Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

A REPORT

ON

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BOILERS

BY

NISHANT ASHAR 2017A1PS0203U CHEM

AT

ECOMAR ENERGY SOLUTION


FUJAIRAH,UAE

A Practice School – I Station of

BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus


Dubai International Academic City (DIAC)
Dubai, U.A.E

(JUNE 2019 - JULY 2019)


A REPORT

ON

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BOILERS

BY

NISHANT ASHAR 2017A1PS0203U CHEM

Prepared in Partial Fulfillment of the


Practice School – I Course

AT

ECOMAR ENERGY SOLUTION


FUJAIRAH,UAE

A Practice School – I Station of

BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus


Dubai International Academic City (DIAC)
Dubai, U.A.E

(JUNE 2019 - JULY 2019)


BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dubai International Academic City (DIAC)


Dubai, U.A.E

Station: ECOMAR ENERGY SOLUTION Location:FUJAIRAH


Duration: 02-Jun-2019 to 31-Jul-2019 Date of Start: 02-Jun-2019
Date of Submission: 30-Jun-2019
Title of the Project: Improvimg energy efficiency of Boilers
Student Name: NISHANT ASHAR Student ID: 2017A1PS0203U
Discipline of Student: Chemical Engineering
Name and Designation of Experts: Mr George Kassidakis Mr Giri Prasad
(General Manager) (Senior Process Engineer)
Name of the Faculty: Suhel Ahmad Khan
Key Words: Crude Oil , Vapours , Heat Exchangers, Interchangers, Pumps , Boilers
Project Areas: Understanding functions of boilers and optimizing its use

Abstract: A closed vessel in which various types of fluid such as water are heated is called a boiler .It
is not necessary for fluid to boil. (The term "furnace" is often used if the objective is not actually to boil the
fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes
including central heating, or heating applications, boiler-based power generation,.
As the amount of file gas in the preheater is increased as well as increase in the economiser
too the overall temperature of the boiler increases which results in better efficiency of
boiler.We shall discuss ways to achieve maximum efficiency in the boiler by increasing the
amount of flu gas in economiser and preheater.

Signature of the Student Signature of PS Faculty


Date: 30-Jun-2019 Date: 30-Jun-2019
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Signature of the Student


Date: 30-Jun-2019
CONTENTS
Abstract
Acknowledgement
Table of contents
List of Figures
List of tables
Chapter 1 Introduction to Ecomar
1.0
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………......1
1.1Breifings Of Knowledge And Information About
Ecomar…………………………………………..2
1.2Benefits
received………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Chapter 2 An Overview Of Boilers
2.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………...4
2.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE .........................................................................…………………………….5
2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF
BOILERS……………………………………………………………………......6
2.3.1 IMPROTANT BOILERS………………………………………………………....9
2.3.1.1 COCHRAN BOILERS……………………………………………………....9
2.3.1.2 LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS………………………………………………...10
2.3.1.3LANCASHIRE BOILERS…………………………………………………..11
2.3.1.4BABCOCK WILCOX BOILERS…………………………………………..13
2.3.1.5HYDRONIC BOILERS……………………………………………………..14
Chapter 3 Various Reasons For Decrease In Efficiency
3.1 SEAL
LEAKAGE…………………………………………………………………………………………..15
3.2EFFECTS OF SEAL
LEAKAGE…………………………………………………………………………..15
3.3Low Heat
Transfer………………………………………………………………………………………....16
3.4Remidies…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…..16
3.5Major Heat Loses In Boiler
Chapter 4 PERFORMANCE OF AIR PREHEATER
4.1 PERFORMANCE
CALCULATION ………………………………………………………………………. 18
4.2 RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS ………………………………………………………………………….18
Chapter 5
5.1
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
9
5.2 Future
scope………………………………………………………………………………………………..19

References ....................................
…............................................................. 20
Chapter -1
Ecomar

1.0 Introduction
ECOMAR Energy Solutions FZC intends to build a Petroleum Regeneration and
Processing facility at a proposed plot area of ~55,000 m² in Fujairah, United Arab
Emirates. The facility shall comprise a ‘Process Unit’ (Topping Column) and ‘Storage
Unit’ (herein after referred to as “Storage Terminal”) for several classes of products.
Facility in two phases, namely phase-1 & phase-2. The scope of phase-1 shall be as
below:
a) Atmospheric distillation unit (of approximate capacity 7500 BPD)
b) Storage terminal (of approximate working capacity 91,000 cubic meters)
c) Associated utility & safety systems
The scope of phase-2 shall be as below:
a) Storage tanks (of approximate working capacity 45,000 cubic meters)

1
1.1Briefings Of Knowledge And Information About Ecomar

The Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Dubai, grants us an opportunity to do


internship at Practice School station. The Practice School station we have been
allotted is Ecomar Energy Solutions, Fujairah.

