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INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Disasters are catastrophic events that can either be caused by the

force of nature or by men that result to damage or loss of people’s

livelihood, properties, and lives. Natural disasters vary from meteorological

(floods, tsunamis, cyclones) to geophysical (earthquakes, volcanic

eruptions, landslides) to hydrological (coastal floods, avalanche, and

storm surges), climatological (heat waves, cold waves, drought, and

wildfires) and biological (epidemics, diseases). The United Nations

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR, n.d.) reported that

there is no such thing as a “natural” disaster, only natural hazards, which

means disasters are only the result of these natural hazards. The gravity

of a disaster can be measured on the exposure of the society and

environment to a specific hazard. Society’s knowledge and understanding

of these hazards lead them to decide on how they will live their lives. In

whatever decisions people make, it will either make them susceptible to

these hazards or make them more resilient to them. Thus, making good

choices is very important, for making good choices will prevent natural

hazards from turning into disasters. Safety and preparedness should

always be a priority and must be observed by everybody.


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In the Philippines, nature-related disasters like earthquakes,

typhoons, floods, and volcanic eruptions are commonly experienced due

to its geographical location that is in a typhoon belt and the Pacific Ring of

Fire. In the last 20 years, disasters have already killed over 31 thousand

and affected more than 60 million people according to the Philippine

National Red Cross (PNRC, n.d.). Although earthquakes, like the 1990

Luzon earthquake and volcanic eruptions, like the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo

eruption rarely occur, typhoons are the most common natural hazard the

Philippines experiences. The Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and

Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA, 2013) estimates that the

Philippine archipelago is visited by at least 9 or 10 tropical storms each

year. Notable typhoons that devastated the country for the last 10 years

are super typhoons Ondoy in 2009, Pablo in 2012, and Yolanda in 2013,

all of which affected extensive land areas but most intensely areas at the

coast. With this, coastal communities are given necessary attention to, for

they are prone to possible destructive natural hazards like storm surges,

tornadoes, and tsunamis. This makes them one of the most affected

people during disasters.

In Dagupan, a city in the Northwest region of Luzon, natural

calamities have long been a part of the lives of people. Most notorious of

these calamities were the 1990 Luzon earthquake and the 2009 super
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typhoon Pepeng. Both claimed many lives and affected many people. In

an interview with Mr. Davidson Chua (2018), Research and Planning

Officer of City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (CDRRMO) of

Dagupan City, the reason for this is because Dagupan City is in between

two active faults: the Manila Trench in the West Philippine Sea, just 100

kilometers away from Dagupan City, and the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ)

to the east. Storm surges and floods also frequent the city especially the

coastal areas because Dagupan is often the route of many strong

typhoons passing through the country. Dagupan City is also just a meter

above sea level so even with light rains or even high tides higher than one

meter causes flooding in most areas near water bodies. With these non-

modifiable risk factors, Chua reiterated the importance of communication

strategies and materials in informing the public most especially in the

anticipation of the “The Big One”. The Big One is an earthquake that is

expected to happen in the occurrence of movements in the West Valley

Fault and the Manila Trench that may cause an 8.3 magnitude earthquake

(Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, 2013). According to

Bautista (2013), Associate Scientist of Phivolcs, this estimated magnitude

would generate a 7 to 8-meter high Tsunami that will engulf the whole city

from the coastal barangays, up to 11 kilometers inland. Mr. Chua said that

“After the initial major earthquake, the City Disaster Risk Reduction
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Management Office with the Local Government Unit and network of

agencies only have 15 minutes to evacuate at least 160,000 people.”

Dagupan City’s Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office has been

fully aware of this scenario and wants people to have increased

awareness and understanding in case this happens.

Ever since the agency’s conception in 2014, through the mandate

of RA 10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

Act of 2010, they have prioritized in the development and dissemination of

Information, Education, and Communication Materials. Through the

funding of the Local Government Unit (LGU), thousands of DRRM

brochures are being printed and disseminated throughout the city most

especially in the coastal barangays to ensure that Dagupeños are well

informed about safety in times of disaster. These brochures are focused

on environmental hazards such as tsunamis, earthquakes, typhoons and

floods as well as means on how people can prepare for them.

This study sought to identify the effectiveness of Dagupan City

Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office brochures to the safety

awareness of families in coastal barangays. Effectiveness in this study

was defined as the ability of the brochures to increase the knowledge and

perception of people regarding the natural hazards and how they can

prepare for them. To determine their effectiveness, the researcher


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identified gaps between the communication material utilized by the

Dagupan City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office and the

people’s understanding and perception. Furthermore, this study aimed to

give the City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office information that

they can use in the development of better and more effective information,

education, and communication materials in informing the people.

Conceptual Framework

The role of communication in disaster risk reduction is very

essential in reducing the impacts of disasters. Whatever people do is the

result of their choices according to what they know and what situation they

are put into. The knowledge and wisdom people has directly affects any

decisions they make all throughout their lives. In this study, the protective

action decision model served as the framework that supported the

research study.

The protective action decision model is a model based on

researches on people’s reaction to environmental hazards and disasters

(Lindell & Perry, 2012). It can be understood from this model how people

receive information from social and environmental cues that is processed

according to different factors. These factors answer the questions: Who

are the sender and the receiver of the message?; What is the message?;
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and How is the message delivered?. Knowing the answers to these

questions contribute in the full understanding of a message. Sources

should have the credibility and authority in delivering the message.

Receivers on the other hand should have the comprehension and open-

mindedness in accepting the message. The message itself should be

tailored according to the characteristics of the receiver and should be

conveyed in clear, concise manner. Channels in delivering the message

should also be considered. Sources should send messages through

mediums and strategies most accessible and appropriate for them.

Moreover, the protective action decision model has identified pre-

decision processes of people at risk. These are exposure, attention, and

comprehension. This is when people process and interpret the messages

that they have acquired from social and environmental cues and

understand their exposure to possible risks to hazards. This now results to

the three core perceptions, the stakeholder perception, the threat

perception, and the protective action perception, that serve as basis in the

decision making process. Whatever decision people make in the decision-

process, with the influence of situational demands, constraints, and

facilitators will result to a behavioral response. This response may make

them more susceptible to risks or will make them more resistant to them.

The protective action decision model is shown in Figure 1.


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Figure 1. The protective action decision model (Lindell & Perry, 2012)

Contributing Theories

Participatory development communication is a theory defined as

the use of different communication strategies in facilitating community

participation in a development initiative (Bessette, 2004). This theory

emphasizes on the role of communication in encouraging stakeholders to

participate in their own development (participatory development) through

the use of effective communication strategies.

The participatory development communication model shows the

ten-step process in facilitating participation through communication. The


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first three steps (Steps 1, 2, & 3) represent the diagnostic stage of the

process wherein the communication practitioners immerse to the

community and build trusting relationships with the local people to get vital

information about their community, their environment, their strengths, and

their weaknesses. Practitioners, with the participation of the community

will then together identify existing problems in the community, find

possible solutions, and plan appropriate actions. It is vital for the

practitioners to identify the concerned groups and stakeholders in the

community for them to appropriately tailor the communication plan for

them.

The second part of the process is considered as the planning stage

that includes the next three steps (Steps 4, 5, and 6) of the process. In this

stage, the practitioner identifies communication needs, objectives, and

activities according to the data acquired during the diagnostic stage of the

process. This data is also important in formulating appropriate

communication tools suitable for the stakeholders. In preparing

communication materials, it is important for the communication

practitioners to test the content of materials to avoid misinterpretation and

confusion that can lead to the failure of the communication plan.

The next part of the process (Steps 7, 8, & 9) is the intervention or

experimentation stage wherein the communication plan will be


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implemented through the strong partnership between the communication

practitioners and stakeholders. In monitoring, the communication

practitioner will find out if they are in the right track or needs to adjust

something in the implementation of activities. They will also identify which

objectives have already been achieved and which are still to be worked

on. They will also recognize the problems they have encountered during

the process and what solutions they have come up with to solve these

problems. Evaluation on the other hand involves the evaluation of each

step in the process including the diagnostic, up to the implementation

stage of the process. The practitioner will also evaluate the results of

communication activities and its impacts on the problem and development

initiatives. In documentation, the role of the practitioner is to document

every activity in the process and write down annotations and observations

about each activity. Tools in documentation include but not limited to

logbooks, photography, and videography. At the end of the process is the

assessment stage wherein the practitioner and the community will

together assess the outcome of all the preceding stages and will now

refocus the problems and solutions identified at the start of the process. If

the implementation is deemed successful, the practitioner can now look

and expand into different groups of stakeholders and modify the

communication activities to fit their characteristics.


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To sum it up, we can realize the importance of stakeholder’s

analysis in producing effective communication strategies to promote

community participation in any developmental initiatives. It is also

important to highlight the vital role of feedback from the stakeholders in

every step of the participatory development communication process,

which is a two-way communication process, to ensure the achievement of

every objective set by the practitioners. The participatory development

communication model is shown in Figure 2.

1. Developing a 2. Working with the 3.Identifying


relationship and community to concerned
understanding the identify problems, community groups
local setting solutions, and action and stakeholders

10. Planning the Facilitating 4. Identifying


sharing and Participation communication
utilization of results through needs, objectives,
Communication and activities

9. Monitoring, 5. Identifying
evaluating, and appropriate
documenting communication tools

8. Producing and 7. Facilitating 6. Preparing and pre-


Implementation the building of testing communication
of Plan partnership content & materials

Figure 2. The participatory development communication model (Bessette,


2004)
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Furthermore, situational theory of publics is a theory that aims to

understand the public and how this public engages in Information Seeking

Behaviors (Grunig, 2003). Elements in this theory include the three

classifications of the public in the perspective of how they recognize the

problem; this includes problem recognition, constraint recognition, and

level of involvement. Problem recognition is when a person identifies and

recognizes underlying problems that he/she may or may not encounter

and thinks about ways on how to solve these imminent problems.

Constraint recognition on the other hand is where the person recognizes

his/her actions are being limited by factors outside his/her control.

Constraints can either be physical or psychological. Examples of physical

constraints are physical disabilities, lack of money and shelter, and no

accessibility to roads and bridges while psychological constraints can be

the lack of motivation, low self-esteem, lack of interest and low self-

efficacy (Witte & Allen, 2000). Lastly, level of involvement is the person’s

personal connection to a specified problem. A person’s level of

involvement is dependent on how relevant or important the problem is for

that person. The more the person understands information about a

problem, the more he or she gets involved to that problem. This

involvement will then initiate the person take action to that problem.

Together, these three elements will determine how people will process the
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information that they have acquired. They may choose to seek information

or process information. Information seeking is the more active way in

dealing with information while information processing is the more passive

one. Information seekers seek information to better understand a specific

problem while information processors do not actively pursue knowledge

but process any information that comes to them (Kim & Grunig, 2011).

Situational theory of publics model can be employed by

implementers of disaster risk reduction plans to further understand the

people. With thorough understanding of the audience, they could be able

to come up with different communication strategies and materials that will

make people more interested and involved in managing their risks. It has

to be reiterated that information gives power to the public. This power can

then help them decide in reducing their risks in times of disasters. The

situational theory of publics model is presented in Figure 3.

Constraint Problem Level of


Recognition Recognition Involvement

Information
Seeking and
Information
Processing

Figure 3. The situational theory of publics model (Kim & Grunig, 2011)
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In disaster risk communication, it is always important to know the

audience and how they understand and perceive the message given to

them. For communication practitioners to do this, they have to conduct

continuous research and analysis of the audience, the message, and

medium in order to develop newer and more fitting communication

materials. The research paradigm is presented in Figure 4 showing the

whole research process.

The input is comprised first of the profile of the respondents. This

includes their age, sex, highest educational attainment, and barangay that

were needed in the interpretation of data. Next is, the respondent’s

previous exposure to the brochures disseminated by the City Disaster

Risk Reduction Management Office. This determined the respondents’

prior exposure to the brochures and also identified which communication

method they attributed their knowledge of disaster risk reduction came

from. The respondent’s degree of understanding on the other hand gave

the researcher the data on how respondents were able to understand the

different messages conveyed in these brochures. And lastly, the

respondent’s perception that gave the researcher the data on how the

respondents perceived the brochures in terms of their content,

appropriateness, and presentational appeal. To further determine the

respondents’ perceptions, these three were also subdivided into themes.


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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

 Profile of the Development


respondents of newer and
 Exposure to Disaster  Survey repackaged
Risk Reduction Questionnaire Disaster Risk
Management Office  Interview Reduction
brochures  Statistical Management
 Degree of understanding Treatment and brochures
to the Safety messages Discourse
conveyed in the Disaster analysis of
Risk Reduction data gathered
Management Office
brochures
 Perception on the
Disaster Risk Reduction
Management brochures Feedback

Figure 4. The research paradigm of the study

Data was gathered through descriptive mixed method research

design, quantitative and qualitative research methods, by employing data

collecting instruments like survey questionnaires and interviews. Data

gathered will be analyzed through statistical treatment and discourse

analysis.

Gathered and analyzed data can be used by implementers and

communication practitioners in crafting better and more appropriate

communication materials. Furthermore, this will be creating a more

knowledgeable and well-informed public especially before, during, and

after disasters.
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Statement of the Problem

The study sought to determine the effectiveness of Dagupan City

Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office brochures to the safety

awareness of families in coastal barangays. Specifically, the study sought

to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

a. Sex;

b. Age;

c. Highest Educational Attainment;

d. Barangay?

2. What Disaster Risk Reduction Management brochures were the

respondents previously exposed to?

3. What is the degree of understanding of the respondents to the

Safety messages conveyed in the Disaster Risk Reduction Management

Office brochures?

4. What is the respondents’ perception on the Disaster Risk

Reduction Management Office brochures in terms of:

a. Content (Clarity, relevance, and recall of messages)

b. Appropriateness (Language and Word choice)

c. Presentational Appeal (Text size, Color combination,

Illustrations used)?
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5. How can the Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office

brochures be improved as perceived by the respondents?

6. Is there a significant difference in the degree of understanding on

the different Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office brochures

across the demographic profile of the respondents?


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METHODOLOGY

This chapter delineates the research methods that were utilized in

the study. Explanation and rationale in choosing these methods (data

collection, presentation, and interpretation) were also presented. This

chapter includes the study’s Research Design, Population and Locale of

the Study, Data Collection and Procedure, Data Collection Instruments,

and Treatment of Data.

Research Design

The study utilized the mixed method research design. Mixed

method research design is defined as the research in which the

investigator collects and analyzes data, integrates the findings, and draws

inferences using both quantitative and qualitative research methods

(Tashakkori & Cresswell, 2017). The study also employed descriptive

research which is a scientific method that involves observing and

describing the behaviour of a subject without influencing it (Shuttleworth,

2008). The research designs that were used in the study accurately

described the effectiveness of Dagupan City Disaster Risk Reduction

Management Office brochures to the safety awareness of families in

coastal barangays. Moreover, by using both quantitative and qualitative

methods, the researcher did not only collect numerical data but also
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provided a deeper understanding and interpretation of the respondents’

response, through an in-depth interview. The obtained results can be

utilized by the Dagupan City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office

in improving their brochures.

Population and Locale of the Study

The study was conducted in the three coastal barangays of

Dagupan City. This includes Barangay Bonuan Binloc, Barangay Bonuan

Gueset and Barangay Bonuan Boquig. These three Barangays are

located North-West of the City of Dagupan facing the West Philippine Sea

where the Manila Trench is located as seen in the map presented in

Figure 5. The map also shows the boundaries of each barangay and how

they are separated from each other. All three barangays include a coastal

area where most fishing communities live as well as inland communities

few kilometers away from the coastline. The choice of the coastal

barangays by the researcher is primarily for the reason that these

barangays are the most vulnerable during natural hazards that frequent

the country like storm surges, typhoons, waterspouts, lightings,

earthquakes, and tsunamis. The populations included in this study are

families living in these three barangays. Based on the 2015 Population

Census of the City Planning Development Office (CPDO) of Dagupan City,


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Figure 5. Map of Dagupan City where arrows indicate the location of the
three coastal barangays of Dagupan City (Google Maps, 2018)

the total number of households in these three barangays is 10,581. It must

be said that in this study, one household was equated to one family. The

breakdown of the number of households is as follows: Barangay Bonuan

Binloc has 2,003 households; Bonuan Boquig on the other hand has 2,892

households; lastly Bonuan Gueset has 5,686 households (CPDO, 2015).

To be able to get the sample population from the total number of

population in quantitative part of the research, the researcher utilized the

Sample Size Formula from SurveyMonkey.com. This formula is the

standard formula used in different types of quantitative researches in

different fields and disciplines.

Sample Size = z2 x p(1-p)


e2

1 + (z2 x p(1-p)
e2 N
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Where:

N = Total Number of Population (10,581)

z = Confidence Level (95% = 1.96)

e = Margin of error (5% = 0.05)

p = largest possible proportion (0.5)

With this formula, the researcher was able to get the sample size of

371 households for all the three coastal barangays. To confirm this value,

the researcher double-checked with two well-known Survey Development

and Research companies called Survey Monkey and The Survey System

through their automated sample size calculators that confirmed the

researcher’s manual calculations. To derive the sample size population

per barangay, the researcher used distribution proportion as shown in

Table 1.

Table 1. Distribution proportion of sample sizes per barangay

BARANGAY POPULATION PERCENTAGE SAMPLE SIZE


Binloc 2,003 18.90 72
Boquig 2,892 27.33 102
Gueset 5,600 52.93 197
Total 10,581 100 371

In the qualitative part of the study, the researcher utilized a non-

probability sampling technique, specifically purposive sampling wherein 30

respondents were chosen according to a criteria set by the researcher in


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order to attain the objectives of the study. The criteria for the selection of

respondents are as follows: (1) head of the family, it can be the mother,

the father, a grandparent or a guardian; (2) of legal age; (3) literate in

Filipino and/or English; and (4) a coastal barangay resident. The criteria

were devised to be able to get respondents who are able to make

decisions for their family especially regarding safety during times of

disaster. This will ensure the reliability and validity of the data coming from

the respondents.

The qualitative part of the research utilized a structured interview

where 10 participants per barangay have been selected. There were a

total of 30 participants for all three coastal barangays. The sample size

was essentially taken from the Rule of Thumb wherein in-depth interviews

should have approximately 30 participants that should last for not more

than 20 minutes each interview (Nastasi et al., 2004). Moreover, the

researcher also considered the guideline given by Bertaux (1981) and

Guest et al. (2006) that stated that 15 participants is the smallest

acceptable sample size aimed at all qualitative researches. Another

guideline recognized in getting the sample size is from Green (2009) and

Thorogood (2004) that suggested that in interview studies, 20 participants

is enough to reach saturation and explained that no ‘new’ information

comes out of transcripts after interviewing 20 or more people.


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Sampling technique in this part of the research was Criterion

Sampling. Criterion Sampling selects participants that meet the criterion

set by the researcher and is often used in determining aspects of a

process that could be improved on (Nastasi et al., 2004). The criteria for

interviewing participants were the same as the criteria set for the

qualitative part of the research.

Data Collection Instrument

The quantitative part of the study utilized a survey questionnaire.

This questionnaire was used to answer questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the

Statement of the Problem. The questionnaire has three parts and was

written in both English and Filipino. The first part necessitated the profile

of the respondents (Statement of the Problem 1). It also obtained

information about the respondents’ prior exposure to the presented

brochures (Statement of the Problem 2).

The second and the third part of the questionnaire made use of a

four-point Likert scale (rating scale) where the respondents were able to

choose how they agree or disagree with a particular statement. To be

more precise, the second part (Statement of the Problem 3) was about the

respondent’s degree of understanding of the messages conveyed in the

brochures. A four-point scale (Fully Understood, Understood, Quite


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Understood, Not understood) was used for this part of the questionnaire. A

separate Likert scale was used for the third part (Statement of the

Problem 4) of the questionnaire and was about the respondents’

perception of the presented brochures where a four-point scale (Strongly

Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree) was also utilized. To ensure

the reliability and validity of the data, the questionnaire had undergone

reliability testing and evaluation.

Data Collection Procedure

The researcher first and foremost coordinated with the Local

Government Unit (LGU) as well as barangay officials to make the data

collection an authorized activity. Since the researcher is utilizing purposive

sampling technique, he sought assistance from someone in each

barangay to help determine the respondents by reviewing the criteria

devised for the study. For the quantitative part of the research, upon

arrival in the respondent’s home, the researcher discussed the purpose of

the study. Before proceeding to the administration of the survey

questionnaire, the researcher asked each respondent to go through

Information, Education, and Communication materials officially used by

the City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office. The brochures that

were utilized in the study are presented in Plates 1, 2, 3, and 4.


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The Tsunami Family Disaster Preparedness brochure intends to

inform the audience about what a tsunami is, what causes it, and its

natural signs. It also informs the audience what to do before, during, and

after a tsunami. This was developed and produced by the CRRMO.

Plate 1. Tsunami family disaster preparedness brochure


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Earthquake Family Disaster Preparedness brochure aims to

educate people about earthquakes and how it will affect them. The

brochure also instructs the audience what to do before, during, and after

an earthquake. This was developed and produced by the CRRMO.

Plate 2. Earthquake family disaster preparedness brochure


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Flood and typhoon family disaster preparedness brochure teaches

people about the causes of flooding in Dagupan and how vulnerable the

city is to typhoons. Preparations before, during, and after typhoons and

floods are also indicated. This was developed and produced by the

CRRMO.

Plate 3. Flood and typhoon family disaster preparedness brochure


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The 72-hour emergency kit brochure intends to inform people on

what to prepare in times of disasters. Included are lists of emergency kits

for first aid, hygiene, food, medicine, sleeping and survival. This was

developed and produced by the CRRMO.

Plate 4. 72-hour emergency kit brochure


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After giving the respondent some time with the materials, the

researcher gave the respondent more time to answer the questionnaire.

The researcher was also open to any questions or clarifications on some

aspects of the questionnaire.

In the qualitative part of the research, the researcher had chosen

10 participants to interview from each coastal barangay in accordance to

the criteria set in the sampling technique used. The researcher informed

the participants that they would be video and audio recorded for

transcription purposes and assured them that all their perceptions,

suggestions, and recommendations would be very beneficial to the study.

The video and audio recording as well as the transcription of the interview

were used as basis for cross-checking and verification of quantitative data

collected.

The qualitative part of the study utilized the Interview. The interview

questions aimed to answer Statement of the Problem number 5 and were

administered in Filipino. Participants were asked questions about their

perceptions, suggestions, and recommendations on how to improve the

brochures. To ensure the objectivity of data collection, the Interview was

video and audio recorded, transcribed and was analyzed and interpreted

using Discourse Analysis. The video and audio recording as well as the

transcription served as basis for cross-checking and verification of data.


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Treatment of Data

This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative data analysis.

The quantitative data in the study were analyzed through numerous

statistical tools. The first part of the questionnaire was analyzed using the

percentage formula.

Percentage = Number of Responses x 100


Number of Respondents

The second part and the third part of the questionnaire were

analyzed using the weighted mean to show the average of the

respondent's feedback in the Likert Scale. The formula of the weighted

mean is below:

wm = w1x1+w2x2+w3x3+w4x4
N

Where:

wm = weighted mean

w = frequency

x = weight of response

N = total number of respondents

Moreover, examples of the descriptive values of the weighted mean

to answer Statement of the Problem 3 are shown in Table 2. The

descriptive values are used to match the four-point likert scale. Also, the
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descriptive values utilized to answer Statement of the Problem 4 are

‘Strongly Agree’, ‘Agree', ‘Disagree’, and ‘Strongly Disagree’.

Table 2. Example of scale interval and descriptive value of a four-point


scale
SCALE INTERVAL DESCRIPTIVE VALUE
3.26 – 4.00 Fully Understood
2.51 – 3.25 Understood
1.76 – 2.50 Moderately Understood
1.00 – 1.75 Not Understood

The responses of the respondents in Statement of the Problem 6

were sorted by the researcher to find out the significant difference

between the profile of the respondents and their degree of understanding

of messages conveyed in Disaster Risk Reduction Management

brochures. To get this, the researcher used the Analysis of Variance or

ANOVA. ANOVA is a statistical method used to test differences between

two or more means (Lane, n.d.). The researcher used Microsoft Excel to

compute the P-value through ANOVA.

The qualitative part of the study, which is the Interview, was

analyzed using the Discourse Analysis method to interpret the

perceptions, suggestions, and recommendations of the participants.

Discourse Analysis can be defined as the study of the ways in which

language is used in texts and contexts or texts’ surrounding and defining

the discourse (Nordquist, 2017).


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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the data

gathered in the study. The findings were based from the data obtained

through the questionnaires distributed to the respondents as well as the

answers of the participants in the interviews done by the researcher. The

analysis and interpretation of the data sought to answer the questions set

by the researcher.

The Profile of the Respondents

The first question the researcher sought to answer was to identify

the profile of the respondents in terms of their sex, age, highest

educational attainment and barangay. The distribution of the respondents

in terms of sex is shown in Table 3.

In Barangay Binloc, most of the respondents were female (45 or

63%) while the rest were male (27 or 37%). In Barangay Boquig on the

other hand, females have a frequency of 71 or 70% while males have a

frequency of 31 or 30%. Moreover, in Barangay Gueset, 120 or 61% of

the respondents were female while 77 or 39% were male. Lastly, with the

combination of respondents from all three barangays, 236 or 64% of them

were females while 135 or 36% were males.


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Table 3. Distribution of the respondents in terms of sex

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
Male 27 37 31 30 77 39 135 36
Female 45 63 71 70 120 61 236 64
Total 72 100 102 100 197 100 371 100

Legend: F = Frequency
% = Percentage

The results suggest that majority of the respondents in all three

coastal barangays are women. These results are totally different with the

figures given by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA, 2017) on the total

population of the Philippines by sex. In this census, it was founded that

50.6% of the population are male while 49.4% are female.

According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP,

2013), disasters tend to severely affect the most marginalized

demographics, most specifically women. Women and girls tend to be more

exposed to disaster risks and have higher rates of mortality, morbidity, and

damage to livelihood. However, UNDP also stresses women’s

contributions in disaster risk reduction most especially when there is

attention given to women empowerment and gender equality. The unique

contributions of women include practical needs such as credit, livelihoods,

water and sanitation, health and education.


33

Table 4 shows the distribution of respondents in terms of age.

Included in this table are the age ranges that the respondents belong to

across all three barangays. The age ranges were determined with the

intervals of eight. In Bonuan Binloc, it is clear that the age range with the

highest frequency is 34 – 41 with 16 or 22%, followed by age range 42 –

49 with 15 or 21% and age range 26 – 33 with 14 or 19%. The age range

that has the lowest frequency is 18 – 25 with only 2 or 3%. In Bonuan

Boquig on the other hand, respondents with ages 34 – 41 have the

highest frequency with 22 or 21%. This is followed by age range 42 – 49

with 20 or 19% and age range 50 - 57 with 19 or 19%. No respondent

belong to the age group 66 and above. Bonuan Boquig is the only

barangay that has no repondent 66 years old and above.

Table 4. Distribution of the respondents in terms of age

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
18 - 25 2 3 17 17 13 6 32 9
26 - 33 14 19 18 18 23 12 55 15
34 - 41 16 22 22 21 29 15 67 18
42 - 49 15 21 20 19 47 24 82 22
50 - 57 13 18 19 19 43 22 75 20
58 - 65 7 10 6 6 32 16 45 12
66 and up 5 7 0 0 10 5 15 4
Total 72 100 102 100 197 100 371 100

Legend: F = Frequency
% = Percentage
34

Furthermore, in Barangay Gueset, age range 42 – 49 has the

highest frequency with 47 or 24% followed by age range 50 – 57 with 43

or 22%. The respondents aged 66 and up have the lowest frequency with

10 or 5%. Lastly, for the total respondents of all three barangays, the age

ranges that have the highest frequencies are 42 – 49, 50 – 57, and 34 –

41 with 82 or 22%, 75 or 20% and 67 or 18%, respectively. Age range that

has the lowest frequency within all three barangays is 66 and up with only

15 or just 4%.

This implies that majority of the respondents are middle-aged

adults. Respondents in this age group are heads of their families that are

able to decide on any safety concerns of their family. This also means that

minority of the respondents are either in their young or late adulthood.

Age is one factor that determines how people are affected by

disasters. According to Wahlström (2015), a Special Representative of

the Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction, older people are often

affected by natural disasters that result to what should have been

preventable and unequal loss of life. They are often overlooked even with

their heightened susceptibility to disasters. Their susceptibility can be

attributed to their physical decline, lack of adequate service facilities,

discrimination, and high poverty levels in older people. Even though older

adults are important sources of information, they are often disregarded.


35

However, Wahlström emphasized that older people can be good sources

of information in finding solutions for problems encountered in disaster risk

reduction because of their invaluable knowledge, lifetime of experiences,

and skills that can be utilized by their own communities.

Shown in Table 5 is the distribution of the respondents in terms of

their highest educational attainment. This is the highest educational level

the respondent is able to complete or reach. In Bonuan Binloc, most of the

respondents were able to at least have a high school education with 32 or

45%; followed by respondents reaching at least College level with 14 or

20%. Respondents completing a College Degree came next with 14 or

20%. A small portion of the respondents was able to reach elementary

level with 6 or 8% while 3 or 4% were able to finish a vocational course.

On the other hand, only 1 or 1% is an elementary graduate while there

were no respondents without formal education. In Bonuan Boquig,

respondents that have at least a High School education again acquired

the highest frequency with 34 or 33% followed by respondents that

reached College level with 26 or 25%. This is followed by High school

graduates with 13 or 13%, and College graduates with 12 or 12% follow

this. Moreover, respondents that reached Elementary level as well as

respondents with no formal education follows with 10 or 10% and 4 or 4%,

respectively. There were 2 or 2% Elementary graduates and 1 or 1%


36

vocational course finisher. In Bonuan Gueset on the other hand, just like

the previous two barangays, the respondents that acquired the highest

frequency were High School level that is followed by College level with 71

or 36% and 64 or 32%, respectively. This is followed by High School

graduates with 24 or 12%, College graduates with 19 or 10%, and

Elementary graduates with 8 or 4%. Respondents with no formal

education, Elementary level and Vocational course finisher acquired the

least frequencies with 6 or 3%, 4 or 2%, and 1 or 1%, respectively.

Table 5. Distribution of the respondents in terms of highest educational


attainment

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
E 6 8 10 10 4 2 20 6
EG 1 1 2 2 8 4 11 3
HSL 32 45 34 33 71 36 137 37
HSG 5 7 13 13 24 12 42 11
CL 14 20 26 25 64 32 104 28
CG 11 15 12 12 19 10 42 11
NFE 0 0 4 4 6 3 10 3
VC 3 4 1 1 1 1 5 1
Total 72 100 102 100 197 100 371 100

Legend: F = Frequency
% = Percentage
E = Elementary
EG = Elementary graduate
HS = High School Level
HSG = High School Graduate
C = College Level
CG = College Graduate
NFE = No Formal Education
VC = Vocational Course
37

As for the combination of the respondents in all three barangays,

the respondents that have the most frequency is High School level with

137 or 37%; followed by College level with 104 or 28%. Next are High

School graduates and College graduates both having the frequency of 42

or 11%. Moreover, respondents that reached Elementary level have 20 or

6%. Small proportions of the total respondents are Elementary graduates,

respondents with no formal education and Vocational course finishers with

11 or 3%, 10 or 3% and 5 or 1%, respectively.

These results tell us that most of the respondents were able to

attain a High School and Tertiary level education which implies that

majority of the respondents are literate and were able to read the

brochures presented them. However even with these results, it is still very

noticeable that there are respondents that were only able to attain primary

education and even some that have never attended any formal education.

In contrast to these results, in the 2015 census from the PSA

(2017), it was found out that there are more High School graduates and

College graduates than those that are High School and College

undergraduates in the Philippines. Also, in this census, it is shown that

there is a noticeable number in the total population that wasn’t able to

complete any grade level specifically 2.9 million Filipinos. Education is

important in disaster risk reduction because it ensures the increase of the


38

literacy rate in the population. This means that with more people that are

literate, it will be easier for communicators to communicate with the

communities using the different communication methods and materials. In

the Philippines, 95.6% are basically literate (PSA, 2011). To broaden the

function of education in disaster risk reduction, the United Nations

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR, n.d) have been

encouraging the global integration of disaster risk reduction in education to

involve the children and the youth in any decision-making process that will

affect their future. This measure is also supported by the United Nations

International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF, 2011) because they

believe that students of all ages can have an active participation, with

teachers and other adults, in minimizing the risks before, during, and after

disasters. Schools can teach children life skills that in turn they can impart

with their own communities. Through this, children will become more

empowered in helping their communities in finding solutions to minimize

their risks to the constant dangers of natural calamities.

Respondents’ Exposure to the Different


CDRRMO Brochures

The second question the researcher sought to answer was the

respondents’ exposure to the different disaster risk reduction management

office brochures. Shown in Table 6 is the distribution of respondents


39

according to their exposure to specific safety awareness brochures. The

table indicates which of the four brochures the respondents have been

previously exposed to. These four brochures are the Tsunami brochure,

Earthquake brochure, Flood and typhoon brochure, and the 72-hour

emergency kit brochure.

In Bonuan Binloc, the brochure that most respondents were

previously exposed to is the Flood and typhoon brochure with 46 or 64%,

followed by the Tsunami brochure, with 42 or 58%, Earthquake brochure

with 38 or 53%, and the 72-hour emergency kit brochure with 26 or 36%.

