ms. Thenmozhi.S (2008) conducted an explorative and descriptive study to assess


the knowledge regarding play needs and selection of toys among mothers having
children less than five years of age selected village at Namakkal. 100 samples were
selected through simple random sampling technique. The results of the mean score of
67.92% are the highest knowledge and 59.80% of mothers having least knowledge on
toys for children from 5 months to preschool age. Mothers with 2 or more children are
high in their knowledge regarding the play and selection of toys due to their previous
experience in selection of play and toys for the first child

 Rathilka.N (2010) conducted a quasi experimental study was to evaluate the


effectiveness of therapeutic play as distraction technique on pain during injections
among hospitalized infants (6 weeks ± 12 months) in selected hospitals, Salem. 70
infants were selected using non-probability convenience sampling. Modified
Laurence infant pain behaviour observation checklist was used to collect data from
the infants. The therapeutic play was given in experimental group in which play was
started before 5 minutes of injection administration. The mean score of the infants in
experimental group 9.03 +/- 1.543 was lower than that of the control group 12.7+/-
1.045. The t value was 11.69 which highly accepted at P 0.001. This study reveals that
most of the infant had reduction of pain during injection through play.

 Manjusha Mathew (2010) conducted a quasi experimental study to evaluate the


effectiveness of play therapy in improving treatment compliance among hospitalized
children in Caritas hospital at Kottayam. 60 samples were selected through non
probability convenient sampling technique. This study reveals that overall mean
improvement score for treatment compliance was 53.28 with S.D 3.14 the paired t
value of 55.112 with shows high statistical significance at the level of p<0.001. On
the above findings of the study, the investigator felt that after play therapy the
treatment compliance is improved in the hospitalized children. So play therapy is very
essential for the children to improve the treatment compliance.

 Naderi, Et Al, (2010) conducted an experimental study to examine the efficacy of


play therapy on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Anxiety and social
maturity of 3-5 years children at Bangalore. 80 samples were selected through the
control group were randomly assigned. This study revealed that 70% play therapy
decreased ADHD and anxiety but increased social maturity. The results authenticated
that play therapy as an effective therapeutic procedure for children experiencing a
broad range of problems such as ADHD and anxiety.

 Oalline (2010) conducted an experimental study of child centered play therapy with
preschool children who had impaired hearing. 24 samples were selected randomly
assigned to either a treatment or control group. In this group received 50 meters play
therapy sessions for 20 days. This study showed that 80% children in the
experimental group had statistically significant increases in mature behavior patterns
as compared to the control group. Parents and teachers also reported positive behavior
changes in these children.

 Nnodum B.I (2010) conducted a quasi experimental study to investigate the


effectiveness of child centered play therapy in improving the social skills of primary
school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behavior. 48 samples are
randomly selected from the target population and they were randomly assigned to the
experimental groups. Isolate trait identification questionnaire for children (ITIQFC)
children shyness questionnaire (SQ) children social skills identification Questionnaire
(SSIQ). Two null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance were raised to guide
the study. Data collected were analyzed with ANOVA T- Test. The result revealed
that the treatment techniques were equally effective and superior to the school
condition in improving the social skills of isolates and reducing their isolate behavior
i.e. 60% and 20% children show poor improvement in social skills.

 Marc H. Bornstein (1998) was conducted a descriptive study to evaluate the


knowledge of mothers towards play and language development. 64 samples were
selected through random sampling technique at national institute of child and human
development at Newyork city. The study reveals that mean score of first visit was 17
and means score of second visit was 27 but showed no association.
III. REVIEW RELATED TO THE ROLE OF PARENTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
LEARNING

Interactions between parents and their children play a crucial role in their children’s social,
emotional and cognitive development. Parent-child relationships and parenting practices are
strong influences on short-term and long-term development and learning.

 Landry, Smith, & Swank (2006) conducted an experimental study to examine


whether mothers’ responsive behaviors could be facilitated and whether such
behaviors would boost young children’s learning. A total of 264 mother-infant pairs
participated in the ten-week experiment. Mothers, randomly assigned to an
experimental group, were trained by facilitators during home visits to implement
playing and learning strategies shown to help improve infant development. Mothers in
the comparison group received the same number of home visits, but were not trained
in the playing and learning strategies. Four aspects of responsive parental behaviour
were evaluated: active response to infants attempt to communicate, emotional-
affective support, support for infant attention, and language input supporting
developmental need. The results of the study revealed that all the mothers who had
received the training were more attentive and warm to their infants. Infants whose
mothers had received the training demonstrated significantly higher increases in their
communication and social behaviors. The researchers concluded that the mothers who
had received the training showed improvements in their own behaviour and caused
change to their infants’ behaviour.

 Schweinhart (2008) examined the effectiveness of three longitudinal studies, the


Perry Preschool Project, the Abecedarian Project, and the Chicago Child Parent
Centers Study. The Perry Preschool Project operated from 1962 to 1965 in Ypsilanti,
Michigan, and consisted of 2.5 hours of centre-based preschool each morning for five
days a week for children three and four years old living in low income families. It also
included weekly 1.5 hour in-home visits by program teachers and monthly parent
meetings. Children (N=123) were randomly assigned to program or no-program
control groups. The Abecedarian project provided free, full-day educational childcare
to 111 children from infancy to age five in Chapel Hill, North Carolina from 1972-
1985. Infants were randomly assigned to either the early educational intervention
group or the control group.
 Willms & Chao (2002) found that parenting practices have important effects on a
child’s social and cognitive outcomes. In their study, the authors asked parents of
19,000 children between the ages of two and eleven years 25 questions pertaining to
parental practices. Strong positive effects on outcomes were associated with positive
parenting practices, in particular the effect of responsive parenting. Holding, rocking,
talking, singing, and playing with a child are all positive parental practices that
facilitate early childhood learning and development. Based on the large representative
sample of Canadian families used, the researchers found that both positive and
negative parenting practices occur in families of all socio-economic levels. These
results highlight the need for early learning opportunities to be universal as positive
parenting practices is important for all families.

 Sénéchal (2006) examined the longitudinal relations among early literacy experiences
at home and children's literacy skills in Kindergarten, word reading and spelling skills
in grade one, and reading comprehension, fluency, spelling, and reading for pleasure
in grade four. Ninety French-speaking children were tested at the end of Kindergarten
and grade one and 65 were followed until the end of grade four. Parents of children in
Kindergarten reported that storybook reading occurred frequently and that they
sometimes taught their child to read words. Results revealed that parent teaching
about literacy in Kindergarten directly predicted Kindergarten alphabet knowledge as
well as reading fluency in grade four. Storybook exposure directly predicted
vocabulary in Kindergarten and the frequency with which children reported reading
for pleasure in grade four. Storybook exposure indirectly predicted reading
comprehension in grade four.

 Isenberg JP, Quisenberry N (1999) in their study on “Play: Essential for All
Children “documented that play has a crucial role in the optimal growth, learning, and
development of children from infancy through adolescence. Yet, this need is being
challenged, and so children's right to play must be defended by all adults, especially
educators and parents. The time has come to advocate strongly in support of play for
all children.

 LEGO Learning Institute (2001)in their study “A cross-cultural study of parental


values and attitudes toward children’s time for play “ determined that over the past
10-15 years, child development researchers have expressed worries about the fact that
an increasing number of parents in the western world tend to over-schedule their
children. They claim that contemporary western lifestyle not only results in stress
among adults, but also increasingly among children who are deeply affected by the
stressful lives of their parents. The fact that the issue has received so much attention
in the public press indicates that many parents of the western world recognize this
problem from their own lives.

 Jordan AB, Hersey JC, Mc Divitt JA, Heitzler CD(2002) in an article on reducing
children’s television viewing time identified that children over age 2 years spend
more than 2 hours per day with screen media, because viewing has been linked to a
plethora of physical, academic, and behavioral problems. The primary goal of this
study was o qualitatively explore how a recommendations to limit television viewing
might be received and responded to by a diverse sample of parents and their school
age children. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps towards reducing
children’s television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results
suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the
screen.

