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PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SODIUM CARBONATE PLANT

Report Assignment 3

GROUP TK-15

GROUP PERSONNEL:
ARDINA AYU WULANDARI (1706104363)
BILQIS NUR FADHILAH (1606871341)
DAVID KRISTIANTO (1606908035)
MUHAMMAD DAFFA (1606907801)
YOHANES PANDU WICAKSONO (1606907814)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


ENGINEERING FACULTY
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
NOVEMBER 2019
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ii
LIST OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................... ii


LIST OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. iv
LIST OF TABLE ................................................................................................. iv
CHAPTER 1 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM .................. 1
1.1 Pipeline Spesification ............................................................................... 1
1.2 Utility Piping and Instrumentation Diagram ............................................ 1
1.3 Utility Control Tabulation ........................................................................ 1
1.4 Production Process Piping and Instrumentation Diagram ........................ 1
1.5 Production Process Control Tabulation .................................................... 1
CHAPTER II HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION ...................................................................................................... 2
2.1. Hazard Identification Study (HAZID) ..................................................... 2
2.2. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) ................................................. 2
2.3. Operational Details ................................................................................... 2
2.3.1. Commissioning ................................................................................. 2
2.3.2. Start-up Procedure............................................................................. 2
2.3.3. Shutdown Procedure ......................................................................... 2
2.4. Personal Protective Equipment ................................................................ 2
2.5. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) ........................................................ 2
2.6. Area Classification ................................................................................... 7
2.7. Emergency Action Plan ............................................................................ 9
2.7.1. Evacuation Procedures, Escape Routes, and Floor Plans ............... 10
2.7.2. Medical Emergency Plan ................................................................ 11
2.7.3. Fire Fighting Strategy ...................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.7.4. Emergency Operation Training ....................................................... 15
2.8. Waste Management ................................................................................ 18
2.8.1. Solid Waste ..................................................................................... 18
2.8.2. Liquid Waste .................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8.3. Gas Waste......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.8.4. Sound .............................................................................................. 19
CHAPTER III PLANT LAYOUT ..................................................................... 21
3.1. Plant Location ......................................................................................... 21
3.2. Plant Layout ........................................................................................... 21
3.2.1. General Consideration of Plant Layout ........................................... 21
3.2.2. Safe Range Between Equipment ..................................................... 21
3.2.3. Area Classification Layout .............................................................. 21
3.2.4. Overall 2D Plant Layout ................................................................. 21
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION.......................................................................... 22
REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 23

iii Universitas Indonesia


LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLE

iv
1 CHAPTER 1
PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

1.1 Pipeline Spesification


1.2 Utility Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
1.3 Utility Control Tabulation
1.4 Production Process Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
1.5 Production Process Control Tabulation

1
2 CHAPTER II
HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

2.1. Hazard Identification Study (HAZID)


2.2. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
2.3. Operational Details
2.3.1. Commissioning
2.3.2. Start-up Procedure
2.3.3. Shutdown Procedure
2.4. Personal Protective Equipment
2.5. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) (kurang appendix)
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains
information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and
how to work safely with the chemical product. It is an essential starting point for
the development of a complete health and safety program. It also contains
information on the use, storage, handling and emergency procedures all related to
the hazards of the material. The MSDS contains much more information about the
material than the label. MSDSs are prepared by the supplier or manufacturer of the
material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the product are, how to use the
product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what to do
if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure, and what to do if
such incidents occur.
There are nine (9) categories of information that must be present on an
MSDS. These categories are specified in the Controlled Products Regulations.
1. Product Information: product identifier (name), manufacturer and suppliers
names, addresses, and emergency phone numbers
2. Hazardous Ingredients
3. Physical Data
4. Fire or Explosion Hazard Data
5. Reactivity Data: information on the chemical instability of a product and the
substances it may react with
6. Toxicological Properties: health effects
7. Preventive Measures
8. First Aid Measures
9. Preparation Information: who is responsible for preparation and date of
preparation of MSDS
Traditionally the intended readers of MSDSs were occupational hygienists
and safety professionals. Now the audience also includes employers, workers,
supervisors, nurses, doctors, emergency responders and workers. To ensure that
MSDS users can quickly find the information that they need, the information should
be in an easy-to-read format and written in a clear, precise and understandable manner.
For most people who work with controlled products, there are some sections
that are more important than others. There are several procedures in understanding
MSDS, such as read the name of the chemical, know the hazards, understand safe
handling and storage instructions, as well as understand what to do in an emergency.
One of the requirements manufacturers have in supplying the chemicals is to
put a proper and complete label on the container, which provide information regarding
the hazards associated with using the material. There are two common symbols used
on labels to quickly provide information of the relative hazards of a material. One is
called the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) warning diamond, which
appears on the following figure.