In Bonuan Boquig, the brochure with the highest frequency is the Flood

and typhoon brochure with 56 or 55%, followed by the 72-hour emergency

kit brochure with 43 or 42%, Earthquake brochure with 39 or 38%, and

Tsunami brochure with 36 or 35%. In Bonuan Gueset, the brochure that

most respondents were previously exposed to is the Flood and typhoon

brochure with 102 or 52% of the respondents followed by the 72-hour

emergency kit brochure with 97 or 49%, Earthquake brochure with 90 or

46% and Tsunami brochure with 89 or 45%. Looking at the results of the

data obtained from the total respondents, it can be seen that Flood and

typhoon brochures acquired the most frequency with 204 or 55%. This is

followed by the Earthquake and Tsunami brochure both with 167 or 45%,

and the 72-hour emergency kit with 166 or 45%.


40

Table 6. Distribution of respondents according to their exposure to


specific safety awareness brochures

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
Tsunami 42 58 36 35 89 45 167 45
Earthquake 38 53 39 38 90 46 167 45
Flood & 46 64 56 55 102 52 204 55
typhoon
72-hour 26 36 43 42 97 49 166 45
emergency
kit

Legend: F = Frequency
% = Percentage

The results suggest that out of the 371 total respondents, 204 or

55% were previously exposed to the Flood and typhoon preparedness

brochure that emerged as the most exposed brochure out of the four. On

the other hand, only 45% of the total population was previously exposed to

the other three brochures. Additionally, with 123 or 33% of the

respondents not being exposed to any of the brochures, it can be inferred

that there is still needed work in the dissemination of all four brochures

within the three barangays.

The distribution of respondents according to the number of safety

awareness brochures they were previously exposed to is shown in Table

7. Respondents might have been previously exposed to one, two, three or


41

all four of the brochures but they might not also been exposed to any of

them.

In Bonuan Binloc, 23 or 32% of the respondents said that they were

previously exposed to the four disaster risk reduction brochures, followed

by respondents saying that they have not seen any of the brochures with

19 or 27%. Next are respondents that have seen at least two of the

brochures with 18 or 25%, followed by respondents that have seen one

and three of the brochures, both having the frequency of 6 or 8%. In

Bonuan Boquig, a large part of the respondents said that they have not

seen any of the four brochures with 31 or 30% followed by respondents

that have seen all four of the safety brochures. Twenty-four (24)

respondents or 24% on the other hand said that they have just seen one

of the brochures while 17 or 17% said they have seen at least two

brochures. A small proportion of the respondents have just seen three of

the brochures with the frequency 4 or 3%. In Bonuan Gueset, 75 or 38%

of the respondents have seen all of the four safety preparedness

brochures while not far behind with 73 or 37% are respondents that have

not seen any of the brochures. Twenty-seven (27) respondents or 14%

said that they have just seen two of the brochures while 21 or 10% have

seen only one. Only 1 respondent or 1% said that they have seen at least

three of the brochures.


42

Table 7. Distribution of respondents according to the number of safety


awareness brochures they were previously exposed to

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
One 6 8 24 24 21 10 51 14
Two 18 25 17 17 27 14 62 17
Three 6 8 4 3 1 1 11 3
Four 23 32 26 26 75 38 124 33
None 19 27 31 30 73 37 123 33
Total 72 100 102 100 197 100 371 100

Legend: F = Frequency
% = Percentage

Across all three barangays, respondents that have seen all four of

the disaster risk reduction brochures acquired the highest frequency with

124 or 33%. The respondents who have not seen any of the four

brochures are 123 or 33%. Sixty-two (62) respondents or 17% said that

they have only seen two of the brochures while 51 or 14 percent just saw

one. The respondents that have seen three of the brochures acquired the

lowest frequency with 11 or 3%.

The results imply that 248 or 67% of the 371 total respondents are

exposed to at least one of the brochures while 123 or 33% have not been

exposed to any of the brochures. Of the 248 exposed respondents, 50%

were exposed to all four brochures, while 25% were exposed to two

brochures, 21% to one brochure and 4% to three brochures. These

outcomes suggest there are still a sizeable number of respondents that


43

have never seen any of the brochures. There are also respondents that

have seen some of the safety preparedness brochures but not all of them.

This also implies that there were areas in the barangays that have not

been saturated by the safety preparedness brochures.

Tables 6 and 7 presented the respondents’ exposure to the

CDRRMO brochures. In disaster management, the audience’s exposure

to information about safety and risk reduction is vital for we are dealing

with people’s lives. By exposing people to information, we can build

resilient and inclusive communities where no one is left behind, which is

one of the core components of sustainable development (Rothe, 2018).

Communities and individuals can be very effective partners in public

awareness and public education for this can empower normal people

everywhere to participate in reducing future disasters (IFRC, 2011).

Table 8 shows the distribution of respondents according to the

communication methods they attribute their knowledge in disaster

preparation. This includes different communication platforms like the

CDRRMO brochures and seminars, television, radio, Internet, and

newspaper.

A large number of respondents from Bonuan Binloc attributed their

knowledge in disaster preparedness to television with 43 or 60%. This is

followed by the CDRRMO brochures with 24 or 33%, radio with 23 or


44

32%, and Internet with 19 or 26%. A smaller number of respondents

attribute their knowledge to both the CDRRMO brochures and seminars

with 6 or 8%, CDRRMO seminars with 4 or 6%, and Newspaper with 1 or

1%. In Bonuan Boquig, a great number of respondents attribute their

knowledge in disaster preparedness to television obtaining the highest

frequency with 45 or 44%, followed by CDRRMO brochures with 44 or

43%. This is then followed by radio with 14 or 14% and both CDRRMO

brochure and seminar also with 14 or 14%. CDRRMO seminars and

Internet follow this with 13 or 13% and 9 or 9%, respectively.

Table 8. Distribution of respondents according to the communication


methods they attribute their knowledge in disaster preparation

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


F % F % F % F %
Brochures 24 33 44 43 73 37 141 38
Seminars 4 6 13 13 27 14 44 12
Both 6 8 14 14 18 9 38 10
brochure &
seminar
TV 43 60 45 44 81 41 169 46
Radio 23 32 14 14 42 21 79 21
Internet 19 26 9 9 11 6 39 11
Newspaper 1 1 0 0 3 2 4 1

Legend: F = Frequency;
% = Percentage

Moreover, in Bonuan Gueset majority of the respondents answered

that they attribute their knowledge in disaster preparation to television with


45

81 or 41%, followed by CDRRMO brochures with 73 or 37%, radio with 42

or 21%, seminars with 27 or 14% and both brochure and seminar with 18

or 9%. Internet and newspaper got the lowest frequency with 11 or 6%

and 3 or 2%, respectively. The results from the total respondents are

noticeably similar with the results in each barangay with television getting

the highest frequency with 169 or 46%, CDRRMO brochures with 141 or

38%, and radio with 79 or 21%. Succeeding communication methods that

followed are CDRRMO seminars, with 44 or 12%, both CDRRMO

brochure and seminar with 38 or 10%, Internet with 39 or 11% and

newspaper with 4 or 1%.

The results imply that most of the respondents attribute their

knowledge in disaster preparation to television since it is one of the most

popular and effective ways of disseminating information to people.

CDRRMO brochures and radio on the other hand are also considerable

sources of exposure to the respondents. In addition, they are good

sources of information about safety preparation. However, some of the

results also suggest that the respondents are not very familiar with the

CDRRMO seminars. Some respondents who acquired their safety

preparedness information from both CDRRMO brochures and seminars

also represent a very small section of the total population. The use of the
46

Internet and newspapers are also good sources of safety information but

were not prevalent among the respondents.

To support these, the census released by the Philippine Statistics

Authority (PSA, 2013) showed that 81% of the Filipinos are most exposed

to television that simply means that four in every five Filipinos watch

television. Radio on the other hand is second with 65.6% followed by

reading materials such as newspaper, magazines, and posters with

60.7%, 60.6%, and 45% respectively. In the study of Zhang et al. (2014)

called Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the

Application for Disaster Pre-Warning, it was concluded that television is

not just a good source of information but also has a higher information

coverage with the highest degree of trust. It was also suggested in this

study that the combination of information dissemination mediums should

be designed to the particular disaster situation.

Exposure of the community to the different communication

mediums is essential to a successful communication campaign most

especially in disaster risk reduction. The more people are exposed to

safety awareness messages, the more people will adhere to safety

recommendations. People’s exposure to communication messages can be

described in some of the communication theories. In Agenda-Setting

Theory (McCombs et al., 1997), media is portrayed to have a powerful


47

influence to people and that they have the capacity to tell the audience

what messages are important and what are not. The media may not

always be effective in telling people what to think but they are always

successful in telling people what messages to think about. Uses and

Gratification Theory (Katz & Blumler, 1974) on the other hand gives the

power to the audience. That people have the ability to choose which

mediums and messages are appropriate for them that will gratify their own

needs and desires. Similarly, Selective Exposure Theory (Stroud, 2017)

posits that people supports information or messages that agrees or

reassures with their own ideas, beliefs, and opinions. Uses and

Gratification Theory and Selective Exposure Theory both suggest that the

audience has more control in the selection of messages than the media.

The Respondents’ Degree of Understanding to the


Messages Conveyed in the Different Brochures

The third question the researcher sought to answer was the

respondents’ degree of understanding to the safety messages conveyed

in the different City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office

brochures. Respondents were asked to rate the safety messages on how

they understood them. This provided the researcher the respondents’

degree of understanding to the safety messages.


48

Table 9 specifically discloses the degree of understanding of the

respondents to the safety messages in the Tsunami preparedness

brochure. The brochure contains five messages about tsunami and how

people could prepare for it. Also in the table are the weighted means of

the responses as well as their corresponding remarks.

In Bonuan Binloc, the first message ‘Meaning of tsunami’ has a

weighted mean of 3.4, the third message ‘Preparations before a tsunami’

with a mean of 3.32, and fifth message ‘Hotline numbers that should be

remembered’ with a mean of 3.28, have been interpreted as ‘Fully

Understood’. However, the second message ‘Natural signs of a

threatening tsunami’ with a weighted mean of 3.24 and the fourth

message ‘Safety precautions in case there are signs of tsunami’ with 3.25

both have been interpreted as ‘Understood’. The overall weighted mean

for Bonuan Binloc is 3.29 or ‘Fully Understood’. In Bonuan Boquig,

messages one to five have been interpreted as ‘Fully Understood” with

weighted means of 3.39, 3.32, 3.39, 3.41, and 3.28, respectively. The

overall weighted mean for Bonuan Boquig is 3.36 or ‘Fully Understood’.

Moreover, in Bonuan Gueset, the first message ‘Meaning of tsunami’ has

gotten a weighted mean of 3.36 and interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’,

while the rest of the messages in the Tsunami preparedness brochure

have acquired weighted means of 3.36, 3.17, 3.18, 3.22, and, 3.17 that
49

can be interpreted as ‘Understood’. The overall weighted mean for

Bonuan Gueset is 3.12 or ‘Understood’.

Table 9. Degree of understanding of the respondents to the safety


messages conveyed in the tsunami preparedness brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
1. Meaning of 3.40 FU 3.39 FU 3.32 FU 3.36 FU
tsunami
2. Natural 3.24 U 3.32 FU 3.06 U 3.17 U
signs of a
threatening
tsunami
3. Preparations 3.32 FU 3.39 FU 3.02 U 3.18 U
before a tsunami
4. Safety 3.25 U 3.41 FU 3.12 U 3.22 U
precautions in
case there are
signs of
tsunami
5. Hotline 3.28 FU 3.28 FU 3.07 U 3.17 U
numbers that
should be
remembered
Overall WM 3.29 FU 3.36 FU 3.12 U 3.22 U

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
FU = Fully Understood (3.26 – 4.00)
U = Understood (2.51 – 3.25)
MU = Moderately Understood (1.76 – 2.50)
NU = Not Understood (1.00 – 1.75)

Lastly, the total respondents of the three barangays provided

comparable results to the individual barangay results where the first


50

message having a weighted mean of 3.36 and interpreted as ‘Fully

Understood’ while messages two, three, four, and five acquired weighted

means of 3.17, 3.18, 3.22, and 3.17, respectively. The results indicate that

the overall weighted mean of the total respondents from all three

barangays is 3.22 and have been interpreted as ‘Understood’. This implies

that the respondents have understood the different safety messages

conveyed in the Tsunami preparedness brochure.

The results imply that the respondents only “understood” the signs

of tsunamis, preparation for tsunami, the safety precautions for tsunami,

and the contact details in case of tsunamis contained in the brochure

because they still need more information with regard to tsunami

preparedness and safety which are not provided in the brochures. This

can be attributed to the lack of experience of the residents on tsunami.

Residents of the said coastal barangays have only witnessed high waves

brought about by storms, but not tsunamis that result from storm surge or

tectonic activities. The findings are in contrast with the experiences of

neighboring Asian countries such as Indonesia and Japan where there

was a heightened awareness in tsunami and tsunami preparedness for

the past decade since 2004 (Esteban et al., 2015).

Table 10 shows the degree of understanding of the respondents to

the safety messages conveyed in the earthquake preparedness brochure.


51

The brochure contains five messages about earthquake and how people

could prepare for it.

In Bonuan Binloc, the messages ‘Meaning of earthquake’, ‘Effects

of earthquake’, ‘Preparations before and earthquake’, ‘What to do during

an earthquake?’, and ‘What to do after an earthquake?’ have weighted

means of 3.33, 3.36, 3.36, 3.35, and 3.33, respectively. These results

have been interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’.

Table 10. Degree of understanding of the respondents to the safety


messages conveyed in the earthquake preparedness brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
1. Meaning of 3.33 FU 3.48 FU 3.43 FU 3.42 FU
earthquake
2. Effects of 3.36 FU 3.44 FU 3.35 FU 3.37 FU
earthquake
3. Preparations 3.36 FU 3.50 FU 3.28 FU 3.36 FU
before an
earthquake
4. What to do 3.35 FU 3.51 FU 3.47 FU 3.46 FU
during an
earthquake?
5. What to do 3.33 FU 3.47 FU 3.38 FU 3.39 FU
after an
earthquake?
Overall WM 3.35 FU 3.48 FU 3.38 FU 3.40 FU

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
FU = Fully Understood (3.26 – 4.00)
U = Understood (2.51 – 3.25)
MU = Moderately Understood (1.76 – 2.50)
NU = Not Understood (1.00 – 1.75)
52

The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Binloc is 3.35 or ‘Fully

Understood’. The earlier results are similar with Bonuan Boquig, where

messages one, two, three, four, and five have also been interpreted as

“Fully Understood’ with weighted means of 3.48, 3.44, 3.50, 3.51, and

3.47. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Boquig is 3.48 or ‘Fully

Understood’. Also in Bonuan Gueset, messages one, two, three, four,

and five have weighted means within the ‘Fully Understood’ scale

interval specifically 3.43, 3.35, 3.28, 3.47, and 3.38 respectively. The

overall weighted mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.38 or ‘Fully Understood’.

Lastly, in the results of total respondents from different barangays, the

messages ‘Meaning of earthquake’, ‘Effects of earthquake’,

‘Preparations before and earthquake’, ‘What to do during an

earthquake?’, and ‘What to do after an earthquake?’ have weighted

means of 3.42, 3.37, 3.36, 3.46, and 3.39 respectively.These have been

interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. The results indicate that the overall

weighted mean of the total respondents from all three barangays is 3.40

and was interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. This implies that the

respondents have fully understood the safety messages conveyed in

the earthquake brochure.

It can be inferred from the results that the residents of the coastal

barangays have deep understanding of the messages conveyed in the


53

earthquake preparedness brochure. The remark ‘Fully Undesrtood’

implies that the respondents have a full grasp of the messages in the

brochure. Further, the respondents’ experiences on earthquakes have

also contributed to this since earthquakes are one of the most common

natural disasters in Dagupan City.

Table 11 shows the degree of understanding of the respondents on

the safety messages conveyed in the Flood and typhoon preparedness

brochures. The brochures are comprised of four messages about flood

and typhoon including ways to prepare for them. Also in the table are the

weighted means of the responses as well as their corresponding remarks.

In Bonuan Binloc, the messages ‘Storms and floods in Dagupan

City’, ‘Preparations before a storm or flood’, ‘What to do during a storm or

flood?’, and ‘What to do after the storm?’ have weighted means of 3.40,

3.32, 3.33, and 3.35, respectively. These results have been interpreted as

‘Fully Understood’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Binloc is 3.35 or

‘Fully Understood’. This is also what we can observe in the results in

Bonuan Boquig. The interpretation of the weighted means of the first,

second, third, and fourth messages have also been interpreted as ‘Fully

understood’ with their corresponding weighted means as 3.42, 3.49, 3.51,

and 3.51. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Boquig is 3.48 or ‘Fully

Understood’.
54

Table 11. Degree of understanding of the respondents to the safety


messages conveyed in the flood and typhoon preparedness
brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
1. Storms and 3.40 FU 3.42 FU 3.41 FU 3.41 FU
floods in
Dagupan city
2. Preparations 3.32 FU 3.49 FU 3.43 FU 3.42 FU
before a storm
or flood
3. What to do 3.33 FU 3.51 FU 3.51 FU 3.47 FU
during a storm
or flood
4. What to do 3.35 FU 3.51 FU 3.42 FU 3.43 FU
after a storm or
flood
Overall WM 3.35 FU 3.48 FU 3.44 FU 3.43 FU

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
FU = Fully Understood (3.26 – 4.00)
U = Understood (2.51 – 3.25)
MU = Moderately Understood (1.76 – 2.50)
NU = Not Understood (1.00 – 1.75)

Moreover in Bonuan Gueset, messages one, two, three, and four

have gotten weighted means of 3.41, 3.43, 3.51, and 3.42 that can be

interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan

Gueset is 3.44 or ‘Fully Understood’. Not far from the results in each

barangay, the results of the total respondents have also been interpreted

as ‘Fully Understood’ with the messages ‘Storms and floods in Dagupan

City’, ‘Preparations before a storm or flood’, ‘What to do during a storm or


55

flood?’, and ‘What to do after the storm?’ having weighted means of 3.41,

3.42, 3.47, and 3.43, respectively.The results indicate that the overall

weighted mean of the total respondents from all three barangays is 3.43

and have been interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. This implies that the

respondents have fully understood all four messages in the Flood and

typhoon preparedness brochure.

Similar to the results obtained in the understanding of the content of

the earthquake preparedness brochure, the respondents also show a very

clear undersanding of the content of the flood and typhoon preparedness

brochure. The overall interpretation ‘Fully Understood’ means that the

respondents have deep understanding of the content of the flood and

typhoon brochures. The respondents’ exposure and experiences on

flooding and typhoons have contributed to this especially Dagupan City is

a flood prone area.

Table 12 shows the degree of understanding of the respondents to

the safety messages conveyed in the 72-hour emergency kit brochure.

The brochure includes the eight emergency kits families should prepare to

be ready for any future natural hazards. Also, in the table are the weighted

means of the responses as well as their corresponding remarks.

In Bonuan Binloc, the message ‘First aid kit’ has a weighted

mean of 3.50 while ‘Medicine kit’ has gotten a mean of 3.53. ‘Food kit’ on
56

other hand has a weighted mean of 3.50 as ‘Hygiene kit’ got 3.43.

Moreover, ‘Baby kit’ has a weighted mean of 3.40, ‘Survival kit’ with 3.44,

‘Sleeping kit’ with 3.42, and ‘General kit’ with 3.49. These results have

been interpreted as ‘Fully understood’. The overall weighted mean of

Bonuan Binloc is 3.46 or ‘Fully Understood’.

Table 12. Degree of understanding of the respondents to the safety


messages conveyed in the 72-hour emergency kit brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
1. First aid kit 3.50 FU 3.63 FU 3.44 FU 3.50 FU
2. Medicine kit 3.53 FU 3.68 FU 3.48 FU 3.54 FU
3. Food kit 3.50 FU 3.65 FU 3.58 FU 3.58 FU
4. Hygiene kit 3.43 FU 3.56 FU 3.46 FU 3.48 FU
5. Baby kit 3.40 FU 3.47 FU 3.18 U 3.30 FU
6. Survival kit 3.44 FU 3.48 FU 3.42 FU 3.44 FU
7. Sleeping kit 3.42 FU 3.58 FU 3.39 FU 3.44 FU
8. General kit 3.49 FU 3.60 FU 3.56 FU 3.56 FU
Overall WM 3.46 FU 3.58 FU 3.44 FU 3.48 FU

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
FU = Fully Understood (3.26 – 4.00)
U = Understood (2.51 – 3.25)
MU = Moderately Understood (1.76 – 2.50)
NU = Not Understood (1.00 – 1.75)

In Bonuan Boquig on the other hand, these eight emergency kits

have also garnered weighted means that are within the ‘Fully Understood’

scale interval specifically 3.63, 3.68, 3.65, 3.56, 3.47, 3.48, 3.58, and 3.60,

respectively. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Boquig is 3.58 and


57

has been interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. Moreover in Bonuan Gueset,

‘First aid kit’, ‘Medicine kit’, ‘Food kit’, and ‘Hygiene kit’ acquired weighted

means of 3.44, 3.48, 3.58, and 3.46, respectively and have been

interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. However, the fifth emergency kit or

‘Baby kit’ has obtained a weighted mean of 3.18 and have been

interpreted as ‘Understood’. The next three kits, ‘Survival kit’, ‘Sleeping kit’

and ‘General kit’ have again acquired weighted means of 3.42, 3.39, and

3.56, respectively that have been interpreted as ‘Fully Understood’. The

overall weighted mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.44 and has been interpreted

as ‘Fully Understood’. Lastly, for the results of the total respondents from

all three barangays, the ‘First aid kit’ got a weighted mean of 3.50 while

‘Medicine kit’ has a weighted mean of 3.54. ‘Food kit’ obtained a weighted

mean of 3.58 while ‘Hygiene kit’ has a weighted mean of 3.48. Moreover,

“Baby kit’ has a weighted mean of 3.30 while ‘Survival kit’, ‘Sleeping kit’,

and ‘General kit’ have 3.44 weighted means of 3.44, 3.44, and 3.56,

respectively.

The results indicate that the overall weighted mean of the total

respondents from all three barangays is 3.48 and have been interpreted

as ‘Fully Understood’. This implies that the respondents have fully

understood each of the emergency kits conveyed in 72-hour emergency

kit brochure.
58

The results of the respondents’ understanding to the different

CDRRMO brochures is similar to a study done by Bester et al. (2016)

about the effectiveness of brochures as a risk minimization activity to

communicate important adverse events to health care professionals,

wherein it was concluded that educational brochures are effective in

raising awareness as well as an effective channel for sharing information.

Understanding of messages by the target audience is very important in

risk communication because understanding can generate behavior

changes. The Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers,1983) explains that

the audiences’ perceived susceptibility and severity creates their

perception about threats that lead them to adopt recommended behaviors.

Although the theory also gave emphasis that having high threat perception

is essential, it does not certainly equate behavioral change unless

audiences have the confidence to act on these threats. On the other

hand, Ray (1973) also explained in his learning model that cognitive

understanding always goes first before the development of attitude. This is

then followed by an action or change in behavior. Moreover, the

Information Processing Model (McGuire, 1989) also explained the six

steps of persuasion wherein first, there should be information

presentation, next is awareness, followed by comprehension, acceptance

of information, retention, and finally action. The model then implies that for
59

audiences to be persuaded to do an action or change their behavior, they

should first be exposed, become aware and understands the information

given to them. Lastly, the importance of understanding in risk

communication can be explained by The Protective Action Decision Model

(Lindell & Perry, 2012), which was previously discussed in this research.

The theory explains that comprehension is one of the pre-decision

processes that happen in a person’s mind. Comprehension comes after a

person’s exposure and awareness to different messages and before any

behavioral responses, thus making it an essential factor in generating

attitude and behavioral change.

Perception of the Respondents to the Different


Safety Preparedness Brochure

The fourth question the researcher sought to answer was the

perception of the respondents to the different safety preparedness

brochures in terms of content, appropriateness, and presentational

appeal. To understand the respondents’ perception on the content of the

brochures, statements about clarity, relevance and recall of the messages

were specified. For the respondents’ perception on appropriateness on the

other hand, statements about language preference of the respondents and

word choice were also stated. Lastly, for presentational appeal,

statements about text size, colors used, and illustrations were also
60

identified. The respondents were asked to rate how they agree or

disagree with these statements that will provide the researcher with their

perception of the safety preparedness brochures.

Table 13 specifically shows the perception of the respondents to

the tsunami preparedness brochure. Also in the table are the weighted

means of the responses as well as their corresponding remarks. In

Bonuan Binloc, the statements under content, ‘Messages about safety are

clearly understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.29, ‘Messages conveyed

are relevant to you and your safety’ have a mean of 3.35, and ‘Conveyed

safety messages are easily recalled’ with 3.31. These results have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

acquired a weighted mean of 3.19 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a mean of 3.17. Both results are interpreted as

‘Agree’. For presentational appeal, statements ‘Texts are readable even

from afar’, ‘Colors used are pleasant to the eyes’, and ‘Illustrations make

the messages more comprehensible’ all have weighted means of 3.21 and

have an interpretation of ‘Agree’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan

Binloc is 3.25 and has been interpreted as ‘Agree’. In Bonuan Boquig,

statements one, two, and three under content have weighted means of

3.47, 3.47, and 3.44 respectively. These results have been interpreted as
61

Table 13. Perception of the respondents to the tsunami preparedness


brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
A. Content
1. Messages about 3.29 SA 3.47 SA 3.46 SA 3.43 SA
safety are clearly
understood
2. Messages 3.35 SA 3.47 SA 3.52 SA 3.47 SA
conveyed are
relevant to you and
your safety
3. Conveyed safety 3.31 SA 3.44 SA 3.37 SA 3.37 SA
messages are
easily recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used 3.19 A 3.36 SA 3.38 SA 3.34 SA
in brochure is the
preferred language
2. Words used are 3.17 A 3.46 SA 3.28 SA 3.31 SA
simple and
understandable
C. Presentational
Appeal
1. Texts are 3.21 A 3.21 A 3.10 A 3.15 A
readable even from
afar
2. Colors used are 3.21 A 3.34 SA 3.22 A 3.25 A
pleasant to the
eyes
3. Illustrations 3.21 A 3.33 SA 3.26 SA 3.27 SA
make the
messages more
comprehensible
Overall WM 3.25 A 3.39 SA 3.32 SA 3.32 SA

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
SA = Strongly Agree (3.26 – 4.00)
A = Agree (2.51 – 3.25)
D = Disagree (1.76 – 2.50)
SD = Strongly Disagree (1.00 – 1.75)
62

‘Strongly Agree’. Under appropriateness, statement one has a weighted

mean of 3.36 while statement two have a mean of 3.46; both have an

interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. Under presentational appeal, statement

one has a weighted mean of 3.21 with an interpretation of ’Agree’,

statement two has a weighted mean of 3.34 or ‘Strongly Agree’, while

statement three has a weighted mean of 3.33, also interpreted as

‘Strongly Agree’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Boquig is 3.39

and has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’.

Moreover in Bonuan Gueset, the results of statements one, two,

and three under content have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ with

weighted means of 3.46, 3.52, and 3.37, respectively. Statements under

appropriateness have weighted means of 3.38 and 3.28, also with an

interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement

one has a weighted mean of 3.10 and has an interpretation of ‘Agree”,

statement two has a mean of 3.22 or ‘Agree’, and statement three has a

weighted mean of 3.26 with an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. The

overall weighted mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.32 and has been interpreted

as ‘Strongly Agree’. For the results of the total respondents in all three

barangays, statements under content, ‘Messages about safety are clearly

understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.43, ‘Messages conveyed are

relevant to you and your safety’ have a mean of 3.47, and ‘Conveyed
63

safety messages are easily recalled’ with 3.37. These results have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

obtained a weighted mean of 3.34 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a weighted mean of 3.31, both results have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement

‘Texts are readable even from afar’ has a weighted mean of 3.15 and

have been interpreted as ‘Agree’. The statement ‘Colors used are

pleasant to the eyes’ also have an interpretation of ‘Agree’ with a weighted

mean of 3.25. Lastly, the statement ‘Illustrations make the messages more

comprehensible’ has a weighted mean of 3.27 that have been interpreted

as ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results imply that the respondents have a very good perception

on the content of the Tsunami preparedness brochure specifically in terms

of the clarity, relevance and recall of the different safety messages

conveyed in the brochure. This is evident in the weighted means of the

total respondents wherein all statements under content have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. The results also suggest that the

respondents have a very good perception on the appropriateness of the

brochure more specifically the choice in language and words used in the

brochure. This is manifested by weighted means of the total respondents


64

that have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ in both of the statements

under appropriateness. Moreover, the results imply that the respondents

have a good perception on the presentational appeal of the brochure

specifically the readability of its text, colors used, and usefulness of

illustrations exhibited by the weighted means of the total respondents

wherein two of the statements have been interpreted as ‘Agree’ while the

other one has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Finally, the results

imply that the total respondents have a very good perception on the

entirety of the brochure as evidenced by the overall weighted mean of

3.32 or ‘Strongly Agree’.

The data on the readability of the text and appropriateness of color

shows that the brochures have to be improved. It can be inferred that the

texts and color combinations have to be checked to enhance the

brochures. In order for the tsunami preparedness brochures to be more

effective the said changes have to be incorporated. Furthermore, warning

systems and procedures have to be incorporated to develop better

tsunami preparedness brochures (Ilan, 2006).

Table 14 purposely shows the perception of the respondents to the

earthquake preparedness brochure. Also in the table are the weighted

means of the responses as well as their corresponding remarks. In

Bonuan Binloc, the statement under content, ‘Messages about safety are
65

Table 14. Perception of the respondents to the earthquake preparedness


brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
A. Content
1. Messages about 3.26 SA 3.51 SA 3.47 SA 3.44 SA
safety are clearly
understood
2. Messages 3.25 A 3.54 SA 3.53 SA 3.48 SA
conveyed are
relevant to you and
your safety
3. Conveyed safety 3.21 A 3.49 SA 3.50 SA 3.44 SA
messages are easily
recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in 3.18 A 3.39 SA 3.40 SA 3.36 SA
brochure is the
preferred language

2. Words used are 3.25 A 3.40 SA 3.40 SA 3.37 SA


simple and
understandable
C. Presentational
Appeal
1. Texts are 3.19 A 3.12 A 2.99 A 3.06 A
readable even from
afar
2. Colors used are 3.21 A 3.19 A 3.14 A 3.16 A
pleasant to the
eyes
3. Illustrations 3.15 A 3.29 SA 3.29 SA 3.27 SA
make the
messages more
comprehensible
Overall WM 3.21 A 3.36 SA 3.34 SA 3.32 SA

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
SA = Strongly Agree (3.26 – 4.00)
A = Agree (2.51 – 3.25)
D = Disagree (1.76 – 2.50)
SD = Strongly Disagree (1.00 – 1.75)
66

clearly understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.26 and have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Still under content statements ‘Messages

conveyed are relevant to you and your safety’ have a weighted mean of

3.25, and ‘Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled’ have a

weighted mean of 3.21. These results have been interpreted as ‘Agree’.

On the other hand, the statements under appropriateness, ‘Language

used in brochure is the preferred language’ obtained a weighted mean of

3.18 while ‘Words used are simple and understandable’ have a mean of

3.25. Both results have been interpreted as ‘Agree’. For presentational

appeal, statements ‘Texts are readable even from afar’, ‘Colors used are

pleasant to the eyes’, and ‘Illustrations make the messages more

comprehensible’ have a weighted means of 3.19, 3.21, and 3.15,

respectively, and have an interpretation of ‘Agree’. The overall weighted

mean of Bonuan Binloc is 3.21 and has been interpreted as ‘Agree’.

In Bonuan Boquig, statements one, two, and three under content

have weighted means of 3.51, 3.54, and 3.49, respectively. These results

have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Under appropriateness,

statement one has a weighted mean of 3.39 while statement two have a

mean of 3.40; both have an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. Under

presentational appeal, statement one has a weighted mean of 3.12 while

statement two has a weighted mean of 3.19; both have been interpreted
67

as ‘Agree’. Additionally, statement three has a weighted mean of 3.29 with

an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. The overall weighted mean of

Bonuan Boquig is 3.36 and has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’.

Moreover in Bonuan Gueset, the results of statements one, two,

and three under content have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ with

weighted means of 3.47, 3.53, and 3.50, respectively. On the other hand,

both statements under appropriateness have a weighted mean of 3.40,

also with an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal,

statement one has a weighted mean of 2.99 and has an interpretation of

‘Agree”, statement two has a mean of 3.14 or ‘Agree’, and statement three

has a weighted mean of 3.29 with an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’.

The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.34 and has been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. For the results of the total respondents in

all three barangays, statements under content, ‘Messages about safety

are clearly understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.44, ‘Messages

conveyed are relevant to you and your safety’ have a mean of 3.48, and

‘Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled’ with 3.44. These results

have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. On the other hand, the

statements under appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the

preferred language’ obtained a weighted mean of 3.36 while ‘Words used

are simple and understandable’ have a weighted mean of 3.37; both


68

results have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational

appeal, statement ‘Texts are readable even from afar’ has a weighted

mean of 3.06 and have been interpreted as ‘Agree’. The statement ‘Colors

used are pleasant to the eyes’ also have an interpretation of ‘Agree’ with a

weighted mean of 3.16. Lastly, the statement ‘Illustrations make the

messages more comprehensible’ has a weighted mean of 3.27 that have

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results imply that the respondents have a very good perception

on the content of the Earthquake preparedness brochure specifically in

terms of the clarity, relevance and recall of the different safety messages

conveyed in the brochure. This is evident in the weighted means of the

total respondents wherein all statements under content have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. The results also suggest that the

respondents have a very good perception on the appropriateness of the

brochure more specifically the choice in language and words used in the

brochure. This is manifested by weighted means of the total respondents

that have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ in both of the statements

under appropriateness. Moreover, the results imply that the respondents

have a good perception on the presentational appeal of the brochure

specifically the readability of its text, colors used, and usefulness of

illustrations exhibited by the weighted means of the total respondents


69

wherein two of the statements have been interpreted as ‘Agree’ while the

other one has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Finally, the results

imply that the total respondents have a very good perception on the

entirety of the brochure as evidenced by the overall weighted mean of

3.32 or ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results presented in the table show similar results as with the

readability of the text and appropriateness of color in the tsunami

preparedness brochure. It can be inferred that the texts have to be

modified and color combinations have to be checked. In order for the

earthquake preparedness brochures to be more effective the said

changes have to be incorporated. Further, technical contents on

earthquake preparedness also need to be incorporated in the brochures

(Shaw, 2003).

