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Table of Contents
Introduction . . ...................... . . ........ . ............. . .... . ... . . . 6

I. Drop 2 type voicings .............. .. ........ . ............. . ............ 8

a ) Construction of "drop 2" inversions on the middle four strings of the guitar.
b ) Construction of the various four-part chords (6th and 7th chords) through chord spelling.
c) Drop 2 inversion notation or "voice-leading."

2. Voice-leading ....... . ....... . ... . ...................... . . . ........... 14

Inciuded are various voice-led line patterns

3 . Voicing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
R ules and considerations governing various voicing possibilities.
Included are "Low Interval Limits."

4. Chord Symbol Notatior. .. .. ......... . ....... . .. . ....... . . . ........ .. ... 19

Problems and suggested solmions to chord symbology

./ . 'T'1ens1ons
~ .
. . . .. ..... .... ........ . ............... . ..... . . ........ . .. .. . 21.
a ) Theory governing tension selections including te nsion addition chart.
b ) Voicing formulas for tens ion additions and substitutions to basic four-part structures.
c ) Incomplete structures formed by tension additions and substitutions.

6 . Dominant Substitute V7 Chords ...... . ................. . .......... . .. ... . 27


7. Tension 9 .... . ...................... . ..... . . .. .. ... . . . .. . ........... 29
a ) Enharmonic chordal substitutions produced by the addition of tension 9 to a four-part
harmonic structure .
b ) Introduction of non-drop 2 type voicings: 9th<noS) or 9th<0 03 > chords.
c ) 9th chords presented in_various II - V - I examples.
d ) Tension 9 additions bY' string.
e ) 9th chords presented in e xtended musical examples.
8. Tension 11 . ......... . .. . ......... .. .......... .. ..... . .. . ....... ...... 45

a ) Enharmonic chordal substicutions produced by the addition of tension 11 to a four-part


harmonic structure.
b ) 11 th chords presented in various II - V - I examples.
c ) l l th chords presented in extended musicai examples.
9. Tension 13 .. ......... .. . . . .. .. .... ....... . .. .. ... . ... . .. . ... . . .... . . 56
a ) l 3th land 6th) chords pre sented in various II - V - i examples.
(enharmonic chordal substitutions included )
b 1 l 3th chords presented in extended musical examples.

10 . Two Tensions ..... .. . . .... . ..... .. ... . .......................... . ... 63


Tens ions 9 and 13
Theory I II - V - I examples I extended musical examples

Tensions 9 and 11
T heory I II - V - I exampl es I ex te nded musical examples

Tensions 11and13
Theory I II - V - I example;, I extended musiccrl e xamples
3
11. Voice-leading Chord Scales ............................................ 79
12. Three Tensions (9, 11, and 13) ...... .... ......... ... .... . . .. ....... . ... . 81
Theory I II - V - I examples I extended musical examples
13. Altered 9th Tensions (~ 9 and# 9) on Dom 7th Chords ........................ 91
Theory I II - V - I examples I extended musical examples

14. Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions . . .. .. .. . ........ . ... . .. .. .. .. .... .. ... 99


An organized approach to the enharmonic calizarions of the various chords presented
in the tension addition chapters.

15. Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions .. ........ .. . .. ..... . .. ...... 113


New enharmonic possibilities of chords already presented.
Included at the end of this chapter is a list of the '·incomplete'' dominant-Sub V chords that
were produced by their "Sub V" relation to the original dominant chords presented in the tension chapters.

16. Relative Iv1ajor - Minor ... . ..... . ... .. ....... . ..... . .. . .. .. ........... 118
a ) Examination of the relative major. minor. or minor 7b5 of selected chords.
b ) Newly discovered chords and functions are liste~ and presented in various II - V - l examples.

17. Additional Substitutions in II - V - I Examples ...................... . .... 134


,-

The remaining new chordal discoveries from the "Additional Enharmonic Chordal
Substitutions" chapter are presented in various II - V - I examples.

18. New Voicings . . ...... ... .... .. .... . ....... .. ...... .... ....... . . . ... 142
Completes the available voicings within this text's established framework on the middle four strings.

19. Enharmonic Substitutions of 9th Chords with omitted third or fifth 144
Examination of the various functions in these non-drop 2 type voicings.

20. Tension Additions on Di1ninished 7th Chords ........ . . .. ......... . ....... 146

Syrnmetricai and diatonic approach lO the addition of tensions on diminished chords


and examination of various functions.

21. Constant Structure Harmonic Motion . . .. ......... ... .................... !49


a ) Multi-function examination of a single voicing and chord type.
b ) Musical examples including II - V - I situations.

22. Symmetncal Dominant Substitutions ................. . ... . ... . .......... J 56

Dominant functions of whole-tone and diminished are examined.

23. Altered Dominant . . .. ... .. .. .. ... . ..... .. . .. ..... . .... ..... . . ....... 16 1

Examination of harmonies derived from the "altered" scale; 1 b2 #2 3 bs #S b7.


24. Approach Voicings ....... . . . .... ........ ........ ... ....... ...... .... 164
In depth examination of chromatic, diatonic, and dominant approach techniques
relative to four-note voicings.