Figure 1. 1. NPFA Warning Diamond

(Source: NPFA, 2014)


The other is the Hazard Materials Information System (HMIS) system, which
is previewed on the following figure. Both systems use numerical rating of hazards in
each of three colored sections (health, fire/flammability, and reactivity hazard).
Figure 1. 2. HMIS Labeling System

(Source: HMIS, 2014)


The classification of hazard based on NPFA uses numbers which span from
0 to 4, with the description listed below.
Table 1. 1. Hazard Classification

Hazard Type Number Description


0 No significant risk to health
1 Irritation or minor reversible injury possible.
2 Temporary or minor injury may occur.
Health
Major injury likely unless prompt action is taken
(Blue) 3
and medical treatment is given.
Life-threatening, major or permanent damage may
4
result from single or repeated overexposures.
0 Materials that will not burn.
Materials that must be preheated before ignition
1 will occur. Includes liquids, solids and semi solids
having a flash point above 200°F.
Fire/ Materials which must be moderately heated or
Flammability exposed to high ambient temperatures before
2
(Red) ignition will occur. Includes liquids having a flash
point at or above 100°F but below 200°F.
Materials capable of ignition under almost all
3 normal temperature conditions. Includes
flammable liquids with flash points below 73°F
and boiling points above 100°F, as well as liquids
with flash points between 73°F and 100°F.
Flammable gases, or very volatile flammable
liquids with flash points below 73°F, and boiling
4
points below 100°F. Materials may ignite
spontaneously with air.
Materials that are normally stable, even under fire
conditions, and will not react with water,
0
polymerize, decompose, condense, or self-react.
Non-explosives.
Materials that are normally stable but can become
unstable (self-react) at high temperatures and
1 pressures. Materials may react non-violently with
water or undergo hazardous polymerization in the
absence of inhibitors.
Materials that are unstable and may undergo
violent chemical changes at normal temperature
2 and pressure with low risk for explosion. Materials
Reactivity
may react violently with water or form peroxides
(Yellow)
upon exposure to air.
Materials that may form explosive mixtures with
water and are capable of detonation or explosive
reaction in the presence of a strong initiating
3 source. Materials may polymerize, decompose,
self-react, or undergo other chemical change
abnormal temperature and pressure with moderate
risk of explosion.
Materials that are readily capable of explosive
water reaction, detonation or explosive
4
decomposition, polymerization, or self-reaction at
normal temperature and pressure.
(Source: NPFA, 2014)
Table 1. 2. NFPA Parameter for Personal Protection

PERSONAL PROTECTION
OX Oxidizer: allows chemical to burn without air supply
₩ Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner
SA Simple asphyxiant gas (N2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe)
(Source: NFPA, 2014)
Table 1. 3. HMIS Parameter on Personal Protection

PERSONAL PROTECTION
A

J
K

L-Z Site-specific label. Information from supervisor or safety specialist for


handling instructions
(Source: NFPA, 2014)
The main substances involved in the plant include NH3, Brine and
limestone. The material safety data sheets are described in the appendix.
2.6. Area Classification
Area classification is a method of analyzing and classifying the environment
where explosive gas atmospheres may occur. The main purpose is to facilitate the
proper selection and installation of apparatus to be used safely in that environment,
taking into account the properties of the flammable materials that will be present.
DSEAR specifically extends the original scope of this analysis, to take into account
non-electrical sources of ignition, and mobile equipment that creates an ignition
risk.
Hazardous areas are classified into zones based on an assessment of the
frequency of the occurrence and duration of an explosive gas atmosphere, as
follows:
 Zone 0: An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present
continuously or for long periods;
 Zone 1: An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in
normal operation;
 Zone 2: An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur
in normal operation and, if it occurs, will only exist for a short time.
Various sources have tried to place time limits on to these zones, but none
have been officially adopted. The most common values used are:
 Zone 0: Explosive atmosphere for more than 1000h/yr.
 Zone 1: Explosive atmosphere for more than 10, but less than 1000 h/yr.
 Zone 2: Explosive atmosphere for less than 10h/yr, but still sufficiently
likely as to require controls over ignition sources.
Based on the overall look of the plant layout, therefore it can be showed the
zone classification as below. It is noted that the detail description of the plant layout
is discussed in the following section.