The next two tables will still be on the presentation of data gathered

on the perception of the respondents particularly to the Flood and typhoon

preparedness brochure and the 72-hour emergency kit preparedness

brochure. Again, this is to further understand how the respondents

perceive the brochures in terms of their content, appropriateness, and

presentational appeal. The respondents rated these categories by

designating a numerical value to their level of agreement to statements

regarding these categories. These numerical values were then gathered,


70

analyzed, and interpreted through a scale interval and its corresponding

descriptive value.

Table 15 particularly shows the perception of the respondents to

the Flood and typhoon preparedness brochure. Also in the table are the

weighted means of the responses as well as their corresponding remarks.

In Bonuan Binloc, statements under content, ‘Messages about

safety are clearly understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.31 and have

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ while ‘Messages conveyed are

relevant to you and your safety’ have a weighted mean of 3.18 and have

been interpreted as “Agree’. Still under content, statement ‘Conveyed

safety messages are easily recalled’ have a weighted mean of 3.26

remarked as ‘Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

acquired a weighted mean of 3.13 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a mean of 3.22. Both results have been interpreted

as ‘Agree’. For presentational appeal, statements ‘Texts are readable

even from afar’, ‘Colors used are pleasant to the eyes’, and ‘Illustrations

make the messages more comprehensible’ have a weighted means of

3.08, 3.17, and 3.22, respectively, and interpreted as ‘Agree’. The overall

weighted mean of Bonuan Binloc is 3.20 and interpreted as ‘Agree’. In

Bonuan Boquig, statements one, two, and three under content have the
71

Table 15. Perception of the respondents to the flood and typhoon


preparedness brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
A. Content
1. Messages about 3.31 SA 3.66 SA 3.53 SA 3.52 SA
safety are clearly
understood
2. Messages 3.18 A 3.47 SA 3.48 SA 3.42 SA
conveyed are
relevant to you and
your safety
3. Conveyed safety 3.26 SA 3.56 SA 3.36 SA 3.40 SA
messages are easily
recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in 3.13 A 3.45 SA 3.28 SA 3.30 SA
brochure is the
preferred language
2. Words used are 3.22 A 3.47 SA 3.31 SA 3.34 SA
simple and
understandable
C. Presentational
Appeal
1. Texts are readable 3.08 A 3.15 A 2.95 A 3.03 A
even from afar
2. Colors used are 3.17 A 3.20 A 3.17 A 3.18 A
pleasant to the eyes
3. Illustrations make 3.22 A 3.30 SA 3.32 SA 3.30 SA
the messages more
comprehensible
Overall WM 3.20 A 3.41 SA 3.30 SA 3.31 SA

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
SA = Strongly Agree (3.26 – 4.00)
A = Agree (2.51 – 3.25)
D = Disagree (1.76 – 2.50)
SD = Strongly Disagree (1.00 – 1.75)
72

weighted means of 3.66, 3.47, and 3.56, respectively. These results have

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Under appropriateness, statement

one has a weighted mean of 3.45 while statement two have a mean of

3.47; both have an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. Under presentational

appeal, statement one has a weighted mean of 3.15 while statement two

has a weighted mean of 3.20; both have been interpreted as ‘Agree’.

Additionally, statement three has a weighted mean of 3.30 with an

interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan

Boquig is 3.41 and has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Moreover, in

Bonuan Gueset, the results of statements one, two, and three under

content have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ with weighted means of

3.53, 3.48, and 3.36, respectively. Meanwhile, statements under

appropriateness have weighted means of 3.28 and 3.31, both with an

interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement

one has a weighted mean of 2.95 and has an interpretation of ‘Agree’,

statement two has a mean of 3.17 or ‘Agree’, and statement three has a

weighted mean of 3.32 with an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. The

overall weighted mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.30 and has been interpreted

as ‘Strongly Agree’. For the results of the total respondents in all three

barangays, statements under content, ‘Messages about safety are clearly

understood’ have a weighted mean of 3.52, ‘Messages conveyed are


73

relevant to you and your safety’ have a mean of 3.42, and ‘Conveyed

safety messages are easily recalled’ with 3.40. These results have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

obtained a weighted mean of 3.30 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a weighted mean of 3.34; both results have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement

‘Texts are readable even from afar’ has a weighted mean of 3.03 and

have been interpreted as ‘Agree’. The statement ‘Colors used are

pleasant to the eyes’ also have an interpretation of ‘Agree’ with a weighted

mean of 3.18. Lastly, the statement ‘Illustrations make the messages more

comprehensible’ has a weighted mean of 3.30 that have been interpreted

as ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results imply that the respondents have a very good perception

on the content of the Flood and typhoon preparedness brochure

specifically in terms of the clarity, relevance and recall of the different

safety messages conveyed in the brochure. This is evident in the weighted

means of the total respondents wherein all statements under content have

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. The results also suggest that the

respondents have a very good perception on the appropriateness of the

brochure more specifically the choice in language and words used in the
74

brochure. This is manifested by weighted means of the total respondents

that have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ in both of the statements

under appropriateness. Moreover, the results imply that the respondents

have a good perception on the presentational appeal of the brochure

specifically the readability of its text, colors used, and usefulness of

illustrations exhibited by the weighted means of the total respondents

wherein two of the statements have been interpreted as ‘Agree’ while the

other one has been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Finally, the results

imply that the total respondents have a very good perception on the

entirety of the brochure as evidenced by the overall weighted mean of

3.31 or ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results presented in the table are consistent with the other

concerns as to the presentation appeal of the other brochures. It can be

inferred from the overall responses that sizes of the texts and color

combinations have to be reviewed. To make the flood and typhoon

brochures more effective, these modifications have to be included.

Moreover, flood and typhoon preparedness can be better achieved if the

information materials are more critically prepared (Yasuhito et al., 2016).

Table 16 specifically shows the perception of the respondents to

the 72-hour emergency kit preparedness brochure. Also in the table are

the weighted means of the responses and their corresponding remarks.


75

Table 16. Perception of the respondents to the 72-hour emergency kit


preparedness brochure

BINLOC BOQUIG GUESET TOTAL


WM R WM R WM R WM R
A. Content
1. Messages about 3.11 A 3.57 SA 3.55 SA 3.47 SA
safety are clearly
understood
2. Messages 3.15 A 3.50 SA 3.50 SA 3.43 SA
conveyed are
relevant to you and
your safety
3. Conveyed safety 3.22 A 3.43 SA 3.45 SA 3.40 SA
messages are easily
recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in 3.19 A 3.39 SA 3.35 SA 3.33 SA
brochure is the
preferred language
2. Words used are 3.22 A 3.48 SA 3.38 SA 3.38 SA
simple and
understandable
C. Presentational
Appeal
1. Texts are 3.10 A 3.32 SA 3.19 A 3.21 A
readable even from
afar
2. Colors used are 3.07 A 3.41 SA 3.25 A 3.26 SA
pleasant to the eyes
3. Illustrations make 3.22 A 3.51 SA 3.40 SA 3.40 SA
the messages more
comprehensible
Overall WM 3.16 A 3.45 SA 3.38 SA 3.36 SA

Legend: WM = Weighted Mean


R = Remarks
SA = Strongly Agree (3.26 – 4.00)
A = Agree (2.51 – 3.25)
D = Disagree (1.76 – 2.50)
SD = Strongly Disagree (1.00 – 1.75)
76

In Bonuan Binloc, statements under content, ‘Messages about

safety are clearly understood’, ‘Messages conveyed are relevant to you

and your safety’ and ‘Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled’ have

weighted means of 3.11, 3.15, and 3.22, respectively and have been

interpreted as ‘Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

acquired a weighted mean of 3.19 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a weighted mean of 3.22. Both results have been

interpreted as ‘Agree’. For presentational appeal, statements ‘Texts are

readable even from afar’, ‘Colors used are pleasant to the eyes’, and

‘Illustrations make the messages more comprehensible’ have a weighted

means of 3.10, 3.07, and 3.22, respectively. These results have been

interpreted as ‘Agree’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Binloc 3.16

is and has been interpreted as ‘Agree’.

In Bonuan Boquig, statements one, two, and three under content

have weighted means of 3.57, 3.50, and 3.43, respectively. These results

have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Under appropriateness,

statement one has a weighted mean of 3.39 while statement two have a

mean of 3.48; both have an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. Under

presentational appeal, statement one has a weighted mean of 3.32,

statement two has a weighted mean of 3.41, and statement three has a
77

weighted mean of 3.51.These results have been interpreted as ‘Strongly

Agree’. The overall weighted mean of Bonuan Boquig is 3.45 and has

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Moreover in Bonuan Gueset, the

results of statements one, two, and three under content have been

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ with weighted means of 3.55, 3.50, and

3.45, respectively. Meanwhile, statements under appropriateness have

weighted means of 3.35 and 3.38, both with an interpretation of ‘Strongly

Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement one has a weighted mean of

3.19 while statement two has a weighted mean of 3.25; both have been

interpreted as ‘Agree’. Additionally, statement three has a weighted mean

of 3.40 with an interpretation of ‘Strongly Agree’. The overall weighted

mean of Bonuan Gueset is 3.38 and has been interpreted as ‘Strongly

Agree’. For the results of the total respondents in all three barangays,

statements under content, ‘Messages about safety are clearly understood’

have a weighted mean of 3.47, ‘Messages conveyed are relevant to you

and your safety’ have a mean of 3.43, and ‘Conveyed safety messages

are easily recalled’ with 3.40. These results have been interpreted as

‘Strongly Agree’. On the other hand, the statements under

appropriateness, ‘Language used in brochure is the preferred language’

acquired a weighted mean of 3.33 while ‘Words used are simple and

understandable’ have a weighted mean of 3.38; both results have been


78

interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. For presentational appeal, statement

‘Texts are readable even from afar’ has a weighted mean of 3.21 and

have been interpreted as ‘Agree’. The statements ‘Colors used are

pleasant to the eyes’ and ‘Illustrations make the messages more

comprehensible’ have weighted means of 3.26 and 3.40, respectively;

both have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’.

The results imply that the respondents have a very good perception

on the content of the 72-hour emergency kit preparedness brochure

specifically in terms of the clarity, relevance and recall of the different

safety messages conveyed in the brochure. This is evident in the weighted

means of the total respondents wherein all statements under content have

been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. The results also suggest that the

respondents have a very good perception on the appropriateness of the

brochure more specifically the choice in language and words used in the

brochure. This is manifested by weighted means of the total respondents

that have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’ in both of the statements

under appropriateness. Moreover, the results imply that the respondents

have a very good perception on the presentational appeal of the brochure

specifically the readability of its text, colors used, and usefulness of

illustrations exhibited by the weighted means of the total respondents

wherein only one statement has been interpreted as ‘Agree’ while the
79

other two have been interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’. Finally, the results

imply that the total respondents have a very good perception on the

entirety of the brochure as evidenced by the overall weighted mean of

3.36 or ‘Strongly Agree’.

To gather supplemental data on the perception of participants in the

different safety preparedness brochures, the researcher conducted 30

separate face-to-face interviews within the three coastal barangays, ten

(10) participants per barangay. Questions were asked about how the

participants view the different safety preparedness brochures.

One of the questions asked was about the participant’s perception

on the advantages of having these types of communication materials. One

of the most common responses is the capacity of the brochures to

increase their awareness on how to prepare for natural hazards. One

example of these responses is from one the participants in Bonuan

Gueset:

Mainam na may mga ganito kasi mas napreprepare tayo,


nalalaman natin kung ano yung mga pwede nating gawin
during the time of disaster. (It is good to have these so that
we can prepare, we know what we can do during disasters.)

Another example is from a participant from Bonuan Boquig:

Nagbibigay ng awareness sa mga tao para alam nila kung


ano yung mga gagawin nila during and after the typhoon or
tsunami or whatsoever na dumating na mga delubyo. (It
gives awareness to people so that they know what to do
80

during and after a typhoon or tsunami or whatsoever disaster


that will come.)

As a follow-up question, participants were also asked about the

disadvantages of having such safety brochures. The most common

answer was that there are no disadvantages for having such brochures.

For the participants, these brochures do not cause fear or panic to the

readers.

One of the participants from Bonuan Gueset said:

Disadvantages? Parang wala naman. (Disadvantages? I do


not think there are.)

Another participant from Bonuan Boquig also said:

For me ha, hindi siya nagcacause ng panic kasi ito naman


para maging aware tayo eh kumbaga andun yung
preparedness ng bawat isa. (For me, it does not cause
panic because this is for us to be aware, thus each of us will
be prepared.)

While these responses are common, a participant from Bonuan

Binloc has a minor concern on the effects of these safety brochures:

Parang siyempre kapag babasahin mo siya parang


nakakatakot kumbaga iisipin mo kung, what if mangyari nga
talaga so magkakaroon ka talaga ng kaba. (Like, of course if
you read it, you will get scared, if you think that what if it
really happens, definitely you will feel nervous.)

Although it is a negligible concern, it is a concern nonetheless that

must also be addressed by the City Disaster Risk Reduction Management

Office. Another question asked by the researcher is about the positive


81

attributes of the different brochures in terms of content, appropriateness

and presentational appeal. Although majority of the participants answered

that they perceive all the components of the brochures as positive, there

were also answers that are more specific. For content, one of the more

common responses is the completeness of the safety information given in

the brochures.

One participant from Bonuan Gueset said:

Pinag-isipan talaga kung ano ang inilagay, kumbaga ‘yong


mga nandito na tama talaga, ang mga information na dapat
malaman pagdating ng disaster. (They thought about what
they are going to include, like everything here is very true,
the information that we need to know with regards to
disasters.)

Another participant from Bonuan Gueset correspondingly answered:

Nakalagay dito yung mga specifics, mga kailangan mong


gawin, at kailangan mong ihanda. Alam mo yung mga gamit
na kailangan mong itabi or iprepara, kaya hindi mo na
kailangang mag-isip kasi nandyan na lahat. (Included here
are the specifics, things that we need to know and prepare.
You know what you need to take aside or prepare, so you do
not need to think because everything is there.)

In terms of appropriateness, the participants’ common response is

about the use of the Filipino language or Tagalog in the brochures. A

participant from Bonuan Boquig said:

Naiintindihan naman kasi ang ginamit namang medium is


tagalog kaya napakalaking bagay. (It is understandable
because the medium used is ‘Tagalog’ so that is a big thing.)
82

Moreover, with regards to the presentational appeal, the more

usual answers were about the size of the texts and the use of illustrations

like pictures or drawings that are helpful for people who are unlearned or

people that are unfamiliar with some terminologies. A participant from

Bonuan Binloc said:

Okay naman, kasi bawat topic may mga pictures. Kasi kung
for example ‘yong mga hindi familiar sa mga gano’ng
pangalan so at least dito may pangalan with pictures. (It is
quite okay because every topic has pictures. Because for
example, people who are not familiar with those names
[terminologies], at least here, there are names
accompanying the pictures.)

Another participant from Bonuan Binloc also said:

Mas malaki ang mga letra, mababasa kaagad at iyong mga


pictures. (Letters are bigger, it can be easily read, as well as
the pictures.)

To further explore the participants’ perception on the brochures, the

researcher asked about what they recognize as the brochures’ negative

attributes and aspects that they believe needed improvement on in terms

of content, appropriateness, and presentational appeal. Majority of the

answers from the participants is that they do not see any negative

qualities about the brochures or any aspect that needed improvement on.

Despite this, there were participants who were able to express their

opinions about it.


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A participant from Bonuan Binloc believes that the Flood and

typhoon preparedness brochure needed improvement in terms of content

and presentational appeal. She said:

Parang sa may flood [brochure] po, parang limited siya.


Limited po ‘yong information and ‘yong mga pictures po. (For
the flood [brochure], it seems like its limited. The information
are limited, even the pictures.)

She also added:

Sa flood [brochure] lang, ‘yong color niya kasi medyo


madilim. (Only the flood [brochure], the color [combination]
appears a bit dark.

Another concern about the Flood and typhoon brochure is its text. A

participant from Bonuan Gueset raised this concern:

Sir, gawing medyo mas readable na lang siguro yung ano


kasi pag nakashadowing siya, pag may shadowing kasi siya
yung mga bulag medyo hirap na. Sa mga matatanda medyo
nahihirapan na silang basahin eto. (Sir, make it a little bit
readable, because if there is shadowing, those people who
have decreased visual acuity will have difficulties. Even older
people will have a hard time reading it.)

Other negative attributes that were raised were about the four

safety preparedness brochures more particularly their presentational

appeal. One participant from Bonuan Gueset said:

Ang negative ko lang siguro, mahirap siyang basahin,


(referring to the color combination of the brochures). Siguro
kung plain white lang siya mas madaling mabasa. Kapag sa
akin kasi hirap akong basahin itong mga ito. (The negative
thing that I can see is that it is hard to read, (referring to the
color combination of the brochures). If it is just plain white, it
is easier to read. For me it is hard to read.)
84

Another participant from Bonuan Gueset also said:

Yung pictures, yung iba parang hindi clear. (The pictures,


some are not clear.)

Aside from these, there were also concerns about the participants’

exposure or lack thereof to the different safety preparedness brochures

that are commonly associated with the negative attributes of the

brochures. Simply, participants were not mainly concerned with the

brochures themselves but on the accessibility of people to these safety

brochures. One participant from Bonuan Boquig raised one of these

concerns:

Ang target po talaga nitong mga ito [brochures] are readers


po talaga ang mahirap nga lang po yung mga hindi
nakakabasa. (These [brochures] target only readers, it is
harder for people who cannot read.)

This merits an actual concern to some people especially those who

are illiterate. Although the brochures have illustrations to help unlearned

individuals understand them, the communication material is still intended

for people that can read.

Another opinion is from Bonuan Gueset:

Dito naman sa mga brochures gaya ng sinabi ko okay ang


kulay, ang text, ang problema lang hindi namin nakikita.
Kumbaga kapag hindi ka pumunta dito hindi ko makikita na
may binibigay na ganito ang munisipiyo. (It is not the
brochures, as I said the color is okay, and the text, the
problem is we do not see it. If you did not come here, we
would have not seen these coming from the municipal
government.)
85

This is surprising to the researcher, not because of issues on

accessibility or availability of these brochures to regular residents but

because the concern was raised from someone that holds an

administrative function in the barangay. Two more participants from

Bonuan Boquig and Bonuan Gueset complemented this:

Oo meron, pero parang selected kase, hindi lahat


nabibigyan. (Yes there are, but only for selected people,not
everyone gets to read it.)

And:

Dapat mas maagang maibigay itong mga ito. (They should


distribute it earlier.)

Halfway through the interview, the participants were asked if they

are satisfied with the brochures presented to them. Although some raised

apprehensions on some issues, the general response from the

participants was satisfactory. This can be summed up remarkably by one

of the participants from Bonuan Gueset:

Sa apat na pinakita mo satisfied na satisfied ako. Sa ating


mga nabasa ukol sa preparation ay napakaganda po nito at
maipaliwanag pa ng husto nang sa ganoon ay masundan at
malaman ng mga tao ang dapat nilang gawin. (With the four
that you showed me, I am very satisfied. With what I have
read regarding preparation, it is nice that it has explained
those things so that people can follow on what they need to
do.)

Another question that was asked during the interview to warrant

more information about the participants’ perception on the brochures is if


86

there were changes in their understanding of natural hazards and risk

reduction. The most common response is that there were changes

especially in increasing their safety awareness. Two of the participants

from Bonuan Boquig summarized this:

Nung hindi ko pa nabasa yan, parang hindi ko alam kung


ano yung gagawin mo. Pero nung nabasa ko, malaki,
malaking pagbabago. Parang handang handa ka kung saka
sakaling may darating na disaster. (When I have not read
this, it seems like I do not know what to do. But when I read
it, there is a big change, it seems like I am very ready in
case there is an imminent disaster.)

He added:

Meron, kasi iba naman yung sa alam mo sa nababasa mo.


Kapag alam mo akala mo yun lang pero pag may binasa ka
na ganitong mga brochures, ah eto pa pala. May
karadagdagang kaalaman, yung safety at precautions.
(There is, because what you know is different from what you
read. When you know something you think that is it, then
when you read these brochures, you learn more. You get
new information about safety and preparedness.)

In the latter part of the interview, the researcher asked about what

the participants have realized after reading the safety preparedness

brochures. The most common response was about how they had gaps in

their knowledge about disaster risk reduction and how the safety

preparedness brochures helped them fill that gap. Another is how they will

be able to apply their knowledge in disaster risk reduction to prepare for

any unforeseen catastrophes that might happen.


87

A participant from Bonuan Boquig said:

Na realize ko, sa sarili ko na akala ko yung nalalaman ko


nung hindi ko pa nababasa ito, okay na. Pero nung
nakabasa ako nito, nadagdagan pa, yung alam ko
nadagdagan pa. (I realized in myself that what I knew when I
have not read this is not enough. But when I read these, I
gained more, I learned more.)

Another participant from Bonuan Gueset summed it up with this

statement:

Dapat kailangang maging aware talaga tayo every hour,


every minute. Hindi naman natin alam kailan mangyayari
ang disaster so kailangan so dapat always prepared tayo.
Hindi na kailangang magwarn ng government, kusa na natin
siyang gagawin. Tayo na mismo sa sarili natin na
magprepare tayo, hindi na kailangang pukpukin pa para
gumalaw. Siguro kusa na tayong mag-iisip kung paano natin
ililigtas ang sarili natin. (We have to be aware, every hour,
every minute. We do not know when a disaster is coming so
we need to be prepared. The government does not need to
warn us, we will do it with our own volition.We ourselves will
prepare, it will not be necessary for people to nudge us to do
something. We ourselves will think on how we will save
ourselves.)

Lastly, the researcher asked about how the participants, with their

realizations, will now plan for themselves and for their family in preparation

for any upcoming disasters. Most participants answered with a very

specific answer, that they would be applying what they have learned from

the 72-hour emergency kit preparedness brochure. One of the participants

from Bonuan Gueset explained it the best:

Ang nakapagbigay sa akin talaga dyan ng napakagandang


preparation ay yung sinasabi nilang 72-hour emergency kit
88

kasi nandyan na talaga lahat. Iwanan mo man yung bahay


mo at least kahit papaano nandyan na lahat dala dala mo.
(The brochure that gave me a very good advice about
preparation is the 72-hour emergency kit because everything
is there. Even if you leave your house, at least you have
everything you need.)

Another most common response is that they plan to secure their

houses especially during typhoons where there are also floods. A

participant from Bonuan Gueset said:

Siguro sa bahay dapat strong talaga ang bahay mo at kung


pwedeng itaas itaas na lang siya. Alam naman natin na
advantage ang pagkakaroon ng mataas na bahay. (I think it
is necessary for your house to be strong and elevated. We
know how advantageous it is to have an elevated house.)

For disasters like tsunami or earthquakes, which most participants

rarely experience, the most common response is their plan to evacuate

wherever deemed safe.

One participant from Bonuan Binloc said:

Sa tsunami na mangyayari parang sa case na ito kailangan


mong maghanap ng mataas na lugar para po maging safe
ka kasi kapag sinabi nating tsunami water po siya. (If there is
a tsunami, we need to look for a place that is higher for us to
be safe because when we say tsunami it is water.)

Although not a common response, the researcher noted particular

answers the participants had given about planning to share their

knowledge to family members and other people.

Ako nakabasa neto. Hindi naman siguro lahat ng kasama ko


sa bahay mababasa nila. Pwedeng basahin ko sa kanila or
ikwento na lang para hindi sila maboring. Kasi karamihan
89

kapag mabasa ito maboboring sila. (I for one read it. But not
everyone in my family read it. What I can do is to read it to
them, narrate it so it will not be boring. Most people who will
read this will be bored.)

A participant from Bonuan Gueset complemented this with:

Siguro kung yung mga ibang family members hindi pa nila


nababasa ganitong pamphlets [brochures] siguro educate na
lang natin yung ating mga kasama sa bahay. Kung may mga
others ka pang mga kakilala na pwede mong ipabasa din
yung mga ganito, mas magandang shinishare din natin yung
knowledge natin regarding disasters. (Not all of our family
members have read these pamphlets [brochures], so what
we can do is educate them. If we know people who have not
read these, it is better for us to share to them our knowledge
regarding disasters.)

Last is another notable response from a participant from Bonuan

Gueset about how important it is to plan with the family and talk about

what to do in times of natural disaster.

He simply said:

Sa pamilya dapat magkasundo kung saan ang magiging


evacuation center, kung saan sila magtatagpo tagpo and
then isa na rin ‘yong mga dokumento na dapat dalhin, yun
lang po. (For families, they have to be certain which
evacuation center to go to where they can meet and then the
documents that they need to bring, that is it.)

The results of the respondent’s perception to the different

CDRRMO brochures is similar to the findings of the research done by

Wao et al. (2014) on the use of brochures as educational tools to promote

routine HIV testing in youth. Their findings, similar to this research,

demonstrated that the content of their brochure were also perceived as


90

acceptable, the language simple, the text readable and the overall layout

organized. The results of both researches also follow the criteria in

producing an effective brochure. The criteria requires that brochures

should be clear, understandable, attractive, brief, organized, and factual.

(Pennisi, 2011).

In communicating risk information, it very important to know our

audience in order for communicators to effectively create messages and

materials for them. The effectiveness of an information dissemination

campaign depends on how the messages are packaged together with the

material or medium utilized. One theory that is important on how to

effectively design communication messages is the Social Cognitive

Theory by Albert Bandura (1986) that posits that people’s learning or

understanding is influenced by how they observe the messages directed

at them. This theory suggests that people tend to be more affected by

messages and communication materials that they identify or relate with.

The theory also explains the importance of rewards and punishments.

Rewards in the sense that adherence to the recommendation gives

positive results while non-adherence results to punishments. Thus, this

theory can be utilized as a message-design strategy in promoting

messages that people can identify with and learn from. Another theory that

we can take into consideration to is the Diffusion of Innovation Theory


91

(Rogers, 2005), where it was discussed that innovations can be diffused in

the community through different channels or mediums that can stimulate

personal and social changes. Therefore, these channels or mediums

should have the capacity to generate this stimulus that will evoke change

to people. Moreover, the Stages of Change (Prochaska & DiClemente,

1983) explains that in developing communication materials, messages

should be sufficiently provocative to persuade personal contemplations

that will prompt people into a process of change. Lastly, according to the

Activation Theory of Information Exposure (Donohew et al., 1998),

messages hold readers, listeners, and viewers by stimulating and

attracting them based on their cognitive and biological needs. In this

theory, successful messages are characterized as those that have

novelty, movement, color, intensity and other formal features that are

enough to activate and maintain attention but not cause distraction.

Therefore, messages have the power to persuade people if they maintain

to hold their audiences long enough for the content to be processed.

Suggestions of the Respondents on How


to Improve the CDRRMO Brochures

The fifth question the researcher sought to answer was the

perception of the participants on how to improve the CDRRMO brochures.

These are basically suggestions by the participants that the CDRRMO


92

could utilize in improving aspects of the brochure that will help in the

development of newer and repackaged CDRRMO brochures.

It has to be said that the most common response by the

participants when they were asked if they have any suggestions is that

they have none. However, there were participants who willingly offered

their suggestions.

Durable and Long Lasting Brochures

One of the most common suggestions intends to create a more

durable and long-lasting brochures by changing the materials used in the

printing of the brochures.

One of the participants from Bonuan Binloc said:

Siguro kung gagawa sila ng ganito, yong medyo matibay


yong papel. (I think when they produce this type of things,
they have to make it a little bit sturdier.)

The same participant also suggested:

Sana nakaplastic na sya, para bang nakalaminate na sya,


pwede itago. (I hope it is in plastic, just like it is laminated, so
you can store it.)

A participant from Bonuan Gueset complemented this with the statement:

Siguro sir yung material na lang. Siguro yung mas, mas


[matibay] kasi pag nabasa eto mas madali siyang mag-light
[fade]. Siguro yung glossy na lang siguro na papel. (I think
with the material, it must be sturdier because when it gets
wet, it easily fades. I think, the glossy paper will do.)
93

Cohesive Communication Materials

On the other hand, participants also suggested creating a more

cohesive communication material by stapling all four brochures into one or

just producing one brochure that contains all of the information that are in

all four brochures. A participant from Bonuan Binloc suggested:

Isa lang siguro, then kailangan ituro na lang. Kasi kung


ganito kadami, hindi na siguro natin babasahin. Kapag
nabasa yong isa, hindi na babasahin yong iba, itatapon na
nila sayang lang pera ng gobyerno. (I think just one, then
they can just teach them. Because if it is these many, people
will not read it. When they read one, they will just throw the
others, government money will just be wasted.)

He added:

Siguro kung dapat ganito man ang pagkaka-arrange dapat


nakastaple para hindi siya ma-detached. (If this is how they
arrange it, it is better if they will staple them together to avoid
them being detached.)

More Information in Some Brochures

Other suggestions were intended to include more information in

some of the brochures like the consequences in case people will fail to act

in accordance to what are recommended as well as the designation of

specific evacuation centers in the barangay. Two participants from

Bonuan Boquig suggested:

Yung mga effects kung hindi sila sumunod dun sa, yung
possibility kung hindi sila sumunod sa mga preparations na
sina suggest nila. (The effects if they will not follow, the
94

possibilities if they will not follow the suggested


preparations.)

And:

Ano, siguro maglagay nalang sila ng kumbaga sa certain


place, ilagay nila yung mga evacuation center kasi hindi
lahat kapag andiyan na yung disaster matataranta pa sila,
hindi alam yung pupuntahan nila, makikisilong pa sila. Diba
mas maganda kapag yung alam nila kung saan yung
pupuntahan nilang evacuation center sa mga barangay nila.
(I think to designate an evacuation center because
everybody panics during disasters. Some people will not
know where to go so they will just barge into other people’s
houses. It will be better if they know the evacuation center in
their barangay.)

Presentational Appeal

Participants also had suggestions on the presentational appeal of

the brochures in terms of texts, colors, and illustrations. For the text, it

was suggested by some participants to use simpler typeface.

A participant from Bonuan Gueset particularly said:

Mas maganda kung simple text na lang ang gagawin. (It will
be better if they will use simple text).

For the color combination on the other hand, another participant

suggested that the texts would be more readable if the background is plain

white.

Siguro kung plain white lang siya mas madaling mabasa.


Kapag sa akin kasi hirap akong basahin itong mga ito. (I
think if it is plain white it is easier to read. It is hard for me to
read these.
95

Illustrations

A participant from Bonuan Gueset said. For the illustrations,

participants suggested the use of more pictures to appeal better to

audiences. A participant from Bonuan Binloc said:

Yong kaakit-akit basahin talaga. More pictures. (It should be


appealing to read. More pictures.)

Another participant from Bonuan Gueset also answered:

Linawan ang mga pictures at pwedeng dagdagan pa ang


mga pictures. (Clearer pictures and if they can add more
pictures.)

Packaging/Choice of IEC Material

Other suggestions were not really about the improvement of the

CDRMMO brochures but are still noteworthy. One of the notable

suggestions is the production of a notebook type of reading material. The

participant from Bonuan Binloc said:

Parang notebook pero maliit lang para walang mamisplace


na page. Hindi hiwa-hiwalay. Kasi siyempre baka
mamisplace. (Just like a smaller notebook so that it will not
be misplaced. Not separate. Because it can be misplaced.)

Another one is the production of comics that will cater to the

younger audiences. A participant from Bonuan Boquig said:

Kung pwede sana komiks. Kasi kapag komiks binabasa ng


mga bata naeenjoy nila at the same time natututo sila. (If
they can make comics. If it is comics, children can read them
and enjoy and at the same time learn.
96

There were also suggestions to supplement the CDRRMO

brochures. One of these is for CDRRMO to conduct more seminars to

every barangay. One of the participants in Bonuan Gueset said:

Oo, dapat may mga seminar. May mga paunang babala,


paunang impormasyon sa purok leader, sa barangay o
something na ganoon para maintindihan nila bago ibigay ang
mga pamphlet. (Yes, there should be seminars. There should
be early precautions, early information to leaders, in the
barangay or something so that they will understand first
before they give out the pamphlets.)

Another response is from a participant from Bonuan Boquig:

Seminars about tsunami kasi sabi nga hindi natin alam kung
kailan ang sakuna, only God knows. (Seminars about
tsunami, because as they say we do not know when disasters
will happen, only God knows.)

Seminars for Different Purposes

Some participants proposed to use the seminar for different

purposes. One is to further explain what was already written in the

brochures especially for nonreaders and people without access to other

media. A participant from Bonuan Boquig said:

So dapat ang mga bigyan nito yung mga 4P’s especially


yung mga walang TV kasi di naman lahat tayo may kaya.
For nonreaders siguro maganda kung ipaliwanag sa kanila,
siguro seminar. (They should be giving these to those who
are in the 4P’s especially those who do not have TV
because not everyone can afford it.
97

A participant from Bonuan Binloc also proposed for CDRRMO to

conduct seminars not just to disseminate information but also to distribute

some of the emergency kits listed in the brochure.

Tulad na lamang nito, kapag may seminar kailangan may kit


na ibibigay kasi hindi naman lahat may pera. (Just like this, if
there are seminars, they should also be giving the kits
because not everyone has the money to buy them.)