 Berger AA, Coope S (2006) conducted a study on 10 week music education


programme for preschool children and parents, observed the musical behaviour of
preschool children in free and structured musical play environments to discover how
children explore sound alone and with others. The result shows that the children need
an extended, uninterrupted time for play episodes as well as appropriate materials in
the environments. Adult valuing of all children’s musical utterances and flexibility
within structured lessons enhanced play.

 Ginsburg KR and the Committee (2005) on Psychosocial Aspects of child and


Family Health in a clinical report on the importance of play in promoting Healthy
child development and maintaining strong Parent-Child Bonds addressed a variety of
factors that have reduced play, including a hurried life style, change in family
structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the
expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how
pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families school systems and
communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the
balance in children’s lives to create the optimal developmental milieu. Foundation
Our Children in Collaboration with the center for professional Development “Step by
Step” evaluated the parent’s knowledge attitude and practice regarding child’s health
and health care, hygiene habits, food, education, play, free time activities. The
analysis of the data collected revealed moreover that in very many cases one may
find in the same family adequate knowledge, attitude and parenting practices for one
of the aspects analyzed (for e.g.: child with health and nutrition) while aspects
regarding family ecology, communication with the child or gender differences are
inadequately handled.

 Belfast City Council’s Play and Recreation Policy (2006) documented a dearth of
similar material and definitions on recreation. Important provides of recreational
opportunities for young people are the sports council and the Arts Council. Therefore,
in developing a policy for play and recreation, it is important to emphasize the need
for co-operation and networking to ensure both that the best quality of service is
provided and that resources are not duplicated. For the purposes of this document, it is
recommended that play and recreation are regarded as broadly similar activities and
are considered together under the general team play.

 LR Allen (2015) A study documented that play has a crucial role in the optimal
growth, learning, and development of children from infancy through adolescence.
Yet, this need is being challenged, and so children's right to play must be defended by
all adults, especially educators and parents. The time has come to advocate strongly in
support of play for all children. The study on social participation among children ages
2-5 years and proposed that children’s play develops in six stages or levels of
sociability such as unoccupied play, solitary play, onlooker play, parallel play,
associative play and cooperative play. The studies showed how social play is that is,
how much and in what ways children involve others in their play activities. Her
distinctions continue to be useful to people who study young children.

 The committee on Psychosocial Aspects of child and Family Health(2007)


addressed a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried life style,
change in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment
activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers
guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families school
systems and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they
seek the balance in children’s lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.

 Shivani Rikhi (2010) a longitudinal study was conducted among adolescent mothers
of 8- to 14-month-old infants gave fewer correct responses on the Developmental
Milestones Survey (DMS) and was less accurate in predicting whether or not their
infants would pass Bayley items than adult mothers of same-aged infants. The present
longitudinal study was conducted on 120 rural children from birth to eighteen months
of age from Hisar district of Haryana. Mothers of these children were interviewed for
prevalent child care practices followed by them. Solomon’s Experimental control
group was used for assessing the impact of intervention. The experimental group was
imparted intervention related to feeding practices, immunization and morbidity
through visual packages, video cassette, slides and folders. Individual and group
sessions were conducted as per requirement. Results indicated that impact of
intervention on the mother’s knowledge was found increasing in experimental group
than their counterparts. Feeding practices adopted by the family were also found to be
better and improvement in immunization status was also noted in experimental group.
Positive impact of intervention was found on morbidity status of children in both the
post testing. The study examined the relationship between early maternal knowledge
of child development and later quality of parenting behaviors. Differences by
race/ethnic group were also examined. Mother–infant dyads (N=378) participated in
the study. Mothers completed the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory when
the infant was 2–4 months, and mother–toddler dyads were videotaped in their homes
at 16–18 months. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment
Inventory, Parent/Caregiver Involvement Scale and Nursing Child Assessment by
Satellite Training were used to measure quality of mother–toddler interaction. A
series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses was conducted controlling for
confounding demographic variables. Results revealed no significant main effect of
maternal correct estimation of child development on quality of parenting, but there
was a significant main effect of maternal underestimation of child development on
quality of parenting during a teaching task. There was also a significant interaction of
maternal knowledge and race in relation to quality of parenting behavior. Implications
for generalizability and interventions are discussed.
 MB Haldy (1990) A study was conducted among mothers (N = 76) of 3- to 5-
year-old children completed questionnaires assessing beliefs in the importance and
modifiability of children's peer relationship skills, perceptions of their children's social
competence with peers, and strategies they would use in response to children's peer
interaction problems. A subsample of mothers (n = 34) was observed supervising the play of
their own children and a peer. Maternal perceptions of children's competence were negatively
associated with the extent of mothers' involvement in children's play, whereas the quality of
supervision was predicted by knowledge of socialization strategies and the interaction of
beliefs and knowledge. Beliefs appeared to moderate the effects of maternal knowledge on
mothers' behavior in that knowledge was associated with the quality of supervision only
when mothers believed social skills were important and modifiable. Sixty-four mothers of
children ranging in age from 6 to 58 months were asked to determine, for pairings of play and
language items, which item was more advanced developmentally. This procedure was
repeated within 2 weeks. In general, mothers' orderings of play and language items matched
those established in the developmental literature and were stable over the short term.
Mothers' knowledge about language development was stronger than and an unrelated to their
knowledge about play, suggesting that maternal knowledge about developmental domains is
differentiated and specific. Finally, mothers' judgments about the developmental milestones
depended on their children's current developmental stage: Mothers were less accurate at
estimating the timing of milestones that their children had mastered many months earlier,
supporting the view that mothers' knowledge is informed by their children's recent rather than
past achievements in specific areas.

IV. REVIEW RELATED TO LEARNING THROUGH PLAY

 Gopnik (2011) explored how curiosity and imagination impacted learning. In one
study, two groups of children were presented with four tubes, new toys in the
classroom. In one group of preschoolers, the experimenter presented the tubes to the
children and, with excitement and curiosity, pulled on one tube and acted surprised as
it squeaked. In the other group, the experimenter demonstrated how one of the tubes
squeaked and told the children how the tubes worked. Both groups were allowed to
play with the tubes. The experimenters discovered that the children from the first
group played with the tubes longer and discovered the special features of the other
tubes. The second group had less curiosity and did not play with the tubes as long as
the first group did. In response to this study, Gopnik (2011) noted, “It’s more
important than ever to give children’s remarkable, spontaneous learning abilities free
rein. That means a rich, stable, and safe world, with affectionate and supportive
grown-ups, and lots of opportunities for exploration and play”

 In the High/Scope Perry Project(2000) conducted with three to four year olds in the
1960s, the children were divided into three groups: one group participated in a
program that was play-based, one group received academic oriented direct instruction,
and a third group participated in a program that was a combination of both. Through
tracking all three groups to age 23, research found that the group that had participated
in the play-based program showed gains over the other two groups.

 Marcon (2002) found results similar to those of the Perry Project. She followed
children from different preschool programs through to grade four. She reported that
those who attended play-based programs did better academically than those who had
attended academic-oriented programs.

V. REVIEW RELATED TO DIFFERENT ECONOMIC GROUPS REGARDING


THE PLAY NEEDS OF CHILDREN

 Gilliland J, Holmes M, Irvin JD, Tucker P (1996) examined the spatial distribution
of recreational opportunities for children and youth in relation to the socio-economic
status of neighborhoods and estimated local need for publicly provided recreation
spaces. The results of the spatial analysis indicate there is no systematic socio-
environmental inequity with respect to the prevalence and density of publicly
provided neighborhood recreation spaces; however, there are several areas in the city
where youth do not have access to formal play spaces. We argue that to promote
physical activity among urban children and youth do not have access to formal play
spaces.