Ecomar Energy Solutions is a Crude Oil refining company that intends to facilitate the
process of oil refining while, conserving energy and resources. The company gives utmost
importance to the safety of the people working at the facility and the environment that would
be affected by the refining process.

Due to this philosophy, they put maximum attention towards testing and simulating their
systems before operating them. Doing so, helps to minimize any potential risks by identifying
them in the initial stages. The facility is still in it’s construction phase and is not yet
operational. Hence, testing and assessment of the facility occur at a daily basis.

The General Manager of this company is Mr. George Kassidakis. He supervises all the
activities of the company and keeps all the company function in check. Mr. D.
Chattopadhyay, is the HSSE Manager and he is the overall in-charge of the safety of the
employees, the facility and the surroundings. The Senior Process Engineer, Mr. Giri Prasad
supervises and leads a team of engineers and helps them in the construction and the operation
of the facility.

Given the immensity and vastness of the plant, people from various disciplines are employed.
For different functions, we have engineers from different courses and disciplines. Thus, it is
safe to assume that working under such a diverse environment give excellent insight into the
work of different engineering streams.

2
And… the emphasis on the safety of the plant, helps in understanding the importance of
safety and its requirements.

1.2 The Benefits we receive

The greatest benefit we could have by working over here, is the experience we get. Working
in such a challenging environment and seeing our in-charges cope with the pressure and the
complexity of the plant and the operations, helps us prepare ourselves for the future. There is
a lot of difference between practical knowledge and bookish knowledge and Ecomar Energy
Solution is the best place to realize that.

A refinery is not just about engineering. There is a lot more that goes on, in between the lines.
If so many engineers from so many different disciplines have to work together, proper
organization and proper co-operation is very important. Their comfort and requirements have
to be taken care of, to achieve an efficient rate of work. Thus, we also learn about
managements of human resources and the management of finances. We meet a lot of different
people. For good progress at work, we need to have good communication skills as well. At
practice school, we learn about these important things that we could have never learned by
reading a book.
There is something very unique about this practice school session. Unlike other workplaces
that are functional, this is a facility that is still under construction. To put things into
perspective, building a machine and then operating it, is a lot more complex than driving a
car that was already built. Thus, we have the rare opportunity of seeing a company under
construction.

This is very important, because, we need to set a target as to how we want the facility to
function, and we also need to a target to make sure that it happens. And, it is also worth
noting, that the people of Ecomar Energy Solutions, Fujairah, do not wish to make a normal
refinery. They are trying to make an Energy efficient and an Eco-friendly refinery.

So, there is an even greater effort in making this refinery operate properly. The expertise
required to execute such task is unprecedented. Because, once the refinery starts working, it
will be operational for at least 30 – 40 years. Hence the decision making and the proper
testing of all the equipment is very necessary.

And, as for the equipment, every thing is used, from complex computers to fired boilers to
distillation columns. Everything has to integrated with each other very intricately. Even small
mistakes could be very harmful for the company. Meanwhile, only concentrating on the
operation and not considering the environment could be detrimental to the environment. Thus
everything has to work in a proper balance.

Therefore, the proper balance of so many different factors, the co-ordination of so many
different specialized workers, the care for the environment, the intricate testing and

3
simulations, together make the experience at Ecomar Energy solutions, Fujairah a wonderful
one. And this experience is certainly one of the best things I could have asked for.

Chapter – 2
An Overview Of Boilers

2.1 Introduction
The boiler or the steam generator is an fundamental component of a steam engine
when considered as a chief mover. However it needs be treated distinctly, as to
some extent as various types of generator can be combined with a various type of
engine units. In order to generate heat by burning the fuel the boiler includes firebox
or the furnace.The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the
process of boiling. By varying the pressure above the boiling point we can control
the production of saturated steam. The rate of production of steam can be increased
by increasing the temperature above the furnace. The saturated steam thus produced
can
then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may
be
further superheated to a higher temperature; this henceforth reduces suspended
contents in the steam and hence given volume of steam is able to do more work or
to produce superheated steam, which helps reduce the potential to
form condensation. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can then either be
evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, whose role is to heat up the feed
water before it enters into boilers. Boilers are being seen too often in many of the places
due to thoier possitive sides such as they have very long lifte time and are mainly
used for the heating purpose.They are very effective and their efficiency range from
around ninty five percent or more however they too have a negative side too suvch
as their fuel consumption level is considerably high and if they are not takern care
and serviced their fuel consumption level increase by around ten percent