Lastly, a notable suggestion from a participant from Bonuan Boquig

is for the CDRRMO to conduct not only seminars but also simulations of

what they have to do during and after disasters. He said:

Mas maigi na sa pagbabasa pero mas maigi kung


demonstration talaga na actual. (It is good to have
something to read, but it is better to have an actual
demonstration on what to do.)

It is very important for development communicators to not just

consider the audience in creating communication materials but also letting

them participate in the process. Their suggestions can help

communicators tailor the communication materials specifically for them.

This will then improve the perception of the audience to the

communication materials.

In The Participatory Communication Model (Bessette, 2004), it was

explained that there is need for communicators to develop a relationship

with the community as well as working with them in identifying problems,

solutions and actions. By doing this, the communicator will be able to


98

identify the communication needs, objectives, and activities suitable and

appropriate for that specific community. This follows one of the

fundamental concepts in development communication that entails that

people should be given the chance to determine their own problems, to

come up with possible solutions, to decide if they are in need of change,

and to choose for appropriate actions.

Analysis of the Differences Between the Respondents’


Degree of Understanding and their Profile

The sixth question sought to identify if there was a significant

difference between the respondents’ degree of understanding on the

different brochures and their demographic profile. To determine this, the

researcher utilized the data gathered from the respondents’ degree of

understanding and analyzed them through the statistical treatment,

Analysis of Variance or ANOVA through Microsoft Excel. This data

analysis tool then generated the ‘P-value’ that determined if there were

differences in the respondents’ degree of understanding across their

profile. If the obtained P-value is less than 0.05, there is a significant

difference between the degree of understanding across the profile, but if

the P-value is greater than 0.05, there is no significant difference. It must

be said that the data analyzed were from the total number of respondents

across all three barangays.


99

Table 17 shows the analysis of the differences between the

respondents’ degree of understanding on the different brochures and their

profile. Their profile was categorized into sex, age, educational attainment

and barangay whereas the different brochures are the Tsunami

preparedness brochure, Earthquake preparedness brochure, Flood and

typhoon preparedness brochure and the 72-hour emergency kit brochure.

Table 17. Analysis of the differences between the respondents’ degree of


understanding on the different brochures and their profile

TSUNAMI EARTHQUAKE FLOOD 72-HOUR


P-v D P-v D P-v D P-v D
Sex 1.3E-173 SD 1.6E-219 SD 9E-215 SD 1.4E-228 SD
Age 1.7E-07 SD 0.0016 SD 0.007 SD 0.033 SD
HEA 1.4E-16 SD 3.9E-10 SD 8.2E-09 SD 1.9E-07 SD
BGY 3.3E-51 SD 8.3E-77 SD 8.7E-78 SD 1.3E-85 SD

Legend: P-v = P-value


D = Description
HEA = Highest Education Attainment
BGY = Barangay
NSD = No significant difference (P-value > 0.05)
SD = Significant difference (P-value < 0.05)

According to the findings, the respondents’ degree of

understanding of the Tsunami preparedness brochure across their profile

(sex, age, educational attainment, and barangay) have significant

differences with P-values of 1.3E173, 1.7E-07, 1.4E-16, and 3.3E-51,

respectively.
100

On the other hand the respondents’ degree of understanding of the

Earthquake preparedness brochure across their profile also have

significant differences with P-values less than 0.05, specifically, 1.6E-219,

0.0016, 3.9E-10, and 8.3E-77. Moreover, the results obtained from the

analysis of the respondents’ sex, age, educational attainment, and

barangay and their degree of understanding to the Flood and typhoon

preparedness brochure also have significant differences with P-values of

9E-215, 0.007, 8.2E-09, and 8.7E-78, respectively. Lastly, the results have

implied that there are significant differences between the respondents’

degree of understanding to the 72-hour emergency kit brochure and their

profile. The P-values results were less than 0.05 specifically, 1.4E-228,

0.033, 1.9E-07, and 1.3E-85.

The aforementioned results mean that the respondents’ degree of

understanding of each of the four brochures are different when their

responses were analyzed according to their sex, age, educational

attainment, and barangay. These information can be utilized to help

communicators improve the communication brochures by adapting the

safety messages according to the audience’s demographic profile.

The significant difference in the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of

the understanding of the respondents on the different brochures as to

gender is greatly affected by the exposure of the respondents on the


101

different disasters (tsunamis, earthquake, flood and typhoon) and the

disaster preparedness materials. Most men are out of the houses for work

while women often stay at home. With this, the women in the coastal

barangays have better understanding of the brochures because they have

more time to read. Furthermore, women pay more attention to minute

details as regard information brochures and the like. According to the

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2013), disasters tend to

severely affect women. Women tend to be more exposed to disaster risks

and have higher rates of mortality, morbidity, and damage to livelihood.

However, it was also stressed that women contribute more in disaster risk

reduction most especially when there is consideration given to women

empowerment and gender equality. The unique contributions of women

include practical needs such as credit, livelihoods, water and sanitation,

health and education.

In terms of age, it has always been considered a big factor as to the

understanding of the respondents on the content of the different

brochures. The statistics presented in the previous sections of the study

shows that the middle adult and the adult group (34-21 and 42- 49) of the

respondents show greater participation in the study. Furthermore, these

groups also show better understanding of the different disaster brochures.

The statistical difference is further supported by Tanner’s (2010) study


102

which focuses on the role of youth and adults in climate change and

disaster preparedness. Age is another factor that determines a person’s

vulnerability to disasters (Wahlström, 2015). Older people are often

affected by natural disasters that could have been preventable loss of life.

They are often overlooked even with their heightened susceptibility to

disasters. Their susceptibility can be attributed to their physical decline,

lack of adequate service facilities, discrimination, and high poverty levels

in older people. Even though older adults are important sources of

information, they are often disregarded. However, Wahlström emphasized

that older people can be good sources of information in finding solutions

for problems encountered in disaster risk reduction because of their

invaluable knowledge, lifetime of experiences, and skills that can be

utilized by their own communities.

Finally, with regard to the highest educational attainment of the

respondents, it also affects the understanding of the respondents on the

content of the different brochures. Respondents with higher educational

attainment more likely have better understanding of the content of the

brochures. Further, they can also critic better the content of the brochures.

In addition, those with higher educational attainment show better

understanding of disaster preparedness and higher resilience to disasters

(Hoffman & Mattarak, 2017). Education is another important factor in


103

disaster risk reduction because it ensures the increase of the literacy rate

in the population. This means that with more people that are literate, it will

be easier for communicators to communicate with the communities using

the different communication methods and materials. To broaden the

function of education in disaster risk reduction, the United Nations

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR, n.d) have been

encouraging the global integration of disaster risk reduction in education to

involve the children and the youth in any decision-making process that will

affect their future. This measure is also supported by the United Nations

International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF, 2011) because they

believe that students of all ages can have an active participation, with

teachers and other adults, in minimizing the risks before, during, and after

disasters. Schools can teach children life skills that in turn they can impart

with their own communities. Through this, children will become more

empowered in helping their communities in finding solutions to minimize

their risks to the constant dangers of natural calamities.

Differences in understanding and perception can be influenced by

the person’s demographic profile. According to Breakwell (2000) of the

Social Psychology European Research Institute, the audiences’

perception of risks is influenced by their demographic factors like age and

gender. Demographic characteristics functions as an arbitrator in the


104

acceptability of any perceived risks. Potential sources of demographic

variations in the perception of risks include gender, ethnicity, age, socio-

economic status, and geographical region. Therefore, demographic

profiles are factors in the impact of risk communication.

In communication, the audience’s demographic profile often forms

each person’s identity and understanding of the world thus the importance

of knowing which information is essential to these different demographic

groups. Audience analysis is an important research tool communicators

could utilize in creating and delivering messages to audiences. Through

this audience-centered approach in communication, communicators will

be more effective in communicating information to different types of

audiences that is reinforced by comprehensive data gathered prior to any

communication event (Bannon, 2015).

Summary

1. The first question the researcher sought to answer was to

identify the profile of the respondents in terms of their sex, age, highest

educational attainment and barangay. In terms of sex, majority of the

respondents are female with a frequency of 236 or 64% while the males

have a frequency of 135 or 36%. In terms of age, most of the respondents

are from the 42 - 49 age range with a frequency of 82 or 22%. This is


105

followed by age range 50 - 57 with a frequency of 75 or 20% and age

range 34 - 41 with a frequency of 67 or 18%. Moreover, in terms of

educational attainment majority of the respondents were able to reach

High School level with a frequency of 137 or 37% while following are

respondents who were able to reach College level with 104 or 28%. Lastly

in terms of the barangay, there are 72 respondents from Bonuan Binloc,

102 from Bonuan Boquig, and 197 from Bonuan Gueset for a total of 371

respondents.

2. The second question the researcher sought to answer was

the respondents’ exposure to the different disaster risk reduction

management office brochures. A large number of the respondents had

been previously exposed to all four CDRRMO brochures with 124 or 33%

however almost the same number of respondents has never seen any of

the brochures with 123 or 33%. Moreover, the brochure that the

respondents are most exposed to is the Flood and typhoon brochure with

a frequency of 204 or 55%. As for which communication method

respondents attribute their knowledge of disaster preparation are from,

majority of the respondents answered television with a frequency of 169 or

46%. CDRRMO brochures follow this with a frequency of 141 or 38%.

3. The third question the researcher sought to answer was the

respondents’ degree of understanding to the safety messages conveyed


106

in the different City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office

brochures. First, the respondents’ degree of understanding to the Tsunami

preparedness brochure has an overall weighted mean of 3.22 or

‘Understood’. Next, the respondents’ degree of understanding to the

Earthquake preparedness brochure has acquired an overall weighted

mean of 3.40 or ‘Fully Understood’. Moreover, the respondents’ degree of

understanding to the “Flood and typhoon brochure’ has obtained an

overall weighted mean of 3.43 or ‘Fully Understood’. Finally, the

respondents’ degree of understanding to the 72-hour emergency kit

brochure has an overall weighted mean of 3.48 or ‘Fully Understood’.

4. The fourth question the researcher sought to answer was the

perception of the respondents to the different safety preparedness

brochures in terms of content, appropriateness, and presentational

appeal. The perception of the respondents to the statements about the

Tsunami preparedness brochure is ‘Strongly Agree’ with an overall

weighted mean 3.32. On the other hand the perception of the respondents

to the statements about the Earthquake preparedness brochure has

acquired an overall weighted mean of 3.32 and interpreted as ‘Strongly

Agree’. Moreover, the perception of the respondents to the statements

about the Flood and typhoon preparedness brochure has an overall

weighted mean of 3.31 or ‘Strongly Agree’. Lastly, the perception of the


107

respondents to the statements about the 72-hour emergency kit brochure

has an overall weighted mean of 3.36 and interpreted as ‘Strongly Agree’.

The perceptions of the respondents to the different safety

awareness brochures were supplemented by interviews conducted by the

researcher. One of the questions asked to the participants was about what

they perceive are the advantages of the safety preparedness brochures.

The most common answer is that it increases their awareness on how to

prepare for natural disasters. They also do not see any disadvantages in

having these types of brochures. However, one respondent raised her

concern about the reality that these natural disasters will possibly happen.

Further in the interview, participants were asked to point out the positive

attributes of the brochures in terms of content appropriateness, and

presentational appeal. One of the most common answers is the

completeness of the safety information given in the brochure. Another is

the appropriateness of the use of Filipino or Tagalog in the brochures. The

participants also mentioned the use of readable text and illustrations that

can be helpful for people who are unlearned and unfamiliar with some

terminologies. When the participants were asked about what they see are

the negative traits of the brochures, expectedly most of them answered

none. Still, some of the participants were able to give their insights about

the negative attributes of the brochure. One negative attribute pointed out
108

is the limitation of information and pictures included in the Flood and

typhoon brochure. Another is its shadowy text and dark background. A

participant also identified that some pictures are unclear. Another said the

colors made it difficult for her to read them. Also, some participants

discerned negative attributes not on the brochures but on their

inaccessibility to some people. Midway through the interview, the

participants were asked if they are satisfied with the brochures and most

participants said that they were. When asked if there were changes before

and after reading the brochures, most participants said that there were

especially in increasing their safety awareness. In the latter part of the

interview, the participants were asked what they have realized after

reading the brochures, the most common response was that they realized

that they had gaps in their knowledge that the brochures were able to fill

up. Lastly, for the participants’ future plans, the most common answer is

that they will discuss and apply what they have learned from the

brochures with their families.

5. The fifth question the researcher sought to answer was the

perception of the participants on how to improve the CDRRMO brochures.

These are suggestions given by the participants on how to improve the

safety preparedness brochures. It has to be said that the most common

response by the participants when they were asked if they have any
109

suggestions is that they have none. One of the most common suggestions

intends to create a more durable brochure by changing the materials

used. On the other hand, participants also suggested creating a more

cohesive brochure by stapling all four brochures into one or just producing

one brochure that contains all of the information that are in all four

brochures. Another suggestion were intended to include more information

in some of the brochures like the consequences in case people will fail to

act in accordance to what are recommended as well as the designation of

specific evacuation centers in the barangay. Participants also had

suggestions on the presentational appeal of the brochures in terms of

texts, colors, and illustrations. For the text, it suggested by a participant to

use simpler typeface. For the color combination on the other hand,

another participant suggested that the texts would be more readable if the

background is plain white. For the illustrations, participants suggested the

use of more pictures to appeal better to audiences. Other suggestions

were not really about the improvement of the CDRMMO brochures but are

still noteworthy. One of the notable suggestions is the production of a

notebook type of reading material. Another one is the production of comics

that will cater to the younger audiences. There were also suggestions to

supplement the CDRRMO brochures. One of these is for CDRRMO to

conduct more seminars in every barangay. Some participants proposed to


110

use the seminar for different purposes. One is to further explain what was

already written in the brochures especially for nonreaders and people

without access to other media. It was also proposed for CDRRMO to

conduct seminars not just to disseminate information but also to distribute

some of the emergency kits listed in the 72-hour emergency kit brochure.

Lastly, for the CDRRMO to conduct not only seminars but also simulations

of what they have to do during and after disasters.

6. The sixth question sought to identify if there was a significant

difference between the respondents’ degree of understanding on the

different brochures and their demographic profile. The results showed that

the respondents’ degree of understanding of each of the four safety

preparedness brochures and their sex, age, educational attainment, and

barangay have significant differences with P-values less than 0.05.


111

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In the previous chapter, the data gathered were analyzed,

interpreted, and presented. This chapter presents the conclusions drawn

and proposed recommendations based on these findings.

Conclusions

1. Based on the findings on the profile of the respondents, the

researcher can conclude in terms of sex that majority of the respondents

are women. In terms of age, the results imply that majority of the

respondents are middle adults that are heads of the family that can decide

about safety concerns of the family. In terms of educational attainment,

the researcher can conclude that majority of the respondents are literate

and educated that enables them to read and understand the information

about safety preparedness included in the brochures.

2. Based on the findings on the exposure of the respondents to

the different safety awareness brochures, the researcher concludes that

although there is a large portion of the respondents that are exposed to all

four brochures, there are still a sizeable number of respondents that have

never seen any of the brochures. It can also be concluded that there are

areas in the barangays that have not been saturated by the safety

preparedness brochures. As for which communication method


112

respondents’ attribute their knowledge of disaster preparation are from,

television is the popular choice while CDRRMO brochures and radio

follows.

3. Based on the findings, the researcher concludes that the

respondents have an excellent understanding of the Earthquake

preparedness brochure, Flood and typhoon preparedness brochure, and

the 72-hour emergency kit brochure; whereas, they have a good

understanding of the Tsunami preparedness brochure. It can also be

concluded that the reason why the Tsunami preparedness brochure has a

relatively ‘lower’ degree of understanding by the respondents in

comparison to the three other brochures is because of their inexperience

to tsunami.

4. Based on the findings, the researcher concludes that the

respondents have a very good perception on all four brochures not only on

their physical features but also on how it increased their awareness in

disaster preparedness. However, the researcher found out that there are

aspects in the brochures that need further changes or improvement.

5. Based on the findings, the researcher concludes that

majority of the respondents’ suggestions are reasonable and highly

feasible that can help in the improvement of the CDRRMC brochures.


113

6. Based on the findings, the researcher concludes that there is

a significant difference between the respondents’ profile and their degree

of understanding on the different safety preparedness brochures. Simply,

this means that the respondents’ degree of understanding differs

according their sex, age, educational attainment, and barangay.

Recommendations

1. It is recommended that the CDRRMO and the city

government should conduct information dissemination activities that will

motivate people.

2. The researcher recommends to the CDRRMC to expand

their information dissemination drive, most importantly the distribution of

the brochures and to conduct more seminars to more areas in the coastal

barangays. It is also recommended for the CDRRMO to use mainstream

media as a supplement to the brochures in disseminating information.

3. The CDRRMO should intensify information dissemination

through the use of brochures especially in areas where this current study

identified a sizeable population of ‘unaware’ and ‘uninformed’ coastal

residents. Also, for the CDRRMO to have the contents of the brochures

validated in terms of their completeness and accuracy by appropriate


114

agencies that are experts in natural hazards like PAGASA and

PHIVOLCS.

4. The CDRRMO and the city government may recognize the

findings of this study to further improve the brochures through the

suggestions made by the respondents. Next is for the CDRRMO to

acknowledge the concerns, fears, and apprehensions of coastal barangay

residents about risks and disasters by organizing more community

seminars that will explain the importance and implications of disaster risk

reduction. It can also be suggested that the CDRRMO may use

participatory communication approach in designing the brochures to

immediately gather suggestions and perceptions directly from the coastal

barangay residents.

5. Though the brochures are effective in developing awareness

among the residents of the coastal barangays, the CDRRMO still needs to

incorporate some changes in the brochures to further improve its overall

appeal and durability. This includes changing of the materials used in the

production of the brochure into a sturdier material, production of just one

reading material that contains complete information about disaster

preparedness, utilization of simpler text and color combination, and

incorporation of more illustrations.


115

6. For future researchers, they may focus on the factors that

contribute to the differences in the understanding of the respondents to

the different safety preparedness brochures. The identification of these

factors will further explain why such differences in understanding occur

that will help the CDRRMO in customizing information for the different

demographic profiles.
116

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126

APPENDIX A

Survey Questionnaire (English)

Name: ______________________________
Age: ____
Sex: ____
Highest Educational Attainment___________
Barangay____________

1. Which of the following presented safety awareness brochures from


the CDRRMO have you read before?

(Put a check):
a) Tsunami Family Disaster Preparedness Brochure _____
b) Earthquake Family Disaster Preparedness Brochure _____
c) Flood & Typhoon Family Disaster Preparedness Brochure _____
d) 72-Hour Emergency Kit Brochure _____

2. Where did you learn about disaster risk reduction?

a) CDRRMO Brochures _____


b) CDRRMO Seminar _____
c) Both the Seminar and Brochures _____
d) Others: _____________________________

3. From the scale of 1 - 4, rate your degree of understanding of Safety


messages conveyed in the presented brochures:

4 – Fully Understood
3 – Understood
2 – Moderately Understood
1 - Not Understood
127

TSUNAMI FAMILY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS


1 2 3 4
BROCHURE
1. Meaning of Tsunami
2. Natural signs of a threatening Tsunami
3. Preparations before a Tsunami
4. Safety precautions in case there are signs of Tsunami
5. Hot Line Numbers that should be remembered
EARTHQUAKE FAMILY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
BROCHURE 1 2 3 4
1. Meaning of Earthquake
2. Effects of Earthquake
3. Preparations before an Earthquake.
4. What to do during an Eartquake?
5. What to do after an earthequake?
FLOOD & TYPHOON FAMILY DISASTER
PREPAREDNESS BROCHURE 1 2 3 4
1. Storms and Floods in Dagupan City
2. Preparations before a Storm or Flood
3. What to do during a Storm or Flood?
4. What to so do after a Storm or Flood?
72-HOUR EMERGENCY KIT BROCHURE 1 2 3 4
1. First Aid Kit
2. Medicine Kit
3. Food Kit
4. Hygiene Kit
5. Baby Kit
6. Survival Kit
7. Sleeping Kit
8. General Kit
128

4. Please rate how much you agree or disagree with the following
statements:

4 – Strongly Agree
3 – Agree
2 – Disagree
1 - Strongly Disagree

TSUNAMI FAMILY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS


1 2 3 4
BROCHURE
A. Content
1. Messages about safety are clearly understood
2. Messages conveyed are relevant to you and your
safety
3. Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in brochure is the preferred language
2. Words used are simple and understandable
C. Presentational Appeal
1. Texts are readable even from afar
2. Colors used are pleasant to the eyes
3. Illustrations make the messages more comprehensible
EARTHQUAKE FAMILY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
BROCHURE 1 2 3 4
A. Content
1. Messages about safety are clearly understood
2. Messages conveyed are relevant to you and your
safety
3. Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled
B. Appropriateness 1 2 3 4
1. Language used in brochure is the preferred language
2. Words used are simple and understandable
C. Presentational Appeal
1. Texts are readable even from afar
129

2. Colors used are pleasant to the eyes


3. Illustrations make the messages more comprehensible
FLOOD & TYPHOON FAMILY DISASTER
PREPAREDNESS BROCHURE 1 2 3 4
A. Content
1. Messages about safety are clearly understood
2. Messages conveyed are relevant to you and your
safety
3. Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in brochure is the preferred language
2. Words used are simple and understandable
C. Presentational Appeal
1. Texts are readable even from afar
2. Colors used are pleasant to the eyes
3. Illustrations make the messages more comprehensible
72-Hour Emergency Kit Brochure
A. Content
1. Messages about safety are clearly understood
2. Messages conveyed are relevant to you and your
safety
3. Conveyed safety messages are easily recalled
B. Appropriateness
1. Language used in brochure is the preferred language
2. Words used are simple and understandable
C. Presentational Appeal
1. Texts are readable even from afar
2. Colors used are pleasant to the eyes
3. Illustrations make the messages more comprehensible
130

Survey Questionnaire (Filipino)

Pangalan : ______________________________
Edad: ____
Kasarian: ____
Pinakamataas na Antas na : ___________
Barangay : ____________

1. Alin sa mga sumusunod na polyeto na iniharap galing sa CDRRMO


ang inyo ng nabasa?
(Lagyan ng Tsek):

a) Polyeto tungkol sa Paghahanda sa Sakuna Dulot ng Tsunami _____


b) Polyeto tungkol sa Paghahanda sa Sakuna Dulot ng Lindol _____
c) Polyeto tungkol sa Paghahanda sa Pagbaha at Bagyo _____
d) Polyeto tungkol sa 72-Hour Emergency Kit _____

2. Saan mo natutunan ang iyong kaalaman ukol sa paghahanda sa mga


likas na sakuna?

a) Polyeto ng CDRRMO _____


b) Seminar na pinangasiwaan ng CDRRMO _____
c) Pareho _____
d) Iba pa: _____________________________________________

3. Mula sa sukat na 1 – 4, i-rate ang inyong antas ng pang-unawa sa


mga mensaheng pangkaligtasan sa mga iniharap na mga polyeto:

4 – Lubos na naunawaan
3 – Naunawaan
2 – Katamtamang Naunawaan
1 - Hindi Naunawaan
131

POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA SAKUNA


1 2 3 4
DULOT NG TSUNAMI
1. Kahulugan ng Tsunami
2. Natural na mga palatandaan ng parating na Tsunami
3. Paghahanda bago magka-Tsunami
4. Paghahandang pangkaligtasan kung sakaling may
palatandaan ng parating na Tsunami
5. Mga numerong dapat tandaan
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA SAKUNA
DULOT NG LINDOL 1 2 3 4
1. Kahulugan ng Lindol
2. Epekto ng Lindol
3. Paghahanda bago magka-lindol
4. Ano ang mga dapat gawin habang may lindol?
5. Ano ang mga dapat gawin pagkatapos ng lindol?
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA
PAGBAHA AT BAGYO 1 2 3 4
1. Bagyo at pagbaha sa Dagupan City
2. Paghahanda bago ang pananalasa ng bagyo at baha
3. Ano ang mga dapat gawin habang may bagyo o
baha?
4. Ano ang mga dapat gawin pagkatapos ng bagyo o
baha?
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA 72-HOUR EMERGENCY KIT 1 2 3 4
1. First Aid Kit
2. Medicine Kit
3. Food Kit
4. Hygiene Kit
5. Baby Kit
6. Survival Kit
7. Sleeping Kit
8. General Kit
132

4. I-rate kung gaano ka sumasang-ayon sa mga sumusunod na


pahayag:

4 – Lubos na sumasang-ayon
3 – Sumasang-ayon
2 – Hindi Sumasang-ayon
1 – Matindi ang hindi pagsang-ayon

POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA SAKUNA


1 2 3 4
DULOT NG TSUNAMI
A. Nilalaman
1. Ang mga mensahe tungkol sa kaligtasan ay malinaw na
naunawaan
2. Ang mga mensaheng naihatid ay mahalaga sa iyo at sa
iyong kaligtasan
3. Ang mga naihatid na mensaheng pangkaligtasan ay
madaling alalahanin
B. Kaangkupan
1. Ang mas nais na wika ang siyang ginamit sa polyeto
2. Ang mga salitang ginamit ay payak at madaling
maunawaan
C. Pangkahalatang Kaayusan
1. Ang mga teksto ay madaling basahin kahit na malayuan
2. Ang kulay na gamit ay kaaya-aya sa paningin
3. Ang mga mensahe ay madaling maunawaan gamit ang
mga larawang guhit
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA SAKUNA
DULOT NG LINDOL 1 2 3 4
A. Nilalaman
1. Ang mga mensahe tungkol sa kaligtasan ay malinaw na
naunawaan
2. Ang mga mensaheng naihatid ay mahalaga sa iyo at sa
iyong kaligtasan
3. Ang mga naihatid na mensaheng pangkaligtasan ay
madaling alalahanin
133

B. Kaangkupan 1 2 3 4
1. Ang mas nais na wika ang siyang ginamit sa polyeto
2. Ang mga salitang ginamit ay payak at madaling
maunawaan
C. Pangkahalatang Kaayusan
1. Ang mga teksto ay madaling basahin kahit na malayuan
2. Ang kulay na gamit ay kaaya-aya sa paningin
3. Ang mga mensahe ay madaling maunawaan gamit ang
mga larawang guhit
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA PAGHAHANDA SA PAGBAHA
AT BAGYO 1 2 3 4
A. Nilalaman
1. Ang mga mensahe tungkol sa kaligtasan ay malinaw na
naunawaan
2. Ang mga mensaheng naihatid ay mahalaga sa iyo at sa
iyong kaligtasan
3. Ang mga naihatid na mensaheng pangkaligtasan ay
madaling alalahanin
B. Kaangkupan
1. Ang mas nais na wika ang siyang ginamit sa polyeto
2. Ang mga salitang ginamit ay payak at madaling
maunawaan
C. Pangkahalatang Kaayusan
1. Ang mga teksto ay madaling basahin kahit na malayuan
2. Ang kulay na gamit ay kaaya-aya sa paningin
3. Ang mga mensahe ay madaling maunawaan gamit ang
mga larawang guhit
POLYETO TUNGKOL SA 72-HOUR EMERGENCY KIT
A. Nilalaman
1. Ang mga mensahe tungkol sa kaligtasan ay malinaw na
naunawaan
2. Ang mga mensaheng naihatid ay mahalaga sa iyo at sa
iyong kaligtasan
3. Ang mga naihatid na mensaheng pangkaligtasan ay
madaling alalahanin
B. Kaangkupan
134

1. Ang mas nais na wika ang siyang ginamit sa polyeto


2. Ang mga salitang ginamit ay payak at madaling
maunawaan
C. Pangkahalatang Kaayusan
1. Ang mga teksto ay madaling basahin kahit na malayuan
2. Ang kulay na gamit ay kaaya-aya sa paningin
3. Ang mga mensahe ay madaling maunawaan gamit ang
mga larawang guhit
135

APPENDIX B

Interview Questions (English)

1. What do you think are the advantages of the communication


materials disseminated by the Dagupan City Disaster Risk
Reduction Management Office?

2. Do you think that there are disadvantages in the utilization of these


communication materials?

3. What do you think are the positive attributes of the presented


brochures?

4. Do you see any negative attributes in any of the brochures?

5. Do you think these brochures need further improvement in terms of


content, appropriateness, and presentational appeal?

6. Are you satisfied with the brochures disseminated by the Dagupan


City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office?

7. Do you have any suggestions on how to improve these


communication brochures?

8. Are there any changes in your understanding of natural disasters


and risk reduction after reading these brochures?

9. What are the things you have realized with the knowledge you have
about disaster risk reduction?

10. With your realizations, what plans do you have for yourself and
your family in preparation for upcoming disasters?
136

Interview Questions (Filipino)

1. Sa inyong palagay, ano-ano ang mga benepisyo ng mga polyetong


ipinamahagi ng Dagupan City Disaster Risk Reduction
Management Office?

2. Sa tingin mo ba ay may maidudulot na pinsala ang paggamit ng


polyeto?

3. Ano sa tingin mo ang mga positibong katangian ng polyetong


iniharap?

4. May nakikita ka bang negatibong katangian sa mga polyetong


iniharap?

5. Sa iyong tingin kailangan ba ng karagdagang kaayusan sa


nilalaman, kaangkupan at pangkahalatang kaayusan?

6. Kuntento ka ba sa mga polyeto na ipinamahagi ng Dagupan City


Disaster Risk Reduction Office?

7. Mayroon ka bang nais imungkahi kung paano mapabubuti ang mga


polyeto?

8. Mayroon bang mga pagbabago sa iyong pagkakaunawa ukol sa


mga paghahanda sa mga likas na sakuna?

9. Ano-ano ang iyong mga natanto tungkol sa inyong kaalaman sa


Disaster Risk Reduction?

10. Ano-ano ang iyong mga plano para sa iyong sarili at iyong pamilya
sa paghahanda para sa mga parating na sakuna?
137

APPENDIX C

Transcript of Interviews

Bonuan Binloc Participants

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

PARTICIPANT 1
R: Kamusta po kayo nung recent bagyo na Ompong?
P1: Itong bagyong last, medyo natakot kami kasi nga ang sabi super
typhoon. Pasalamat na lang kasi hindi tayo gaanong napinsala.
Nagkaproblema lang tayo kasi konting ulan, lumalalim ang Dagupan.
R: Iyong naexperience nyo po, hangin lang or maraming tubig?
P1: Hangin.
R: Hindi naman po nagbabaha sa area?
P1: Ito, recently lang.
R: So, nagbaha po dito? Pero usually nababaha po dito?
P1: Hindi
R: So recently, ito lang?
P1: Ito lang po.
R: Hanggang saan po?
P1: Hanggang dito sa binti.
R: Ah mataas din po. Iyong susunod po na questions po ay according po
dito sa mga brochures. Do you think po merong advantages ang
pagkakaroon ng mga brochures o reading material?
P1: Meron. Napaka-advantage. Kasi dati, sa T.V konti lang malalaman mo
kasi more on commercial na, madalang. Pero ‘pag dito, mababasa mo
lahat.
R: Kompleto lahat.
P1: Oo kompleto.
R: Meron syang disadvantage?
P1: Wala siyang disadvantage.
R: Do you think ito ay hindi nagko-cause ng alarm sa mga tao?
P1: Siguro, hindi parehas. Pero parang ano kasi…
138

R: Naavoid iyong mga mangyayari?


P1: Opo
R: Sa mga brochure na mga ito po, ano kaya iyong mga positive o
maganda sa brochure na ito in terms of look and content. Madali ba sya
maintindihan, kumpleto po ba?
P1: Madali syang matutunan. Kasi number 1 kasi Sir, tagalog. Kasi
kadalasan satin tulad dito sa amin, basta English, mahirap.
R: Ano pa po maganda dyan?
P1: Tapos ang nagustuhan ko, kompleto ‘yong mga Kit. Iyong mga dadalhin
mo in case sa bagyo. Andito rin iyong mga cause ng mga tsunami, ano
gagawin kapag may tsunami.
R: Negative naman, ano nakikita nyong negative sa brochure?
P1: Wala akong nakikita.
R: Iyong mga improvement? Do you think kailangan pa ng improvement?
P1: Para sa akin kasi sir, kompleto na. Andito na lahat.
R: So ang bottom line, satisfied kayo sa mga brochures. May suggestions
ba kayo sa CDRRMO na idagdag o tanggalin dito sa brochure?
P1: Okay naman na ito Sir, pati iyong color and pictures. Pati mga bata
naiinganyo.
R: Saan nanggaling iyong knowledge nyo before preparation?
P1: Isa ako sa DSWD sa barangay namin so minsan nagkakaroon ng
program, seminars, kaya alam ko rin.
R: After reading the brochure, may dumagdag ba sa knowledge?
P1: May mga nadagdag. Nagbigay ng tips, just in case na may emergency.
R: Ano yong mga narealize nyo dun sa knowledge na mayroon kayo? Ano
yong realization nyo after reading the brochure?
P1: Narealize ko na pagdating ng sakuna, iba talaga kapag nakaprepare ka.
Kahit may pera ka kung wala kang knowledge about preparation and
safety.
R: Familiar naman po kayo sa Evacuation Center sa area?
P1: Opo, kasi isa ako sa nagencourage sa kung sakaling may malakas na
hangin.
R: Saan po dito iyong Evacuation Center?
P1: Sa school po, sa Federico.
R: Ano ang plano nyo at sa inyong pamilya with regards to preparation?
P1: Sinasabi ko sa mga kapamilya at kaibigan ko na dapat prepared ka.
Halimbawa sinabi sa TV o radio, sinabi ko na magpray tapos ihanda
139

lahat ng mga kita para hindi na makalimutan. At lahat ng gamit, itaas.