 Sharma, Adarsh, Khosla, Renu (1998) identified socio-economic conditions are


catapulting children into a premature adulthood by forcing them to work instead of
play. Relatively more educated parents proud their children to be winners of the
cutthroat competition for schools and employment, thereby encroaching on their
children's play time. Nonetheless, in the time remaining at their disposal, Indian
children can be seen to be actively engaged in play and at their creative best in their
manipulation of available resources in the play environment. Governmental child
welfare intervention programs such as the Integrated Child Developmental Services
scheme, the Bal Bhawan Kendra’s, and the Toy Bank, by providing stimulation and
opportunities for overall development, seek to restore to Indian children their right to
play.

 Loucaides CA, Chedzoy SM, Bennett N (2000) in their study attempted to examine
differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school
children. Parents of children in rural schools reported more space available in the
garden and in the neighborhood and safer neighborhoods than parents of children in
urban schools, whereas children in urban schools had more exercise equipment
available at home and were transported more frequently to places where they could be
physically active. Results of this study suggest that intervention programmes to
promote physical activity need to consider seasonal and geographical location
differences in physical activity levels.

 Oke M, Khattar A, Pant P , Saraswathi TS(2002) in an article on “Profile of


Children’s play in Urban India” attempted to present an overview of the situational
analysis of play in the urban setting in developing country (India). The observations
highlight the universal features of play and also their cultural specificity conditioned
by ecological factors, social class and gender. The article tries to recognize the
children's need for play and to create play environments in the form of parks,
children's museums, play centers and the commercial fun-worlds.
CHAPTER-III

METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGY

This part of research project usually consists of subject’s procedures and data analysis. It
indicates the general pattern for organizing the procedures together with valid and reliable
data for the investigation.

The chapter will discuss the methodology used for descriptive study. The present study
aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards the play needs of children (3-
6 years) in selected community areas of Jalandhar. This chapter includes:

 Research Approach
 Research Design
 Research Setting
 Variables
 Target Population
 Sample and sampling technique
 Criteria for sample selection
 Selection and development of tool
 Description of tool
 Validity of tool
 Try out
 Reliability of tool
 Data collection procedure
 Ethical considerations
 Plan for data analysis

RESEARCH APPROACH
A research approach tells the researcher what, where and how to collect the data and how to
analyze the data. It is an overall plan or blueprint chosen to carry out the study. Quantitative
Research Approach was considered to be appropriate by keeping in view the nature of
problem and was used to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children (3-6 years).
RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design refers to the researcher’s overall plan for obtaining answers to research
questions or for testing research hypothesis. It provides an explicit blue print of how research
activities will be carried out. For the present study, Descriptive Research Design was used
to achieve the stated objectives.

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY DESIGN

The study was conducted in selected community areas of Jalandhar i.e. village Damunda,
Kandola and Ghurial. The reason for selecting these settings was the researcher’s
convenience, familiarity, expected cooperation from the subjects, ease to get permission from
the authorities to conduct study, local language, geographical proximity and economical
consideration.

VARIABLES

Independent variable – Demographic variables of mothers i.e. age, educational status,


occupation, residence, type of family, family income, religion and source of previous
knowledge.

Dependent variable – Knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of children (3-
6years).

POPULATION

Target Population - Target population of the study was mothers fulfilling the inclusion and
exclusion criteria from community areas of Jalandhar.

Accessible Population – Mothers meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria from selected
community areas of Jalandhar.

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

A sample of 60 mothers’ from selected community areas of Jalandhar were selected by


purposive sampling technique.

CRITERIA FOR SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Inclusion criteria

 Mothers of children of 3-6 years of age only.


 Mothers who were willing to take part in the study.
 Mothers who could understand Punjabi.
Exclusion criteria

 Mothers who were not present at the time of data collection.

 Mothers with children of physically or mentally challenged.

 Mothers with children of terminal illness.

 Mothers who were not able to participate due to illness.

DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOL

The tool was selected and developed on the basis of extensive review of literature, exploring
internet, investigator’s observation and with the help of experts. The tool was having
following sections:

Section 1: Socio-demographic variables.

Section 2: Structured questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of


their children.

Section 3: Modified attitude scale to assess the mothers’ attitude regarding play needs of
their children.

Section 1 - Socio demographic variables: It comprised of items for obtaining personal


information of the mothers i.e. age, educational status, occupation, residence, type of family,
monthly income, religion and source of previous knowledge.

Section 2 – Structured questionnaire: The tool is comprised of 24 multiple choice


questions. Each item had four response alternatives, out of which respondents had to choose
correct one.

Scoring criteria:-

Structured Multiple Choice Questionnaire to assess the knowledge of mothers’ regarding play
needs of children. Each question carried 1 point for the correct answer and 0 for the incorrect
answer.
Criterion measures:

Level of knowledge Marks %age


Excellent ≥19 ≥76%
Good 13-18 51-75%
Average 7-12 26-50%
Poor ≤6 ≤25%
Maximum score: 24 Minimum score: 0

Section 3 – Modified attitude scale: The tool is comprised of 21 statements which consist of
both positive and negative statements. Each item has five response alternatives from which
the respondent have to choose one option which they feel to be true.

Scoring criteria:-

Modified attitude scale to determine the attitude of mothers towards play needs of children
(3-6 years)

Criterion measures:-

Attitude towards play needs Score %age


Positive 78-105 74-100%
Neutral 50-77 48-73%
Negative 21-49 20-47%

Maximum score: 105 Minimum score: 21

VALIDITY OF THE TOOL

The content validity of tool was determined by expert’s opinions. The tool for content
validity was circulated among the experts in the field of Psychiatry (Mental Health) Nursing,
Obstetric and Gynaecological Nursing, Medical Surgical Nursing, Community Health
Nursing and Paediatric Nursing. After their valuable suggestions amendments had been
made.

TRY OUT

Try out of the tool was done to ensure the reliability of the tool and feasibility of the study by
taking 6 mothers as subjects. Permission was taken from the Sarpanchs of village Khurdpur
and Fatehpur, Jalandhar. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 6
mothers of children of 3-6 years of age. The pilot study was found to be feasible and
practicable. The investigator proceeded with the actual data collection for the main study
data. Further no changes were made in the tool.

RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL

It was determined by split half method by using Split-Half formula and calculated reliability
of the questionnaire was 0.90 and the reliability of the attitude scale was 0.86 which are
highly reliable.

DESCRIPTION OF DATA COLLECTION

The procedure for collecting the data is not a mechanical process, which can be carefully
planned prior to initiation. “The research as a whole is that, persons should be totally
involved, perceiving, reacting, interacting, reflecting, attaching, meaning and recording.” The
data gathering process commenced in the month of july. Prior to the gathering process, the
investigator obtained formal permission from the concerned authority. The sample was
selected as per selection criteria. The purposive sampling technique was used for the
detection of sample. Total 60 samples were taken for the main study. Written consent was
obtained from the subjects. The researcher collected data by a structured questionnaire.

Procedure of data collection:

The level of knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of children is assessed with the help
of self structured multiple choice questionnaire.
The attitude of mothers towards play needs of children is determined with the help of
modified attitude scale.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
 A letter seeking permission to conduct the study was sanctioned from the Sarpanch of
the villages.
 The purpose of the study was explained to respondents and consent will be taken from
them for the study.
 The responses were kept confidential.
PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS

Analysis and interpretation of data was based on objectives and was done by using
descriptive and inferential statistics to assess the knowledge and attitude of the mothers. The
investigator planned to analyze the data on the basis of the objectives of the study.

 Organize the data in master data sheet.