Fig xx. Process area classification

From the Figure xx, the are over the plan is classified by the process. Area 100 is
area for brine purification. Area 200 is area for filtration process, on this proces will
be seperate product from solvay process. Area 300 area for lime section procces,
which is the process consists of calcination, cooling, and mixing to produce CO2
and Ca(OH)2. Area 400 is area for NaHCO3 calcination using Rotary Drying to
produced Na2CO3. On this area also there is a ball mill that used to reducing size of
Na2CO3 product. And Area 500 is area for utilities, which the mainly process is
produced cooling water.
Fig xx. area classification

Figure xx is classified the area based on an assessment of the frequency of the


occurrence nd duration of an explosive gas atmosphere. it can be seen from the
figure xx, Area 400and area 500 are calssified into Zone 2, While, area 100 and
area 200 are classified into Zone 1. And 300 is very critical due to high pressure
processes with calcination process which its operate in very high temperatur, so that
it is classified into Zone 0.
2.7. Emergency Action Plan
An Emergency Action Plan (EAP) is a plan designed by coaches to assist
them in responding to emergency situations. The idea behind having such a plan
prepared in advance is that it will help you respond in a responsible and clear-
headed way if an emergency occurs. An EAP should be prepared for the facility or
site where you normally hold practices and for any facility or site where you
regularly host competitions. For away competitions, ask the host team or host
facility for a copy of their EAP.
An EAP can be simple or elaborate but should cover the following items:
1) Designate in advance who is in charge in the event of an emergency (this may
very well be you).
2) Have a cell phone with you and make sure the battery is fully charged. If this
is not possible, find out exactly where a telephone is located. Have spare
change in case you need to use a pay phone.
3) Have emergency telephone numbers with you (facility manager, fire, police,
ambulance, veterinarian) as well as contact numbers (parents/guardians, next
of kin, family doctor) for the participants.
4) Have a medical profile for each participant on hand so this information can
be provided to emergency medical personnel. Include a signed consent from
the parent/guardian to authorize medical treatment in an emergency in this
profile.
5) Prepare directions to provide to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to
enable them to reach the site as rapidly as possible. You may want to include
information such as the closest major intersection, one way streets, or major
landmarks.
6) Have a first aid kit accessible and properly stocked at all times (all coaches
are strongly encouraged to pursue first aid training).
7) Designate a “call person” (the person who contacts medical authorities and
otherwise assists the person in charge) in advance. Be sure that your call
person can give emergency vehicles precise instructions to reach your facility
or site.
When an injury occurs, an EAP should be activated immediately if the injured
person is not breathing, does not have a pulse, is bleeding profusely, has impaired
consciousness, has injured the back, neck or head, or has a visible major trauma to
a limb.
2.7.1. Evacuation Procedures, Escape Routes, and Floor Plans
In the event of an emergency, people need to respond quickly; knowing
where to go and how to get there is often an important part of a quick response.
Depending on the type of emergency, people will either need to exit the building as
quickly as possible or be prepared to navigate to a safer part of the building. It is
important each person knows exactly where to go in the event of an emergency. An
EAP should contain an up-to-date floor plan for the entire property. The floor plan
should include clearly marked evacuation routes and all emergency exits should be
easily identifiable. There are several categories of emergencies:
 Emergencies Within the Building
For emergencies occurring inside of the facility (e.g., fires, power outages,
etc.), the main goal is to get everyone out of harm way. To achieve this goal,
staff should be aware of the fastest and safest way out of the building.
 Emergencies Outside of the Building
In most cases, when an emergency starts outside of the building, the safest
thing to do is find a safe place within the building. Most often, emergencies
outside of the building will be weather-related or natural disasters.
 Health Emergencies
If someone inside of the building is injured or harmed in some way, an EAP
should be initiated quickly. Staff should be prepared to respond to a wide
range of plausible health scares such as a heart attack, seizure, possible
drowning and more.
2.7.2. Medical Emergency Plan
Whenever an employee or visitor is injured or develops a medical
emergency condition on plant property, follow the protocol below and notify your
immediate supervisor as soon as possible. Medical emergency instruction:
 Dial the plant infirmary and inform the nurse of emergency and its location
in the plant.
 If the nurse cannot be reached, dial emergency call, and inform any hospital
or fire department of the medical emergency. Give the dispatcher the nature
and location in the plant of medical emergency.
 Unless you have been designated by management to be a first aid responder,
do not provide first aid. Make the victim as comfortable as possible until
medical help arrives.
2.7.3. Emergency Alarm and Fire Fighting
The emergency plan must include a way to alert employees, including
disabled workers. Therefore alarm systems are installed to indicate the abnormal
conditions and problems of the plant and equipment to the operators, enabling them
to take corrective action and bring the plant/equipment back to normal conditions,
it provides warning for necessary emergency action and reaction time for safe
escape of employees. The alarm has to be distinctive and recognized by all
employees as a signal to evacuate the work area or perform actions identified in the
plan.
All of alarm which used for evacuation system has been meet the alarm
system standard from OSHA. Type of alarms which used in this plant:
a. Audible Alarm
Audible alarm serves as the first sign of emergency, it consists of horn and
sirens. Horns produce penetrating high ambient noise levels that is very loud
and distinctive sound that immediately attracts and draws attention. Horns
can be useful to call attention to critical situations. Signals other than those
used for evacuation purposes do not have to produce the temporal coded
signal. Thus, sirens produce a loud piercing wail that makes them ideally
suitable for initiating a site-wide evacuation.

