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OCTOBER 8, 2019
1. Mode of transmission of leptospirosis
- Leptospira is transmitted primary through contact of skin wah water, moist soil or
vegetation contaminated with the urine of infected animals.
- The infection may also be transmitted through direct contact with urine or tissues of
infected animals or by inhalation of aerosols of contaminated fivids, such as may
occur in abattoirs. Ingestion of foods contaminated with urine of infected rats is an
occasional route of infection.

2. Mode of transmission of botulism (clastridium botulinum)

- Foodborne botulism is acquired ingestion of inadequately cooked food or processed
or refrigerated foods in which toxin had formed, particularly canned & alkaline foods.
- Sources of spores include soil & foods such as honey. Honey has been described in
the US literature as a source of infection, but has never been implicated in Australia
& surveys of Australian honey have failed to identify clostridium botulinum.
- Most causes of wound botulism are due to ground-in-soil or gravel, several causes
have been reported among drug user.

3. Mode of transmission of Jock itch and ringworm

- The fungus that causes Jock itch can be easily spread between people. Sexual contact
& skin-to-skin contact can spread the fungus from the groin area to other body parts
& trigger infections elsewhere.

Ringworm or Tinea

- Direct transmission occurs through human to human contact

- Tinea can also be transmitted indirectly through contaminated soil.

4. Mode of transmission of gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhocae)

- Gonorrhea is transmitted by contact with exudates from mucous membranes of
infected people. Almost always as the result of sexual activity/
- Conoccal conjunctivitis can occur in neonates who have contact with the mother’s
infected birth canal during child birth.

5. Mode of transmission of Anemia

- Exposure occurs through either direct or indirect contact
DIRECT TRANSMISSION: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted directly from an
infected individuals.
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION: Occurs when an inanimate objects serves as a
temporary reservoir for the infections agent.
6. Mode of transmission of Pneumonia
- Mycobacterium pneumonia spread from person to person. People without symptoms
may carry the bacteria in their nose or throat at one time or another.
- People spread mycobacterium pneumonide by coughing or sheezing, which creates
small respiratory droplets in the air that contain the bacteria. Other people then
breathe in the bacteria.

7. Mode of transmission of diarrhea

- Most of the pathogenic organisms that cause diarrhea and all the pathogens that are
known to be major causes of Diarrhea are transmitted primary & exclusively by the
- Faeco-oral transmission may be waterborne, foodborne, or direct transmission which
implies an array of other faeco-oral routes such as via fingers, or fomites or dirt
which may be ingested by young children.
- The main modes of transmission for most diarrheal diseases are by ingestion of
contaminated food & water.

8. Mode of transmission of typhoid fever

- Fecal-oral transmission route, the bacteria that causes typhoid fever spread through
contaminated food or water & occasionally through direct contact with someone who
is infected.
- Most causes result from contaminated drinking water & poor sanitation the majority
of people in industrialized countries pick-up typhold bacteria while traveling &
spread it to others through the fecal-oral route.
- Salmorella typhs is passed in the feces & sometimes in the urine of infected people.