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Submitted To;- Submitted By;

Dr. Mohammad Mazid Kunwar Amar Pratap
(Botany Teacher) Singh Chauhan
B.Sc. (ZBC) 1st year
I would like to express my special thanks of
gratitude to my Botany teacher
“Dr. Mohammad Mazid” who gave me the
golden opportunity to do this wonderful project
on the topic “Angiosperms” , which also helped
me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know
about so many new things
I am really thankful to them.
Secondly i would also like to thank my parents
and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this
project within the limited time.

I am making this project not only for marks but

to also increase my knowledge .
Angiosperm (Greek Angeon = vessel, Sperma = seed) fruit bearing plants.

 General characteristics :-

1. The angiosperms are the flowering plant which makes dominant present
day vegetation.
2. They are most abundant and conspicuous with about 2,50,000 different
3. They are most recently highly evolved plants which appeared on earth in
cretaceous period of Mesozoic era.
4. They bear their seeds enclosed inside the fruit and have the sporophylls
organized into flowers.
5. The plant body is a sporophyte, differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
6. Xylem contains vessels, tracheids, parenchyma and fibers.
7. Phloem possesses sieves tubes and companion cells.
8. The leaves show reticulate or parallel venation.
9. The flowers are the reproductive organs which are formed by aggregation
of sporophylls.
10. Both microsporophylls and megasporophylls are specialized.
Microsporophyll takes the forms of a stamens and the megasporophyll are
specialized to form gynoecium consisting of ovary, style and stigma.
11. The gametophyte is reduced and dependent upon the sporophyte.
12. The female gametophyte is highly reduced. It consists of a single egg, two
synergids, three antipodals and two polar nuclei. The archegonia is totally
13. The male gametophyte developing by the germination of pollen grain has
the pollen tube. The pollen tube acts as a sperm carrier.
 Habit and Habitat :-

Angiosperms or flowering plants constitute the

largest, the dominant and the economically most
important class in the plant kingdom. They include
trees, shurbs, vines and herbs adapted to almost every
kind of environment. They are primarily land plants
but some hydrophytes (Hydrilla, water lilies etc.) have
taken water secondarily and even ocean water (eel
grass, Zostera).

Many angiosperms are xerophytes. They bloom in

deserts also after the shower. They may behave as
ephemerals in deserts. During short favorable
seasons, they grow, flower and shed seeds. Some have
become epiphytes (plants growing on other plants but
do not take food and water from them) as orchids etc.
Few act as parasites (Cusuta), some are saprophytes
(coral root orchid). One species of angiosperms has
been noticed in hot springs at 60*C. Still others grow
at high altitude of 6000 meters in Himalayas. Some
have been reported even at Antarctica.
 Development of flower and fruit habitat:-

In angiosperms the reproductive structures are produced

in flowers. Therefore they are called as the flowering
plants. The flower is basically the modified shoot or a
branch, where the stem is condensed to form the pedicel
and thalamus and the foliage leaves. The flower
represents a shoot of limited growth. It has a considerably
a long internodes at the base appearing in the form of a
pedicel and condensed nodes presents on the thalamus or
torus. The latter bear four types of structure in whorls the
sepals, peats, stamens and carpels. Sepals and petals
represent the sterile floral leaves. The petals are usually
coloured, showy and help in attracting the insects or other
animals for pollination. The group of stamens are called as
the androecium.
They form the third floral whorl which represents the male
reproductive organs. Each stamen is a special
microsporophyll bearing microspores in microsporangia. A
stamen has a narrow stalk called anther. The anthers are
usually bilobed or ditheceous and contain four
microsporangia or pollen sacs microsporogenesis take
place microsporangia or pollen sacs with the results
micropores or pollen sacs with the result micropores or
pollen grains are produced.

Transfer of the micropores or the pollen from

microsporongium or anther to receptive part of
megasporophyll or the stigma is called pollination. This
pollen transfer occurs only by wind (anemophily) in
gymnosperm. While in angiosperm the pollination may be
carried out, in addition to wind by the no. of different
agencies e.g., by water (hydrophily), by insects
(entemophily), by birds (ornithophily), by bats
(cheiropterophily) and even by human beings in
angiosperms anemophily occurs only in few cases. In most
of the plant pollination affected by animals. Insects
outnumber all other animals as pollinators. Among insects
too bees pollinate a wide variety of flowers even a
different type of environment. The evidences indicate that
the bees evolved about 130 millions years ago along with
the flowering plant pollinated by bees side by side.