4
25 ..Fourth Voicings . ...... .. .. ...... ...... . ..... . ... .. ........ .. .. .. .... 170
a ) Modal and diatonic approaches to quartal harmony.
b ) Examination of various scales for their quartal harmonic potential.
c ) 32-bar song form demonstrating the various uses of fourth voicings.
d ) Different functions of fourth voicings derived from the Pentatonic scale •
26. Chromatic Guide-lines ................. . ........... . . . ........ ..... . . 184
Examination of chromatic motion in each voice or voices of four-part harmonic structures. •
Various parallel and/or contrary chromatic motion combinations are superimposed over different string
combinations.
a ) Chromatic guide-lines over a single chord:
(one line) I (two lines) I (three and four lines)
b ) Chromatic guide-lines over chord changes:
(one line) I (two lines) I (three and four lines)
c )Contrary motion: various contrary chromatic combinations are presented in II - V - I
examples and some extended chord progressions.

27. Triad over Bass Voicings ...... . .. ......... . . ... . . ... .......... ... ... . 203
a ) Organization of major and minor triads over various bass notes.
b ) Enharmonic possibilities of each srructure.
c ) "Upper-structure triads" - triads over different 7th and 6th chords.
d ) Triads over tensions
e) Triads over bass arpeggios
/) Symmetrical motion
g ) Diatonic motion
h ) Contrary motion
i ) "Unavailable" half-steps
j ) Doublings
k ) Reharmonization
28. Song Examples . ........... ... ............................... . ...... 230
A combination of the voicing techniques anci substitutions presented in this text will be
used to reharrnonize various chord progressions found in different songs.
29. Rhythm . ... . .... .... . . . . ... . ... . ...................... . ........... 24 1

a) Various rhythms and chord omissions (rests) are suggested to be used over the
existing examples throughout this text.
b ) Different rhythms and string combinations are examined.
30. Conclusion .. . ................ . ..... .... ................ .. . . .. .. ... 246
Suggestions for continued harmonic study-including different voicing sizes and string combinations.

5
INTRODUCTION
• This text is a combination harmony/theory/voicing text with emphasis placed on "voice-leading." Harmonic motion
and understanding are key elements for "comping" in today's jazz and pop idioms. Through knowledge and
listening, students will discover and compose new voicings and sounds.

•Many guitarists have a unique physical/visual approach to harmony, due to the nature of this complicated instrument
and the lack of traditional music training. The material in this book will be common musical knowled!!e that can be
shared by all musicians. It will not be another guitaristic approach to harmony for guitar players only. It is hoped
that this text will give an approach and begin a process that will continue far beyond its pages.

This text's primary focus will be that of presenting and examining four-note voicings on the middle four strings
(2, 3, 4, 5) of the guitar. By eiiminatingthe ropand bottom strings (1 and 6), the voicings produced are in a relatively
"safe" range for comping, conflicting less with bass lines and melodies (or solos). The initial approach to voicing
construction will use what is referred to as "drop 2" type voicings, and will include tension additions and enharmonic
chordal substitutions. The top note of each drop 2 type voicing will be notated and consequently always appear on
the 2nd string, eliminating the need for position markings / Students will become aware of the top note of each chord
voicing, whether it be a chord tone or a tension, and the different linear or voice-leading possibilities the 2nd string
produces over various chord changes . This indirectly helps in a student's eventual involvement with chord melodies
and chord soloing as well. In later sections, the remaining strings will receive the same voice-leading considerations
as the top string. Students will learn lO recognize each note's relation to the chord l vertical) as well as each nore· s
linear motion to the next chord (horizontal).

Students are encouraged to transpose all applicable information presented on the middle four strings to the top four
strings and, to a lesser extent, the bottom four strings. Consider further that each four-note voicing has four three-
note voicings within it:
Using a C7 chord:
1) 2) 3) 4)

&
€ II ~; II ~ :' II ~ II &
i II

'
Note that the last 11110 voicings contain the same ·'width" (or two outside notes) as the original four-nole voicing.
Most guitar students will find three- and four-note voicings to be the most appropriate in jazz/pop "comping''
situations.
The "width" of any voicing is determined by physical or fingering limitations. By assuming five frets as our physical
limitation, the following interval widths are made available between the 2nd and 5th strings:

(b7) (7) (8) (~9) (9) (b 10) ( 10) ( 11) (#11)


I
~ b.o. l:t.a.

' '·;: ~:: : D: ~: ,, t I J


1

I J II

6
The octave (8) and ~9th inte rvals can be temporarily removed since voicings containing these intervals will be
initially avoided. They will reappear in later chapters where their unique sound is more appropriate. This leaves
somewhat of a leap in width from the 7th intervals to the remaining intervals. producing porential voice-leading
oroblems. For this reason. and again with some isolated e xceptions. voicing containing the outside width of a 7th
;nterval will generally be avoided. Conveniently. drop 2 type voicings utilize the remaining intervai widths; (9).
(~ 10), ( l 0), ( 11 ), (#11). This text will also explore some substirute chords that are not drop 2 type voicings. but
continue to utilize these widths, allowing them t0 voice-lead smoothly with the traditional drop 2 type voicings. In
an anempt to be thorough and include most every conceivable voicing within this estabiished framework, some
physically difficult and/or "strange sounding" voicings will occasionally appear. More desirable substitute voicings
can be used in these cases and most cenainly should if it is felt certain isolated voicings ·'ruin·· an ornerwise pieasant
sounding exercise or song.

Anerations and tension addi tions on the basic four-part chords (7th and 6th chords) sometimes produce upper-
structure triads or hybrid chords. When this occurs, they will be listed as such. Upper-structure triads and bvbri_d
chords will be more specifically dealt with in the later chapter entitled Triad over Bass Voicings.