 The data would be presented in the form of tables and diagrams.
 Demographic variables would be analyzed by using frequency and percentage.
 Structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding play needs of
children.
 Modified attitude scale to determine the attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children.
 ANOVA test would be used to determine the association between level of knowledge
and attitude towards play needs of children (3-6 years).
 To find out the correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children.
 To find out the association, the level of significance selected was p<0.05.
Fig 2: Schematic Presentation of Research Design

Purpose: To assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of children of 3-6
years of age

Research approach: Quantitative Research Approach

Research design: Descriptive Design

Study setting: Damunda, Kandola and Ghurial

Sampling
Sample: Target population: Mothers of technique:
60 mothers children of 3-6 years of age Purposive Sampling

Socio-demographic Tools for data collection: Structured


Variables:- Questionnaire and Modified Attitude Scale

 Age (in years)


 Educational status
 Occupation Technique for Data Collection:
 Residence Questionnaire
 Type of family
 Family monthly
income
 Religion
Data Analysis: Descriptive and Inferential statistics
 Source of previous
knowledge

Finding and Conclusion


Chapter-iv

DATA ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with analysis or results of the data collected from the sample of 60 mothers
of selected community areas of Jalandhar. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed by
descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:-

A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers’ towards play needs of
children (3-6 years) in selected community areas of Jalandhar.

OBJECTIVES:-

 To assess the knowledge of mothers towards play needs of children.


 To assess the attitude of mothers towards play needs of children.
 To determine association between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children with their selected socio-demographic variables.
 To find correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children.

PRESENTATION OF DATA

The data is organized and presented in two sections:-

Section A: Socio-demographic variables.

Section B: Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their knowledge


score regarding play needs of children.

Section C: Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their attitude


towards play needs of children.

Section D: Association between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children with their selected socio-demographic variables.

Section E: Correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children.
SECTION-A

Table 1:- Frequency and Percentage distribution of subjects as per socio-demographic


variables N=60

Socio-demographic Variables Frequency Percentage df Chi square


1. Age in years:-
a) 21-28 21 35% 3 24.133NS
b) 29-36 26 43.3%
c) 37-43 12 20%
d) 44-50 01 1.7%
2. Educational status:-
a) Up to matric 18 30% 2 12.4000NS
b) Up to senior secondary 32 53.3%
c) Graduate and above 10 16.7%
3. Occupation:-
a) Homemaker 47 78.4% 4 130.1667NS
b) Daily wages 01 1.7%
c) Government employee 02 3.3%
d) Private employee 08 13.3%
e) Business 02 3.3%
4. Residence:-
a) Urban 0 None 1 60.00NS
b) Rural 60 100%
5. Type of family:-
a) Nuclear 40 66.7% 2 40.00NS
b) Joint 20 33.3%
c) Extended 0 None
6. Family monthly income (in rupees):-
a) ≤5000 12 20% 3 4.533S
b) 5001-10000 20 33.3%
c) 10001-20000 18 30%
d) ≥20001 10 16.7%
7. Religion:-
a) Hindu 21 35% 4 103.5000NS
b) Sikh 39 65%
c) Christian 0 None
d) Muslim 0 None
e) Others 0 None
8. Source of previous knowledge (tick more
than 1, if needed):-
a) Published and unpublished media 14 23.3% 3 4.1333S
b) Mass media 15 25%
c) Family, friends and health 21 35%
personnel 10 16.7%
d) All of above
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
VARIABLES

1. Age:-

AGE OF MOTHERS

43.30%

35%

20%

1.70%

21-28 years 29-36 years 37-43 years 44-50 years

Figure 3: A bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects


according to age.
Figure 3 i.e. a bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects according to age,
which depicts that 43.3% of mothers are from the age group of 29-36 years which is followed
by 35% of mothers from the age group of 21-38 years, 20% of mothers from the age group of
37-43 years and only 1.7% of mothers from the age group of 44-50 years.
2. Educational status:-

EDUCATIONAL STATUS

16.70% Upto matric


30%
Upto senior secondary

Graduate and above

53.30%

Figure 4: A pie chart showing the percentage distribution of subjects


according to their educational status.

Figure 4 i.e. a pie chart showing the percentage distribution of the subjects according to the
educational status which reveals that more than half of the subjects i.e. 53.3% of mothers
have studied upto senior secondary, 30% of mothers have studied upto matric and only 16.7%
of mothers have studied upto graduation and above.
3. Occupation:-

OCCUPATION
78.40%

13.30%

1.70% 3.30% 3.30%

Homemaker Daily wages Government Private Business


employee employee

Figure 5: A bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects


according to occupation.

Figure 5 i.e. a bar diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects according to
occupation which shows that 78.4% mothers are homemakers, 13.3% mothers are private
employees, 3.3% mothers are government employees, 3.3% mothers are businesswomen and
only 1.7% mothers are working on daily wages.
4. Residence:-

RESIDENCE

100%

URBAN RURAL

Figure 6: A stacked cone chart showing the percentage distribution of


subjects according to area of residence.

Figure 6 i.e. a stacked cone chart showing the percentage distribution of subjects according to
residence which depicts that all the subjects i.e. 100% of mothers are from rural area.
5. Type of family:-

TYPE OF FAMILY

0%
Extended

33.30%
Joint

66.70%
Nuclear

Figure 7: A clustered horizontal cylinder graph showing the percentage


distribution of subjects according to type of family.

Figure 7 i.e. a clustered horizontal cylinder graph showing the percentage distribution of
subjects according to type of family which reveals that more than half of the subjects i.e.
66.70% are from nuclear families and 33.3% of subjects are from joint families. None of the
participant was from extended family.
6. Family monthly income:-

FAMILY INCOME
33.30%

30%

20%

16.70%

Rs. 5000 or less RS. 5001-10000 Rs. 10001-20000Rs.20001 or above

Figure 8: A clustered cylinder diagram showing the percentage


distribution of subjects according to monthly family income.

Figure 8 i.e. a clustered cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to monthly family income which depicts that 33.3% subjects are having total
monthly income between 5001-10000 rupees, 30% subjects are having total monthly income
between 10001-20000 rupees, 20% subjects are having total income same or less than 5000
and only 16.7% subjects are having total monthly income above 20001 rupees.
7. Religion:-

RELIGION
65%

35%

0% 0% 0%

Hindu Sikh Christian Muslim Others

Figure 9: A stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution


of subjects according to religion.

Figure 9 i.e. a stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to religion which depicts that more than half of the subjects i.e. 65% of mothers
belongs to Sikh religion and 35% of mothers belong to Hindu religion.
8. Source of previous knowledge:-

SOURCE OF PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

35%

25%
23.30%

16.70%

Published and Mass media Family, friends All of above


unpublished and health
media personnel

Figure 10: A stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage


distribution of subjects according to source of previous knowledge.

Figure 10 i.e. a stacked cylinder diagram showing the percentage distribution of subjects
according to the source of previous knowledge which reveals that 35% of mothers gather
knowledge from their families, friends and health personnel, 25% of mothers gather
knowledge from mass media, 23.3% of mothers gather knowledge from published and
unpublished media and only 16.7% of mothers gather knowledge from all the above
mentioned sources.
Objective 1:- To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of children.

SECTION-B

Table 2:- Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their level of
knowledge regarding play needs of children (3-6 years):-

N=60

Level of knowledge Score Frequency (n) %age


Excellent ≥19 5 8.3%
Good 13-18 32 53.4%
Average 7-12 20 33.3%
Poor ≤6 3 5%

Maximum score: 24 Minimum score: 0

The above table reveals the frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to
their level of knowledge regarding play needs of children (3-6 years).