Figure Audible Alarm


(Source: www.hughes-safety.com)
b. Visible Alarm
A visual alarm provides persons with hearing loss the same warning
delivered to hearing persons by an audible alarm. Visual alarms are flashing
lights used as fire alarm signals. The terms visual alarm signal, visible signal
device, and visible signaling appliance are used relatively interchangeably
within the fire protection community; the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA) calls them visual notification appliances.
Visual alarm with steady lights is well suited for areas where ambient noise
makes audible signals difficult to hear, for an example in area where the
compressor is in. These types of lights come with different colored covers
for increased attention and can be ordered with rotating or flashing lights.
Strobe lights use high intensity flash tubes that are ideally suited for areas
where high ambient light levels make traditional rotating or flashing lights
difficult to distinguish or where ambient noise makes audible signals
difficult to hear.

Figure xx Visible Alarm


(Source: http://www.eufireandsecurity.com)
For firefighting, the plant has some equipment installed such as light fire
extinguisher (APAR), hydrant, and safety shower. Firefighting equipment is
equipment designed to extinguish fires or protect the user from fire. It may be used
by trained fire fighters, untrained users at the scene of a fire, or built into a building's
infrastructure. Firefighting equipment should consider some parameter such as:
• Appointment of fire wardens with subsequent training
• Location of safety shower, fire hose, extinguisher and water sources
• Access for emergency services
• Provision of firewater lagoons
There are several important aspects in firefighting equipment, which are:
1. Fire Extinguisher
Fire extinguisher is the equipment that is used to extinguish the fire in small
scale using water, dry chemical powder, foam, carbon dioxide, or other
substances. It usually comes in portable form, used to reduce their
destruction before firefighters arrive at the scene. Fire extinguisher which
will be used in the plant is class B fire extinguisher. This type usually used
for flammable liquids and gases considering that some materials in the plant
are flammable.
Figure xx Fire Extinguisher
(Source: Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2014)
2. Fire Hydrant
A fire hydrant is a visible fixture placed inside or outside a building, parking
area, industrial area, mine, roadside, etc. that is connected to the municipal
or a private water service network. Fire hydrants are designed to instantly
provide the water required by fire fighters to extinguish a fire. The water is
pressurized water which flows through pipes and fire hose to extinguish the
fire.