:.\" tensions are added to the basic four-part chords. the enharmonic chordal substitution possibilities increase
cr:.imaticaily. The enharmonic substi tution possibilities of each chord will be listed as they are exposed by tension
additions. Students will become proficient at enharmonically realizing a group of notes <a chord voicingi in more
ways than one. Exampie:

C6 = A-7 = Fmaj9 (no root) = D<:isus4rno root)= B t>maj7 (131#1119) \no root) = etc.

The majority of voicing examples presented in this text will contain very little rhythmic variation and it is highly
recommended that some of those ideas suggested in the Rhythm chapter toward the end of this book be applied
toward musical examples contained in each chapter. The Conclusion chapter contains additional information on
different string combinations and voicing sizes thm can also be applied to existing musical examples througnout the
book. Coordinating information between these two chapters and the rest of this book will ultimateiy enhance its
content.

7
Chapter 1.
Drop 2 Type Voicings
By dropping the second note from the top of a four-way close voicing down an octave. a larger sounding voicing
(referred to as "drop 2") is produced. These drop 2 voicings in turn produce a chord physically more accessible on
the guitar than some of we original fou r-way close voicings.

T his book will explore all fo ur inversions of the drop 2 type voicings and their placement on the middle four srrings
of the guitar (2, 3, 4 , 5 ).

Cmaj7 = C E GB
R 3 5 7

Drop 2
~",_)
~u

Drop 2 type voicings


arranged by inversions: ..a. -&

~ llf II~ II!! I


' e.
3
7
5
R
5
R
7
3
7
3
R
5
R
5
3
7

The follow ing maj7th chord forms are produced by the above voicings on the rr.tiddle four strings of the guitar:
(strings vertical/frets horizontal)

R Inv. lstlnv. 2nd Inv. 3rd Inv.


strings 5 4 3 2

Drop 2

,e
R 5 7 3 -j
5 R 3 7 7 3 5 R

3 7 R 5

*The above forms can be transposed or moved to different keys.

We now have four inversions of a Cmaj7 chord on the middle four strings of the guitar.

8
At this point, it should be mentioned that a b9th interval is generally consjdered an avoid interval in traditiona l "Jazz
- Pop" harmony. This book will initially continue that approach, with the dom7(~9) chord being the only exception.
Thus, the b9tb interval contained in the 3rd inversion of the Cmaj7 chord (between B and C) will negate use of that
inversion as a maj7 type chord. Similarly, the 3rd inversions of Cmaj7b5, Cmaj7#5, and C-maj7 will be avoided.
Voicings containing b9th intervals will be presented later, especially in those chapters exploring triad-over-bass
structures where the 3rd inversion of Cmaj7 will be available as a C triad over a B bass; C/B.

Assignment: Construct all four inversions for each four-part chord listed. A ll of these chords can be
perceived as "altered" maj7th chords .

Cmaj7 (1357) C-6 (1 b3 5 6) C7sus4 (145b7)

C maj7\, S (13 b5 7) C6 (1 3 5 6) C 07 (lb3b5bb7)

Cmaj7#5 ( 1 3 #5 7) C7 (1 3 5 b7) C 0 maj7* o b3 bs 7)

C-7 ( lb35b 7) C7#S (1 3~5b7 ) C -maj7 (l b3 5 7)

C-7bs (l b3 b5b 7) C 7b5 (1 3 bs b7)

C -7#5 (l b3 ~5b7)

Follow these three approaches in preparing the inversions of the four-pan chords:

I) Prepare all 15 listed chords on the root inversion only in the key of D. Next, prepare chords on the
lst inversion only in the key of C. Next, prepare chords on the 2nd inversion in the key of Bb. Finally,
prepare chords on the 3rd inversion in the key of G. Include inv~.rsions containing the b9th interval for
purposes of this exercise.

2) In the key of F, prepare all four inversions on one chord type, then move to the next chord type.
Continue until all 15 types are completed.

3) With an established tempo, prepare the fo) lowing symmetrical chord progression using one chord type
for all four chords and inversions. Continue through the entire list of the 15 chord types, following the
given chordal/inversion pattern. Note that this exercise i<; ··voice-led."

l st Inv. ::nd Inv. 3rd Inv. R Inv.

Cmaj7 Amaj7 Gbmaj7 Ebmaj7

Mixing different chord types while going through the d ifferent inversions and chords might make an
interesting additional exercise.

*C0 (maj7) ( 1 b3 bs 7 ) and its available tensions will \Jc examined more thoroughly in the Tension
Additions on Diminished Chords ch apter.

9
In contemporary music, upper-structure triads and fourth voicings play a major role. The following chordal
inversions contain such voicings and should be noted:

1) Fourths: The root inversion of the maj7~ 5 and the 2nd inversion of the dom7sus4 are the most conunon fourth
voicings used.

2) Upper-structure triads:
Root Inv. Cmaj7#5 = EiC
3rd Inv. C-7#5 = A~IB~
Root Inv. C"maj7 = BIC
Additional upper-structure triads will be revealed in later chapters.

The examples using drop 2 type voicings throughout this text will indicate such voicings by notating only the top
note or voice on the 2nd string. eliminating the need for position markings. This lead note will directly indicate the
inversion of the drop 2 voicing introduced:

Third of chord notated (top voice) = root inversion


Fifth of chord notated= first inversion
Seventh/Sixth of chord notated = second inversion

Root of chord notated = third inversion

Example: C7 (3rd) (5th) (7th) (Root)


~.o. ~

~
D

" II II II II
Root Inv. lst Inv. 2nd Inv. 3rd Inv.