4
2.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE

To heat the water controlled combustion of fuel is used in both gas and oil boilers.
The main parts of the system are a place to start ignition, place where burning of the
resource takes place, place to have the enegry released as desired and ways to
tranfer heat from the chamber

5
The boiler provides a room to merge the resource and the air and with the aid of the
burning device starts the process of firing. This firing takes place where burning of
resource takes place as a result heat which is made is transferred to liquid through
the heat transfer chamber. Place where energy is generated as desired regulates all
the other parameters like the resource consumption burning level amount of air and
so on. Hot liquid which is produced is transferred to various units and coils of the
plant and finally convinces at the ending unit. Steam which is generated by the plant
is transferred from areas of greater pressure to the areas of lower pressure without
aid of any equipments such as pumps. The steam which is generated can be used
for various purposes such as increasing the temperature of the building through
various increasing temperature equipments or can also be used to run turbine and
generate electricity. Various types of boilers and their design and working are
discussed below in this report

2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS

Boilers are classified according certain condition. Following figure shows


classification of boiler

The two main types of boilers are-

1)Firetube-In this type of boiler various hot steam produced by heating of resources
which flows through the pipes is enclosed by the liquid

2)Watertube-In this type of boiler liquid flows through the pipes and it is enclosed by
hot steam produced by heating of resources

Another main type of boiler which is used in various private enterprise for increasing
the temperature is cast iron sectional boiler. The special thing about these types of
boilers is that they do not have any types of ducts. Instead they have special
transverse through which liquid burning takes place. The ferrious castings are
combined together like that of an ancient steam radiators. The parts are locked
together by a ring for packing pistons. They are available for producing hot air our
liquids with a very vast size capacity like 35k or 14000k British thermal units. There
are many benefits of these types pf boilers like they can be easily mustered and can
be transported through small places very easily. There are certain downside to these
boilers too like as they are locked by ring for packing pistons they is very high
probability for them to discharge due to exposure ring ages and they are exposed to
fumigant substances of the boilers.

6
Wo r k i n g P r e s s u r e a n d Te m p e r a t u r e

Boilers are mainly made under the guidance of ASME Boilers and Pressure
requirements
and are mainly classified into two categories-
1)Low-pressure boiler
2)High pressure boiler

Low-pressure boilers are restricted to the paramount running temperature of 15


pound force per square inch gauge. Most of these boilers are used in households for
rising the temperature.

High-pressure boilers are the boilers used for running above the paramount
temperature of low-pressure boilers and are mainly used for the generation of power
in industries. These boiler4s have running criteria for liquids at as high as 250oF.

7
F u e l Ty p e

One of the most commonly used resource for private enterprice is natural gas due to
its several benefits such as it is bought at a very cheap rate has a good performance
and is in abundant. Some boilers are map outed and made in such a way that they
can warm up more than one resource typically natural gas and oil. The benefit of
such boilers is that they have dual resource so technically they never run out of
resource and also when there is shortage of one resource they can run on the other
alternate resource available.Thus when one of the resource rates goes high it uses
the alternate resource and hence it helps in cutting out the costs.
Other main type of boilers used are electric boilers. Electric boilers are noiseless
easy to install and require a very small place.They are mainly used by industries who
have been restricted by the emmissions.They have large operating size capacity and
offer a very good effiency of 92% or above

Draft Methods

There is a pressure difference created between the place where burning of


resources take place and the flue. This pressure difference in turn creates a force
called draft which carries the products from the burning of resource to the flue
through the boiler. There are boilers with natural draft which rely on natural flotation
of the warm gases through which they carry the products of burning of resources to
the flue and is also responsible for supplying fresh air to the place of burning of
resources The pressure difference can be created manually which is called mauel
draft boiler in which there is a fan which provides induced higher and lower pressure

Size and Capacity

Large single boilers are typically replaced by Modular boilers which are small in
size and capacity and perform several tasks separately performed by a large single
boiler.These modular boilers are small and compact such that they can be easily
transported through standard door ways ,elevators,as well as staircase

The boilers can be arranged according to variety of permutations


and combinations to maximize the space available to them.
Modular boilers can be directed according to the need of the
b u r n i n g w e i g h t t o u t i l i z e i t s e ff i c i e n c y a c c o r d i n g l y.