After the fertilization the zygote develops into embryo,

embryo sac become endosperm, the ovule mature into
seed and the ovary containing seed ripen into fruit.
 Classification of Angiosperms:-

The angiosperms have been broadly classified into two-classes:-

1:- Dicotyledonae (dicotyledonous plants) and,

2:- Monocotyledonae (monocotyledonous plants)

The two are commonly spoken as the dicots and the monocots.

1- Dicotyledones:-
These are the angiospermic plants with the following characteristics

 They have two cotyledons lateral to plumule in embryo.

 Flowers are pentamerous or tetramerous.
 Leaves are not veined (reticulate venation) with a few exceptions
example, calophyllum.
 They have a tap root system primarily.
 In stem the cortex is narrow pith in wide which in roots the cortex is wide
and the pith is very narrow or even absent.

2- Monocotyledones:-
These are the angiospermic plants with the following characteristics

 They have embryo with single cotyledons which is terminal with

plumule lateral.
 The flowers are trimerious (floral parts in sets of three or its multiples).
 Leaves shows parallel venation with a few exception e.g., smilex and
colocasia etc.
 Primary roots short-lived. There is no tap root system and instead
adventitious roots are formed.
 Examples – cereals, bamboos.
 Alternation of generation and types of life cycles:-

Holfmeister (1891) use this term for the first time in

plant. He could appreciate this natural by observing
life cycle of ferns where two generations are crystal
clear, free living and morphologically different.
Although he never knew the cytological status of two
generations but after the discovery of chromosomes in
1875 and subsequent cytological progress we are
familiar with diploid nature of sporophyte and haploid
nature of gametophyte.
In the life cycle of every plant to cytologically distinct
generation alternate with each other. Haplophase
represents gametophytic generation while diplophase
represents sporophytic generation meiosois and
syngamy plays key role of bringing haplophase and
restoring diplophase.

A careful study of the figure 16.1 clarifies the status of

two generation in the kingdom plantae and provide an
insight to understand how during the course of
evolution gametophytic generation which is longest in
the simpler aquatic forms like ulothrix and spirogyra
have under gone reduction while sporophytic
generation which is represented by a single called
Zygospore in Ulothrix and Spirogyra like forms have
progressed to become main plant body in
pteridophytes and then in seed plants the sporophytic
generation is longest.
 Economic Importance of Angiosperms :-

From early times angiosperms are meeting the basic

necessities of man, i.e. from, clothing, shelter, etc.
Between 12,000 – 10,000 years ago groups of people
gradually changed from a hunter gatherer lifestyle to
an agricultural way of life. They began to domesticate
plants, consciously planting seeds and then tending
and harvesting the crop that can be used as food.
Plants directly or indirectly provide all the food we eat.

Most of the calories in our diet comes from cereals

such as Wheat, Rice and Corn, as well as Potatoes,
Bananas, etc. Cereals provide much dietary
carbohydrates and the seeds of legumes such as beans
are rich in protein. Cereals and legumes have different
types of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins,
so eating two foods together provide a good balance
of nutrients.

Plants are the major source of medicines. For certuries

humans have used plants for their medicinal
properties. Today nearly half of all prescription drug
contain chemicals manufactured by plants and many
drugs contain compounds that were synthesized in a
laboratory but it modeled after plant derived

Plants are also important source of paper, fibers,

beverages, dyes, timber, fuel, spices, etc.
To make this project, I have taken source from the
following books;-
Modern Botany (By- Dr. M.P. Kaushik)
a b c of biology (By- Dr. B.B. Arora)
I have taken source from internet too for
pictures, and taken help of our botany teacher.
“Dr. Mohammad Mazid ” sir.
We would like to thank our zoology sir
“Dr. Mohammad Mazid” who provide us this
golden opportunity to make a project on
“Angiosperms”, which also helped me in doing a
lot of Research and i came to know about so
many new things
I am really thankful to them.