It is found that more than half of subjects or 53.4% of subjects i.e. 32 mothers have good
level of knowledge regarding play needs of children which is followed by 33.3% of subjects
i.e. 20 mothers have average level of knowledge. 8.3% of subjects i.e. 5 mothers have
excellent level of knowledge. Only 5% of subjects i.e. 3 subjects have poor level of
knowledge.
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF MOTHERS
REGARDING PLAY NEEDS OF CHILDREN (3-6 YEARS)

5%
8.30%

33.30%
53.40%

Excellent Good Average Poor

Figure 11: An exploded pie chart showing the percentage distribution of samples
according to the level of knowledge score.
Objective 2:- To assess the attitude of mothers towards play needs of children.

SECTION-C

Table 3:- Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to their attitude
towards play needs of children (3-6 years):-

N=60

Attitude towards Score Frequency (n) %age


play needs
Positive 78-105 35 58.3%
Neutral 50-77 25 41.7%
Negative 21-49 0 0

Maximum score: 105 Minimum score: 21

The above table reveals the frequency and percentage distribution of mothers according to
their attitude towards play needs of children (3-6 years).

It is found that more than half of subjects or 58.3% i.e. 35 subjects have positive attitude
towards play needs of children which is followed by 41.7% of subjects i.e. 25 subjects have
neutral attitude towards play needs of children. None of the subjects have negative attitude
towards play needs of children.
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS TOWARDS PLAY
NEEDS OF CHILDREN (3-6 YEARS)

60.00%

50.00%

58.33%
40.00%

41.70%
30.00%

20.00%

10.00%
0%

0.00%
Positive Neutral Negative

Figure 12: A column chart showing the percentage distribution of samples according
to their attitude towards play needs of children.
Objective 3:- To find association between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards
play needs of children (3-6 years) with their selected socio-demographic variables.
SECTION-D
Table 4:- Association between knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of children
with their selected socio-demographic variables N=60

KNOWLEDGE SCORE OF MOTHERS REGARDING PLAY NEEDS OF CHILDREN

Frequency distribution N Mean SD df F value p-value Results


Age in 21-28 21 12.904 3.832
Years 29-36 26 13.038 4.064 3 0.4927 0.6882 Significant
37-43 12 14.416 2.466
44-50 1 13 -
Educational Upto matric 18 13.055 3.572
Status Upto senior 32 13.437 3.975 2 0.0612 0.9425 Significant
secondary
Graduate and 10 13.4 3.565
above
Occupation Homemaker 47 13.638 3.749
Daily wages 1 9 4 3.444 0.0137 Significant
Government 2 6 1.414
employee
Private employee 8 13.5 2
Businesswomen 2 13 1.414
Residence Urban 0 - - 1 0.0083 0.9280 Significant
Rural 60 13.266 3.667
Type of Nuclear 40 13.525 3.53
Family Joint 20 12.9 4.178 1 0.3694 0.5457 Significant
Extended 0 - -
Family ≤5000 12 11.166 3.639
Monthly 5001-10000 20 14.45 4.084 3 2.5554 0.0638 Significant
income (Rs) 10001-20000 18 13.888 2.517
≥20000 10 12.4 3.747
Religion Hindu 21 12.714 3.743
Sikh 39 13.641 3.738 1 0.8381 0.3676 Significant
Christian 0 - -
Muslim 0 - -
Others 0 - -
Source of Published and 14 14.428 2.765
previous unpublished media
knowledge Mass media 15 13.666 4.577 3 0.7836 0.5070 Significant
Family, friends 21 12.666 3.979
and health
personnel
All of above 10 12.6 2.988
The table 4 reveals that there is significant statistical association of score of knowledge with
the selected socio-demographic variables.

 The level of significance was assessed at p<0.05.


 The table shows that there is significant association between all the selected socio-
demographic variables with the score of knowledge of the mothers regarding play
needs of children.
 Age of mothers (F=0.4927) was significant with the score of knowledge.
 Educational status of mothers (F=0.0612) was significant with the score of
knowledge.
 Occupational status of mothers (3.444) was significant with the score of knowledge.
 Area of residence (F=0.0083) was also found to be significant with the score of
knowledge.
 Type of family type (F=0.3694) was significant with the score of knowledge.
 Family monthly income (F=2.5554) was found to be significant with the score of
knowledge.
 Religion (0.8381) was also found to be significant with the score of knowledge.
 Source of previous knowledge (F=0.7836) was also significant with the score of
knowledge of the mothers.
Table 5:- Association between attitude of mothers towards play needs of children with
their selected socio-demographic variables N=60

ATTITUDE SCORE OF MOTHERS TOWARDS PLAY NEEDS OF CHILDREN

Frequency distribution N Mean SD df F value p-value Results


Age in 21-28 21 77.428 6.584
Years 29-36 26 78.307 5.641 3 0.1847 0.9065 Significant
37-43 12 76.833 6.450
44-50 1 72 -
Educational Upto matric 18 78.888 6.220
Status Upto senior 32 77.218 6.256 2 0.6255 0.5357 Significant
secondary
Graduate and 10 76.5 5.317
above
Occupation Homemaker 47 77.680 6.335
Daily wages 1 79 - 4 0.6766 0.6106 Significant
Government 2 78.5 2.121
employee
Private employee 8 75.375 5.370
Businesswomen 2 83 4.242
Residence Urban 0 - - 1 1.1137 0.2957 Significant
Rural 60 77.6 6.067
Type of Nuclear 40 76.05 7.393
Family Joint 20 79.35 5.402 1 3.1348 0.0819 Significant
Extended 0 - -
Family ≤5000 12 77.916 6.881
Monthly 5001-10000 20 78 6.625 3 0.5173 0.6714 Significant
income (Rs) 10001-20000 18 78.166 5.575
≥20000 10 75.4 5.059
Religion Hindu 21 79.809 5.065
Sikh 39 76.307 6.517 1 4.5632 0.0369 Significant
Christian 0 - -
Muslim 0 - -
Others 0 - -
Source of Published and 14 76.214 6.806
previous unpublished media
knowledge Mass media 15 80.4 4.792 3 1.5357 0.2141 Significant
Family, friends 21 77.285 6.108
and health
personnel
All of above 10 75.7 7.803
The table 5 reveals that there is significant statistical association of score of attitude scale
with the selected socio-demographic variables.

 The level of significance was assessed at p<0.05.


 The table shows that there is significant association between all the selected socio-
demographic variables with the score of attitude scale of the mothers towards play
needs of children.
 Age of mothers (F=0.1847) was significant with the score of attitude scale.
 Educational status of mothers (F=0.6255) was significant with the score of attitude
scale.
 Occupational status of mothers (0.6766) was significant with the score of attitude
scale.
 Area of residence (F=1.1137) was also found to be significant with the score of
attitude scale.
 Type of family type (F=3.1348) was significant with the score of attitude scale.
 Family monthly income (F=0.5173) was found to be significant with the score of
attitude scale.
 Religion (F=4.5632) was also found to be significant with the score of attitude scale.
 Source of previous knowledge (F=1.5357) was also significant with the score of
attitude scale of the mothers.
Objective 5:- To find correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards
play needs of children (3-6 years).

SECTION-E

Table 6:- Correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children

Score of level of Score of Attitude r value Result


Knowledge Scale
Mean: 13.26667 Mean: 77.5 Moderately
SD: 3.763638 SD: 6.093898 0.055425 positive
correlation

The correlation between the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children was 0.055425.

Findings of the study revealed a moderately positive correlation between knowledge and
attitude of mothers towards play needs of children 3-6 years of age group.

This correlation between knowledge and attitude indicates that parents with good knowledge
regarding play needs of their children have a positive attitude towards it.
MAJOR FINDINGS OF PRESENT STUDY

Findings related to socio demographic variables:-

 It is found that 43.3% of mothers are from the age group of 29-36 years which is
followed by 35% of mothers from the age group of 21-38 years, 20% of mothers from
the age group of 37-43 years and only 1.7% of mothers from the age group of 44-50
years.

 More than half of the subjects i.e. 53.3% of mothers have studied upto senior
secondary, 30% of mothers have studied upto matric and only 16.7% of mothers have
studied upto graduation and above.