R: May mga conversations ba kayo about where to meet when this
happens?
P1: Meron din
R: Familiar po kayo sa sinasabi the big one?
P1: Hindi po
R: Iyong lindo po na darating. Although hindi natin alam kung kalian. Meron
po kayong preparation for that?
P1: Kasi dito po sa amin, napapaligiran kami ng tubig, tubig sa palaisdaan.
Siguro pray na lang.
R: Mga Evacuation Centers na lang po?
P1: Opo, ganun.
R: Sa area po natin, Federico lang ang Evacuation Center?
P1: Oo, Federico
R: May mga buildings sila na matataas?
P1: Oo, meron.
R: Hanggang doon na lang po. Thank you po.

PARTICIPANT 2

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Kamusta po kayo noong nakaraang bagyo? Ano pong nangyari?


P2 Wala naman, pagkatapos ng bago, linis.
R: Mahangin po?
P2 Oo, mahangin
R: Binaha po?
P2 Muntik nilipad iyong bubong
R: Ah, malakas talaga iyong hangin.
P2 Oo, malakas.
R: May preparation po ba? Kasi sa TV, super typhoon si Ompong. May
ginawa ba tayong preparation?
P2 Oo, nagprepara lang ako ng kaunting pagkain, iyon lang. Mga grocery
lang, biscuit.
R: Sa physical aspect ng bahay natin? Sinecure ba yong bubong?
P2 Hindi ko sinicure. Kung lumipad, lumipad. Marupok na
140

R: Bahala na ganon?
P2 Bahala na. Magisa ko dyan, di ko kaya umakyat.
R: Ah okay po. Ano po advantage ng brochure o magandang naidudulot nito
o kaya benefits?
P2 Marami siguro. Magagawan mo ng paraan yong darating.
R: Nagko-cause ba ng alarm sa tao dahil may ganito? Nagko-cause ng
panic?
P2 Sa akin hindi naman ako nagpapanic.
R: Mas nagiging prepared kayo? Mas marami pa kayong nakukuhang
kaalaman sa paghanda?
P2 Oo naman.
R: Dun po sa physical na itsura o nilalaman, okay naman po ba? Ano po
yong magagandang aspeto yong mga brochures ng munisipyo natin?
Naiintindihan po ba ang salita, maganda naman po yong mga kulay,
tama po ba yong mga pictures na ginamit, ano po sa tingin nyo?
P2 Oo, tama. Sinadya ko talaga bumili ng battery dahil kapag nawalailaw,
dun ako nakikinig ng radio para sa update.
R: You think okay naman po yong hitsura? Nainform naman po kayo about
dun sa specific natural disaster prepareness brochure?
P2 Tama naman yon.
R: Kompleto naman po yong sinasabi nya? Eh yong pagkakasulat, yong
lingwaheng ginamit, okay naman po yong tagalog?
P2 Oo, lalong mas maganda kapag Pangasinan.
R: Dito po, kompleto, naintindihan?
P2 Naintindihan din.
R: Do you think may negative o panget po sa brochure nila?
P2 Wala, tamang tama lang. Satisfied sa itsura. Nainform ako.
R: Any suggestions po?
P2 Wala na ako maisip kasi andito na lahat nilalaman.
R: Do you think ready po kayo dahil sa knowledge dyan?
P2 Kasi lahat ng sinabi sa balita sa radio, itong brochure sinabi lahat.
Maganda ang pagkakapaliwanag.
R: Nung nabasa po yong brochure may nabago po ba like dumagdag na sa
kaalaman po natin?
P2 Oo, kasi naririnig lang sa radio saka sa TV. Mas nareinforce.
R: Ano po narealize nyo sa knowledge nyo regarding sa pagprepare?
P2 Tulad ng nangyari sa Pangasinan, di gaanong malakas. Samantalang sa
141

ibang probinsya malakas, basta sa north.


R: May mga plano po ba kayo just in case of emergency?
P2 Tulad yong andito sa brochure. Tsunami, lindol, alam ko na gagawin sa
bagyo naman, magprepare ng di nabubulok na pagkain. Kailangan may
flashlight at radio. Tsaka yong gamot pang maintenance.
R: Sa tsunamin naman po. Familiar po tayo sa mga gagawin at sa
Evacuation Center?
P2 Dito may Evacuation Center, sa school. May third floor pa.
R: Kapag bumaha, nagaakyat po ng gamit pataas?
P2 Oo, sa tinitirahan ko dahil may second floor, akyat mga gamit. Di ko pa
ginagalaw kasi baka may darating na bagyo.
R: Actually this weekend may low pressure area daw po.
P2 Yong sa balita, baka daw malusaw.
R: Saan po kayo naUpdate, sa radio po o sa TV?
P2 Sa radio.
R: Okay po, okay na po yon salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 3

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Kamusta po nung may bagyo?


P3 Parang nabigla. Sabi nila malakas, super typhoon. Tapos naghintay tayo
pero late na dumating yong lakas ng bagyo.
R: Kamusta naman po yong preparation natin?
P3 Ok naman at least medyo nakapaghanda ng mabuti. Usually dati hindi
gaanong bumibili. Ngayon nag “Panic Buying” ng grocery. Bumibili nga
ako kandila, apat na lang natira sa grocery.
R: Susunod na question ko po, about sa brochure. Ano po sa tingin nyo
advantages ng brochure para sa mga tao na makakabasa nyan?
P3 Magiging ready sila sa kung ano pwede nilang gawin and tawagan in
case na may sakuna.
R: May nakita ka bang disadvantages? Nagko-cause ba siya ng alarm sa
mga tao? O precautionary lang sya para mas handa?
P3 Yong mga ganto kasi, kapag sa TV lang magpapanic tayo no. Kasi kung
ganito makikita natin na wala namang nakikitang visual o picture kagaya
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ng sigarilyo like yang packaging nila. Kapag ganito, di gaanong ano…


Okay sya, pero kailangan maging kaakit-akit ng konte.
R: Before that, ano magandang attribute nya? In terms of itsura at tsaka
yong nilalaman. Is it complete? Yong information, yong text ay ayos sa
paningin, concise naman ang info?
P3 Okay siya, okay naman. Pero kung iri-rate ko sya, out of 10, nasa 7 sya.
R: So, ano yong nakikita nyong panget dun sa brochure?
P3 Siguro kung gagawa sila ng ganito, yong medyo matibay yong papel.
And, tagalog kasi lahat eh, no?
R: Opo tagalog.
G: Ano po ba prefer natin, tagalog po ba, pangasinan?
P3 Pangasinan, kasi yong ibang magbabasa neto eh.
R: If ever po ba ulit ang CDRRMO ng ganyan, you think dapat may ibat
ibang lingwahe? Or stick lang sila sa isa na naiintindihan?
P3 Isa lang siguro, then kailangan ituro na lang. Kasi kung ganito kadami,
hindi na siguro natin babasahin. Kapag nabasa yong isa, hindi na
babasahin yong iba, itatapon na nila sayang lang pera ng gobyerno.
R: Ano kaya pwedeng improvement dyan sa brochure?
P3 Kung talagang gagastusan ng gobyerno, per house, yong nakaplastic na
sya. Para bang nakalaminate na sya. Pwede itago.
R: Are you satisfied sa brochure?
P3 Okay naman po.
R: May mga suggestions?
P3 Yong kaakit-akit basahin talaga.
R: Paano pong “kaakit-akit”?
P3 More pictures.
R: Prior sa knowledge, may changes ba nung nabasa nyo yong brochure?
Nadagdagan ba yong knowledge natin?
P3 Oo naman. Kapag nagbabasa naman tayo meron tayong makukuha.
R: So, ano yong narealize nyo Sir sa knowledge na nakuha nyo?
P3 Syempre maaapply natin ito, then kung ano yong iba pang kailangan
natin gawin pag may mga disaster.
R: Since mayroon na kayong knowledge with regards sa preparation, may
mga plano pa po ba tayo in case na… yun yong mga upcoming disaster,
may mga plans ba tayong gagawin?
P3 Ako nakakabasa neto. Hindi naman siguro lahat ng kasama ko sa bahay
mababasa nila. Pwedeng basahin ko sa kanila or ikwento na lang para
143

hindi sila maboring. Kasi karamihan kapag mabasa ito maboboring sila.
R: With regards to preparation po kaya, ano po yong mga plano nating
gawin para sa inyo at saka para sa pamilya nyo na rin?
P3 Mas magprepare, mas maghahanda siguro. Hindi lang sa bagyo.
R: Anong klaseng preparations po kaya?
P3 Hindi lang sa bagyo. Sa lahat na lang kasi dito puro bagyo lang. Eh ang
calamity pala eh may tsunami, earthquake.
R: Sa tsunami kaya, anong plano natin gawin dyan if ever?
P3 So kailangan hindi lang isang bag. Mga dalawa o tatlo ang kailangan
nating iprepare na ngayon. Kasi kapag earthquake, hindi pwedeng nasa
bahay lang no. Kailangan naka ano tayo, kunyari malalaki yong
babagsak at babagsak satin pwede na talaga tayong lumikas. Saka
parating nakatutok sa radio.
R: Familiar po tayo sa mga Evacuation Centers?
P3 Dito naman hindi gaanong siksikan
R: Ilang Evacuation Center po meron tayo dito?
P3 Isa lang po.
R: Isa lang talaga, for the whole Binloc po yon?
P3 Oo. Malaki ang pwede I-accommodate ng Evacuation Center dito.
R: Sa tsunami kaya, pano kaya?
P3 Sa tsunami kasi wala. Ang meron dito yong sirena lang. Pag tumunog
yon, panic lahat ng mga tao.
R: Alam po natin kung anong plano kaya, kung mangyari yon?
P3 Zero dito lahat ng mga tao.
R: You think enough yong ginagawa ng munisipyo para mainform yong mga
tao?
P3 Hindi pa. Hindi pa siguro. Kasi ang alam talaga ng mga tao dito, bagyo
lang. Bagyo and then earthquake--yan hindi pa nila masyadong alam
kung ano gagawin nila.
R: Kasi kung naiexperience nila dun lang sila makakaconcentrate?
P3 Mmm, dun lang sila nakaconcentrate.
R: So more on information designation po tayo sa ibang disasters katulad
ng tsunami, tsaka ng earthquake. Okay salamat po.
144

PARTICIPANT 4

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Magandang tanghali po. Kamusta po tayo nung bagyo?


P4 Okay naman po.
R: Noong nakaraan po, naghanda po tayo?
P4 Mga pagkain. Mga halimbawa gagawin kapag magi-evacuate ka. Mga
flashlight, damit, ganyan
R: So nagready po tayo?
P4 Opo
R: Nabaha po tayo?
P4 Nabaha din tayo hanggang binti.
R: Sa loob po ng bahay?
P4 Wala po, malinis po. Sa labas lang.
R: Yong mga susunod na tanong po, tungkol sa brochures. Do you think po
may mga benepisyo yong pagkakaroon ng brochure na ganyan na galing sa
ating munisipyo?
P4 Opo, meron po.
R: Ano po yong mga advantages nya? Yong mga benefits?
P4 Yong pagprepara sa tsunami, earthquake. Para alam mo magprepare.
R: Ano kayang disadvantage or pangit sa pagkakaroon ng ganito?
P4 Hindi naman po. Maganda po sya.
R: So wala kayo nakikitang disadvantage or panget? Negatibo dyan?
P4 Wala po.
R: Doon sa itsura po ng brochure at sa nilalaman po nya, meron po bang
magandang katangian yong brochures po natin? Kompleto po ba nilalaman
ng brochure?
P4 Opo kompleto po nilalaman.
R: Malinaw nyo naman po naindindihan yong lingwahe?
P4 Opo kasi tagalog.
R: Nababasa nyo naman po ‘yong laki nung text?
P4 Opo, opo. Hindi hirap na basahin sya.
R: Yong color naman po, okay naman po?
P4 Okay naman po.
R: Eh yong mga pictures po na ginamit?
145

P4 Opo maganda.
R: Ano naman po yong panget na nakikita nyo sa brochure?
P Wala naman ako nakikita. Maganda naman lahat. Maganda rin itsura.
R: May kulang po ba? May sobra?
P4: Wala. Tama na po
R Masasabi po natin na satisfied kayo dun sa brochure?
P4: Opo
R: Mayroon po kayo maisasuggest dun sa brochure nila?
P4: Yong iba sana Pangasinan din para maintindihan ng makabasa. Yon lang.
R: So sana may pangasinan para sa pangasinan speaker, tagalog para sa
nakakaintindi ng tagalog?
P4: Opo.
R: Nung nabasa nyo po sya, may improvement po ba dun sa pagkakaintindi
natin sa disaster tsaka sa paghahanda? Nadagdagan po ba? Ano po yong
nadagdag na information na nalaman nyo dahil sa brochure?
P4: Nadagdagan kaalaman namin kapag may baha, bagyo, tsunami, earthquake,
ganun.
R: Ano po yong gagawin nyo kapag nagkaroon uli ng disaster? Ano po dyan
yong maaari nyong gawin?
P4: Halimbawa pag may dumating na bagyo o baha, mageevacuate sa
eskwelahan o sa malaking bahay para kapag may baha, hindi maapektuhan
ng baha.
R: Yong mga kits po. Magpeprepare ba tayo ng kits, ng gamot nyo? Medicine
Kit?
P4: Oo ah, mga gamot. Halimbawa highblood ka.
R: Eh pano po kung walang pharmacy?
P4: Parating maghanda ganun.
R: Ano po yong narealize nyo sa knowledge na meron kayo? Anong narealize
nyo sa pagkakaalam nyo kung paano magprepare? Ano yong mga narealize
nyo?
P4: Kailangan magprepare.
R: Ano yong plano nyo gawin no walay bagyo, Tsunami, antoy gawaen yo ey?
P4: Man ibakwit.
R: Amay pamilya nyo ey?
P4: Dala dala natin.
R: Anta yo no iner kayo ula?
P4: Dyad evacuation center. Singa atan ay bahay na malaki. Dyan kami
146

nagevacuate nung minsan eh nung may bagyo. Mabait sila dyan.


R: So alam na po natin kung saan tayo pupunta talaga pag mayroong bagyo.
Eh pano kapag lindol po?
P4: Pag lindol e di sa may patag pa.
R: Korek, tama. Sige po. Thank you po.

PARTICIPANT 5

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Kamusta po tayo nitong nakaraang bagyo?


P5: Ok lang, nagprepare po ako. Yong damit, gamot. Yong mga gadgets
chinarge.
R: Nagbrownout po ba dito?
P5: Oo, Alas tres.
R: Kailan suminde?
P5: Madaling araw, saka suminde.
R: Ano po ba adbantages ng pagkakaroon nyang mga brochure?
P5: Malaking alon… wala kasi kaming mataas na bahay. Dyan lang ako sa
bahay namin.
R: So prepare naman po kayo?
P5: Oo, just in case.
R: Ano po benefits ng mga brochure?
P5: Para mas handa. Nerbyosa kasi ako kaya parati ako handa. Galit nga
asawa ko dahil, “pati yan lang nakahanda ka na agad!”, tapos sabi ko
naman, “kung ayaw mo e di ako ang maghahanda sayo!”.
R: Ano po nakikita nyong disadvantage?
P5: Wala akong nakikitang disadvantage.
R: Ano naman yong positive attributes / characteristics ng brochure?
P5: Maganda na sya, kompleto. Nakaprepara na sya.
R: Yong text po, yong language?
P5: Oo, naintindihan.
R: Yong pictures po?
P5: Ay, maganda rin.
R: Naintindihan po?
P5: Oo
147

R: Yong kulay po na ginamit?


P5: Mmm-huh. (Nodded to say she agrees that it’s good)
R: Pag binabasa nyo ba sya kailangan nyo pang salamin?
P5: Yong malalaki mababasa ko pa, yong mga iba, medyo blurred na.
R: Mga pangit po na nakikita nyo?
P5: Wala naman
R: Do you think kailangan po--natin ng imrpovement sa brochure?
P5: Wala na.
R: Nong binasa nyo sya may mga changes po ba sa understanding nyo?
Natuto po ba tayo?
P5: Oo, naintindihan ko lahat. Natuto ako sa tsunami, lindol, bagyo.
R: Ano pa po? Sa paghahanda rin ba?
P5: Oo, naghahanda pa ako. Nasa bag ko yong mga flashlight.
R: Ano po narealize nyo sa pagbasa ng brochure? Yong nalaman sa
brochure?
P5: Na maganda, maayos naman po.
R: Ano po yong mga plano natin sa susunod na sakuna?
P5: Laging handa.
R: Yon lang po?
P5: Oo.
R: Salamat po

PARTICIPANT 6

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Good Morning po Ma’am, kamusta po kayo noong nakaraang bagyo?


P6: Okay naman po.
R: Kasi po Super Typhoon daw po si Ompong
P6: Okay naman po ang school, ang mga bahay at ginawang evacuation
center ang school .
R: Naapektuhan din po ba ang bahay niyo?
P6: Hindi naman po.
R: Pero nagprepare naman po ba kayo?
P6: Opo, tinali po naming ang bubong namin para maging safe.
148

R: Okay po, so ang mga next questions ko po is regarding po sa mga


nabasa nating mga brochures. Ano po kaya ang mga advantages ng
pagkakaroon ng mga ganitong klase ng mga communication materials.
P6: We will be aware of the things to prepare and needed when the
disaster comes.
R: So definitely preparation po talaga and information dissemination.
P6: Opo, early preparation
R: So do you think po ba may disadvantages itong pagkakaroon ng mga
ganito katulad na lamang po ng pagko-cause ng panic o pagko-cause ng
alarm sa mga tao?
P6: Sometimes po kasi kapag binibigyan tayo ng mga brochures parang
iniisip natin na magkakaroon at minsan kapag binigyan tayo ng brochures
‘yong mga sinasabi dito parang limited. Hindi mo na alam kung ano ‘yong
gagawin kung ano na lang ang nandito yun na lang ang gagawin mo.
R: With regards po sa physical appearance ng mismong brochure, ano po
kaya ang positive attributes niya?
P6: Ang positive attributes kahit wala ‘yong message niya or word madali
na siyang maintindihan ng mga tao.
R: So yung images po na ginamit madali siyang maintindihan kahit hindi
po marunong magbasa ‘yong taong makakakita nito?
P6: Opo, madali na po siyang maiintindihan na po siya ng mga tao.
R: May nakikita po ba kayong mga negative attributes?
P6: Parang sa may flood po, parang limited siya. Limited po ‘yong
information and ‘yong mga pictures po.
R: So gusto niyo po na at least madagdagan po.
P6: Opo.
R: Do you think po ba kailangan ng further improvements?
P6: Kung ako naman po okay lang naman po siya sakto lang po.
R: Satisfied po ba kayo sa mga brochures or may brochure po kayong
hindi naintindihan?
P6: Sa flood lang, ‘yong color niya kasi medyo madilim.
R: Do you have any suggestion to improve the brochures?
P6: Pwedeng ‘yong mga nakukunan dito sa ating barangay, mga pictures
ng ginagawa dito pwede po nating ilagay para mas malaman ng mga tao.
R: Pagkatapos niyo pong basahin ang mga brochures may changes po ba
sa understanding natin?
149

P6: Yes po, sa earthquake meron tayong dock, cover and hold sa school
ginagawa siya pero hindi siya masiyadong pinapahalagahan ng mga tao
at matapos kong makita at mabasa ‘tong brochure nalaman ko
napakaimportante gawin ang dock, cover and hold.
R: With the things that you realize and the knowledge na meron kayo
P6: We need to prepare ourselves, hindi natin alam kung saan
magmumula ang pangyayaring ganito.
R: Preparation po talaga, so meron po ba kayong mga plano and enough
information sa paghahanda para sa sarili at sa pamilya natin?
P6: Sa tsunami na mangyayari parang sa case na ito kailangan mong
maghanap ng mataas na lugar para po maging safe ka kasi kapag sinabi
nating tsunami water po siya.
R: Lalo na po ‘yong sinasabi nilang ‘The Big One’
P6: Oo, mahirap po talaga kapag tsunami.
R: Base po sa naging interview ko sa head ng CDRRMO, parang sinabi
po nila na they have only 15-30 minutes to evacuate everybody lalo na po
dito sa coastal barangay.
P6: Kung ano po ‘yong sinabi ng barangay, sumunod na lang po kasi alam
po nila ang mas nakakabuti.
R: Everybody is aware naman po ba kung saan evacuation center.
P6: Opo, pero dito po kasi parang maaabot pa din kaya kailangan dapat
mas malayo.
R: Yun lamang po Ma’am, thank you po.

PARTICIPANT 7

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Good Morning po Ma’am, kamusta po kayo noong nakaraang Super


Typhoon po?
P7: Hindi naman lumipad yung bubong naming pero malakas ‘yong
hangin, pero dito kasi hindi masyadong nababaha kumpara sa lower
areas pero malakas talaga ‘yong ulan.
R: May mga preparations din po ba kayong ginawa?
P7: Siyempre before ang bagyo may napanood tayo sa TV na may
parating na malakas na bagyo, so ang ginawa is tinali ang bubong para
150

hindi lumipad tapos nagstock na rin ng mga pagkain sa bahay, at mga


pwedeng magamit para sa mga anak ko at kung kami ba ay mag-e-
evacuate pero so far hindi pa naman naeexperience ang page-evacuate
kaya hindi namin ineexpect.
R: Saan po ba kayo dito Ma’am?
P7: Sa China po.
R: Ang mga next questions ko po is regarding na po doon sa mga
brochures na nabasa natin, do you think po ba may advantages ang
pagkakaroon ng mga ganitong klase ng reading material?
P7: Opo, kasi kung tutuusin hindi naman natin alam kung kelan darating
ang mga ganitong klaseng mga disaster, so well-prepared ka kung ano
‘yong dapat mong gawin bago dumating ‘yong bagyo o habang bagyo at
after ng bagyo so napakaimportante pero siguro dahil sa pang-araw-araw
na trabaho minsan kahit dito naman sa school naman nagkakaroon kami
ng program ng yearly o minsan twice a year na kami at ang mga bata
inoorient kami kung papaano gawin pero usually ano lang ‘yan eh fire at
earthquake drill lang ang itinuturo sa amin eh pero pag flood at mga storm
wala naman, wala kaming mga ganoong orientation or program but since
mayroon naman dito ang tungkol sa earthquake so malaking tulong din
‘yon para at least mabigyan kami ng idea kung ano dapat ang gawin
naming.
R: Is this your first time na maencounter ‘to ang mga brochures?
P7: Yes po, usually po kasi verbally gano’n lang. Verbally o kaya minsan
meron kaming dry run kung papano gawin
R: Pero most of your knowledge Ma’am regarding disaster reduction is
from TV?
P7: Opo, TV at sa mga school program at radio
R: May nakita po ba kayong mga disadvantages ng mga brochures?
Nagca-cause po ba ito ng alarm sa mga tao?
P7: Parang siyempre kapag babasahin mo siya parang nakakatakot
kumbaga iisipin mo kung what if mangyari nga talaga so magkakaroon ka
talaga ng kaba.
R: Pero in general po ba positive siya?
P7: Positive siya, siguro ano lang kumbaga sa sarili mo lang kung what if
sayo mangyari.
151

R: Noong nakita niyo po ‘yong mga brochures, ano po ba ‘yong mga


positive attributes nito? Maganda po ba ang pagkakasulat, ‘yong mga
pictures po mga gano’n po Ma’am?
P7: Okay naman, kasi bawat topic may mga pictures. Kasi kung for
example ‘yong mga hindi familiar sa mga gano’ng pangalan so at least
dito may pangalan with pictures.
R: So na-associate nila ‘yong mga pangalan sa pictures.
P7: Opo, parang sasabihin nila ah ‘yon pala ‘yon.
R: Ano naman po ‘yong nakikita niyong negative attribute no’ng mga
brochures, may pangit po ba?
P7: Ang pangit lang talaga mismo ay ‘yong disaster.
R: Mayroon po ba tayong pwedeng iimprove sa mga brochures?
P7: Ang hindi ko lang maintindihan ay ‘yong by page siguro mas okay
kung booklet para kapag nagscan ka by page na lang para hindi mawala
‘yong isang page.
R: So booklet po at nandoon na silang lahat?
P7: Oo, parang notebook pero maliit lang walang mamisplace na page
hindi hiwa-hiwalay. Oo kasi siyempre baka mamisplace.
R: With those brochures naman po satisfied naman po ba kayo?
P7: Opo
R: May suggestion po ba tayo para mas maimprove itong mga brochure?
P7: Siguro kung dapat ganito man ang pagkaka-arrange dapat nakastaple
para hindi siya ma-detached
R: Since first time niyo po siyang mabasa, may changes po ba sa
understanding natin sa pagpeprepare during disaster?
P7: Kasi pagdating sa actual minsan hindi na natin mababalikan isa-isa
ang mga dapat gawin step 1 step 2 o kung ilan mang step ‘yan. Siyempre
ang gagawin mo na lang is normal action na dapat mong gawin sa bahay,
sa mga bata at mga dapat mong iprepare.
R: Pero doon po sa understanding natin, nakatulong po ba siya to improve
‘yong understanding natin kung ano ang gagawin natin?
P7: Oo, lalo makakalimutin ako so at least nareremind ulit sa mga dapat
gagawin.
R: May mga realizations po ba kayo sa mga nabasa niyo, sa knowledge
na mayroon kayo? May narealize po ba tayo since nainform po tayo ng
brochure?
152

P7: Since, katatapos lang ng bagyong Ompong, siguro ang realization ko


is dapat maging doble preparation pa dapat although nagprepare naman
pero ‘yong expectation kasi for how many years hindi naman gano’n
kalakas eh. So malakas man o hindi dapat safe preparation at least
walang pwedeng mangyaring masama.
R: With those realizations Ma’am, ano pa ‘yong preparations na gagawin
natin pagka may susunod uli sa family natin kahit sa sarili natin?
P7: Parang ang hindi ko lang talaga nagawa is ‘yong pagfully charge ng
mga gadgets although nakaprepared ‘yong mga pagkain, kailangan ng
mga bata ang nakalimutan is ‘yong gadgets na dapat icharge para at least
mamonitor kung anon a ba nag nangyayari sa bagyo lumayo na ba o kaya
para makontak ang mga mahal mo sa buhay kasi sa akin malayo sila eh.
R: Which of the brochures po ang bago sa inyo o parang nainform talaga
kayo?
P7: Kasi ‘yong sa earthquake lagi namang ginagawa sa school, ‘yong
tsunami especially dito malapit sa dagat kaya kailangan mas doble ingat o
triple pa ang pag-iingat. Nangyari na ba ang tsunami sa Pilipinas?
R: Hindi pa naman po siguro.
P7: Pero dahil na rin po siguro sa climate change baka darating ‘yong
panahon na magkaroon din ng tsunami dito tapos ‘yong flood and typhoon
sanay na rin tayo.
R: Thank you po Ma’am

PARTICIPANT 8

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Good Morning po Ma’am, kamusta naman po kayo noong last na Super


Typhoon?
P8: Okay naman safe naman kami.
R: May mga preparations po ba kayong ginawa?
P8: Sa preparations nagputul-putol ng malalaking puno.
R: Sa bahay namn po natin, may preparations po ba tayong ginawa?
P8: Sa bahay wala naman.
R: ‘yong mga bubong po tinali po ba?
P8: Hindi na po, maayos na po ‘yon.
153

R: So mga puno lang po talaga?


P8: Opo at siyempre mga pagkain nagstock na kami.
R: ‘yong mga susunod kong mga questions ay tungkol po sa mga nabasa
nating mga brochure. Sa inyo pong palagay, meron po bang advantages
ang pagkakaroon ng mga materials na ganyan?
P8: Oo meron.
R: Ano po kaya ito? Ano po ang mga advantages nito?
P8: Ang advantage nya is para maging prepared tayo tapos alam mo ang
gagawin.
R: So ang purpose po talaga nito is to make the people aware and have
preparation? May nakita po ba kayong disadvantage ng mga iyan, nagko-
cause ba siya ng alarm or natatakoy ang mga tao?
P8: Natatakot angmga takot.
R: Paano niyo po nasabi?
P8: Kasi po may nababasa silang mga ganito hindi ba, ‘yong iba
nagpapanic, ‘yong iba sobra na ‘yong ginagawa nilang pagpeprepare
tapos dito sa grocery ubusan talaga, madaming bumibili halos mahaba
ang pila. Halimbawa, kapag may bagyo na kinakubasan or ngayong araw
maraming pila. Nagkakaubusan, nagpapanic buying na ang mga tao.
R: Sa mga brochures po natin, ano po kaya ang positive attributes na
nakikita niyo?
P8: Ang maganda dito is nakasulat naman lahat. Nandito ‘yong mga
positive at mga safety measures.
R: Sa itsura naman po kaya, mga pictures po?
P8: Sa itsura, okay naman po siya. Kitang-kita naman siya kahit na maliit,
hindi rin po siya malabo.
R: May nakita po ba kayong negative doon sa mga brochures?
P8: Wala naman
R: Sa tingin niyo po ba, kailangan pa ng further improvement para
malaman po ng munisipiyo ang pwede nilang iimprove?
P8: Wala naman, siguro dapat idistribute para mabasa ng lahat.
R: So dapat kailangang idistribute ang material, so we can say po na
satisfied po tayo sa brochures itself? May gusto po ba kayong ilagay o
ibawas or any suggestion na pwedeng maimprove?
P8: Okay naman, nakalagay naman lahat at may mga pictures na rin.
154

R: Dalawa lang po ‘yong nabasa niyo dito before diba po Ma’am? So


noong nabasa niyo po siyang apat mayroon po bang changes sa
knowledge natin, may mga nagain po ba tayo, may natutunan?
P8: Oo, kasi minsan nakakalimutan ko. Itong sa lindol talagang ginagawa
namin siya yearly sa school meron kaming earthquake drill kaya ito talaga
‘yong natatandaan ko.
R: So may difference po, matapos niyo pong basahin lahat may changes
po?
P8: Oo, merong changes.
R: Ano po ‘yong mga narealize niyo tungkol sa mga nalaman niyo
ngayon?
P8: Mas nakapagpaimprove ng kaalaman para maging secure.
R: Mas feeling niyo po secure na kayo?
P8: Opo.
R: Or mas makakapaghanda po.
P8: Opo, makakapaghanda.
R: Ngayong nabasa niyo na po siya at ‘yong mga realizations niyo po,
mayroon na po tayong mga plano na gawin na para mas maging secure
sa mga susunod pang mga calamitie, ano po kaya ang mga gagawin
natin?
P8: Siyempre, una pag may narinig ka ng mga balita magpeprepare ka na
tapos iisipin mo na kung ano ang mga dapat mong gawin.
R: Alin po ba sa apat na yan ang marami talaga kayong natutunan,
nabago or marami kayong nakuhang information?
P8: Itong earthquake tyaka itong tsunami.
R: Bakit niyo po nasabi na diyan kayo may pinakamaraming natutunan?
P8: Kasi madali lang matandaan at ‘yon talaga ang pinapractice dito sa
school at ang location kasi namin mas malapit sa dagat.
R: ‘yon lamang po Ma’am, thank you po.

PARTICIPANT 9

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.
155

R: Good Morning po, kamusta po kayo noong last na bagyo?


P9: Sa awa ng Panginoon okay naman kami, prayers lang talaga ang
pinanghahawakan natin para maligtas tayo na hindi siya malayo kundi
matunaw ‘yong bagyo kasi yung ibang lugar na pupunta niya eh kawawa
din.
R: Nagprepare po ba kayo?
P9: Hindi po, parang prayer lang po.
R: So parang normal na lang siya o hindi naman natin siya masasabing
normal?
P9: Siyempre natatakot pero talagang prayers lang kasi sa bahay din po
nageevacuate ang mga ibang tao, kasi ayaw ko silang papuntahin sa
school kaya sa bahay na lang.
R: Okay po, so ang mga next questions ko po ay tungkol sa mga
brochures, ano po ba ang mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganyang
material.
P9: Ang advantages siguro parang mas ready ang mga tao kung ano ang
gagawin hindi matatakot kung may dumating man na mga sakuna kagaya
na lamang ng baha, earthquake, tsunami man o lindo. Kailangan may dala
silang emergency kit tyaka may stock ng mga pagkain.
R: May nakikita po ba kayong mga disadvantages tulad ng pagkakaroon
ng alarm or panic sa mga tao? Kasi kung iisipin po kapag nabasa ng mga
tao parang sasabihin nila “O,may tsunami”, sa tingin niyo po ba nagko-
cause siya ng alarm?
P9: Mayroon din, pero kasi at least alam na nila ang gagawing hakbang.
R: Yes Ma’am, sa itsura, sa presentation ng brochure may nakikita po ba
tayong positive attributes ng mga brochure? Ano po ba ang maganda sa
kanya?
P9: Meron naman po.
R: Ano po kaya ‘yon Ma’am?
P9: Mas malaki ang mga letra, mababasa kaagad at iyong mga pictures.
R: Nakakatulong po ba ang mga pictures na nakalagay sa brochure?
P9: Nakakatulong naman po kasi diba may iba na hindi marunong
magbasa at dahil po sa picture parang nagkakaroon sila ng kaunawaan
R: Ano naman po ang mga negative na hindi niyo po nagustuhan?
P9: Negative kasi wala ka namang mababasang ganito sa ibang lugar so
ngayon lang naming ito nakita.
156

R: Well, kayo po specifically ngayon lang po siya nakita. Sa mga


brochures po na nabasa niyo may nakita po ba kayo na kailangan ng
further improvement sa mismong brochure.
P9: Mas gusto po kasi ng iba na magkaroon ng picture dito, mas effective
sigurong basahin kung mas maraming pictures
R: Mas marami pang picture, dadagdagan pa.
P9: In general po, satisfied naman po ba tayo?
R: Hindi masiyado.
R: Bakit po kaya?
P9: Kagaya nga po ng siinabi ko ibang-iba rin po kasi kung may training
hindi lang binabasa.
R: Paano po kayang training ‘yon? Seminar po ba?
P9: Parang seminar po, parang buong barangay ganoon po. Kasi mostly
ng mga nagseseminar ‘yong mga officer lang so dapat pangkalahatan.
R: Within the seminar, saka nila ipapabasa itong mga brochure para mas
maintindihan ng mga tao. So sa tingin niyo po hindi masiyadong enough
ang brochure at mas maganda kung nandoon ang isang tao at mag-
eexplain talaga. Any suggestion pa po ba na pwede nating iimprove sa
mga brochures?
P9: Tulad na lamang nito, kapag may seminar kailangan may kit na
ibibigay kasi hindi naman lahat may pera.
R: So aside from the brochures dapat may ibigay din silang mga gamit.
Noong nabasa niyo po siya meron po bang change doon sa
understanding natin sa paghahanda during disaster?
P9: Meron naman po kasi nakakapagconstruct ka ng idea kung anong
mga hakbang ang dapat mong gawin.
R: With that realization po, ano naman po ‘yong mga plano ninyong gawin
na since nainform na po tayo, alam na po natin kung ano ang gagawin
para sa mga future namga disaster na darating, ano po kaya ang mga
paghahanda ang gagawin natin para sa sarili natin at para na rin po sa
ating pamilya?
P9: Kami po kasi talaga kapag may darating na bagyo, kailangang
tumawag sa Panginoon kasi siya talaga ang magbibigay sayo ng peace of
mind.
R: So definitely po in the future, kung sakaling may darating magreready
po tayo?
P9: Lagi naman tayong nakahanda
157

P9: Ano po ‘yong mga gagawin natin?