Figure xx Fire Hydrant


(Source: oshonline.com)
3. Safety Shower and Eye Wash Station
Combination shower and eye-rinse stations is the proper emergency
equipment that can minimize workplace injuries and protecting employees.
The first 10 to 15 seconds after exposure to a hazardous substance,
especially a corrosive substance, are critical. Delaying treatment, even for a
few seconds, may cause serious injury. Emergency showers and eyewash
stations provide on-the-spot decontamination. They allow workers to flush
away hazardous substances that can cause injury. This equipment should
also provide a drainage system for the excess water and should not come
into contact with any electrical equipment that may become a hazard when
wet and should be protected from freezing when installing emergency
equipment outdoors. Whereas, an emergency blanket should be available
near the shower to prevent from shock and cover the place for removal of
clothes.

Figure xx Combination of Safety Shower and Eyewash Station


(Source: eyewashdirect.com)

2.7.4. Emergency Operation Training


The emergency procedures should include instructions for dealing with
fires, leaks, and spills. The procedure should describe how to:
• Raise the alarm and call the fire brigade;
• Tackle a fire or control spills and leaks (when it is safe to do so);
• Evacuate the site, and if necessary nearby premises.
• Handle medical emergency or offering first aid
2.7.4.1. Fire
These instructions consist of a four-step procedure that employees should
follow during a fire. This procedure must be memorized by all employees.
Experience has demonstrated that the best response to a plant fire is first, to
sound the alarm, then let others know there is a fire, then to combat the fire if
possible, and finally, to evacuate if necessary. The plan works best when
expressed as an easily recalled acronym, such as SAFE
• S – Sound the alarm
Sound it yourself or call out to someone else to sound it. This allows the fire
department to be on its way while other activities are being performed.
• A – Alert others
Quickly tell others in the area of the fire. Do this in a calm, firm manner. Do
not cause a panic. Secure the area for the fire department. Close all doors
and windows to prevent the spread of smoke and flames. Call security to
give verification and information about location of fire.
• F – Fight the fire
Do this only in the case of a manageable fire, one that you have the training
and experience to fight. For example, fire in a wastebasket. If possible, two
employees should fight the fire together using two fire extinguishers. If you
have any doubt about your ability, then do not attempt to combat it.
• E – Evacuate the area
If necessary, the burned are should be evacuated until the authorities come.
2.7.4.2. Chemical Spill
This procedure outlines the steps to manage a chemical spill in order to
minimise the potential for injury and damage to the environment. Emergency
rocedures should consider the immediate danger to persons and ensure effective
containment and clean up, appropriate disposal of waste material and
notification to all relevant authorities. For major spill, the procedure is as
follows:
• Do not touch any harmful substance. Take precautions to protect yourself if
necessary.
• Raise the alarm – evacuate persons not involved in contamination from the
area. Isolate contaminated individuals and treat as per MSDS. Isolate
affected persons and keep on site. If required, summon the First Aid Officer.
• Contact authorities such as Lab Manager or Safety Coordinator or nearest
building warden. Advise to notify Emergency Services if necessary.
• Close doors to prevent further contamination. Secure the area to keep non-
emergency response personnel away from danger.
• Assist the emergency response personnel and supply the Material Safety
Data Sheet/s if the chemical/s are known.
• In conjunction with expert assistance, minimize the spread of contamination
and commence decontamination/clean up procedures.
And for minor spill,
• Containment - spills must be cleaned up promptly and thoroughly.
• Approach with care - many harmful chemicals lack color or offensive odors.
Never assume that they are harmless.
• Identify the chemical/s and hazards involved – check Material Safety Data
sheet.
• Use the information on the physical and chemical properties of the material
to judge response and/or evacuation procedures.
• Decontaminate equipment, clothing and personnel, including any victims,
on site if necessary.
• Dispose of contaminated equipment and materials only after receiving
specialist advice.
• Ensure emergency procedures are in place and practiced
2.7.4.3. Gas Leak
When suspecting there are a gas leak, safety procedures are as follow:
• Avoid inhaling vapors and contact with liquid or gas.
• Turn off the supply also close the emergency shutdown valve (ESDV)
• Never operate any valves when being panic, because a wrong action
although just a simple action will cause to another new emergency situation
• Close the doors, windows or any gaps to block off the air vents if the leak is
near the building. It is done to prevent the gas from getting into the building.
• Move and evacuate the people upwind from the gas leak-area.
• Avoid any action which could generate smoke, such as smoking, turning is
the vehicle engine, etc.
• Immediately call the local fire station.
• If in doubt, evacuate the building and inform the police as well as the
National Gas Emergency Service or your gas supplier.
• Gather with others in the muster point nearby.
2.7.4.4. Accident of Equipment
When there is accident from equipment, safety procedures are as follow:
• Check whether there is any leakage or not
• Move people away from the area and gather in assembly point
• Call the brigade, police and also ambulance
2.7.4.5. Medical Emergency
The direction provided in these procedures is intended to create a
standard set of protocols whenever an employee or visitor is injured or develops
a medical emergency condition on plant property.
• Notify the Incident Management Team (IMT) or dial the plant infirmary and
inform the nurse of emergency and its location in the plant.
• If the nurse cannot be reached, dial emergency call, and inform any hospital
or fire department of the medical emergency. Give the dispatcher the nature
and location in the plant of medical emergency.
• Unless you have been designated by management to be a first aid responder,
do not provide first aid. Make the victim as comfortable as possible until
medical help arrives.