 According to occupation, 78.4% mothers are homemakers, 13.3% mothers are private
employees, 3.3% mothers are government employees, 3.3% mothers are
businesswomen and only 1.7% mothers are working on daily wages.

 All the subjects i.e. 100% of mothers are from rural area.

 More than half of the subjects i.e. 66.70% are from nuclear families and 33.3% of
subjects are from joint families. None of the participant was from extended family.

 According to monthly family income, 33.3% subjects are having total monthly
income between 5001-10000 rupees, 30% subjects are having total monthly income
between 10001-20000 rupees, 20% subjects are having total income same or less than
5000 and only 16.7% subjects are having total monthly income above 20001 rupees.

 More than half of the subjects i.e. 65% of mothers belongs to Sikh religion and 35%
of mothers belong to Hindu religion.

 According to the source of previous knowledge which reveals that 35% of mothers
gather knowledge from their families, friends and health personnel, 25% of mothers
gather knowledge from mass media, 23.3% of mothers gather knowledge from
published and unpublished media and only 16.7% of mothers gather knowledge from
all the above mentioned sources.
Findings related to level of knowledge of mothers regarding play needs of children:-

 More than half of subjects or 53.4% of subjects i.e. 32 mothers have good level of
knowledge regarding play needs of children.

 33.3% of subjects i.e. 20 mothers have average level of knowledge.

 8.3% of subjects i.e. 5 mothers have excellent level of knowledge.

 Only 5% of subjects i.e. 3 subjects have poor level of knowledge.

Findings related to attitude of mothers towards play needs of children:-

 More than half of subjects or 58.3% i.e. 35 subjects have positive attitude towards
play needs of children.

 41.7% of subjects i.e. 25 subjects have neutral attitude towards play needs of children.

 None of the subjects have negative attitude towards play needs of children.

Major findings related to association between knowledge and attitude of mothers


towards play needs of children with their selected socio-demographic variables:-

 Age, educational status, occupation, monthly income, type of family, residence, religion
and source of previous knowledge had statistical significant impact on knowledge and
attitude mean score towards play needs of children. The level of significance was assessed at
p<0.05.

 It was found that there is significant association between all the selected socio-
demographic variables with the score of knowledge of the mothers regarding play needs of
children i.e. age of mothers, educational status, and occupational status, area of residence,
type of family type, family monthly income, religion and source of previous knowledge.

 It is found that shows that there is significant association between all the selected socio-
demographic variables with the score of attitude scale of the mothers towards play needs of
children i.e. age of mothers, educational status of mothers, occupational status of mothers,
area of residence, type of family, family monthly income, religion and source of previous
knowledge.

Major findings related to correlation between knowledge and attitude of mothers


towards play needs of children:-

 It was found that the there is moderately positive correlation between knowledge and
attitude of mothers towards play needs of children with the value of 0.055425.

 Knowledge and attitude is statistically significant to each other.


CHAPTER-V

Discussion
DISCUSSION

In this section the investigators discusses the results of the study. In the discussion, the
researchers’ ties together all the loose ends of the study. The findings of the present study
have been discussed in accordance with the objectives of the research and literature review.

Objective 1: To assess knowledge of mothers towards play needs of children.

The findings of the present study revealed that maximum mothers i.e. 53.4% had good level
of knowledge, followed by 33.3% with average knowledge, whereas 8.3% had excellent level
of knowledge and only 5% had poor level of knowledge.

A study consistent with the present study was conducted by Catherine. S & Lisa (2013) to
analysis mothers’ knowledge about children's play activities and language development at
Bangalore. The total samples selected for this study were Sixty-four mothers of children
ranging in age from 6 to 58 months (under 5 children) were asked to determine, for pairings
of play and language items, which item was more advanced developmentally .This study
reveals that 60% of mother had moderate knowledge about play activities and 30% mother
had average knowledge about play activities. Finally, Mothers knowledge about language
development was stronger than knowledge about play, suggesting that maternal knowledge
about developmental domains is inadequate.

Another study is consistent with present study which was conducted by Mr.
Prasannakumar D.R (2014) to assess the knowledge of mothers of fewer than five children
regarding importance of play in growth and development in selected rural and urban areas,
Bangalore. A comparative survey design was adopted for the study. Samples were selected
using non-probability convenient of 80 mothers of fewer than five children. Data collected
was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics findings of the study revealed that
majority 55% of the rural mothers and 30% of the urban mothers had moderate knowledge
while 62.5% of urban mothers and 30% of the rural mothers had adequate knowledge
regarding the importance of play in growth and development of under five children. The
study findings, it is understood that the samples had good knowledge regarding the
importance of play in growth and children.
Objective 2: To assess the attitude of mothers towards play needs of children:-

The findings of the present study revealed that more than half of the subjects or 58.3% i.e. 35
subjects have positive attitude towards play needs of children which is followed by 41.7% of
subjects i.e. 25 subjects have neutral attitude towards play needs of children. None of the
subjects have negative attitude towards play needs of children.

A consistent study was carried out in Bangalore by Tharuni Tharu to assess the knowledge
and attitude towards play needs of children among parents of various economic groups. The
study was carried out in Mahalakshmipuram, Bangalore. Data were obtained from 90 parents
residing in Mahalakshmipuram. A structured interview schedule was used to assess the
knowledge of parents regarding the play needs of children and modified 5 point Likert Scale
was used to assess the attitude of parents. The results of study revealed that majority of
samples 55 had favourable attitude towards play needs of children.

Another study is consistent with the present study which was conducted by Aruna (2011) to
assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among mother of hospitalized children regarding
play needs at Kovai medical center and hospital, Coimbatore. 60 samples were selected by
using non-probability sampling technique. Data collection was done by structured interview
schedule. Results shows that 41 (68.5%) of mothers had an excellent attitude.19 (31.6%) of
them had a good attitude towards play needs of children. The t value 6.904 was significant at
0.01 level shows that mother with graduation had more knowledge regarding play needs than
mothers with primary education. The t value 2.82 was significant at 0.01 level shows that the
knowledge was more among mothers who got information from the mass media than family
members. Regarding the practice among mother towards play needs of children, 16 (26.7 %)
of mother had good skilled practice about play needs and 44 (73.3%) of them had poor
skilled practice regarding play needs. The study reveals that although mothers had good
knowledge and attitude towards play needs, they had poor application skills of play in their
daily practice.

One more study which is consistent with the present study which was conducted by Oalline
(2010) conducted an experimental study of child centered play therapy with preschool
children who had impaired hearing. 24 samples were selected randomly assigned to either a
treatment or control group. In this group received 50 meters play therapy sessions for 20
days. This study showed that 80% children in the experimental group had statistically
significant increases in mature behavior patterns as compared to the control group. Parents
and teachers also reported positive behavior changes in these children.

Objective 3: To find association between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards


play needs of children with their selected socio-demographic variables:

The present study revealed that there is significant association between all the selected socio-
demographic variables with the score of knowledge of the mothers regarding play needs of
children i.e. age of mothers, educational status, occupation, area of residence, type of family
type, family monthly income, religion and source of previous knowledge. It is found that
shows that there is significant association between all the selected socio-demographic
variables with the score of attitude scale of the mothers towards play needs of children i.e.
age of mothers, educational status of mothers, occupational status of mothers, area of
residence, type of family, family monthly income, religion and source of previous
knowledge.

A study is consistent with the present study which was carried out in Bangalore by Tharuni
Tharu to assess the knowledge and attitude towards play needs of children among parents of
various economic groups. It was found that there was significant relationship found between
the variables(education of mother, occupation of father, occupation of mother)and attitude of
parents at p<0.05 level. There was no significant relationship found between the variables
(age, sex ,type of family, religion, number of children, sex of child, education of father) and
attitude of parents at p<0.05 level.