P9: Siguro kailangan mong magbigay ng advice sa mga anak mo kung
ano ang gagawin, kung sakali man na may dumating. Wag magpanic,
magpray talaga. Yun lang po, magpray.
R: Thank you po Ma’am, maraming salamat po sa time.

PARTICIPANT 10

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Good Morning po, kamusta po kayo noong last na bagyong Ompong?


P10: Prepared kami kasi marami ang nagsasabi na kailangang mag
prepare kaya pati ang bahay naming tinali naming, mahirap na.
R: Sinu-sino po ang mga nagsasabi na magprepare? Sa TV ?
P10: Oo, sa TV, sa media.
R: So aside from pagtatali po ng bahay, ano pa pong ibang paghahanda
ang ginawa natin?
P10: Bumili ako ng mga pagkain, ‘yon ang number one. Mga medicine kit
kung sakali man na may magkasakit.
R: Ang mga next questions ko po Ma’am ay regarding po sa brochures na
nabasa natin, what do you think are the advantages ng pagkakaroon ng
mga brochures?
P10: Para maging prepare ka samga sakuna at alam mo kung ano ang
gagawin mo kapag nandoon ka na sa mismong situation, at mayroon din
kung saan ka pwedeng magevacuate.
R: ‘yong mga brochures po ba natin do you think may disadvantages ba
ang mga ganyang material like pwedeng magcause ng alarm or panic?
P10: Hindi naman ito nakakatakot, mas nakakatulong ito.
R: Pagkakita niyo po sa brochures, may nakita po ba kayong mga positive
attributes?
P10: Siyempre malalaman mo na kung ano ang gagawin mo, kumpleto na
siya. Mga gamit na kailangan mong iprepare.
R: How about mga illustrations a language na ginamit?
P10: Madali naman siyang maintindihan ng mga tao.
R: Mga pictures po kaya?
158

P10: Okay naman siya.


R: Nakakatulong rin po ba kaya itong mga brochures?
P10: Malaking tulong din ito kasi kahit hindi ka marunong magbasa alam
mo na ang gagawin mo.
R: May nakita po ba kayong negative?
P10: So far wala naman eh.
R: Mayroon po ba kayong napapansin na pwedeng iimprove sa mga
brochures natin?
P10: Wala naman, kasi parang kompleto naman na siya.
R: So we can say na satisfied po kayo?
P10: Opo, satisfied naman po.
R: How about suggestion po sa City Government para maimprove po
natin ang mga ganitong klase ng material?
P10: Wala na.
R: Kumpleto po ba?
P10: Opo kumpleto, may mga pictures naman na.
R: Noong nabasa niyo po siya Ma’am, nadagdagan po ba ang kaalaman
natin tungkol sa mga disaster? May changes po sa knowledge natin?
P10: Halimbawa, ipeprepare mo itong mga ganito at nadagdagan din kasi
actually di ko pa ito masyadong nakita pero ang pinakimportante ay ang
gamot.
R: Ano pong narealize natin mula sa mga nalaman natin o mula nung
nabasa natin ang mga material?
P10: Kailangan maging handa sa lahat ng sakuna
R: So ang preparations po talaga ang pinaka problema? Since mayroon
po tayong mga realizations, meron na po ba tayong naiisip na mga plano
in the future na gagawin natin para sa sarili niyo at sa pamilya niyo?
P10: Kailangang maghanda sa lahat ng sakuna
R: Anong eksaktong paghahanda po?
P10: Unang-una ay pagkain kasi ang mga anak ko mga bata kailangan ng
gatas, iyon ang pinaka-una kong binibili kapag may ganitong sakuna, kasi
sa oras ng sakuna hindi mo na alam saan ka bibili kasi nagkakaubusan sa
mga grocery.
R: So before ng sakuna, dapat meron nang nakahanda.
P10: Opo, dapat meron na.
R: Thank you po Ma’am.
159

Bonuan Boquig Participants

PARTICIPANT 11

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Magandang umaga po. Okay lang po ba i-record?


P11: Oo, okay lang.
R: Kamusta naman po nung bagyo? Yung super typhoon daw na si
Ompong.
P11: Dito okay lang. Hindi masyadong kwan, hindi kagaya ng ibang lugar.
R: Ano lang po naranasan natin nung nakaraan?
P11: Ah, slight, slight yung hangin. Di naman masyadong malakas, dito,
yun nga lang yung tubig medyo may kalakasan ang agos.
R: Agos ng? Baha?
P11: Baha, oo, diyan sa may ilog eh. Ako mismo naranasan ko kasi may
kwan ako diyan, konting palaisdan, kaya nung kasagsagan nung bagyo,
diyan ako nanghuhuli ng mga kwan. Kaya naransan ko rin yun iba yung
agos ng tubig, malakas.
R: Ibibigay ko lang po yung mga brochures kasi po yung mga susunod na
questions ko po tungkol po dito sa mga ito. Para sa inyo po ba may
advantage yung pag kakaroon ng mga ganito galing sa munisipyo.
P11: Oo.
R: Ano po pa yung advantages niya?
P11: Advantage niyan eh makakapag prepare ka maigi. Alam mo yung
kwan dapat na, ah ipag prepara mo, mga ganyan. Alam mo yung, pano
mo isasafe yung pamilya mo. Pano magiging handa kung saka sakaling
ngang dumating yung mga trahedya na yun.
R: Ahm, may nakikita po ba kayong hindi naman positive, or
disadvantages naman itong pagkakaroon niyan. Nag cacause ba cya ng
alarm sa mga tao or nag papanic ba? Kunwari may ganito ho tayo mag
cacause ba cya ng panic?
P11: Para sa akin hindi. Para sa akin hindi. Mas maganda nga yan. Gaya
nga ng sabi ko kanina mas maigi. May prepareness ka, para sa sarili mo
at saka pamilya mo.
160

R: About naman po dito sa mga mismong mga brochure po ano? Meron


po ba kayong nakikitang mga positive na ano niya attributes niya or
characteristics niya? Ano kaya yung mga nakita niyong positive sa itsura
tsaka dun sa mga nilalaman po niya? Ano ba yung mgagandang nakita
niyo sa kanya?
P11: Ang positive dito, kasi yung mga nandiyan, talagang nangyayari.
R: Opo.
P11: Kaya kahit di man mangyari, alam mong mangyayari at mangyayari.
Kagaya, ang positive diyan.
R: Naiexplain?
P11: Oo, maipapaliwanag mo kung ano yung mang yayari.
R: At kung ano ang mga gagawin.
P11: Gagawin, pag iimbankan mo at yung mga dapat kailanganin.
Maipapansatabi mo yung mga dapat na isantabi.(--) Ah, sa siguridad.
Marami ka matututunan dito.
R: Alam na po ba natin yung .. narinig na po ba natin yung tinatawag
nilang the “Big One”. Yung lindol daw na malakas? So aware po ba tayo
dun? Narinig niyo na po iyon?
P11: “The Big One”. Oo. Narinig. Sa TV, eh .. ilang beses na. Saka may
mga preparation pati sa school. Gaya naman ng mga sabi ko, mga anak
ko may mga ginagawa silang preparation dun, parang tini train.
R: Do you think itong mga nabasa niyong pong mga brochure, kailangan
pa ng further improvements, o okay na po cya?
P11: Hindi pa.
R: Ano pa kayang further improvements na pwede gawin sa mga brochure
na iyan?
P11: Iyan, eto, mas maigi na sa pagbabasa pero mas maigi kung
demonstration talaga na actual. Mas maigi yun. Kasi, lahat eto kasi
binabasa lang,”Eh, Hindi mangyayari yan.” Karamihan diyan sinasabi hindi
mangyayari, hindi mangyayari. Pero mas maigi yun talagang actual. Kasi
karamihan dito babasahin mo lang, saka pag actual na lahat yan
natataranta na.
R: So dapat meron parang ano na, I-simulate.
P11: Oo, oo.
R: San pupunta, ganun no?
P11: Oo.
161

R: Pero sa mga mismong mga brochure po kaya may improvement pa


dapat?
P11: Hindi na, okay na yan. Depende na sa tao yan.
R: Madali naman siyang maintindihan?
P11: Madali, madali.
R: Yung mga pictures na ginamit ay tama naman, madaling naintindihan?
P11: Oo.
R: Satisfied kayo sa mga brochures?
P11: Satisfied.
R: May mga suggestions po kaya kayo?
P11: Suggestions?, Ay wala na.
R: Okay na okay siya?
P11: Ok na yan.
R: Walang suggestions. Since sabi niyo po kanina yung understanding po
natin regarding risk reduction galing sa TV at radio. Nung nabasa niyo po
ba ito, meron po bang changes doon sa inyong pananaw doon sa
paghahanda.
P11: Meron, meron malaki.
R: Ano po ba yung inyong natutunan, o mga naging changes ng nabasa
niyo itong apat na ito?
P11: Changes, nung hindi ko pa nabasa yan, parang hindi mo alam kung
ano yung gagawin mo, ano yung mga paghahanda mo. Pero nung nabasa
mo , malaki, malaking pagbabago. Parang handang handa ka kung saka
sakaling kwan, darating man o hindi.
R: So ano po kaya yung narealize niyo doon sa mga nalaman ninyo. Ano
ba yung mga narealize niyo? Siyempre natutunan niyo po yung mga
nakalagay diyan.
P11: Na realize ko, sa sarili ko na akala ko yung nalalaman ko nung hindi
ko pa nababasa ito, okay na. Pero nung nakabasa ako nito, nadagdagan
pa, yung alam ko nadagdagan pa.
R: So yung mga realizations niyo po, with your realizations po, ano po
kaya yung mga may plano mga plano po ba tayong naiba na gagawin
natin kung nandiyan na yung natural na disaster?
P11: Yung sa plano ko dati, kwan walang babaguhin. Kaya lang
daragdagan.
R: Ano po ba yung mga plano natin before?
162

P11: Yung mga plano ko na, eto eto, yung mga nangyaring eto. Bagyo,
mag evacuate ganyan. Yung mga preparedness ko na, alam mo ba yun?
Walang mababago kasi nandito na. Kaya lang nadagdagan.
R: Ano pa kaya yung mga dahil nakuha niyo diyan, gagawin niyo na?
P11: Ay, yung mga kwan, gaya nung mga medicine kit, hindi ko
napaghandaan yan, mga flashlight. Sakin wala pa yun noon eh. Kasi dito
samin, kwan lang eh, nangyari na noon. Nung nineteen, yung malakas na
lindol.
R: 1990 po.
P11: Nangyari na yon. Kaya may aral na sa akin. Yung karagdagan, yung
mga ganun, yung mga dadalhin mo kung mag eevacuate ka. Yung mga
medicine, flashlight.
R: Eh, yung sa baha naman po?
P11: Sa baha, sanay na sanay na kami sa baha.
R: Kasi laging meron?
P11: Pamilya nalang yung kwan eh, ang iniisip ko diyan kasi pag baha,
mapag kukuhanan ng isda yung mga palaisdaan namin, mga ganun.
R: Yung sa earthquake po kaya?
P11: Yan sa earthquake, medyo alanganin tayo diyan kasi hindi alam
kung kelan darating.
R: Ano kaya yung mga nabagong plano niyo? Dahil meron, nabasa niyo
siya, gagawin niyo na pag meron ng ano.
P11: Safety mostly, mga.
R: Pag eevacuate.
P11: Sa pag eevacuate. Mga hindi ka dapat pumunta sa mga silong silong
ng puno.
R: Yung may mga babagsak sa iyo.
P11: Yun lang.
R: Sa Tsunami naman po kaya. Ano kayang paghahanda yung gagawin
natin.
P11: Sa Tsunami?
R: Malapit lang po kasi tayo sa dagat.
P11: Wala. Pero pag nagkaroon ng tsunami.
R: Hindi ba sila nag sasabi na mag prepare kayo?
P11: Ah, meron. Karamihan diyan kasi pag may tsunami, lilindol muna,
tsaka Tsunami. Pero nag bibigay din ng abiso yung kwan. Lalo na kung
malakas, pero bihira pa yung lindol sa atin.
163

R: Sabi po daw po parating na daw po eh. Ready po, ready po?


P11: Diyos na ang nakaka alam nun.
R: Konting ano nalang po ng munisipyo ano?
P11: Konti pa.
R: Konting push pa ng information para talagang ready yung mga tao.
P11: Oo.
R: Gaya ng sinabi niyo kanina, dapat ma simulate, para mas ready.
Salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 12

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Hello, good afternoon! Ok lang ba irecord?


Participant 12: Ok lang po
R: Kamusta kau nung last typhoon
P12: Ok lang, keri naman kasi ahead kami, ready kami.
R: Ano mga preparations niyo?
P12: Ah, gaya nito, nag secure ng mga bubong tapos yung mga puno
tinabas tabas na para ano, hindi gaya kasi nung previous na mga
typhoon, hindi talaga prepared.
R: Nag ano kayo ng mga pagkain, nag store?
P12: Oo, kasi ano yun eh bagyo nag off yung ilaw, so.
R: Ilang araw na walang ilaw
P12: Nung dumating yung bagyo, gabi yun until morning.
R: Tapos sumindi na?
P12: Oo sumindi narin ng mga hapon.
R: Kasi siyempre nag charge ng phones niyo?
P12: Oo.
R: Ibabalik ko lang itong mga, yung mga questions ko galing dito sa mga
brochures. Do you think there are adavantages doon sa pagbibigay ng
munisipyo ng ganitong klaseng brochures?
P12: Oo, meron pero parang selected kase .
R: So, hindi lahat nabibigyan.
P12: Oo, hindi lahat nabibigyan.
R: Pero sa ano mo, what are the advantages kaya?
164

P12: Ahm, cyempre pag may brochure ka, andito naman na yung mga
precautions, mga ano. So ano reminded ka na. Kunyari nandun ka na sa
scenario na mag ano ka. Meron ka na mahahanap agad.
R: Ano kaya yung mga positive attribute ng brochure with regards dun sa
physical appearance? So basically you are satisfied sa mga brochures?
P12: Ahm okay naman, wala namang masama sa paningin.
R: May suggetions ka kaya? Sa munisipyo tungkol sa brochures na gusto
mong gawin nila?
P12: Ano, siguro maglagay nalang sila ng kumbaga sa certain place,
ilagay nila yung mga evacuation center kasi hindi lahat kapag anjan na
yung disaster matataranta pa sila, hindi alam yung pupuntahan nila ,
makikisilong pa sila. Diba mas maganda kapag yung alam nila kung saan
yung pupuntahan nilang evacuation center sa mga barangay nila.
R: Ahm, nung nabasa mo yung mga brochures, meron bang differences,
or changes dun sa understanding mo nung natural disaster tsaka ng
preparedness doon sa understanding mo. May changes ba? yung
knowledge mo before tsaka yung knowledge mo ngayon ?
P12: Yung mga info’s na nandito mas lalo pa niyang napalawak yung
kaalaman ko.
R: Specifically saan jan?
P12:: Yung mga ito, yung tsunami, mga lindol, kung ano yung mga yon.
R: Eh yung sa mga preparations? Dati familiar ba sa mga preparations? or
may nagbago
P12: Eto, yung sa preparations, mas pinalawak niya yung kaalaman ko.
R: Anong parte jan kaya? Yung parang ngayon mo lang natutunan?
P2: Yung sa medicine kit. Kasi hindi lahat may medicine kit. Kasi kapag
nasa actual ka na matataranta ka na.
R: Yung sa tsunami kaya? Meron ka bang parang ngayon mo lang
nabasa? Or wala naman. Familiar ka ba sa big one?
P12: Wala naman na, alam ko naman na lahat yung doon. Naririnig ko na
yun. Nabasa ko pa nga yan sa isang article eh.
R: Ahm yung sa iba pa? basically most of them wala na. yung sa big one
alam na natin yon, pero hindi jan sa brochure no? ahm, anong mga
narealize mo with the knowledge that you have na naggaling jan?
P12: Narealize ko, kailangan dapat maging prepared ka pa lalo. Tsaka
dapat wag kang kabahan.
R: Kasi kapag ready ka hindi ka na kailangang kabahan diba? Panic .
165

P12: Oo. Kasi yun ang kalaban mo. Once na nagpanic ka hindi mo na
alam kung anon a ang gagawin mo.
R: With those realizations, ano ba yung mga plano mo na ngayong gawin
dahil nabasa mo siya, nag earn ka ng knowledge, nagkaroon ka ng
realizations. Ano nang gagawin mo? What are your plans kaya para sa
mga upcoming, though hindi naman natin inaasahan. Ano kaya yung mga
changes sa mga plano natin?
P12: Ah, sabi nga hindi alam kung kelan maghihit ng disaster. So ngayon,
mas advance na kaming mag isip. Meron ng nakaimbak, although kahit
walang typhoon or ano, meron na agad para hindi ka na mag rush.
R: eh yung sa preparations ng bahay, mga ganyan?
P12: Ano, sinesecure na.
R: Nagkakaroon ba kayo ng parang meeting? Or wala pa namang ganong
klaseng conversation? Pag ganito, dito tayo magkikita ganyan. Pag
nagkahiwa-hiwalay, may mga ganoon eh.
P12: Wala pan naman, pero yung casual na conversation lang na dapat
lahat tayo may flashlight ganoon. Para kapag may ano man, mas okay.
R: Pero dahil nabasa mo yan, are you planning to extend pa yung mga
preparations niyo?
P12: Oo naman, wala namang problema kung gagawin mo kung ano yung
makakabuti sa iyo at sa pamilya mo.
R: Ano kaya yung mga gagawin niyo pa? What do you think na feeling
mo magagawa mo jan sa nabasa mo?
P12: Siguro yung sa 72 hour kit. Syempre kunwari nasa point ka na
andoon ka na sa scenario, kung hindi mo man magawa or hindi mo man
maisama yung mga emergency kit, atleast meron kang nagawa na
preparation para sa situation na yon.
R: So yun lang, salamat.

PARTICIPANT 13

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang tanghali. Ok lang ba na i-record?


Participant 13: Yes sir
R: Kamusta kayo nung bagyo?
166

P13: Ok lang sir, kasi medyo mahangin pero hindi namn ganun ka ano.
R: Malakas ulan?
P13: Hangin.
R: Hangin lang talaga. Prior to that, may ginawa ba kayong preparations
or ano kasi nga diba super typhoon yun?
P13: Sa amin.
R: May preparations?
P13: Ayun, yung mga ano, bumili ng goods baka cyempre sarado yung
mga ibang tindahan, yun lang, Medyo ano naman kasi may pader kami
dito kaya yung hangin hindi masyado.
R: Ibabalik ko lang ulit itong brochure kasi diyan manggagaling yung mga
questions ko. What do you think are the advantages ng mga brochures?
P13: Siguro for the people para maging aware sila. Kung ano man yung
mangyaring disaster, alam nila kung ano gagawin nila kasi nabasa nila
yung brochure.
R: Yun lang kaya yung advantage niya?
P13: Para ano, yun nga in case na any of the disaster yung mangyari,
alam nila yung gagawin nila.
R: Para prepared sila?
P13: Yes, for the preparation. Preparedness.
R: Do you think merong ano, disadvantages so kung ano nag cacause ba
ng alarm or ng panic ang pag kakaroon ng ganyan. Yang mga brochures
na yan.
P13: Wala sir. Kasi ano, for the safety ng mga tao para may kaalaman
sila, hindi sila. In case na mangyari yun, hindi sila nasa point na mag
papanic or ganun pag nangyari na siya.
R: What do you think are the positive attributes nung mga brochures na
yan? Ano ba yung maganda sa kanila? Madali lang ba yung mga pagkaka
explain? Physically or yung sa content.
P13: Maganda kasi, in the first page nandun yung meaning nung disaster
tapos yung kung saan siya nandun yung meaning tapos kung ano yung
gagawin before ng disaster at after ng disaster. Ang kung ano yung mga
dapat mong iprepare before the disaster.
R: So, complete naman. Do you think it’s complete?
P13: Yes, even the hotline there is.
R: How about yung physical aspects naman nung brochure. Ano kaya
yung positive?
167

P13: Maganda kasi hindi siya masyado ganun kalaki yung ganung
brochure na yung malaki talaga, na parang libro.
R: Tama lang yung size, okay.
P13: Yes sir, usually gusto naman ng mga tao yung ganito, mas madali
siyang tignan.
R: Yung text kaya?
P13: Ok lang din, malaki. Madaling basahin.
R: Yung words na ginamit?
P13: Yes sir, madali lang intindihin.
R: May mga negative ka bang nakita dun sa mga brochure? Ano kaya yun
negative?
P13: Wala sir kasi yung dito, even words. Pag hindi mo naintindihan ang
words, merong pictures, meron silang nilagay na, what do you call this,
even clipart?
R: Illustration.
P13: Para mas madali siyang maintindihan.
R: Do you think there are further improvements na kailangan doon sa
brochure?
P13: Ako as I read this, okay na ako. I don’t need, I am not demanding for
any improvements. Kasi okay na siya, nandun na lahat nung details na
kailangan malaman ng tao. Nandtio na lahat.
R: Satisfied ka ibig sabihin dun sa mga brochure na binibigay ng
munisipyo sa atin?
P13: Yes.
R: Is this the first time that you’ve read it?
P13: Yes sir.
R: As in never mo pang na encounter?
P13: Yes sir, pero yung mga seminars meron naman silang seminars na
pinoprovide.
R: Seminar ng CDRRMO? Nakaka attend ka?
P13: Kasi ano, SK Official kami.
R: Sinagot mo rin doon sa survey?
P13: Yes sir, seminar.
R: Sa TV at radio narinig mo narin yung mga paghahanda?
P13: Meron.
168

R: Do you have any suggestions para ma improve pa ang mga


brochures? Kung may maisa suggest ka na ilagay o hindi ilagay or
tanggalin.
P13: Siguro yung mga ano nalang sir, yung mga effects kung hindi sila
sumunod dun sa, yung possibility kung hindi sila sumunod sa mga
preparations na sina suggest nila.
R: Meron ba pinag bago sa understanding mo ng preparedness during
disasters nung nabasa mo itong mga brochures?
P13: Yes sir, kasi yung like, yung kit, 72-hour kit. Ngayon ko lang nabasa
ulit. Kaya yun, mas, maybe ngayon in coming, hindi naman natin gusto
yung in coming disaster, medyo I could say, I am well prepared.
R: What did you realize? With the knowledge that you have, now, what did
you realize?
P13: This is more helpful, the government providing brochures. Kasi lang
yung napapanuod lang sa TV is not fully yung binibigay nilang knowledge
about preparedness, ganun. So this is helpful for me.
R: With the knowledge that you have, do you think meron changes dun sa
mga plano mo? Yung mga preparedness na plano mo.
P13: Yes sir, syempre.
R: Ano kaya yung mga plano mo na gagawin mo in case na dumating ulit
yung mga calamities na ganyan?
P13: Tulad nung ano, yung before nag pe preapare kami pero hindi yung
72-Hour kit. So yun, I’ll do that.
R: Yung sa Tsunami kaya? Pano kayang preparedness gagawin mo?
P13: Siguro, susunod nalang kami kung saan yung evacuation center.
Tapos yung bringing the 72-hour kit.
R: Although sanay na tayo sa storm at baha, may changes ba dun sa mga
plano niyo?
P13: Siyempre, makikinig sa mga updates, tapos gamitin yung mga
nabasa dito.

PARTICIPANT 14

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Tanong ko lang po kung pwede i-record?


169

Participant 14: Oo
R: Kamusta po kayo nung bagyo?
P14: Aligaga, yung isip. Kasi yun nga sa sobrang hangin. Hindi mo alam
kung mag luluto ka o hindi. Kasi nga iniisip mo yung naperwisyo sa bahay.
R: Ilang araw po yung bagyo?
P14: Nag umpisa lang ng hapon, hapon ng Sabado.
R: Nag prepare kayo?
P14: Oo. Nag tali ng bubong, ganun. Nag ready ng papeles.
R: Ibabalik ko lang po itong mga brochures tapos mag tatanong lang po
ako tungkol diyan sa mga nabasa niyo. Ano po ba yung mga advantages
o benebisyo ng mga ganyang klaseng brochures?
P14: Dito kami nakaka pulot ng aral pag may parating na bagyo. Yung
mga pwede naming itabi pag susunod na bagyo ganun.
R: Tingin niyo ba may mga di magandang dulot ito?
P14: Wala. Maganda itong mga binigay mo.
R: Ano naman po sa tingin niyo yung mga magagandang attributes niya?
Magandang characteristics nila.
P14: Yung mga tungkol sa kit, importanteng yan lahat.
R: Sa ibang mga brochures po kaya?
P14: Ito rin, pag may cell phone ka, ganyan.
R: Yung sa may Tsunami po?
P14: Hindi naming nararanasan yung mga yan.
R: Maganda naman po kaya yung pag kakapresent nung messages.
P14: Wala naman mali, maganda naman lahat. Kasi at least may
nababasa itong mga ganito.
R: Malinaw naman.
P14: Oo malinaw. Kasi pabor din sa amin itong may nababasa kami.
Nakakapulot kami ng aral.
R: May mga negative po ba kayong o hindi kayong nakikita sa mga
brochures?
P14: Wala naman.
R: Kahit sa anong parte ng mga brochure?
P14: Wala.
R: Saan po kaya dito sa apat na brochure na ito ang kailangn pa ng
improvement pa. Meron pa kayang dapat iimprove.
P14: Yung mga dito ay sa mga nababaha kasi diyan ako namamalengke.
R: Satisfied naman po kayo?
170

P14: Oo. Wala ako masabi.


R: May mga suggestions po ba kayo?
P14: Wala.
R: Meron po ba nabago sa kaalaman niyo? Nag improve po ang
kaalaman niyo?
P14: Oo, nadagdagan.
R: Ano po ba yung na realize niyo? Nung nalaman niyo yung mga
paghahandang dapat gawin, ano po yung mga narealize niyo?
P14: Nadagdagan yung kaalaman ko sa mga pagahanda ng
pagkain.Nung bagyo wala kami ni gamot.
R: Sa bagyo naman po?
P14: Kasi ngayon lang din ako nakabasa ng ganito, panay sa TV o kaya
sa radio.Pag sa TV tinututukan ko talaga yun, parating palang yung
bagyo.
R: So dahil nabasa niyo po yan ano po kaya yung mga ano natin. Na
kailangan mag handa?
P14: Oo kailangan mag handa ulit, sa susunod.
R: Yung sa lindol po kaya? Ano po yung mahalagang natutunan natin?
P14: Lumabas ka sa sarili mong bahay. Tapos maghahanap ka ng safety
na lugar.
R: Alam niyo po ba kung saan yung evacuation center dito po sa area
natin?
P14: Sa school. Sa elementary atsaka sa high school.
R: Ano po bang mga plano natin sa mga susunod na mga natural
disasters?
P14: Pag sobrang hangin, lilikas kami. Pag alam mo na talagang lalakas
pa. Syempre lilikas na kami ng buong pamilya ko. Tapos yung mga
importante, yun yung dadalhin namin.
R: Naka ready na po ba yung mga gamit natin?
P14: Oo.
R: Sa lindol naman po. Ready po ba tayo?
P14: Oo, may phobia na kami diyan.
R: Ano po kaya paghahanda natin sa lindol, ganun din?
P14: Oo, hindi pero pabigla bigla yun diba?
R: Dito po kaya meron po ba tayong pupuntahan?
P14: Parang wala. Hindi mo rin alam. Bigla bigla rin dumating yun eh.
R: Pag sa bagyo naman po kaya? Inaano po ba natin yung bahay.
171

P14: Oo, pero pag malakas ang hangin. Diyan kami sa kapit bahay.
Natutulog kami diyan ng isang gabi. Yung mga importanteng ano ililipat
na.
R: Damit?
P14: Unang una yung mga bata.

PARTICIPANT 15

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Kamusta po kayo nung nakaraang bagyo?


Participant 15: Mahangin lang.
R: Meron po ba tayong paghahanda? Kasi diba yung balita natin ano daw
siya super typhoon.
P15: Nag-ipon po ng pagkain.
R: Mabalik ko lang po ulit yung mga brochures sana. Ilalatag ko nalang
po. Kasi po may mga itatanong po ako tungkol sa kanila. Ano po kaya
yung mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganitong mga brochures na
binibigay ng munisipyo sa atin sa atin?
P15: Para mas malaman ng mga tao kung ano bang dapat gawin, kung
ano ang dapat ihanda if ever may mga dumating na bagyo.
R: Tsaka ibang natural disasters din po ano?
P15: Oo.
R: Do you think po na merong mga disadvantages na meron tayong
ganito? Nag cacause ba siya ng panic, ganun?
P15: Di naman po, parang precautions lang.
R: Ano po ba yung mga positive kaya ng mga ito, positive na attributes
nila?
P15: Malaman yung meaning, example yung sa tsunami at yung sa
earthquake at yung sa mga iba.
R: Ineexplain po ang alin?
P15: Meaning, kung anong dapat gawing before and after mangyari yung
trahedya.
R: So maganda po siya?
P15: Opo.
172

R: Dun naman po kaya sa itsura ng brochures? Okay naman po ba? Yung


pagkakasulat tama naman po?
P15: Naiintindihan naman po.
R: Yung mga terms po ba na nakusalat dito.
P15: Understandable.
R: Kahit yung mga pictures na ginamit, okay naman po?
P15: Okay naman po.
R: May mga negative naman po ba kayong nakita dun sa mga brochure
sa labas man o sa loob?
P15: Wala naman po.
R: Do you think kailangan pa ng further improvement?
P15: Yung sa brochure po? Hindi okay lang po. Nandun naman po lahat.
R: Ng mga kailangan malaman nandiyan po?
P15: Opo.
R: May mga suggestions po kaya tayo para maimprove pa lalo itong mga
brochures?
P15: Wala na po nandiyan na po lahat.
R: Meron po bang changes since sabi niyo po napapanuod niyo sa TV
yung mga kaalaman natin sa paghahanda. This time po ba may
pagbabago po o meron po ba tayo na gain na knowledge?
P15: Pareho lang po yung sa TV tsaka yung sa brochure.
R: Since may knowledge po tayo sa pag peprepare? Meron po ba tayo na
realize na magagawa po natin sa knowledge natin.
P15: Based naman diyan sa nakasulat diyan, meron po. Example nalang
sa tsunami at earthquake. Mga dapat gawin bago mangyari yung
trahedyang yun. Nadagdagan po.
R: Since meron po tayong knowledge about sa paghahanda, kayo po ba
dahil sa nabasa niyo meron po ba tayong gagawing paghahanda?
P15: Example nalang during the earthquake ganun, pumunta sa lugar na
hindi mababagsakan ng puno, ganun po.
R: Sa bagyo po kaya?
P15: Manatili nalang sa bahay, sa bahay na kung saan hindi sila
matatanggalan ng bubong. Matibay na bahay.
R: Sa emergency kits po kaya?
P15: Pag hahanda po ng gamot, pag nagkasugat yung mga gasa. Ang
importante yung mga food.
R: Aside from food ano po ba kaya?
173

P15: Damit.
R: Pag nagpapalano po ba, lagi ba natin isinasang alang yung mga bata?
P15: Oo naman po.
R: I think okay na po. Salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 16

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang hapon po. Kumusta po tayo nung nakaraang


bagyo? Ano pong paghahanda ang ginawa ninyo?
Participant 16: Nag-stock po kami ng mga pagkain sa ref. Para kaming
balikbayan.
R: Kumusta naman po dito sa bahay? Okay naman po?
P16: Okay naman. Lumipat kami dito kasi yung kisame doon talagang
lumilipad na. Okay naman dito, safe naman.
R: That’s good to hear po.Yung mga next questions ko po according na po
dun sa nabasa ninyo. Do you think po ba may mga advantage or ano po
yung magagandang maidudulot ng pagkakaroon ng mga reading
materials na ganyan?
P16: Nagiging aware ka tapos malalaman mo kung ano yung mga dapat
at hindi gagawin. At magiging ready.
R: You think po ba may mga disadvantage yung pagkakaroon ng ganyang
materials? Kasi sinasabi po nila na dahil may ganyan eh naa-alarm po
yung mga tao.
P16: Ahh parang napa-praning.
R: Opo napa-praning, naa-alarm ganyan po at nagpa-panic.
P16: Hindi naman.
R: Para sainyo po ba hindi siya ganun? Hindi disadvantageous?
P16: Hindi, hindi naman.
R: Sa nakita niyo pong brochure ng munisipyo, ano po yung magandang
nakita ninyo?
P16: Yung mga tips. Yung kung anong dapat dalhin in time na may mga
ganun na sakuna.
R: Most especially yung isang brochure natin na pang emergency kit.
P16: Oo yung emergency kit. Yung mga dapat dalhin.
174

R: Doon naman po sa mga ibang brochure? Yung mga pagkakasulat,


yung language po. Okay naman po?
P16: Okay naman.
R: You think po may part ng brochure na kailangan ng improvement?
P16: Siguro mas lakihan pa yung mga brochure at siguro damihan pa
yung laman.
R: satisfied naman po kayo sa brochure?
P16: Oo naman, satisfied naman.
R: Ano pa po mga suggestions ninyo?
P16: Ayusin lang. Yung dapat mas mejo malaki nga ng konti at maraming
pages.
R: Ah gusto niyo po yung hindi sya brochure type?
P16: Oo. Para sa akin ha, pero eto naman mga simple tips lang.
R: Ah yung gusto niyo po eh yung mas marami. Content wise you need
more kumbaga.
P16: Oo ganun nga.
R: Before niyo po bas yang basahin may knowledge na po ba kayo? Nung
binasa nyo po may changes po ba dun sa understanding niyo? May
nadagdag po bas a knowledge niyo?
P16: Ay yun nga yung about sa tsunami. Kung possible ba yun.
R: Ahh oo nga po, actually galing din po yun sa CDRM. Kaya nga po
maganda na may ganyang mga reading material. Ano po yung narealize
niyo nung binasa niyo sya?
P16: Narealize ko na dapat ready lagi.
R: In the future kaya ano po yung mga gagawin natin dahil informed nap o
tayo, nabasa niyo na sya ano po mga plano natin?
P16: Yun lang more on readiness. Dapat ready ka palagi. Meron kang
mga plans. Dapat alerto. Saan dapat pumunta.
R: Sige po, maraming salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 17

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Good afternoon po.