The following chord progression examples consist of only 7th and 6th drop 2 type chords. These drop 2 chord
progressions are actually substitutiems for more basic chord progressions listed directly below each voicing in
parentheses.
After preparing each exarnpje, students should record and play back the roots of the basic chord progression in
parentheses while again playing the example. T his will allow students to "hear" the example in relation to the basic
chord progression. Students should also write or realize the tensions produced on the basic chord progression by the
original 7th and 6th chords.

Example: A7sus4 G-7~5 Fmaj7 Bmaj7 ~5 E7sus4


Q
b.o. -& ~ be

' 11
(basic chord progression)----;.. (C) (A7) (D-7) (G7) (C)
~ ~ .} ~ ~
(tensions) C6(9) A7#5(~9) D-7(9) G7#5(#9) Cmaj7 (6/9)

10
L- ~ , ' .

#1) The following example makes use of only four different 7th chords: .!Il..£'lj7~5, .!!!_aj7# 5, min7~5, and dom7sus4.
-----These chord types will prove quite useful due to their versatile enharmonic substitutit..h possibilities throughout
this text.

- - :>
• ...JJ ... -

D7sus4 Bbmaj7#5 C7s us4 F-7175 C7sus4 Dbmaj7#5 G7su s4 Dmaj7b5


---- r ~r
tr ir
I 17 r 1r
._, (Bb) (D7~ (G-7) (G7) (C-7) (F7)- (Bb) (BVi)
-
--
'....i:'. b : :. • J
- s - «· j
;--...,' ..
...-' "'j'\A .
" J --·--:

E bm aj7b5 Gbmaj7b5 G~ rn aj 7#5 Amaj7#5 D7sus4

(~m) ~i·
~
I "
P.a.. ~

II
' ( : ) -"-4' (D-7b5) 11 (G7 )-t;~ = (C-7b 5) :> (F7) .. ; - - (Bb)

#2) The following two examples are minor chord progressions.

a) .1.. Dmaj7 F-6 Cmaj71:i5 E7ti5 ~ Fmaj7b5 Bb7 Cm aj7 Dl:imaj7b5


b.a.. ?

1r 1·
fr
I
1* r J
(B-7b5) n (E7)~
f:;.;. 4 ~
(Am)\ (A7)
~J
.~
. ~'

~-

s-Ji'r- . ,.

Fmaj7 E b+7 (I'~ )} A7su s4 B7b5 D-maj7 E+7 Cmaj7#5

~€ ~ I~ ~ , ~ .f
i
In II
(Am) r,,;_ :. 7
• ,.. I •
<D-7) I (G7) ":>l"/3 CC~: f (~ (F7)'-' .:. (B-7b 5)'1 (E7) ~
#~

11
. b) E+7 Cmaj7b5 Fmaj7b5 Abmaj7b5 Ab+7 Cmaj7b5 D-6
-
r
t2
lbL r
19-

'#L (Am) C · 't


I
- ·.
11

(B-7b5) · (E7 ) (Am) .c ~


r- -
' L •
."1W'
If
CB-7b5) -
..,.
..:-J

Bb7b5 Do7 Abmaj7b5 F-maj7 Cmaj7b5 Fmaj7b5 Abmaj7b5 Bb7 Cmaj7b5

'~
.a.

-
r 1t i
,.
Ii
19"
I
I~ ~ II u II
(E7 )' -. (E7) :.··
- (Am ) ~ (B-7b5) \' (E7) ·" ".
_. --
r- __, (Am) -

#3) This next example uses the min7(#5) chord in si-vern 1 j jff: .-ent funct~vns and ends with a constant ..-,(ructure
-.example .
E-7 F #7 D -7 E7 B-7~5 E b7 E -7#5 Db+7

r #
r I ~r r le iF I~r r
' (C )~
1:1,
(A7 )
'o \
·~ (D-7) (G7) -" (E-7)\\ (A7)"':;,
""
(D-7) ~. (G7) < -.
G"
I

D-7#5 F#+7 C6 F-maj7 E -7#5 Go7 A-7#5 G-7#5 F #-7#5

'~
ba
IE I~ i I~ I 1f ~ llje II
(G-7) (C7)"=:.\, (F ) , (Bb7'L (C) ' (A7)' · . (D-7 ) :j (G7):: : (C ) -r
~)

#4) The following example uses the dom7f.5 chord in several different function s. Also, note the two different
dominant functions of the.. maj7 #5 chord.
Gmaj7 Eb+7 Ab+7 E bmaj7t>5 B-7#5 F #-7b5 Bbmaj7b5 F~ o 7

r
I
qr
~r
-9 19" -9
t>r
'F I i 1 11
(Em ) (C#-7b5) (F~ -7b5 l (B7 } (Em) (D7) (C7 ) (B7)

D -6 F-6 Cmaj7b5 Fmaj7#5 Bbmaj7b5 Ebmaj7#5 C#-7b5 E b+7

f 1
r r I~ i II
(E7 ) (Am) (G7) (Fj;7 J (B7) (Em)

12
,r-

#5) In the following progression, the min7#5 and dom7sus4 chords again receive multiple functions. The dom7
chords at the end of this example receive four different dominant functions in symmetrical minor thirds.
D-7#5 A-7#5 A-7~5 D7sus4 G~maj7b 5 Eb-7 Gbmaj7#5 C-7\J5
I
fr
fir o.a. I
p t2~
I