On the other hand, the present study is contraindicated by a descriptive study which was
conducted by Marc H. Bornstein (1998) to evaluate the knowledge of mothers towards play
and language development. 64 samples were selected through random sampling technique at
national institute of child and human development at newyork city. The studies revealed that
mean score of first visit was 17 and means score of second visit was 27 but showed no
association.
Objective 4: To find the correlation between the knowledge and attitude of mothers
towards play needs of children.

The correlation between the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children was 0.055425.The findings of the study revealed a moderately positive correlation
between knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play needs of children. This correlation
between knowledge and attitude indicates that parents with good knowledge on play needs of
their children have positive attitude towards it.

A consistent study was conducted by Nnodum B.I (2010) to investigate the effectiveness of
child centered play therapy in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and
consequently reduce their isolate behavior. 48 samples are randomly selected from the target
population and they were randomly assigned to the experimental groups. Isolate trait
identification questionnaire for children (ITIQFC) children shyness questionnaire (SQ)
children social skills identification Questionnaire (SSIQ). Two null hypothesis tested at 0.05
level of significance were raised to guide the study. Data collected were analyzed with
ANOVA T- Test. The result revealed that the treatment techniques were equally effective and
superior to the school condition in improving the social skills of isolates and reducing their
isolate behavior i.e. 60% and 20% children show poor improvement in social skills.

Another study which is consistent with the present study was carried out in Bangalore by
Tharuni Tharu to assess the knowledge and attitude towards play needs of children among
parents of various economic groups. The study was carried out in Mahalakshmipuram,
Bangalore. The correlation of the parents’ knowledge and attitude regarding play needs of
children of birth to 3 years of age group was assessed. There was a significant correlation
found between knowledge and attitude of parents (r= +0.453). Findings of the study indicated
a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude of parents of various economic groups
regarding play needs of children of birth to 3 years of age group. As knowledge increased
parents possessed a positive attitude towards play needs of the children.
Chapter-vi
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter deals with the brief description of the study undertaken including the conclusion
drawn from the major findings, implications of the study and recommendations for future
research.

Summary

The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards
play needs of children (3-6) years in selected community areas of Jalandhar.

The main objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards
play needs of children (3-6) years. To accomplish the objective and determine methodology
for study, a thorough review of literature was done. The quantitative approach was adopted
for the study. The developed tool was circulated among the panel of experts for establishing
the validity of the content and necessary modifications were made according to expert’s
views, the prepared tool was having following sections:-

Section 1: Socio-demographic variables

Section 2: Structured questionnaire to assess knowledge regarding play needs of children (3-
6) years

Section 3: Modified attitude scale to assess the attitude of mothers towards play needs of
children (3-6 years)

Section 1- Socio demographic Variables: - It comprised of items for obtaining personal


information of the adolescents i.e. age, educational status, occupation, residence, type of
family, family monthly income, religion and source of previous knowledge.

Section 2- Structured Questionnaire: The tool was constructed after reviewing knowledge
of mothers. The tool was comprised of 24 multiple choice questions. Each item had four
response alternatives, out of which respondents had to choose correct one.

Section 3- Modified Attitude Scale: The tool was constructed after reviewing attitude of
mothers. The tool comprised of 21 statements which include both positive and negative
statements.
A try out was done on the sample of 6 mothers and study was found to be feasible. The study
was conducted in community areas of Jalandhar i.e. Fatehpur and Khurdpur. In the selection
of sample, purposive sampling technique was used.

The sample for the main study was composed of 60 samples and was conducted in
community areas i.e. Ghurial, Damunda and Kandola.

Before data collection, the permission was taken from the Sarpanch of respective villages.
Then the data was collected by establishment of rapport with subjects and confidentiality of
their responses was assured. Data was collected by using a self- structured multiple choice
questionnaire. The data was analyzed and interpreted in terms of objectives of the study. The
descriptive and inferential statistics was utilized for data analysis.

The results revealed that 53.4% of mothers have good level of knowledge. 33.3% of mothers
have average level of knowledge. 8.3% of mothers have excellent level of knowledge, and
only 5% of mothers have poor level of knowledge. Age, education, occupation, residence,
type of family, family monthly income, religion and source of previous knowledge i.e. all the
variables are statistically significant with the knowledge mean score regarding play needs of
children (3-6) years.

In terms of attitude, the results revealed that 58.3% of mothers have positive attitude towards
play needs of children and 41.7% of mothers have neutral attitude towards play needs of
children. None of the participant have negative attitude towards play needs of children.

LIMITATIONS

 The study was restricted to play needs only.

 The sample size was 60; therefore it was difficult to make broad generalizations.

 Social prejudice was found to be another factor which intervenes with the
interpretations of the present study.

IMPLICATIONS

The findings of the study have several implications in nursing education, nursing practice,
and nursing research:
Nursing education

 The findings of the present research can be used in seminars, workshops, conferences
organized in nursing institutions to improve the knowledge of nursing students
regarding play needs of children.

 The study can be helpful in nursing curriculum to provide opportunity for students to
gain knowledge regarding play needs of children.

 The study will help to bring attention toward the play needs of children.

 To create awareness regarding play needs of children.

Nursing practice

 The study helps to obtain necessary knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs. Nursing personnel should utilize the findings.

 The present study can encourage the nurses to explore more on the same topic with
mothers regarding play needs.

 Considering the findings of the present study one can expect a reasonable degree of
success may inspire the mothers regarding play needs.

Nursing research

 The information contained in the present study can be valuable source of data for
future researchers. It can help them in conducting research with large sample size in
other different mental and psychological problems.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made on the basis of the findings of the present study:-

 A similar study may be replicated on a large sample to validate and generalize the
findings.

 Similar study can be conducted on different population of different culture and ethnic
groups.

 This study can be extended for children of different age groups.


 This study can be extended for single parent to know how they meet the play needs of
their children.

 Experimental study can be conducted with structured teaching programme on


knowledge.

 A comparative study can be conducted among mothers of urban and rural areas.

 Study can be conducted to find out the practice of mothers towards the play needs of
children.

 A study can be conducted in hospital settings.


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ANNEXURES
ANNEXURE – 1

LETTER TO EXPERT FOR CONTENT VALIDITY

From,
Research Group B
B.SC Nursing 4th Year
Sant Baba Bhag Singh Institute of nursing
Khiala, Jalandhar
To,

___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________

SUBJECT: - Expert’s opinions/ suggestions for content validity of the tool

RESPECTED SIR/MADAM,

With due respect, we RESEARCH GROUP-B named as – Gurleen


Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur, Gursewak Singh, Gurwinder Kaur, Harjinder Kaur, Harmanjeet Kaur,
Harpinder Kaur students of B.Sc. (N) 4th year, SANT BABA BHAG SINGH INSTITUTE OF
NURSING, KHIALA, JALANDHAR, has undertaken a research study entitled, “A
DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF
MOTHERS TOWARDS THE PLAY NEEDS OF THE CHILDREN (3-6 YEARS) IN
SELECTED COMMUNITY AREAS OF JALANDHAR”. We have developed the tools for
assessing the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards the play needs of children (3-6 years).
We humbly request you to give your valuable suggestions regarding appropriateness of the
items in terms of content, language and accuracy. Kindly oblige us with your expert opinion
and comment.
Thanking you in anticipation.

Yours sincerely,

RESEARCH GROUP-B

 Gurleen Kaur
 Gurpreet Kaur
 Gursewak Singh
 Gurwinder Kaur
 Harjinder Kaur
 Harmanjeet Kaur
 Harpinder Kaur
ANNEXURE – II

LETTER SEEKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


ANNEXURE – III

LETTER SEEKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


ANNEXURE – IV

LETTER SEEKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


ANNEXURE – V

LETTER SEEKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


ANNEXURE – VI

LETTER SEEKING PERMISSION TO CONDUCT STUDY


ANNEXURE – VII

CONSENT FORM

I…………… have been told to participate in the research which has the topic study in my
language. I can also refuse to participate in the study. I have been told about the the topic of
research i.e. “A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards play
needs of children (3-6 years) in selected community areas of Jalandhar.” I am fully informed
about the aim of the information and assured that information provided by me will be kept
confidential. I am willing to participate in research.