175

Participant 17: Good afternoon din po.


R: Kumusta po kayo nung nakaraang bagyo?
P17: Okay naman kasi yung bahay naman namin matibay.
R: Ano po yung preparations na ginawa niyo?
P17: Nag-prepare kami ng iba’t ibang kailangan sa bagyo. Yung candles
in case na mag brownout.
R: Nawalan po ba ng kuryente dito?
P17: Opo, nawalan ng kuryente.
R: Walang battery, mga gadgets ganun po?
P17: Oo mga flashlight, candles lang ang gamit.
R: Mga cellphone po? Naicharge naman po?
P17: Oo, full charge pero namatay rin kasi mga ilang araw walang
kuryente eh.
R: Ah mga ilang araw rn po. Yung mga sususunod ko pong tanong
tungkol po sa brochure. Ano po yung mga nakita niyong advantage ng
mga brochures?
P17: Siguro sir yung mga advantage nito ay yung awareness at
information dissemination. Naiinform yung mga tao about paghahandain
kayo sa mga ganitong sakuna,lindol o tsunami.
R: So very positive po yung dala niya. May mga negative po bang effect
yung mga ganyan? Naalarma ba mga tao?
P17: Yun sir, nagkakaroon po sila ng takot kasi malalaman nila yung
mangyayari in case hindi nila magawa yung dapat gawin.
R: Sa nabasa niyo po, ano po ba yung positive attributes? Yung itsura po,
yung presentation ng content.
P17: Yung mga ibang mambabasa po kasi ayaw yung maraming
nakasulat. Gusto po naka-simplify. Yung iba po kasi titignan lang yung
harap, bubuklatin ng konti tapos hindi nap o babasahin. Kaya siguro
simplehan lang.
R: Ano po yung nakita niyong negative?
P17: Wala naman po sir kasi puro po positive yung nakalagay.
R: With regards po sa itsura? Pangit po ba?
P17: Hindi naman po, wala po.
R: Yung marami lang pong content?
P17: Oo yun lang, yung feeling mo marami kang babasahin.
R: You think kailangan pa po bang palakihin yung sulat?
176

P17: Siguro kung ang nagbabasa senior citizens pero kung hindi naman
okay nap o yung ganito, normal size lang.
R: Ano po yung mga napansin natin sa brochure na kailangan pang i-
improve?
P17: Wala naman sir, kumpleto naman po sya.
R: Satisfied naman po tayo?
P17: Minsan napapansin ko lang na negative eh hindi binabasa ng iba.
R: Bakit po kaya?
P17: Kasi siguro busy sila. Dati na rin kasi akong nagbibigay ng ganito.
Minsan tinatapon lang nila.
R: Ah so hindi po sa kanila mahalaga yung preparation or yung topic.
P17: Siguro yung iba natatakot.
R: Any suggestions po for the municipal government to improve?
P17: Ano po sir yung pag-iinform po ng sakuna late.
R: Ahh eh yung mga brochure po paano maiimprove?
P17: Okay naman sya sir. Siguro yung sa text lang, simple lang dapat.
R: Nung nabasa niyo po ba sya nadagdagan po ba kaalaman niyo?
P17: Mas nadagdagan po sir kumpara nung hindi ko pa nabasa.
R: Ano po yung mga nadagdag?
P17: Paano maging handa kapag nagkaroon ng earthquake. Nung
nabasa ko marami pa lang dapat gawin, hind ilang basta basta.
R: May narealize po ba kayo pagkatapos niyong magbasa?
P17: Marami akong narealize. Kailangang maging ready in case na
magkaroon ng ganitong mga sakuna. Tapos sabayan po natin ng dasal.
R: Dahil informed na po tayo, do you think may changes po sa mga plano
natin? Kung sakaling may calamities na dumating?
P17: Plano kop o na iinform din po ibang taong.
R: Sa family po ninyo, yung plano nyo po sa family niyo, sa sarili niyo po
in case may ganitong calamities.
P17: Plano kop o na iinform ko rin po sila. Iinform ko sila sa mga nabasa
ko sa brochure. Kasi mahalaga rin ang communication eh. Mapag-usapan
ng family para in case na dumating alam ang gagawin ng bawat isa at
makakapagtulungan.
R: Okay po, maraming salamat po.
177

PARTICIPANT 18

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Good morning po. Kamusta naman po kayo nung nakaraang


bagyo? Yung super typhoon?
Participant 18: Yung super typhoon? Aware naman kaming lahat kaya
nakapagprepare lahat. Nagkaroon ng panic buying kasi nga diba
ineexpect nila na mas malakas sa Yolanda. So napaghandaan naman ng
lahat even schools nakaprepare rin. Ang mga libro tinaas and yung school
pinrepare rin for evacuation.
R: That’s good to hear po. Yung mga susunod ko pong questions
regarding na po dun sa mga nabasa niyo na mga brochure. Ano po sa
tingin niyo yung mga advantages ng mga ganyan materials na
pinamimigay ng mga munisipyo?
P18: Advantages is nagbibigay ng awareness sa mga tao para alam nila
kung ano yung mga gagawin nila during and after the typhoon or tsunami
or whatsoever na dumarating na mga delubyo.
R: So preparation po tayo. May naisip po ba kayong mga disadvantages?
Nagcacause po ba ng panic yung mga ganyang klaseng babasahin?
P18: For me ha, hindi siya nagcacause ng panic kasi ito naman para
maging aware tayo eh kumbaga andun yung preparedness ng bawat isa
pero kapag andiyan na yung sakuna dun na tayo magpapanic kasi kahit
hand aka hindi mo maiiwasan na magpanic ka pa rin.
R: Kapag nakikita niyo po yung mga brochures na ganyan, may mga
nakikita po ba kayong positive attributes nung brochure? Ano po bang
positive attributes na yan?
P18: Oo meron, marami. Kagaya nito, sabi dito diba ang lindol ay biglaang
gumagalaw. Yung kilala ngayon na the big one di ba wala namang
nakakaalam kung kalian darating. So dahil sa mga brochure nalalaman
natin saan tayo pupunta, saan yung mga safe. Kumbaga dito sinasabi nya
yung mga dapat gawin. Pinapakita rin nya yung mga do’s and dont’s so
it’s a big help para sa ating ordinaryong mamamayan. Halimbawa hindi ka
mahilig manuod ng tv or wala kang cellphone pero sa pamamagitan ng
brochure na ito nakakapagbigay sya ng malaking tulong sa mga tao.
178

R: Yung pagkakapresent po kaya ng information, yung language na


ginamit, yung pictures. Simple lang po ba o naiintindihan po ba?
P18: Naiintindihan naman kasi ang ginamit namang medium is tagalog
kaya napakalaking bagay. Kagaya nito may mga pictures even yung mga
hindi nakakapagbasa makikita nila ah ganito pala.
R: May nakikita naman po ba kayong negative attributes nila? Ano kaya
yung mga pangit kaya sa brochure?
P18: So far okay naman sya maganda naman. Buti nga meron nang
ganito ngayon. Kasi dati wala eh.
R: Actually ma’am they started disseminating brochures around 2014 po.
P18: Atleast meron. So dapat ang mga bigyan nito yung mga 4ps
especially yung mga walang tv kasi di naman lahat tayo may kaya. Siguro
ang advantage nito yung impormasyon madaling malaman ng tao. Pero
sa mga nonreaders siguro maganda kung ipaliwanag sa kanila.
R: Nang one on one po parang ganun?
P18: Hindi naman sa one on one, siguro seminar. Para maging aware
talaga sila.
R: Opo kasi ang target po talaga nitong mga ito are readers po talaga ang
mahirap nga lang po yung mga hindi nakakabasa.
P18: Yes. Kasi hindi natin maalis especially yung mga hindi na
pumapasok sa school. Yung focus nila is to earn money.
R: May suggestion po ba kayo para next time kung gagawa sila
maimprove?
P18: Kung pwede sana komiks. Kasi kapag komiks binabasa ng mga bata
naeenjoy nila at the same time natututo sila.
R: Dun sa mga brochures po satisfied naman tayo? Kumpleto yung
information na ibinigay nung brochure? Any suggestion po bukod sa
nasuggest nyo po kanina?
P18: Ang suggestion ko naman every barangay halimbawa may tsunami
yung mga nasa coastal area siguro sila yung mga bibigyan ng pansin for
seminars kasi mga nandyan usually nasa anong pamumuhay. Seminars
about tsunami kasi sabi nga hindi natin alam kung kalian ang sakuna only
God knows. Sa earthquake naman siguro aside from school magpadry run
din sila.
R: Sa mga bahay bahay po?
179

P18: Oo sa mga bahay bahay. Kasi different din yung sa school. At yung
mga anak naman di naman nila sinasabi kung ano yung alam nila sa
school wala namang pakialam yang mga bata na yan. Yun lang siguro.
R: Nung nabasa niyo po yung mga brochures, may changes po ba sa
understanding natin sa paghahanda?
P18: Meron kasi iba naman yung sa alam mo sa nababasa mo. Kapag
alam mo akala mo yun lang pero pag may binasa ka na ganitong mga
brochures ah eto pa pala. May karadagdagang kaalaman, yung safety at
preacautions.
R: With the knowledge na na-gain natin dun sa mga brochures, ano kaya
yung mga realizations na nakuha natin regarding sa paghahanda?
P18: Narealize ko na, ako siguro number one is isafe mo muna pamilya
mo yung sarili mo tapos wag masyadong magpanic tapos dapat bago pa
man dumating paghandaan mo na kasi hindi mo alam kung gano kalaki
yung epekto nung sakuna.
R: With the realizations that you have ma’am meron po ba kayong
gagawin na sa ating buhay sa ating pamilya na preparations?
P18: Actually nung may nagtext na or nagannounce na, naghanda na
kami. Nagprepare na kami ng kit, yung mga mahalagang gamit like birth
certificate nakaayos na, pati yung mga papeles at yung mga damit namin
kasi malapit kami sa dagat. Tsaka number one yung prayer at syempre
yung pagkain, gamot.
R: Sa apat po na yan saan po dyan yung nasabi nyo na may ganito pala
kailangan kong magprepare?
P18: Siguro dito sa 72 hour emergency kit. Kasi hindi naman lahat tayo
makakapag-afford nito so kailangan talaga nito.
R: Thank you ma’am, yun lang po.

PARTICIPANT 19

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Kumusta po tayo nung nakaraang bagyo?


Participant 19: Nung bagyo, hindi naman masyadong naapektuhan dito eh
yung dun lang sa malapit sa dagat.
R: May mga preparations po ba tayo sa bahay?
180

P19: Oo meron, tulad ng pagtali ng bubong para hindi liparin. Tapos mga
gamit nilagay sa safe na lugar.
R: Yung mga next questions ko po regarding na sa brochure. Ano po kaya
sa tingin niyo yung mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganyang
communication materials?
P19: Okay naman, tama naman ito.
R: Ano po kaya yung magandang naidudulot nyan?
P19: Para makaprepara yung mga tao.
R: So mas naiinform po sila?
P19: Oo.
R: May nakikita ba tayong disadvantages nito? Hindi maganda?
Nagcacause po ba sya ng panic?
P19: Hindi naman.
R: Sa brochures ma’am ano po ba yung positive attributes nila, ano po
yung magandang nakikita?
P19: Maganda kasi nainform na agad yung tao.
R: Yung maganda po sa itsura nya ma’am, yung sa language na ginamit,
yung sa itsura nya sa mga pictures.
P19: Maganda. Maganda naman sya. Pag makikita sya ng tao sasabihin
nila ay ganito pala ito. Madaling maintindihan.
R: Klaro naman po yung message?
P19: Klaro naman, maiintindihan naman.
R: May mga nakikita po ba kayong negative sa kanya?
P19: Wala namang negative, puro positive.
R: Wala naman pong negative sa itsura?
P19: Tamang tama lang.
R: May nakita po ba tayong kailangang iimprove sa mga brochure?
P19: Wala naman andito naman na lahat. May kit na, mga paghahanda.
R: So in general po satisfied naman po tayo?
P19: Oo. Satisfied naman.
R: May mga suggestions po ba tayo para mapaganda pa yan?
P19: Wala naman na eh. Okay naman na ito.
R: Nung nabasa po ba natin sya ma’am may changes po ba sa knowledge
natin about preparation?
P19: Kasi noon kulang talaga sa preparation. Ngayon parating pa lang
nakaprepara na.
R: Ano po yung narealize natin with our knowledge sa preparation?
181

P19: Dapat maintindihan talaga ng mga tao yung mga sequences na


mangyayari. Alam nila agad yung mga posibleng mangyari kapag hindi
nila ginawa yung mga safety precaution.
R: So kapag hindi po sila prepared may consequence na mangyayari.
Kapag prepared sila mas maiiwasan yung mga hindi maganda. May mga
plano po ba tayo para sa mga di inaasahang calamity? Yung sa pamilya
po natin?
P19: Dapat hindi magpanic. Alisin yung takot.
R: Tapos po anong susunod na gagawin?
P19: Basta po laging ready.
R: Saang ready po kaya?
P19: Sa lahat ng kailangan. Sa pagkain, mga flashlight.
R: Sa mga pupuntahan ma’am?
P19: Oo sa mga pupuntahan dapat pumunta sa mas mataas na lugar,
malayo sa dagat.
R: Ayun lang po ma’am. Salamat po

PARTICIPANT 20

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Good afternoon sir. Kamusta naman po tayo nung nakaraang


bagyo?
Participant 20: Malakas.
R: Ano naman pong paghahanda yung ginawa ninyo?
P20: Lahat naman pinaghahandaan pag nalalamang may bagyo.
R: Ano po yung paghahanda na ginawa nyo?
P20: Ah yung mga kailangan sa ano, yung mga kandila, flashlight,
pagkain at mga gamot.
R: Yung mga susunod ko pong questions tungkol sa brochures. Do you
think ano po yung mga advantages or yung magagandang naidudulot ng
pagkakaroon ng ganitong klaseng babasahin?
P20: Maganda naman para ano alam at makapaghanda. Kung papaano
iwasan, kung ano gagawin.
R: Do you think po may di magandang epekto ang pagkakaroon ng
ganyang babasahin? Nagcacause po ba ito ng panic o alarma sa tao?
182

P20: Depende sa tao kung maalarm sya. Pero para sa akin okay lang.
R: Kapag nakikita nyo po yung mga brochure ano po yung mga nakikita
nyong maganda?
P20: Maganda naman ito. Kumpleto naman. May tsunami, may lindol.
R: Eh yung nilalaman po kaya sa tingin nyo po kumpleto po ba yung
laman? Marami po ba tayong natututunan doon sa mga nabasa nyo po.
P20: Oo maganda naman.
R: Eh yung lenggwahe po, okay po ban a tagalog kesa sa pangasinan?
P20: Oo okay naman sya, mas okay na tagalog kasi hindi naman ako
nagpapangasinan.
R: So okay po na tagalog yung lenggwahe. Eh yung print po, yung
pagkakasulat, nababasa naman?
P20: Oo okay naman nababasa naman.
R: Eh yung mga pictures po, maliwanag naman po?
P20: Oo okay naman.
R: Naiitindihan naman po natin kahit sa pictures lang no?
P20: Oo kapag may di ka maalala mas maganda na nakikita mo.
R: May nakikita po ba kayong pangit dun po sa mga brochure?
P20: Wala namang pangit, kasi andito naman lahat eh.
R: So in general po satisfied naman po tayo?
P20: Oo satisfied naman.
R: May mga suggestions po ba tayo para maimprove po yung brochures?
P20: Okay na ito. Nandyan naman na lahat.
R: Yung sa pagkakaintindi po natin ng paghahanda may nabago po ba
nung nabasa nyo yan? May natutunan ba tayo?
P20: May nadagdag.
R: May nadagdag po. Ano naman po yung mga nadagdag na hindi nyo pa
po alam bago nyo nabasa mga yan?
P20: Eto yung kapag nagkaroon ng lindol alam mo kung saan ka pupunta.
R: Ano pa po yung nadagdag?
P20: Marami. Mababasa mo naman eh.
R: Ano ano po kaya yun?
P20: Lahat ng mga gagawin. Mga pagkain, mga flashlight. Ano ba itong
72 hour kit?
R: Ah yan po yung iba’t ibang klase na kailangang ipack or mga dapat
ihanda.
P20: Ahh parang yung mga papeles mo itago para di mawala.
183

R: Ano po yung mga narealize natin sa mg ayan?


P20: Ano yung dapat lumipat ka sa matataas na lugar.
R: Ano po ba yung gagawin niyo in the future pag may parating na bagyo,
lindol? May mga plano po ba tayo?
P20: Ano yung paghandaan dahil may parating na bagyo.
R: Anong klaseng paghahanda po kaya?
P20: Nakikinig naman siguro ng radio, makakapaghanda ka na. Yung mga
kailangan mo sa ganun.
R: Yung preparedness lang po. Sige po, maraming salamat po.

Bonuan Gueset Participant

PARTICIPANT 21

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

RESEARCHER: Good Afternoon po Sir, kamusta po tayo noong last na


bagyo?
PARTICIPANT 21: Bale, ginawa pong evacuation center ang school
around 1, 10 7 individuals and 37 families.
R: Sa inyo po Sir, sa inyo pong bahay ano yung mga naging preparation
niyo?
P21: Karamihan po iniakyat nila ang mga gamit nila kasi mataas po ang
level ng baha
R: So nababaha po sa area, and sinasabing ang Bagyong Ompong ay
Super Typhoon, so paano po natin napaghandaan ito or may ginawa po
ba tayong mga paghahanda?
P21: Sa mga kapitbahay namin may nakikita kaming mga nagtatali ng
bubong, nilalagyan nila ng mga pabigat.
R: So ang mga next questions ko po ay regarding na po sa mga mismong
brochures, ano po kayang mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganyang
mga klaseng reading materials.
P21: Dahil dito naipapaliwanag ang mga dapat gawin ng isang pamilya
bago, pagkatapos at sa panahon ng kalamidad.
184

R: Meron po ba tayong mga nakikitang disadvantages ng pagkakaroon ng


mga ganyang materials kasi po sabi nila it might cause alarm sa mga
nakakabasa?
P21: Sa opinion ko, wala kasi sa tingin ko parang preparation babala sa
mga tao para makapaghanda.
R: What are the positive attributes na nakikita niyo sa mga brochures
natin, ito po ba ay maganda sa paningin?
P21: Ito mas madaling intindihin ng mga tao kasi translated na siya sa
Filipino unlike before written siya sa English
R: Yung mga text po kaya niya at color combination, okay naman po ba?
P21: Okay naman po siya, understandable naman po siya
R: How about ‘yong mga illustrations naman po Sir, mga pictures po na
ginamit, okay naman po ba siya?
P21: Opo, okay naman po siya.
R: May nakita po ba kayong mga negative? Sa inyong opinion Sir,ano po
yung mga di kaaya –aya sa mga brochures?
P21: Wala naman.
R: So in general po, satisfied naman po tayo sa brochures?
P21: Yes
R: Wala po ba tayong nakikitang kailangan ng improvement, ano ang mga
pwedeng iimprove, ano ang pwedeng tanggalin?
P21: So far okay naman kasi nagiging guide po siya sa mga tao ,
nakasulat naman dito ang dapat gawin, mga paghahanda o ano yung
mga dapat nilang dalhin kapag may sakuna
R: May isa-suggest po ba tayong mga improvement?
P21: Detalyado naman siya
R: Enough naman po ba ‘yong mga information sa mga brochures natin?
P21: Yes po.
R: Noong binasa niyo po ba ito, nagkakaroon po ba ng changes sa
knowledge natin with regards to preparation?
P21: Meron
R: Ano po kaya ito?
PG1: Magiging alerto tayo sa mga paghahanda ng mga kakailanganin
natin bago, pagkatapos at sa panahon ng kalamidad
R: Ano po yung mga narealize natin even with the knowledge we have.
P21: Kapag laging alerto at handa, mapapalayo tayo sa anumang sakuna
185

R: With your knowledge and realization, ano po kaya ang gagawin nating
mga plano sa mga hindi natin inaasahang mga calamity, sa pamilya at sa
sarili niyo po?
P21: Sa pamilya dapat magkasundo kung saan ang magiging evacuation
center, kung saan sila magtatagpo tagpo and then isa na rin ‘yong mga
dokumento na dapat dalhin, yun lang po.

PARTICIPANT 22

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Good afternoon po Ma’am, kamusta po tayo noong


nakaraang bagyo?
Participant 22: Safe naman kami, kasi bago pa man dumating yung bagyo
nakapagprepare na kami
R: Anong mga preparations?
P22: Halimbawa yung bahay tinali na, namigay na kami ng mga pagkain
namin bago dumating ang bagyo. Kapag sinabi kasi nating nabalita na
ang Ompong is Super Typhoon pero thank God naman di naman kami
masyadong affected kasi humina siya, pero siyempre matatakot ka rin.
R: Ang mga next questions ko po ay regarding sa mga brochures na
nabasa natin kanina. Ano po ang mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng
mga reading materials na ganyan?
P22: Mas maganda kung itong mga brochures na ito ay bago pa man
dumating ang mga disaster meron na silang binibigay na ganito para
makapag prepare yung mga tao.
R: May nakikita po ba kayong mga disadvantages?
P22: Disadvantages, parang wala naman.
R: Do you think po ba nagko-cause siya ng alarm?
P21: Sa tingin ko hindi naman, pero dapat mas maagang maibigay itong
mga ito. So wala siyang disadvantages.
R: Ano po kayang positive mga positive attributes nung mga brochures o
characteristics, ano po bang maganda sa kanya?
P22: Ito ang maganda sa kanya mababasa mo at may mga contact
numbers kang makikita dito, tapos may idea ka dito kung paano mo
186

ipeprepare ang mga gamit at kung saan ka pwedeng pumunta in case na


may disaster na darating.
R: So may nakalagay dyan kung ano ang kailangang malaman,
kumbaga. Do you think kumpleto naman ang nakalagay?
P22: Dito sa labas kumpleto naman siya.
R: With regards naman po sa physical appearance ng mga brochures
yung kulay, text, lengguwahe, okay lang po ba ‘yong lengguwaheng
ginamit which is Tagalog?
P22: Oo, pwede naman siyang English.
R: Sa inyo po?
P22: Para sa akin mas maganda kung tagalog.
R: ‘Yong text po kaya? Maliit o masyadong malaki? Nababasa po kaya?
P22: Oo, nababasa naman siya.
R: ‘Yong colors naman po na ginamit?
P22: ‘Yong color naman niya, okay naman siya.
R: How about ‘yong contrast po nababasa pa rin po ba siya? Mga pictures
po, okay naman po ba siya?
P22: ‘Yong pictures, yung iba parang hindi clear.
R: What do you think po, alin po ba ang kailangan ng improvement?
P22: Linawan ang mga pictures at pwedeng dagdagan pa ang mga
pictures.
R: Bakit po kailangang mas maraming mga pictures?
P22: Para kaaya-ayang tignan.
R: Satisfied po ba kayo sa mga brochures na binibigay?
P22: Oo, satisfied naman po.
R: Mga suggestion po para maimprove po ang mga brochures natin?
P22: Dito naman sa mga brochures gaya ng sinabi ko okay ang kulay ang
text, ang problema lang hindi namin nakikita kumbaga kapag hindi ka
pumunta dito hindi mo makikita na may binibigay na ganito ang
munisipiyo.
R: So more on po sa dissemination ng mga brochures. Since, ngayon niyo
lang po siya nakita, meron po bang changes sa knowledge natin sa
disaster reduction, mayroon po ba tayong natutunan?
P22: Sa akin meron naman, gaya ng sabi ko hindi ako naghahanda ng kit,
di ba? Noong nakita ko siya siguro ngayon gagawin ko na.
R: Ano po ang mga narealize ninyo matapos niyong basahin ang mga
brochures na ito?
187

P22: Nagkaroon ako ng knowledge na kapag mayroong bagyo dapat


prepared ka na. Lindol o kung ano pa man diyan?
R: So ang pinakaimportante ay ang preparation talaga.
P22: Opo.
R: Noong narealize niyo po ‘yan, ano po yung paplanuhin niyo with
regards sa inyong sarili at sa pamilya niyo?
P22: Plano ko sa pamilya ko, kung may dumating man na disaster
kailangang mag-usap-usap na kayong pamilya. Magprepare.

PARTICIPANT 23

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang Umaga po. Kamusta po kayo noong last na


bagyong Ompong?
Participant 23: Okay naman so far kasi maayos yung pagset-up ng
evacuation center at pagevacuate ng mga tao. Before yung actual na
bagyo talaga umikot na sila barangay at kailangan talagang lumikas.
R: Paano po sa ating bahay?
P23: Ready kami. Oo.
R: Anong klaseng paghahanda?
P23: Siguro siyempre kailangang icheck ang bubong kung okay at
siyempre sa loob ng bahay dapat kailangan itaas mo na lahat ng mga
kailangan para hindi na maaligaga lalo na sa lugar namin bahain talaga.
R: Ang susunod na mga katanungan ko po ay tungkol sa mga brochures,
sa inyo pong palagay ano po ‘yong mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng
mga ganitong klase ng mga reading material?
P23: Nakalagay dito yung mga specifics, mga kailangan mong gawin, at
kailangan mong ihanda. Alam mo yung mga gamit na kailangan mong
itabi or iprepara, kaya hindi mo na kailangang mag-isip kasi nandyan na
lahat.
R: Ano naman po yung mga nakikita niyong disadvantage ng mga reading
material na ‘yan, nako-cause po ba ito ng alarm sa mga tao?
P23: Hindi, I don’t think so.
R: Why?
188

P23: Parang preparations na lang, kahit na ayaw mo kailangan mong pag-


aralan ito dahil darating at darating ang disaster, at hindi mo alam when
and where kaya dapat palaging handa. Halimbawa sa Japan, prepared
sila lagi pero palaging may nangyayaring disaster sa kanila hindi katulad
sa atin na parang kulang sa training unlike sa ibang bansa na parang
pinag-aaralan talaga nila ang every scenario na pwedeng mangyari. Sa
atin siguro, sa military meron pero kapag ordinaryong tao hindi na
masyadong importante sasabihin nila hindi naman mangyayari ‘yan.
R: Sa apat na nabasa niyo na brochures ano po kaya ang magandang
attributes nito?
P23: Pinag-isipan talaga kung ano ang ilalagay, kumbaga ‘yong mga
nandito na tama talaga ang mga information na dapat malaman pagdating
ng disaster.
R: ‘Yon po talaga ‘yong kailangan.
P23: Nakalagay na lahat in a way na maiintindihan ng lahat ng tao.
R: Ibig sabihin po complete and concise, ‘yong mga kailangan lang ang
nakalagay.
P23: Kumpleto talaga siya at inexplain nila lahat ng mga disaster na
pwedeng mangyari at kung ano ang mga dapat gawin.
R: May negative po ba kayong nakikita?
P23: Ang negative ko lang siguro, mahirap siyang basahin. Siguro kung
plain white lang siya mas madaling mabasa. Kapag sa akin kasi hirap
akong basahin itong mga ito.
R: In general, satisfied naman po ba kayo sa mga brochures?
P23: Okay naman siya.
R: How about mga suggestion po?
P23: Very satisfied naman ako sa mga brochures.
R: Suggestion po o kung ano ang mga kailangang i-improve sa mga
brochures para mas lalo siyang maintindihan?
P23: Color lang siguro.
R: Ang text naman po? Pictures and illustrations okay lang po ba siya?
P23: Okay naman siya, para sa akin.
R: Ngayon niyo lang po siya, di po ba? So meron po bang mga changes
sa understanding natin sa mga natural disaster, before at after niyo pong
nabasa ‘yong apat na brochures? May natutunan po ba tayo?
189

P23: Ang hindi ko masyadong maintindihan ay ‘yong storm surge which is


similar pala sa Tsunami. Akala ko kasi ang storm surge hindi siya
tumataas, paabante lang siya pero umaabot pala siya ng 5 feet.
R: So diyan niyo lang po nabasa?
P23: Dito ko lang nabasa yung information, parang naeducate ako.
R: Ano po yung mga narealize natin matapos nating basahin ang mga
brochures?
P23: Dapat kailangang maging aware talaga tayo parang every hour every
minute hindi naman natin alam kailan mangyayari ang disaster so
kailangan so dapat always prepared tayo. Hindi na kailangang magwarn
ng government, kusa na natin siyang gagawin, tayo na mismo sa sarili
natin na magprepare tayo hindi na kailangang pukpukin pa para gumalaw,
siguro kusa na tayong mag-iisip kung paano natin ililigtas ang sarili natin.
R: Since marami po tayong natutunan sa brochures, ano po yung plano in
the future. For example, meron pong mga susunod na sakuna, ano po ang
mga plano natin?
P23: Siguro sa bahay dapat strong talaga ang bahay mo at kung pwedeng
itaas itaas na lang siya. Alam naman nayin na advantage ang
pagkakaroon ng mataas na bahay.
R: Sa earthquake and tsunami, may plano po ba tayo?
P23: Sa earthquake, biglaan kasi yun so siguro sa mga gamit
nagbabawas na ako ngayon sa bahay kasi baka ang mga gamit natin ang
dahilan ng aksidente.
R: Paano naman po, sa kung saan pupunta?
P23: Hindi naman ako naglalakwatsa, kaya iniiwasan ko ang maraming
tao. Hindi ako mahilig pumunta sa maraming tao lalo na kapag
dumadagsa, hindi talaga ako pumupunta.
R: Halimbawa po, may mangyaring earthquake or nangyaring earthquake
ano pong plano natin for that?
P23: Kailangang iprepare lahat ng mga kakailanganin , kung kailangan
magevacuate magevacuate.
R: ‘Yon lamang po Ma’am at Thank you po

PARTICIPANT 24

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.
190

Researcher: Magandang umaga po Sir. Kamusta po kayo noong last na


bagyo?
Participant 24: Okay naman, nakaprepare ng konti.
R: How about sa family po and sa bahay po?
P24: Sa family, nagkaroon kami ng information kasi nakikinig kami sa
radyo at nanood kami ng TV at ‘yong text na nanggagaling sa NDRRMC
na –update kami.
R: Ang mga susunod na mga questions ko po ay regarding sa mga
brochures na nabasa po natin. Ano po ‘yong mga advantages ng
pagkakaroon ng ganoong klaseng communication material na galing po sa
CDRRMO?
P24: Napakalaking epekto ‘yan kung iyan at isisiwalat o ipapaliwanag ng
husto maraming tao ang makikinabang na hindi madidisgrasya. Iyong mga
pamphlet na sinasabi mo ay pinakamagandang bagay upang maintindihan
bawat tao ang dapat gawin sa oras ng kalamidad.
R: Mayroon po ba tayong nakikitang disadvantage, kasi sabi po nila na
kapag mayroon tayong mga ganyan baka magpanic ‘yong mga tao. May
disadvantages po kaya ang pagkakaroon ng mga ganyang reading
materials? Sa inyong palagay?
P24: Sa aking opinion, bago ka magbigay ng ganyang mga pamphlet
dapat ‘yan ay ipinapaliwanag ng husto. Unang-una English ang pamphlet
na ginagamit natin karamihan sa atin ay di nakakaintindi bakit hindi natin
subukang ipaliwanag muna sa taong bayan ang magiging epekto ng mga
ganyang kalamidad, bago mo ibigay ang mga ganyang mga pamphlet nay
an upang sa ganoon maliwanagan ang bawat isa.
R: So dapat po may mga seminar
P24: Oo, dapat may mga seminar, may mga paunang babala, paunang
impormasyon sa Purok Leader, sa barangay o something na ganoon para
maintindihan nila bago ibigay ang mga pamphlet.
R: Regarding naman po sa mga brochures na ito, may nakikita po ba
kayong positive attributes ng mga apat na ‘to?
P24: Sa apat na binigay mo, lahat ito puro maganda kung lahat eh
susundin. Gaya ng sabi ko, lahat ng nakasulat dito ay maganda. Ang
gusto ko lamang ay maipaliwanag ng husto sa malinaw na salita sa isang
lengguwahe na naiintindihan ng bawat isa at itong mga ito ay
napakalaking tulong para sa kanila.
191