E I

I !
I~ 1z~

'
I I

(Bb)" . ' ::,, : -·


\.:- (Bb) (Ab7) (Ab7)

G7sus4 D7sus4 Db71i 5 Eb7b5 G-7#5 G- 7~5 Do7 G+':'

'(:),.G-7#5 Ebmaj7
~
~ !"..)
.,.,_,,
-
:-

G+7
I
6

(A7) ·-:

C-maj7
(2

D7
IG
(A9maj7)
F7
C.2

Ab7 B7
I~
(G7)

D7su s4
G:

I
b.a. I 1>5- 1P- -&

i
~
I

CC-7)
~ I
G

(C-maj7)
1ze
I
CF7)
G
~ !
I
I

(F7 ) ". -
·~
II
(Bb)
II
The foliowing two exercises complete the examination of various 7th and 6th chords and their multiple functions.
lv10sr of these chords will reappear under their reiarive tension chapters. As an example:

Cm~j7~ 5 = A-6 (9l = Ab 7(#91~5) = D7(l3/9) = F~-7b5(1 n


In each appropriate chapter they will receive a chord progression example utilizing their new functions. A lis1
of all the substitutions for any one 7th or 6th chord can be found in the Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions
chapter.
#6a) Dmaj7 D-7b5 E-7 F#7 Dmaj7 B 7sus4 Cmaj7 Eb-6

~ ~ ~ ,~
~
~~ , ~~ C.:2
I~ h~
(Dmaj7) CF-6) CE-7> (F#7 ) CBm) (A-7) (D7)
E7sus4 E -7 G-7b5 Qo7 B-7 D6 Dmaj7b5 Abmaj7b5
-6- ~ ~

~~ l ~F
:2
, ~
~ I
(GJ (A.7 ; (D) <E7)

Gmaj7 E7sus4 E~+7 D1'7b5 F~-7;5 E11maj7j:5 E+7 A.7 A6

~ ~
-e-
~
I~
~
I~ ~ I#~ ~ It

(~-7)
I I

II
(A7) (D) (B7) (E7) (A7) CD)

b) F7sus4 Eb-6 D-7 F-7b5 EPmaj 'I Gb-6 G7sus.; Ar7


~
~ 11~ b~ I~· I (2
ba.
i~
1>5-
I
(C-7) (F7 ) (B,) (G7) (C-7) (F7 ) (Bb) (D7 )

Bbmaj7 C-7?5 Abmaj7~5 F-7b 5 G'maj?P5 Amaj7b5 D7sus4


ltr
..,.- ~

~
~ ~ D-'2.

i e,I
:

(G-7 ) (A'o7 )
I
::a

<D-7b5 )
I

CG7 J
i I

<C-7b5,.,.) (F7 )
I
(Bb )
I!

13
. •\· ·c§
'I
, .

/ ~
Chapter 2. -
\
- - - ":> . JJ

Voice-Leading
Voice-leading is a simple concept intended to make chords m ove smoothly from one to another. By allowing the
top note (2nd string) of different chords t o move step-wise through those chords, a smooth sound is achieved over
the entire chord progression.

There are three basic choices when voice-ieading from one chord to the next:

1) move up a step
2) move down a step
3) stay on same note

If there is a leap of a third or more, try w resolve the leap by using one of the notes that was skipped over in the
following chord:

An exception to this rule is when rwo or more voicings appear on the same chord (often different inversions). In this
case, leaping is acceptable and sometimes desirable, s ince the harmony is stagnant. In contrast, voice-leading is mo=·
desirable when chords change.

The above example could also be viewed as indirect voice-leading, (often melodically referred to as "ind:t..
resolution"), since the "E" note does resolve step-wise to the "F" note with the "G" note temporarily delaying th<.
resolution. Indirect voice-leading could be extended by two or more voices, but does begin to compromise smomh
voice-leading over chord changes. In the following example, the "E" note still resolves step-wise to the "F' note
although delayed by two voices:

A7 D-7 G7
' c:i;aj7 a e
e
II

By altering chord tones or adding tensions, many different line patterns can be produced while voice-leading through
a single chord progression. The following chord progression receives a variety of voice-leading ideas ranging from
more traditional concepts (step-wise, chro matic. and common tones) to several line patterns that actually break basic
voice-leading concepts while still offering an acce ptable comping idea through '·predictable'' patterns .

Prepare the following line5 using an:v voicing that will accommodate the lead note. In some cases. drop 2 type
voicings are not appropriate and a more convennonai voicing piacing the root in the bass might be more des irable .
Be sure to realize what tension the lead note produces on the original chord. While all lines are intended fo r
preparation on the 2nd string only, the example " Leaps" can be prepared on both the 1stand 2nd strings, allowing
for less physical j umping . This broken line example serves as a good indication of when differer.t string sets are
probabi y more appropriate . After preparing these lines, students should compose their own lines to the given chord
progression.

14
Cmaj7 A7 D-7 G7 E-7b5 A7 Abmaj7Db7
~
Chord Tones
6.
j "'
r,; r,;
I --
!
....- I? I?
'
I?

'
tJ

j"' I? I? n n n n n n
Common Tones ..- .
tJ

(Ab7)
j'I. .;o_ 1.. _
hn ~I?

Chromatic .--
n
-~ ~-

i
r J r
- -

'
tJ I

(D7b9) (Cmaj7)
'I. r- - I
-- --
I

..-
,.. J

Whole Tone
tJ
"
Y .- ~
~-
.I- ..,
I

,.