8
Condensing Method

Ancient hot liquid boilers work without cooling the vapours that come out of flue gas
which is the most fundamental part as it helps in prevention of its important
components of the boiler. There are other type of boilers called condensing boilers
which work at a lower mercury level than the ancient how liquid boilers which causes
the product gases to be cooled down which allows the condensing boiler to extract
extra energy which thus increases its performance. Some times while cooling the
vapours some gases dissolve in the vapours and thus when they cool down the form
carbonic acids. Thus this needs to be neutralised by adding extra furmigant
substances or the boilers need to be made of corrosive free material

Condensing boilers have a much higher effectiveness of eighty eight percent and
higher than that of ancient hot liquid boilers who have the effectiveness of seventy
five percent

2.3.1 Important Boilers

2.3.1.1 COCHRAN BOILER

9
1)These types of boilers are very closely packed and require minimum ground
space.

2)These type of boilers are compactible with any type of resources

3)They are well opted with restricted space capacities

4)They give high effectiveness of seventy to seventy five percent

Advantages

a) To make sure that water is distributed evenly throughout the tubes which are
entering the boiler are made up of multiple uniformly distributed holes

b) Keeping up of these types of boilers is very easy

c) It has a large higher temperature surface area in contact per unit extensiveness
which is quite considerable

10
d) This type of boiler is highly favorable where large quantity of warm liquid is
needed. This in term helps in meeting changing demands of the customer.

e) With the addition of device which makes it more effective and ultra heater they
make the boiler effectiveness increase to about eighty to eighty five percent

1.3.1.2 LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS

Parallel burning type movable boilers are called locomotive boilers. These type of
boilers are used where there is an elevated or great requirement of the steam
production. For the production of steam at an elevated rate there needs to be a large
burning area and also needs large area for the resource to burn at a swift rate. In
order to provide more burning surfaces there are large number of heating ducts are
attached and to maintain high level of warmth energy exchange there are steam
guns been set up

Advantages

a) The main benefit of this boiler is that it produces steam at an gallant rate per unit
space of the boiler. This is partly due to the quake caused due to the movement

b) It is free of many construction materials (sun dried clay) has unique foundations
and materials like chimney. This reduces the overall cost of assembling and setting
up the boiler

c) It is very closely packed

11
2.3.1.3 LANCASHIRE BOILER

It is an immobile , heated from inside , parallel , natural passage boiler. This boiler is
used vastly in many industries because of its gallant generation of steam and as it
has large burning area for resource it burns resource at a swift rate. In this type of
boielr the external part is used for heating as it is made up of bricks. It has two big
internal flue ducts and is in cylindrical in shape with length varying upto tem meters.

12
Advantages

a) The feed duct entering into the boiler is made up of holes to ensure even
distribution of the liquid

b) Its burning surface per unit space is fairly higher

c) Its preservation and servicing is easy

d) It is more worthy when there is big demand for warm liquid needed.The boiler due
to its large capacity can easly meet changing demands.

e) Ultra-heaters and energy effective devices can be easly installed in this type of
boilers and hencefort increase its effectiveness by eighty to eighty five percentage

13
2.3.1.4 BABCOCK WILCOX BOILER

a) The boiling capacity of these types of boilers are comparatively better than other
types of boilers(around forty thousand kilograms per hour) The working pressure lies
between eleven point five to seventeen point five bar for these type of boilers

b) The liquid loss in these type of boilers are comparatively smaller than other types
of boilers

c) The worn out ducts can be easily replaced

d) The entire structure on which the boiler is built and made to rest on is made up of
ferrous material so that it can increase and decrease its size accordingly

14
2.3.1.5 HYDRONIC BOILERS

Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes.
They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses in.
Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes.
They are the typical power plant for systems fitted to houses in northern (where
they are commonly combined with domestic water heating), as opposed to the forced-
air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common in N o r t h America. The hydronic boiler
operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the
case of single pipe systems, until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid
throughout the home typically by way
of radiators, baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be heated by any
means...gas,wood, fuel oil, etc., but in built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is
currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an
enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a pump. The name "boiler"
can be amisnomer in that, except for systems using steam radiators, the water in a
properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Some new systems are fitted with
condensing boilers for greater efficiency. These boilers are referred to as condensing
boilers because they are designed to extract the heat of vaporization of the flue gas
water vapor. As a result of the lower flue gas temperatures, flue gas water vapor
condenses to liquid and with dissolved carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid. The
carbonic acid would damage a typical boiler by corroding the flue and fireside boiler
heating surfaces. Condensing boilers solve this problem by routing the carbonic acid
down a drain and by making the flue exposed to the corrosive flue gas of stainless steel or PVC.
Although condensing boilers are becoming more popular, they are still less common
than other types of hydronic boilers as they are more expensive.