R: May nakita po ba kayong mga negative? Ano po ang mga hindi niyo
naintindihan, gusto niyong tanggalin?
P24: Lahat ay maganda, pero ang preparation katulad nitong 72-hour
emergency kit hindi lahat ng Pilipino sabihin na nating lowest na halos
wala na kakayanan kumbaga ‘yong mga taong isang kahig isang tuka
hindi na sila makakapagprepare ng mga ganyan kaya naman kapag
nagkaroon ng kalamidad halos damit na lang ang dala. Kasi hindi na nila o
wala na talaga silang kakayanan na gawin itong bagay na ito pero kung ito
ay talagang ipapaliwanag siguro naman tayong mga Pilipino o tao
susunod tayo sa mga ito para sa ating kaligtasan.
R: May mga suggestion po ba kayo nang sa gayon ay magkaroon ng
improvement itong mga brochures o mga gusto nating baguhin?
P24: Dito sa binigay mo wala na akong nakitang pagbabago kundi
dagdagan uli. Let’s say pagdating sa baha, para sa tae at ihi ng daga,
dengue and sa mga gamot nakukulangan pa kasi tayo o something.
Talagang hindi natin akalain na ganoon para karami ang magkakaroon ng
sakit dahil sa ihi ng daga, dengue o sa kung ano mang bagay kaya
minsan ang pinakamaganda diyan ay ‘yong preparation. Unang-una ay
ang medicine o pangangailangan ng tao na siyang kalian kaagad ‘yon
sana ang dapat iprepare kaagad maliban sa mga relief o pagkain,
medicine ang dapat na mauna.
R: So gusto niyo pong at least dagdagan ang mga information dito
regarding pa dito sa mga sakit na makukuha sab aha
P24: Kung pwede sana, sabi ko nga sayo kanina gamot talaga ang
problema. Itong mga pinakita mo ay maganda nariyan lahat pero ang
gamot ang laging kulang pagdating. Wala naman tayong problema sa
relief kasi dumadagsa naman, pero pagdating sa gamot ay parang kulang.
Let’s say hanggang ngayon mga anti-rabies and sa leptospirosis ay
parang nawawalan tayo naneneglect. Okay na siya ngayon pero sana
mas maimprove at mas magiging maganda siya.
R: Pero in general po, sa apat po na ito satisfied naman po ba kayo?
P24: Sa apat na pinakita mo satisfied na satisfied ako , sa ating mga
nabasa ukol sa preparation ay napakaganda po nito at maipaliwanag pa
ng husto nang sa ganoon ay masundan at malaman ng mga tao ang
dapat nilang gawin.
192

R: Noong binasa niyo po ito Sir, nadagdagan naman po ‘yong kaalaman


natin tungkol sa paghahanda, di po ba? Ano po kaya ang mga natutunan
natin sa paghahanda at changes sa pagkakaintindi natin sa disasters?
P24: Ang nadagdag sa aking kaalaman dito ay ang lugar kung saan ay
dapat kang pumunta at ‘yong mga bagay na importante sa earthquake,
tsunami na wag sanang mangyari. Sa iba pang bagay tulad ng ano ang
dapat kong gawin, ano ang dapat kong unahin, kaligtasan mo, kaligtasan
ng pamilya, kaligtasan ng mga kasama mo.
R: With the knowledge you acquired mula sa mga brochures, ano po ba
yung mga narealize natin ?
P24: Narealize ko na dapat pala ay dagdagan ko pa ang kaalaman ko at
ayon sa mga nabasa ko ay kulang pa pala ako sa knowledge at ang
kagandahan nito ay nadagdagan ako ng kaalaman. Sa ngayon, ito ay
ituturo ko sa aking pamilya, sa aking mga kaibigan, sa mga tao nang sa
ganoon ay bago dumating ang mga sakuna ay malaman ang tamang
gagawin.
R: Dahil na rin po sa may mga natutunan at realization tayo, ano naman
po yung dapat niyong planuhin kapag dumating na ‘yong bagyo? May
changes po ba tayo sa pagdating sa mga plano or ano po ‘yong mga
idadagdag nating mga plano?
P24: Siguro naman, bago dumating ang mga sakuna may mga babala o
warning na doon palang sa mga warning na’yon maging prepare na tayo,
makinig at wag matigas ang ulo. Kung ano ang sinasabi, sundin natin
dahil para ito sa kaligtasan natin.
R: Sa pamilya po natin Sir, ano po ang mga plano natin?
P24: Sa pamilya ko, higit sa lahat kung ano ang natutunan ko o naiisip ko
rito, sinasabi ko sa kanila nang sa gayon ay kahit wala ako sa tabi nila
alam nila ang mga gagawin nila at upang sa ganoon ay hindi na sila
magiging sagabal sa akin at alam na nila ang sa sarili kung ano ang dapat
at hindi dapat gawin.Wag magpanic.
R: Salamat po Sir

PARTICIPANT 25

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.
193

Researcher: Magandang hapon po Ma’am, kamusta naman po tayo


noong nakaraang bagyo?
Participant Gueset 5: Naging sobrang busy po kami sa mga evacuees.
R: Sa sarili po natin?
P25: Kinakabahan po pero nakapaghanda naman po kami.
R: Ano pong mga paghahanda ang mga ginawa ninyo?
P25: Tulad na lamang po ng kailangan naming lumikas sa mas
magandang sa paglalagyan ng pamilya naming tapos ‘yong bahay namin
kailangan safe na at nakahanda na siya para hindi mailipad ng bagyong
malakas na darating. At tungkol sa sinasabi nilang tataas daw ang level
ng tubig siyempre nag-iisip na rin kami kung saan kami lilikas sa mga
kapitbahay mga ganoon po.
R: Ang mga susunod pong mga questions ko ay tungkol sa mga
brochures na nabasa niyo, sa tingin niyo po ano po ang mga benepisyo
ng pagkakaroon ng ganitong klase ng mga babasahin? Itong mga
brochures po, ano po bang mga benefits at advantages?
P25: Tulad ng kailangang makapaghanda, mga kailangang dalhin kapag
may lindol, bagyo. Paghahanda po talaga ang kailangan.
R: May nakikita po ba kayong hindi magandang maidudulot ng
pagkakaroon ng mga ganito, sa tingin niyo po ba nagdudulot siya ng
alarma o ng panis sa mga tao?
P25: Hindi naman po, maganda nga po ito. Habang hindi pa nangyayari
sa atin at least mayroon na po itong nagwawarn o nagbibigay ng
magandang impormasyon para makapaghanda tayo ng mahusay.
R: Kung makikita niyo po ‘yong mga brochures, ano po ang mga
magagandang characteristics niya? Ano po ang maganda sa kanya, ‘yong
nilalaman?
P25: Maganda naman po siya.
R: Sa mismong brochures po, maganda at kumpleto naman po ba ang
nilalaman?
P25: Opo maganda po siya.
R: Ang lengguwaheng ginamit, okay po sa atin ang tagalog na ginamit?
P25: Ito ay mas maganda po.
R: Kaysa sa Pangasinan?
P25: Opo, kasi karamihan po mas naiintindihan nila ang tagalog.
R: Paano naman po ‘yong laki ng pagkakasulat, nababasa po ban g
maigi?
194

P25: Opo, kahit nga hindi na ako magsalamin eh nababasa ko pa rin.


R: ‘Yong color combination naman po, kaaya-aya naman po ba?
P25: Opo, kaaya-aya po siya. Maganda po siyang basahin, hindi po siya
boring nagbibigay talaga siya ng information.
R: ‘Yong mga illustration, pictures po?
P25: Napakaganda, ang linaw linaw po.
R: Ano naman po yung mga nakita niyong pangit?
P25: Wala naman po.
R: Maganda po talaga?
P25: Opo
R: Sa tingin niyo po ba kailangan pa po ng improvement at kailangan po
bang ayusin ng munisipyo ang mga brochure, may kulang po ba? May
kailangan po bang idagdag na impormasyon?
P25: Para po sa akin wala naman po, andito naman po lahat ng
impormasyon.
R: So in general po satisfied naman po tayo samga brochures. Mayroon
po ba tayong mga suggestion para maimprove po natin siya?
P25: Ang gusto ko lang po ay magdagdag po tayo ng ganito para mas
mabasa ng mga parents.
R: Ang ibig po ninyong sabihin ay magdagdag pa po ng mga ipiprint para
mas maraming makakabasa?
P25: Opo, hindi lang po kami. Mas maganda po kasi yung mas nababasa
nila kaysa pinapaliwanag namin.
R: So sa tingin niyo po mas maganda po na habang binabasa eh
naipapaliwanag siya. Kapag nagpapaliwanag po ba kayo may dala po ba
kayong mga ganito?
P25: Meron po kaming mga pinapakitang mga halimbawa para mas lalo
nilang maintindihan.
R: Noong bago niyo po siya nabasa at ngayon ay tapos niyo na siyang
basahin, may nabago po ba sa knowledge o sa pagkakaintindi natin?
P25: Opo, sigurado po nadagdagan po talaga at medyo nabawasan po
‘yong kaba kasi nandito na nagbibigay na ng impormasyon kung ano ang
dapat gawin.
R: Ano po ‘yong narealize niyo noong nabasa niyo siya? Ano po ‘yong
mga napagtanto natin with regards po sa paghahanda natin?
195

P25: Maganda siyang basahin, gusto ko siyang basahin at ipamulat sa


mga tao na kailangan nating mapaghandaan at nang sa ganoon ay
mabawasan ang kabang nararamdaman nila.
R: With that realization po Ma’am, ano po ba ‘yong mga plano natin in the
future para sa pamilya natin? At anong klaseng mga paghahanda po
‘yong gagawin natin na nakuha niyo galing dito sa mga brochures?
P25: Maging alerto tayo kapag may mga ganitong sakunang mangyayari
sa atin.
R: Ano po kaya ang mga natutunan natin na gagawin niyo po para sa
inyong sarili at pamilya?
P25: Para sa pamilya ko ilalagay ko sila sa magandang paglalagihan nila
para safe po sila.
R: Alam naman po ba natin ang mga evacuation center?
P25: Opo alam naman naming po siya. Pinagsasabihan ko naman sila na
kung sakaling may mangyaring ganito doon kayo pumunta, gawing safe
ang sarili, magdala kayo ng mga ganitong gamit, mga kailangan. Sinasabi
ko naman po sa kanila na kung sakaling magkahiwalay man kami at least
nasabi ko ‘yong mga dapat nilang dalhin at gawin.
R: Marami pong salamat.

PARTICIPANT 26

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang hapon po. Kumusta po tayo noong bagyo, iyong


nakaraang bagyong Ompong?
Participant Gueset 26: Syempre medyo kinabahan po kami dahil meron
pong di inaasahan na dumating na bagyo, pero sa ganun pa man nakinig
naman kami sa mga bali-balilita kaya kahit papaano nakaalerto din kami.
R: Nagprepare po ba kayo?
P26: Nagprepare talaga kami.
R: Paano at ano iyong mga preparations niyo with your family?
P26: Nagusap usap kami talaga na kung sakaling emergency na may
mangyari alam naming kung saan talaga yung iisang lugar na puntahan
namin. At saka pinagusapan naming kung ano yung mga karapat dapat
196

na dalhin para sa ganun yung mapapakinabangan talaga, para sa ganun


hindi po kami maging kaawa-awa.
R: Iyong mga susunod pong questions ma’am ay regarding doon sa mga
nabasa niyong brocures. Ano po ba yung advantages, benefits ng
pagkakaroon ng mga ganitong klaseng babasahin?
P26: Ang sa akin yung mga ganyan na bagay ang benefits na naibigay
niya sakin is matuturuan ka paano ka maging preparedness, matuturuan
ka kung paano dapat maging aktwal ka gumalaw tapos matuturuan ka
dyan kumbaga hindi ka late.
R: Lagi kang prepared?
P26: Oo, ganun.
R: May mga hindi po ba kaya magandang naidudulot, katulad ng mga
alarma or panic sa mga tao na meron silang nababasa tulad ng,
magkakatsunami ba dito?
P26: Kung minsan po may mga katanungan pero mas maganda talaga
yung at least kahit papaano magmanman ka rin.
R: Doon po sa mga nabasa niyong mga brochures, ano po ba iyong
maganda sa kanila na nakita niyo? With regards sa nilalaman at tsaka sa
itsura nang mga brochures.
P26: Sa akin, ang nakapagbigay sa akin talaga dyan ng napakagandang
preparation ay yung sinasabi nilang 72-hour emergency kit kasi nandyan
na talaga lahat iwanan mo man yung bahay mo at least kahit papaano
nandyan na lahat dala dala mo.
R: Doon po kaya sa content niya kumpleto naman po ba iyong nilalaman
na kailangan niyong malaman?
P26: Oo, regarding doon sa mga nabasa kung iba kasi doon sa ebalde
mas maganda ito kasi doon ko nakita na hindi lang pala yung nandun sa
ebalde ang dapat ilagay meron pa palang mas dapat karagdagang dapat
ilagay.
R: Doon sa itsura po kaya netong mga brochure?
P26: Sa itsura ng brochure nakakaakit siya dahil makikita mo sa, sa mga
nakasulat lang yung mga pamagat pa lang yung title niya talagang
makikita mo na maganda eto ah, mapapahihikayat kang basahin kung ano
yung nilalaman talaga ng nasa loob
R: Yung pagkakasulat, okay naman po ba? Nababasa? Yung lingwahe
pong ginamit na tagalog?
197

P26: Oo, maayos maayos, hindi siya gaanong malalim, naiintindihan siya,
madali siyang unawain.
R: Thank you po. May negative po ba kayong nakita?
P26: Wala naman Wala naman akong nakitang negatibo, at least yan ay
magandang halimbawa yan sa mga taong hindi pa gaanong nakakaalam.
R: Yes ma’am. May mga further improvements po ba tayo na kailangang
gawin sa mga pictures? Ano yung mga further improvements dito sa mga
brochures.
P26: Yung improvements yan kasi ay hindi ka na mag kumbaga hindi ka
na, kumbaga tawag dito hindi ka na abala kung ano yung mga dapat
mong tapusin kasi meron ng nakikita dyan.
R: Ma’am yung sa mismong brochure with regards doon sa itsura, sa
content, may gusto ba tayong ipadagdag na impormasyon o ibawas?
P26: Dapat hindi mawala yung emergency vehicle.
R: Saan po dapat nakalagay? Ilalagay po ba siya dito?
P26: Kailangan mailagay din kasi di natin masasabi yung mga iba kasi
may mga hirap sa, hirap, may mga pamilya tayong may kapansanan, yun
po kaya kailangan din na meron tayong mga emergency na dapat
nakalagay na vehicle para sa ganun may mga sakunang ganyan na may
makukuha sila ka-agad, may mahahagilap sila kaagad.
R: May mga suggestions po ba tayo regarding sa mga brochures?
P26: Siguro sa akin, wala na dahil malinaw naman sa akin yung lahat ng
mga sinasabi sa brochure.
R: Noong before niyo po yung nabasa at pagkatapos niyong nabasa, may
changes po ba sa understanding natin regarding sa mga natural
disasters? May mga karagdagang kaalaman po ba tayo doon?
P26: Oo, meron karagdagang kaalam dulot niyan dahil sabi ko, sige
gagawin ko to, nag-isip kasi ako kanina eh tinignan ko yung nasa larawan
sabi ko kitang kita ko, ah ganun kaya sabi ko.
R: Ano yung mga realizations niyo doon sa mga nabasa niyo?
P26: Nabigyan ako ng kakaibang mga techniques kung ano yung dapat
gawin.
R: So, may mga narealized tayo ma’am no? Ano naman po yung mga
gagawin natin, yung mga plano in case na in the future mangyari yung
mga calamities na kinakatakutan natin? May mga naisip po ba tayong
plano na galing dito, na gagawin niyo for you at sa pamilyan niyo? Ano po
kaya yung mga yun?
198

P26: Like yung pagdating ng tsunami, syempre alam ko na kung gaano ka


distansya yung gagawin mong paglayo kasi iniisip ko noon, naririnig ko na
yung tsunami, iniisip ko gaano ba kalayo, so dahil nabasa ko dyan, nakita
ko ganun pala dapat meters pala yung dapat mong layuan, tsaka kung
anong palapad ang dapat mong kaladkarin.
R: Yung sa family naman po natin?
P26: Yung sa family maganda yan sa amin, dahil kumbaga hindi kami
magkakawatak-watak niyan, kami po ay magkakasama mamaya dyan.
R: Sige po, yan lang ma’am. Maraming salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 27

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

R: Good afternoon po ma’am. Kumusta po tayo noong last na bagyo?


P27: Good afternoon rin. Okay lang naman kami, safe naman kami from
the baha.
R: Nagprepare po ba tayo?
P27: Yes, noong bago pa man lang dumating yung bagyo syempre may
mga paghahanda na.
R: Ano po iyong klaseng preparations yung ginawa ninyo?
P27: Syempre as part na noong preparation kailangan ding magprepare
ng mga pangangailangan during the disaster.
R: So namili po tayo ng mga pagkain?
P27: Pagkain, mga mga emergency kit.
R: Yung mga next questions ko po regarding na po yun sa mga brochures
nabasa. Ano po kaya yung mga advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganyang
klaseng babasahin?
P27: Siguro po sir mas mainam na may mga ganito kasi mas
napreprepare tayo nalalaman natin kung ano yung mga pwede nating
gawin during the time of disaster. At tsaka mas madali na lang din
sigurong makita kung ano ba yung mga iniexpect natin before, during and
the after of the disaster.
R: May nakikita po ba tayong mga disadvantages ng pagkakaroon ng
ganyang klaseng babasahin? For example, nagcacause ba siya ng alarm,
panic sa mga tao?
199

P27: For me, hindi naman kasi awareness ang gusto nating, gusto nating
i-imposed ditto sa pagkakaroon ng pamphlets.
R: Sa mga apat na pong yan, may mga nakita po ba kayong mga positive
attributes niyan? With regards to the content, itsura, sa presentation nung
information?
P27: So, kasi dito sa Dagupan po palagi naman tayong, palagi naman
tayong binabaha, binabagyo. Siguro nakakatulong eto at maganda naman
na nakalagay na dito yung mga kailangan mong gawin, kailangan mong
dalhin. And tagalog kasi siya kaya mas madali lang siyang maintindihan
ng pangkaraniwang tao.
R: Kung sa text po kaya, yung pictures, yung explanations, okay naman
po?
P27: Siguro yung corner lang dito Sir, medyo siguro mas readable na lang
siguro yung ano kasi pag nakashadowing siya, pag may shadowing kasi
siya yung mga bulag medyo hirap na sa mga matatanda medyo
nahihirapan na silang basahin eto. Pero para sa akin hirap ako ditto yung
may ganito, shadow shadow. Mas maganda kung simple text na lang ang
gagawin.
R: Yes po, Yung mga illustrations naman po, okay naman po siya?
P27: Sa illustration, okay naman.
R: Meron po ba tyaong nakikitang hindi maganda naman doon sa
brochure? Hindi magandang characteristics ng brochure.
P27: Hindi maganda? Malalaki naman ang font. So okay lang naman din.
Siguro, okay lang naman. At tsaka meron siyang, meron siyang mga
emergency hotline dito sa loob.
R: Do you think may mga kailangan pang iimprove dyan sa mga
brochures?
P27: Siguro sir yung material na lang. Siguro yung mas, mas kasi pag
nabasa eto mas madali siyang mag light. Siguro yung glossy na lang
siguro na papel.
R: Pero in general po, are you satisfied with the brochures? Okay naman?
P27: Yes sir.
R: Do you have any suggestions po on how to improve? Yung lang po ba
yung gawing glossy yung paper?
P27: Glossy and then yun nga Sir yung sinabi ko nga for the eto siguro
okay tong ganito. Plain lang na text kasi para nga doon sa mga medyo
hirap hindi talaga nila makakayang basahin etong mga ganito na malilit
200

masyado. And then sa illustration, so andito naman yung mga kailangang


malaman eh particularly doon sa may disaster kit.
R: Yes ma’am. Malaking tulong talaga siya no?
P27: Yes po. Malaking tulong po.
R: Noong before po, tapos after niyong mabasa yan ma’am may changes
po ba doon sa knowledge natin regarding sa preparedness?
P27: Syempre Sir, kasi kung ikaw naman simpleng mamamayan at hindi
ka naman talaga nagpreparado sa mga disaster, syempre ikaw hindi mo
alam kung ano yung mga ipreprepare mo. Pero after reading the
phamplets mas madali na lang siyang tandaan. Yung mga ipreprepare
mo.
R: Ano po ba yung mga realizations natin after reading?
P27: Dapat lagging handa. Mas lamang nung, mas lamang yung taong
may alam kaysa nung taong nagmamagaling. So, maganda naman tong
mga ganito.
R: With that/those realization po, ano po yung mga gagawin natin plano sa
ating sarili tapos sa pamilya natin after nating mabasa eto?
P27: Siguro kung yung mga ibang family members hindi pa nila nababasa
ganitong phamplets siguro educate na lang natin yung ating mga kasama
sa bahay. And kung may mga other ka pang mga kakilala na pwede mong
ipabasa din yung mga ligtas na ganito mas magandang shinishare din
natin yung knowledge natin regarding the disaster.
R: Yun lang po ma’am maraming salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 28

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang hapon po. Kumusta po tayo noong last na


bagyo?
Participant Gueset 8: Nasira yung bahay, natanggal yung bubong.
R: Nagprepare po ba tayo bago yung bagyo?
P28: Oo
R: Anong klaseng preparation po?
P28: Tinali, ang lakas kasi nung hangin.
201

R: Ano po kaya yung advantages ng pagkakaroon ng ganitong klaseng


mga babasahin Sir?
P28: Sir?
R: Ano po yung mga benipisyo ng pagkakaroon ng ganitong klase ng
babasahin?
P28: Para ano, malaman mo kung kung anong dapat mong gawin pag
may mga sakuna o kung mga kung ano ano. Alam mo na yung gagawin
mo, handa ka na in case na alam mo na yung gagawin mo hindi ka na
malilito na yung magpapanic ka na.
R: Ano kaya yung disadvantages na nakukuha niyo dito? Nagcacause ba
eto ng alarma sa mga tao o panic?
P28: Hindi. Hindi naman, mas maganda yung, mas maganda yung may
alam kung alam mo na yung dapat mong gawin kung dumating mga
sakuna, mga bagyo mga ganyan di ka na ano.
R: Anong nakita niyo dito na positive, sa mga nabasa niyo? Sa itsura
niya?
P28: Okay lang naman siya. Maganda naman siya, para maipakita mo
yung kahandaan.
R: Nababasa naman po ba? Madaling mabasa? Yung mga pictures po ba
naiintindihan?
P28: Oo, mabilis mabasa, ma ma ma sa mga pictures pa lang kahit hindi
mo basahin alam mo na.
R: Alam mo na kung ano yung tungkol doon?
P28: Oo
R: Eh yung pagkakasulat Sir, nababasa po ba yung mga pagkakasulat,
malinaw po ba?
P28: Malinaw depende naman sa bumabasa.
R: Yes Sir. Pero para sa inyo po Sir?
P28: Para sa akin malinaw naman Sir.
R: Klaro din po kung ano yung gustong sabihin Sir?
P28: Oo.
R: Eh yung mga pangit po sa brochure?
P28: Wala, wala.
R: Ano po yung kailangan pang i-improve ditto sa mga brochure po?
P28: Okay lang naman siya.
R: So, ibig sabihin po satisfied po tayo doon sa brochures?
202

P28: Oo, yung mga pictures lang kahit di mo mabasa eh alam mo na kung
ano ang ibig sabihin.
R: Ano po ba yung mga kailangan nating i-improve, mga suggestions niyo
po para maimprove?
P28: Para sa akin okay na yan.
R: Noong pagkatapos niyo itong mabasa meron po bang changes sa
pagkakaintindi natin? Ano ba yung mga nalaman natin?
P28: Ang mga sa pagdating ng mga gamut.
R: Ano po yung narealized natin after basahin?
P28: Tama yung sinasabi nung nasa brochure.
R: Ano pong plano natin in the near future?
P28: Maghanda. Laging handa.
R: Sige po. Salamat po.

PARTICIPANT 29

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang hapon po. Kumusta po tayo noong last na


bagyong Ompong?
Participant 29: Okay lang naman. Medyo kabado at that time pero at least
noong kinaumagahan medyo okay okay na.
R: Nakapagready po tayo? Anong klaseng preparations po?
P29: Ano, bumili ako, bumili ako ng ano na yun? Alambre, tapos pinatali
ko bubong to, bubong to ano ba yun, hindi naman kasi may second floor
yung bahay ko, ngayong yung bubong niya pinatali ko hanggang doon sa
para hindi ilipad yung bubong.
R: Nagstore po tayo ng mga pagkain? Di ba sabi nila super typhoon po, at
least nakapagprepare po tayo.
P29: Opo.
R: Ano po kaya yung mga benipisyo ng pagkakaroon ng ganitong klaseng
mga babasahin?
P29: At least malalaman natin, before na mangyari yun, yung ganung
trahedya. Mga, mga ganyan na ano ba yun, anong tawag doon, disasters,
alam na natin kung ano yung dapat nating gawin bago pumasok yung
disaster.
203

R: May nakikita po ba kayong mga disadvantages ng pagkakaroon ng


ganito? Kasi sabi po nila, pwedeng magcause ng alarma or panic sa mga
tao.
P29: I don’t think so, I don’t think so kasi, kasi maganda nga yung may
ano eh, yung may alarma para, para magready, makapagready yung mga
tao.
R: Doon po sa mga brochures ano po yung mga nakikita niyong positive
attributes nung brochure at characteristics niya, with regards to the
content at tsaka doon po sa itsura niya.
P29: Anong nabago, halimbawa doon sa, tawag dito first aid kit, malinaw,
malinaw kasi.
R: Yung iba po kayang brochures?
P29: Malinaw, malinaw naman po.
R: Yung mga pictures pong ginamit, okay naman po ba?
P29: Okay, okay naman po lahat.
R: Eh yung pagkakasulat po? Yung laki ng sulat, nababasa?
P29: Tamang tama lang para sa akin.
R: Clear naman pong mababasa lahat?
P29: Clear na clear po.
R: May mga nakikita po kayong negative? Or pangit doon sa brochure?
P29: Wala, wala po.
R: Do you think po meron pong kailangang i-improve pa doon sa mga
brochures?
P29: Wala na siguro, kasi well, ano very well said naman na.
R: In general, we can say po na satisfied po kayo doon sa mga
brochures?
P29: Very, very po.
R: Any suggestions po for the improvement of the brochures? May
kailangan po ba tayong idagdag na information?
P29: Siguro wala na kasi, kasi malinaw na malinaw naman na sa akin
kung ano yung mga dapat na gawin.
R: Yung before niyo po etong mabasa at pagkatapos niyo pong mabasa
may changes po ba on how we understand the disaster preparedness?
P29: Maliban doon sa mga alam ko na noon, nadagdagan pa.
R: Ano po kaya yung mga naidagdag na information?
204

P29: Halimbawa yung sa pagprepare po ng ano, ng ng ano ba ito ng


emergency light. Nadagdag pa halimbawa yung mga flashlight kasi
nawala sa isipan ko ang paglagay ng ano.
R: Ano po yung narealized niyo doon sa mga nabasa niyo?
P29: Narealized ko na they are, they are very taking care. Na realized ko
na sila ay talagang nagiisip ng para sa tao. Kapakanan ng mga tao.
R: Para sa inyo naman po, ano pong narealized niyo?
P29: Mahalaga.
R: Since madami po tayong narealized, ano pong mga plano niyo in the
future in preparation for these disasters? Ano po yung plano niyo sa inyo
at sa pamilya niyo po?
P29: Ang ano, ang masasabi ko lang kahit nandito ako or wala man ako
dito mai, masabi ko man lang eto sa mga pamilya ko. Para ready din sila
sa susunod.
R: Thank you very much po.
P29: You’re welcome.

PARTICIPANT 30

Before the interview, the researcher first secured the permission of the
participant that the interview will be audio and video recorded.

Researcher: Magandang hapon po. Kumusta po tayo noong last na


bagyo?
Participant 30: Okay lang naman po sa kabila ng lahat ng dinanas natin na
ano trahedya.
R: Nagprepare po ba tayo sa bagyong Ompong? Anong klaseng
preparations po yung ginawa natin?
P30: Opo. Kagaya po ng nasabihan ng mga tao na magiging alerto po sila
sa pagdating ng tubig.
R: Eh yung sa pamilya niyo po?
P30: Anong klaseng preparations po sa bahay niyo, bago po mangyari
yun, naka ano na yung mga anak ko, nakaevacuate na po.
R: So, sa bahay niyo sino na lang po ang natira?
P30: Wala po.
R: Ah talagang iniwan po ninyo yung bahay niyo.
P30: Oo kasi malalim po doon. Nasa ano po kami catch basin.
205

R: Yung mga next questions ko po regarding doon sa mga brochures. Ano


po yung mga benipisyo ng pagkakaroon ng mga ganyang klaseng
babasahin.
P30: Kasi po para malalaman mo kung anong dapat mong gawin
pagdating ng mga sakuna. Preparation na rin.
R: Meron po ba kayong nakikitang disadvantage or di maganda?
Nagcacause ba siya ng alarma or panic sa mga tao?
P30: Hindi naman po. Nag ibig sabihin po kasi neto para maging aware po
sila.
R: Ano po yung mga nakikita niyong positive na characteristics nung mga
brochure ma’am? Ano yung maganda sa kanila?
P30: Maganda po para magiging advance po.
R: Kung sa itsura nung brochure, yung sa mga language na ginamit, tama
or okay lang po ba na tagalog ang ginamit? Eh yung laki ng mga letra
ma’am?
P30: Opo, opo. Okay lang po.
R: Yung mga color combination ganun po?
P30: Wala naman pong problema sa color combination.
R: So, nababasa po ng mabuti? Kumpleto naman po yung nilalaman?
Para sa inyo po.
P30: Yung isa lang. Masakit sa mata.
R: Sa first aid po?
P30: Opo.
R: Yung sa flood po?
P30: Eto malinaw naman po.
R: Eto po, yung sa tsunami po?
P30: Okay lang naman po.
R: Yung mga pictures po, mga illustrations, malinaw naman pong
naiintindihan?
P30: Opo
R: May mga nakita po ba kayong negative sa brochure?
P30: Yun lang po. Hindi maganda ang pagkakaprint. Print po, masakit sa
mata.
R: You think, complete naman po yung mga mensahe na kailangan niyo?
P30: Opo.
R: Meron po ba tayong further improvements na pwede nating gawin dito
sa brochure.
206

P30: Wala naman na po.


R: In general, satisfied naman po tayo? Doon sa mga brochures.
P30: Opo.
R: Ano po yung mga suggestions niyo ma’am para maimprove pa siya
ma’am?
P30: Ang sa akin tama na po, okay lang naman po siya.
R: Noong before niyo po ito mabasa, tapos nabasa niyo ulit may changes
po ba or may pagkakaiba doon sa kaalaman natin regarding sa
paghahanda po. Meron po ba tayong mga natutunan?
P30: Meron po sir. Para magiging alerto, magiging preparado.
R: May mga narealized po ba tayo after natin siyang nabasa?
P30: Opo, ang paghahanda po, syempre dapat marerealized natin ang
dapat, maagap tayo.
R: Ngayon pong meron na tayong mga realizations, ano naman po yung
mga plano niyo, sa inyo at sa pamilya niyo pag dumating po yung mga
hindi natin inaasahang disaster.
P30: Ang disaster na halimbawa ang lindol po, hindi natin inaasahan
biglang dumarating po yan.
R: Ano po yung plano niyo para sa sarili at tsaka sa pamilya niyo ma’am?
P30: Di po ba hindi natin inaasahan biglang dumarating po yan. Di natin
alam kung anong oras yan, anong petsa na dumadating yan sir. Actually,
po ang gagawin na lang natin ay yung earthquake drill. Sa tsunami naman
ganun din po, hindi mo rin inaasahan gaya ng sabi ko kanina 20 minutes
bago ka makalikas. Ang tatakbuhan mo halimbawa tatakbo ka ng
Malasique po, yung 20 minutes matraffic, hindi lang ikaw ang tatakbo.
Kahit saan na po pumunta kasi lahat sakop ng water.
R: Saan po kayo pupunta?
P30: Sa mataas na building.
R: Salamat po.
207

APPENDIX D

Documentation

DVD
208

APPENDIX E

Actual Tsunami Preparedness Brochure

Actual brochure will be attached here


209

APPENDIX F

Actual Earthquake Preparedness Brochure

Actual brochure will be attached here


210

APPENDIX G

Actual Flood and Typhoon Brochure

Actual brochure will be attached here


211

APPENDIX H

Actual 72-Hour Emergency Kit Brochure

Actual brochure will be attached here


212

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Renato Junio Gabriel Jr. was born in Dagupan City and is residing

in the municipality of Bayambang in the province of Pangasinan. He

graduated in 2004 with a Bachelor’s Degree in Mass Communication from

San Sebastian College - Recoletos Manila. In 2008, he also graduated

Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Manila Central University in Caloocan

City. He then passed the Nurse Licensure Examination in 2009 with a

board rating of 81.60%. In 2015, he was also able to finish his 18 units of

Professional Education subjects at University of Perpetual Help System in

Malasiqui, Pangasinan and will be taking up the Licensure Examination for

Teachers this September 2019. He is currently employed as an Instructor

in Colegio de Dagupan and is about to finish his Master’s degree in

Development Communication this May 2019.