19- bp. ~ b.p. 19-


.,,-"
,U _ I?
.... -~

Diminished
tJ

,, n ~ fr .p. b,a. - ,..., I


I
Leaps
... .... 'r,;

' .,
~
'

I ..., _ I .,._
..." ' "J .. J
....- rJ ' rJ
-
··-
~

Chromatic
t.l

(Ai7 6)(D~maj7)
j" r;.
-
.....
-,9- I?
b.a. bv fr
-
6. I
Patterns •
'._i

,, .a.. b.p. 19- ~ ,.., Jt -


1.. _ Cmaj9
Chromatic
... r~

-
~

'
~J

15
Chromatic lines and sustained notes (common tones) are considered the strongest approaches to voice-leading.
Although the majority of examples given in this text will be voice-led throughout the entire example, a more realistic
approach would be to voice-lead by phrases (two bars, four bars. or eight bars), sometimes breaking voice-leading
at the end of each phrase to start a new phrase or, as suggested in the Rhythm chapter. omitting chords or resting
between phrases. Through this process students will begin to hear a group of voicings (or phrase) as one sound, much
like one voicing or chord is heard. In fact. voicings that are "weak., sounding, incomplete. or contain '·wrong" notes
(voicings that will appear in later chapters) might be found within a strong voice-led phrase and function as an
integral part of that phrase. While many of these weak voicings could only be used in a voice-led passage and wou Id
not stand well on their own. there are "strong" and "beautiful" sounding voicings that can be used with little regard
for voice-leading. A combination of this vertical (single voicing) and horizontal (phrase) approach to harmony will
enable students to create many different sounds and ultimately reproduce what they "hear."

The following example voices-leads in two and four bar phrases. A descending chromatic line is established in the
first two-bar phrase while a common leading tone is used in the second cwo-bar phrase. and the example finishes
with an ascending chromatic line in the last four bars. Note the descending triads (top three voices) in the first two
bars; F E E~ D (with 5th string added); FIG EIF Eb!F D/Eb
#~
A-7; 5 Fo(maj7)
G-7 ° E bO( maj7) G7St:s4 B07 c7sU>4 :f7#5

b~
I

bp
s
I

1~E ~ e
! I
I F I~
(B' i (07) <C- 7) (F7 ) {D-7) (G7) (C- 7) <F 7)

jj-

F-I Dmaj7i:>5 E1i:>maJ1


·~ A b13 B?maj7 Bmaj7" 5 Q.7i.O B7 n7sus4
b b~
.e' l ~E 9~
-0-
#fr
I ~~(F-71 I~
f~) I I
I
(Btii')
~
(Eb)
I

(Bb) (G7)
I
(C-7) (F7)
I (Bb) II
The omission of selected chords will only enhance the identity of individual phrases produced by the remaining
chords. The following displays the above example with certain chords removed, helping to better define the remaining
phrases. Rhythmic variety in the form cf eight-note anticipations or delays has been added to enhance the exercise.
A bass line stating the original progression (above in parenthesis) should accompany this exercise as well.

A-7~ 5 pO (maj7) G- 7* 5 E~o tma.i7' Q7SlS4

~' c
OTf -
r I'
I
I

I
10 I II
I <
( r I
Ebmaj7 A013
fi;F-7
' p -·
'( ~ Ii 0
l'
I

~\ :

With the addition of space and rhythmic activity. this example probably better represents what occurs in u ..real ..
performance situarion. A s1milar aporoach ro each of the notated exampies throughout this text is s t rong ! ~·
recommended and the followin g three-step procedure could he applied:
1) Prepare examples (slowly) as written. proceeding smoothly while attempting 10 perform in a
"legato" fashion.
2) Add rhythmic variety (predominantly eigh1-note aniicipacions and deia~':-.) \\'hile performing all
voicings. A mix of long and short rhythmic attack~ should be attempted.

3) Introduce space by omitting selecr.ed chord voicings while continuing to be rhythmically active.

Students should continue the process established in this chapter and compose a variety of lines over differen t chord
progressions and songs. As we progress furtber, these orig i 110 / Ii nes can be haJ:mOnized by the nc \.V voi c in gs introd uced.

16
Chapter 3.
Voicing Considerations
There are various considerations involved in determining a voicing' s strength or weakness in a given situation.
Obviously, a "good sound" is a primary consideration, and several factors can be isolated that contribute to this.
Substitution possibilities and voice-leading are very important considerations in a voicing's worth and will be
discussed further in later chapters.
We have already discussed the avoidance of b9th intervals and will continue to avoid use of voicings containing this
imerval. Whenever a chord contains two notes a half-steo from each other, one of the inversions will form a b9th
interval. There are eight differem available half-steps with the potential of producing an inversion containing a b9th
inrerval:

(R - b9) dom7(b9)
(9 - b3) min7(9)
(#9 - 3 ) dom7(#9)
01 - bs) nun7b5(11)
C# 11 - 5) maj7(~ 11) I dom7(# 11)
(5 - b13) dom7(~ 13)
(l 3 - b7) dom7(13)
(7 - R) maj7 I maj7b5 /maj7#5 I min. maj7 I etc.

There remain two important considerations while constructing different voicings:

1) low interval limits (LIL).

2) physical difficulty in fingerings .