15
CHAPTER 3
Various Reasons For Decrease In Efficiency
3.1 SEAL LEAKAGE
To reduce the escaping of unnecessary resources between air side and gas side of the pre-
warmer both sides of the pre-warmer are provided with the seal. The seal components are
provided with a unique corrosive repellant material called corton steel .The gas escapes in
soo many ways from the flue gas like through the radii or through the edges present.
The seal leakage is caused due to various reasons. If there is the highest pressure is on the
upmost part of the component than the other three steams then there is a chance of air
leakage from the topmost section to the bottom section side.There is also chance of direct air
leakage from the bottom section side. The air leakage from topmost side to the bottom side is
simply due to transfer of pressure from topmost origin to the bottom origin. The leakage leads
to exit of the air which simply reduces its supply for the burning of resources and reduces
oxygen

3.2 EFFECTS OF SEAL LEAKAGE

If there is increase in seal leakage at hot end-


1)There would be a drastic enhancement in the amount of power consumed in FD
and PA fans
2)There would be reduction of temperature of gas vents
3)There would be enhancement of power in ID fans

If there is increase in seal leakage at cold end-


1)There is reduction in flue gas vent temperature
2)Enhancement in power consumption in PA and FA fans
3)Enhancement in power usage by ID fans.

3.3 Low Heat Transfer

Orbital turn around the axial of the air pre-warmer is one the main reasons for the
reduction in heat transfer efficiency. The air pre-warmers have relatively low surface
area for the heating components. There is a direct relation between the area
available for heating and the efficiency of heat transfer. The aging of the components
and hence erosion lowers the heat transfer efficiency. Even the accumulation of
minute dust particles on the components reduces the heat transfer efficiency. Hence
it is must to clean it up by making it in contact with steam. Poor conductivity results in
high flue gas vent temperature and low air vent temperature which is major cause of
reducing efficiency

16
3.4Remedies

1)The thickness of the component can be reduced by thirty percent during the
reconditioning period

2)When there is a situation such as component height starts getting lower exchange
hot end basket with between baskets

3)To increase heat transfer by using double flow basket on the cooler end

3.5Major Heat Loses In Boiler

The followiung mentioned percentage of losses has been calibrated from the
reading taken from a two hundred and ten mega watt boiler by using the accurate
formulae and the immediate efficiency has been confirmed

17
The dried and moisten losses are the losses which have a direct relation with the flue
gas vent mercury level. Henceforth by lowering the flue gas vent temperature after
air pre-warmer the boiler efficiency can be enhanced. The air pre-warmer vent
temperature is guided by flue gas vent temperature to air pre-warmer, air vent
temperature to air pre-warmer thermal temperature of air pre-warmer and air pre-
warmer seal leakage

CHAPTER 4
4.1Performance Calculation

18
APH gas side efficiency is enough to determine the performance of APH and is the
only one ratio required for pratical purpose

4.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

It can be concluded that the overall effectiveness increases slowly as heat transfer in
the air pre-warmer between flue gas and air entering increases. From the following
figure it is clear that boilers effectiveness increases as the flue gas vent temperature
reduces.

Boiler efficiency increases by 1% by reduction of flue gas temperature by 22c which


is hence proved

19
CHAPTER 5
5.1 CONCLUSION

In recent days there has been a vast enhancement in demands in maximizing the
effectiveness of boilers due to many reasons such as increase in demand for
electricity for industrial distillation of oil etc. Therefore thesis of maximizing the
effectiveness of the boilers is gaining vast attention in the power industrial units.
Absolute development for the best possible control system for boiler is like playing
with mathematical static and dynamic variables and developing an idea for
maximizing the effectiveness of boilers through these mathematical models

5.2 FUTURE SCOPE

Knowledge and information can be used in the design of new energy systems and
for increasing the efficiency of existing systems and optimizing the use of future
boilers

20
REFRENCES

1)Boiler Operator’s Guide(Anthony L. Kohan)

2) Boiler Operator(Wayne Smith)

3)www.scrib.com

4)www.researchgate.com

5)www.sciencedirect.com

21