2.8. Waste Management


Industrial activities usually give a residue from processing which is called as
waste. Waste of processing in industry has to be handling well or else it may give
damage that affect environment or sustainability of production in plant.
Government gives boundary for every industrial plant to process their waste based
on Human Safety Environment. The waste have been classified based on the type
or phase, which are solid waste, gas waste, and sound (noise) waste. Management
for the waste will be explained below.
2.8.1. Solid Waste
There are two process for solid waste handling, the first one is total
dispersion, the second one is separation of the suspended solids and liquid
dispersion. In this plant solid waste is handled by Separation of suspended solids
and liquid dispersion process is using physical separation of solid and liquid phases.
The liquid waste will be brought to the settling pond and the suspended solid will
be achieved in settling ponds. The solid particles can be used to build up the walls
as the deposit in the basin accumulates. The aqueous can be collected and being
control for concentration checking and adjustment of pH. The typical value of pH
of aqueous effluent is higher than 11.5 due to the alkalinity of OH ions from
Ca(OH)2.
2.8.2. Sound
Sound is generated by rotating equipments. Operation of rotary tools in the
plant, such as pumps and compressor motors drive is a source of noise. The noise
level rotary tools are depending on the type of rotary tools, capacity, performance,
area and equipment operating effectiveness of treatment or preventive maintenance
programs are conducted. To reduce the noise level, performed regular maintenance
and replacing parts causing noise.
Noise not only damage the health of personnel, can also damage to the
mechanical system on the appliance. To reduce the noise level, performed regular
maintenance and replacing parts causing noise. Workers need to use ear plugs if
they’re entering the plant area. Tools such as damper can be applied for equipments
or tools that can generate noise.
The noise standards set by the Ministry of Health is 60-70 dB and according
to the Ministry of Manpower Decree No. Kep.51/MEN/1999, the TLV (Threshold
Limit Value) for noise hazard is 85 dBA. Noise level exceeding the limit can cause
disorder includes physiological and psychological disorder. To overcome those
disorders, control of noise is needed by following procedures:
 Eliminate noise transmission to workers. To eliminate or reduce the
transmission of noise to do with insulation workers labor or machinery is to
shut down or isolate the machine or equipment that emits noise. Basically
to cover the noisy machines are as follows: Close the engine as close as
possible, rework the doors and all the holes are acoustic. If necessary, isolate
the machine from the floor to reduce vibration propagation.
 Eliminate the noise from the sound source. Eliminating noise from the
sound source can be done by putting the marinade in a vibration source.
Providing protection to employees. Efforts to protect employees from noise in the
work environment can be applied by wearing ear protection devices or personal
protective equipment, in the form of ear plugs and ear muffs.
3 CHAPTER III
PLANT LAYOUT

3.1. Plant Location


3.2. Plant Layout
3.2.1. General Consideration of Plant Layout
3.2.2. Safe Range Between Equipment
3.2.3. Area Classification Layout
3.2.4. Overall 2D Plant Layout
4 CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

23