Low interval limits refers to the lowest possible placement of a chord tone or tension in a voicing. Below this limit,
the original chord sound begins to deteriorate and lose its primary function. LIL will apply to chord tones and tensions
on the 5th string. A "bright" tone and/or a light gauge string will accommodate lower placement oftensions and chord
tones. while a "dark" tone ancl/or heavy gauge string will not accept lower placements quite as well.

The following chart will determine generally how low a tension or chord tone can appear on the 5th string.

R unlimited
b9 Eb
9 F (avoid tension 9 on 5th string)
~; AVOID: produces b9th interval with major 3rd
c
3 c
4 [ 11] D
[#
bs 11) c
5 unlimited
#5 [b 13J c
6 [13] D
b7 c
7 E

17
These limits are slightly lower than those determined by the Berklee College of Music Arranging Department. It is
the student's responsibility to know what chord tone or tension is in the bass (5th string) on each voicing and how
low that voicing can be safely used. In the Approach Voicings chapter later in this text, concepts will be introduced
that allow violation of Low Interval Limits on the weak harmonic rhythm of a given chord or measure.

The physical difficulties involved in fingering different voicings is perhaps the largest and mosr diverse consider-
ation in chord choice for most guitarists. There a:·e basically four factors in determining the difficulty of fingering
any chord or chords:

1) range
2) fingerings before and after a given chord
3 1tempo
4) individual abilities

1) Range: Some voicings that are difficult on the lower, wider frets become easier as they are moved up the
fretboard to the higher, thinner frets.

2) Fingerings: Fingerings of chords immediately before and after a given chord will affect the difficulty of fingering
that chord. A difficult fingering can lead to a similar fingered chord, requiring Ii ttle finger change and
consequent physical ease of the passage. Some chords have several different ways of fingering them,
while others have only one possible fingering. Use the fingering that best prepares the next chord
fingering. Example:

D-7 G7 Cmaj7

'i! ii ii II

3) Tempo: Tempo is perhaps the single most important consideration in chord choice. A ballad might
accommodate the time to prepare difficult fingerings of chords that could not be attempted at a quicker
tempo.

4 ) Individual: Each student' s personal technical abilities will determine what is considered a "difficult fingering."
Students are reminded that diffic:ult-fingered voicings might become easier when applied to the top
fou! strings ( 1 2 3 4) or when a non-essential note is removed to produce a 3-note voicing and
subsequently easier fingering.

As we move into the tension addition sections, we see some voicings becoming physically easier as tensions are
added.

18
Chapter 4.
Chord Symbol Notation
Before examining tension additions to the basic four-part structures, I would like to discuss some of the approaches
and difficulties involved in chord symbol notation. I must start by first stating that it is not my intent to re-organize
or establish a new system of chord symbol notation. To the contrary, I would rather have avoided the need for this
section altogether, but my attempt to complete a comprehensive volume of voicings and substitutions. a.Tld feedback
I received from many of my colleagues, suggested I should address this topic at some level. Please keep in mind that
the primary focus of this text is not that of chord symbol notation but that of discovering various four-note voicings
and their enharmonic uses as different chords and substitutions, while examining different voice-leading possibili-
ries between those voicings .

The initial approach to the discovery of new voicings in this text is based on the addition of different tension
combinations to the basic four-part structures (7th and 6th chords). This is also where I received the most diverse
and controversial responses from my colleagues. Opinions ranged from those favoring little or no tension addition
to the basic structure (allowing more freedom of interpretation) to those who felt that tensions should dictate specific
scales as well as describe their vertical placement in a voicing. The most notable and surprising differences appeared
to center around the enharmonic interpretations of tensions #1 l and b13 and their melodic or harmonic implications.
A majority of responses supported the assumption that tensions bl 3 and/or #11 would include or imply a natural 5th
in the same dominant type voicing. Although the natural Sth could accompany one or the other tension. both tensions
with a natural 5th would produce consecutive half-steps:

#11 s b13
L i12_J L 112 _J

While this is a melodic possibility, it has limited, if not problematic, harmonic value . When posed with a dom7(b 13/
#11) chord, responses were confusing at best. My reaction and recommendation is to avoid this particular tension
combination on a dominant chord. If the same notes are desired with no natural 5th, the following symbols would
suffice:

dom7#5(# 11 ) I dom7b5(b13) I dom7(#51b 5JI dom7(alt5)/ dom7#5(~5) /dom7b5(#5 JI etc .

If the natural Sth is desired in the voicing, dom7(bl31# 11) would suffice for those who responded thad 11 and bB
imply natural 5 (do you guys really want this chord?). For those who would not assume the natural Sth ~as implied,
it would have to be included in the chord symbol: dom7(bl31# 11) add 5. Yikes! At this point, I personally would
prefer that the desired voicing be notated on a staff. Even ifl could no tread music. I'd probably produce the voicing
quicker off the staff than from the abo,·e chord symbol.

This segues well to another issue and personal recommendation I have. I think that tension additions are appropriate
when used as suggestions to desired "colors" or sounds on basic structures or to describe melodic effects on different
voicings. On the other hand, I believe that symbols that are made more complicated or confusing by attempting to
communicate vertical placement of tensions or by their dictation of specific scales should be avoided. At this point,
the voicing would be served better by notation on a staff.

19
Although this book will possess many complicated symbols. they are used as descriptions of specific staff notated
voicings and are not implying or endorsing their use as "standard" chord symbol notation. To the contrary, most
voiciIH!S introduced in this text are to be used as various available "colors" or sounds (including available tensions
and ch'Ord tones) over a more basic chord symbol. A collection of many different voicings will be made available
to one basic chord type. Your choice of specific voicings to use is your "interpretation" of that basic chord.