Signature: …………………………..

Name: ……………………………….
ANNEXURE – VIII

DATA COLLECTION TOOL (ENGLISH)

Section-A

Demographic Performa

1. Age (in years)

a) 21-28
b) 29-36
c) 37-43
d) 44-50

2. Educational status

a) No formal education
b) Up to matric
c) Up to senior secondary
d) Graduate and above

3. Occupation

a) Homemaker
b) Daily wages
c) Government employee
d) Private employee
e) Business

4. Residence

a) Urban
b) Rural

5. Type of family

a) Nuclear
b) Joint
c) Extended
6. Family monthly income (in rupees)

a) ≤5000
b) 5001-10000
c) 10001-20000
d) >20001

7. Religion

a) Hindu
b) Sikh
c) Christian
d) Muslim
e) Others

8. Source of previous knowledge (tick more than 1, if needed)

a) Published and unpublished media


b) Mass media
c) Family, friends and health personnel
d) All of above
Section-B

Self Structured Questionnaire

1. Play means:

a) Engage in activity for enjoyment and recreation


b) To do time pass
c) To do fun
d) Spending time with others

2. Play is an essential component of a child’s life because it

a) Promotes their growth and development


b) To do fun
c) To avoid studies
d) Cardiovascular fitness

3. Play is an _________ activity

a) Exclusive
b) Optional
c) Essential
d) Explosive

4. Play helps the child to grow

a) Physically
b) Emotionally
c) Socially
d) All of above

5. Child develops physically by

a) Sleeping
b) Playing
c) Crying
d) Yelling
6. Running and climbing in preschooler enhances

a) Cognition
b) Lethargy
c) Physical growth
d) Weakness

7. Creativity in preschooler could be developed with

a) Doll
b) Drawing
c) Watching television
d) Musical toys

8. The most appropriate toy for 4 year old child is

a) Stuffed animal toy


b) Push and pull toy
c) Ball
d) Building blocks

9. While selecting toys, parents should give priority to those

a) Are easily broken


b) Not inducing curiosity
c) Challenging
d) Producing excessive noise

10. The play you prefer the most for preschooler

a) Video games
b) Playing cards
c) Football
d) Climbing, digging and running

11. The child needs time for relax and play with whom

a) Toys
b) Parents
c) Study
d) Video Games
12. When family plays together with their child it increases

a) Communication
b) Cooperation
c) Support
d) All of above

13. The activities which increases cooperation in children

a) Playing outdoor games


b) Sharing toys
c) Both a and b
d) Reading stories

14. By playing in group child learns

a) Social Skills
b) Bullies
c) Cooperation
d) Both a and c

15. Social play teaches

a) Criticism
b) Discrimination
c) Cooperation
d) Overdependence

16. Problem solving ability increases by

a) Games and puzzles


b) Social networking sites
c) Online games
d) Fighting

17. Immediate benefits of play are

a) Time pass
b) Sense of morality
c) Cardiovascular fitness
d) Both a and b
18. Through play child develops

a) Sense of self esteem


b) Learn to interact with others
c) Learn to make new friends
d) All of above

19. Emotional benefits of play are

a) Reduces fear and anxiety


b) Induces anger and jealousy
c) decreases self esteem
d) All of above

20. Playing with blocks promotes

a) Moral development
b) Cognitive development
c) Gross motor skills
d) Language skills

21. Through play child learns

a) Socialization
b) Improvisation
c) Reciprocate words
d) De-motivation

22. Not playing out-door games can pose

a) Remains healthy
b) Physical fit
c) Obesity
d) Poor problems solving skills

23. A major component of play at all levels of children is

a) Muscle development
b) Cooperation
c) Morality
d) All of above
24. Essential purpose of smart toys

a) Teach skills
b) Make learning fun
c) Engage child in activity
d) Improve health
Answer key

Item No. Correct Response


1 a
2 a
3 c
4 d
5 b
6 c
7 b
8 d
9 c
10 d
11 a
12 d
13 c
14 d
15 c
16 a
17 d
18 d
19 a
20 b
21 a
22 a
23 d
24 b
SECTION: - C

Modified Attitude Scale to assess the mothers’ attitude regarding play needs of their children

Sr ITEM STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY


No AGREE DISAGREE

1 I feel giving many kinds of play equipments to young children make


them interested in a wider variety of play activities.

2 I feel selection of toys and play equipments is a joint effort between


parents and children.
3 I buy toys according to the advertisements in mass media.

4 I feel parents should check the television program very carefully


before allowing young children to watch in order to eliminate
terrifying dreams and nightmares often leading to sleep problems.
5 I never buy toys for my children because of its adverse effects like
sharp edges, easily broken, excessive noise.
6 I feel parents must inspect the toys purchased because many of the
toys in the market are not inspected or supervised by government
agencies.
7 I never make my child to play with other children because either they
learn bad words or they involve in bad company.
8 I buy too many toys, books, outdoor equipments to my children.
9 I buy toys which I feel cute and interesting.
10 I feel parents are more responsible than the factory and government
regarding the safety of play equipments.
11 I feel children’s play is a waste of time.
12 I feel price of the toys is immaterial.
13 I always keep an eye on my children while playing.
14 I buy same kind of toys which my neighbor’s children possess.
15 I feel reading out loud, showing pictures in magazines and
newspapers increase the child desire to read.
16 I feel playing by pretending to be others are merely a poor exercise of
imagination.
17 I feel children interest in playing grows if they are shown how to use
each kind of play equipments.
18 I feel play is early a simple recreation.
19 I feel clay is marvelous play material for use at any age.

20 I feel parent’s role in play of the children is as a responder and


facilitator not a director.
Scoring For Modified Attitude Scale

ITEM NO. STRONGLY AGREE UNCERTAIN DISAGREE STRONGLY


AGREE DISAGREE
1. 5 4 3 2 1
2. 5 4 3 2 1
3. 1 2 3 4 5
4. 5 4 3 2 1
5. 1 2 3 4 5
6. 5 4 3 2 1
7. 1 2 3 4 5
8. 5 4 3 2 1
9. 5 4 3 2 1
10. 5 4 3 2 1
11. 1 2 3 4 5
12. 1 2 3 4 5
13. 5 4 3 2 1
14. 1 2 3 4 5
15. 5 4 3 2 1
16. 1 2 3 4 5
17. 5 4 3 2 1
18. 1 2 3 4 5
19. 1 2 3 4 5
20. 5 4 3 2 1
ANNEXURE – IX

LIST OF EXPERTS

1. Mrs. M. Chinna Devi

(M.Sc. in Child Health Nursing)

2. Ms. Ritika Bedi

(M.Sc. in obstetrics and gynecology Nursing)

3. Mr. Manpreet Singh

(M.Sc. in Child Health Nursing)

4. Mr. Navjot Singh

(M.Sc. in Mental Health Nursing)

5. Mrs. Monica Chandla

(M.Sc. in community health Nursing)


ANNEXURE – X

LIST OF FORMULAS

 Mean (X) = ∑x / N

 Standard Deviation= √∑ (X- X)2


N

 Karl Pearson Coefficient of Correlation


r = ∑ (X- X) (Y- Y)

√∑ (X- X) 2 ∑ (Y- Y) 2

 ANOVA
̒ F ̓ test = MSB= Sum of square between the groups df = C– 1
df for between the groups

MSW= Sum of square within the groups df= N- C


df for within the groups
̒ F ̓ ratio = MSB/ MSW