Example:

Gm(addll) C+(#ll) Fmaj7(9/6)

The above voicings could be used to "color" or substitute the basic U-V-J cadence in the key of"F" (G-7, C7, Fmaj7).
Gm( add I 1), C+(# 11), and Fmaj7(9/6) are chord symbol descriptions of the above voicings in the key of "F.''

The attempt will be made to use the "least" offensive chord symbols when notaring these complicated. and in many
cases incomplete, voicings. I have tried to reach a '·compromise" in my chord symbol selections that would satisfy
mosr. knowing that some (hopefully nor most) will certainly find fau lt.

At this point, I should summarize some of the basic ussumprions that have been presented and will be used in this
text. The foliowing suggesrions specifically deal with the~ 11/b 13 controversy introduced earlier:

I. Tensionb 13 might imply or include a natural 5th when used in a chord symbol. If the bSth is notated in the symboi,
natural 5 is not a choice. Ifb 13 is desired without natural S (or b5), enbarrri0 nic #S instead ofb 13 can be used. A
more complicated symbol choice could be b 13(no5).

II. Tension# 11 might impiy or include a natural 5th when used in a chord symbol. If the# 5th is notated in the symbol,
natural S is not a choice.If#11 is desired without natural 5 (or# 5) , enharmonic b5 instead of# 11 can be used .
A more complicated symbol choice could be# [ l(no5).

These suggestions make clear the need for caution when usingb 13or#11 in a chord symbol. They contain inherent
controversy harmonically and melodically. 1v1y personal inclination is to avoid their use as much as possible. I prefer
the enharmonic b5 and ff 5 spelling of the same notes. b 5 and #5 produce exact harmonic interpretation and retain
freedom of interpretation melodically.

C , 131# 111 might impiy nawrnl 5 harmonically and "'wi10 know·s what .. meioci1caliy.
C7 (b 13/~ S) to some implies the "altered.. scale.
C7(# 111#5) co some implies the ··whole tone'· scale.

C7(~5tb 5), C7(alt5), C7~ 5(#5). C+7(b 5): precise harmonic description and freedom of melodic or scal e inrerpre-
tation.

*Note the C7(alt5) wmbol could be confused 'vVith the C 71 aJt) c:;vmbol which implies anv combinat iun ofb 5.
~s. b9. ~9. · · · · -

For organizational purposes. the first introduction of these rwo notes together in the same voicing occurs unde- the
Tension 11 chapter a:. a C+ 7( ~ 11) chord. They appear again under the Tensions 9 and 13 chapter as C9b5(b L~).
C7b 5(b 13/b9), and C 7b5(b 131#9) chords . In this chapter, b 5 and #5 will be noted a:: the preferred symbol c hoices:

C9(#51b5), C+ 7(9/b5). or C7b5(91#5)


C7(~9/alt5). C+7(b9/b5). or C7~5(b9/~5)
C7(#91alt5), C+7(#91b5 ). or C7bS(tt9/~5)

20
Chapter 5.
Tensions
As tensions are added to the basic four-part chords (7th and 6th chords), different basic four-part chords often
reappear on different roots (i.e., Bb9 =D-7b5 I F-6), beginning the enharmonic chordal substitution process that will
continue throughout thi~ book. These substitute chords might sound clearer or more obvious than the original chord
receiving tensions . D- 7~ 5 or F-6 is more defined or complete than the original B b9 chord, which is missing its root.
For this reason, it is recommended that a bass line containing the original chord roots be recorded and played back
while playing chords containing tensions.
ln each tension chapter the majority of voicings produced by tension additions will most likely have been introduced
enharmonically in earlier chapiers, many originating as basic four-part 7th or 6th -::hord voicings. When this occurs,
the original chords introducing those vokings for the first time will be listed. For example:

*Under the Tension 9 chapter. the mi117(9) {b3 5 b7 9} voicings were originally introduced as maj7 (1 3
5 7) voicings , A-7(9) = Cmaj7.

*Under the Tensions 9 & 13 chapter. the dom7sus4(13/9) {4 b7 9 13} voicings were originally introduced
as maj7 11 3 5 7} voicings, D7sus4(13/9) = Cmaj7.

*Under the Tensions 9 & 11 chapter, the maj7(~ 1119) {5 7 9 #1 l } voicings were originally introduced as
maj7 { 1 3 5 7} voicings. Fmaj7(# l l/9) = Cmaj7.

A list of all the possible substitutions for any one voicing can be found in the Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions
and Additional Chordal Substitutions chapters following the tension chapters. In these chapters, the previous
examples would combine their substitutions in order of their appearancJ in this text:

Cmaj7 = A-9 = D7sus4(13/9) = Fmaj7(# 1119)


A 111inimal understanding of harmony and theory is required to make the appropriate tension selections for different
chords. Some basic harmonic assumptions will be presented to allow for a choice of tensions that will sound
appropriate in a common pop or jazz idiom. While tensions are usually d.ictated by chord function and/or key of the
moment, a strong voice-led guide-line often can make use of tensions that might appear inappropriate or non-
diatonic to the key of the moment. This is especially true of dominant chords, which can accept many different
tension combinations (both diatonic and non-diatonic ), whiie mher chord types are more demanding of fewer and
more: specific tensions. Tensions on diminished 7 chords will be examined separately in the Tension Additions on
Diminished Chords chapter later in this book.

In the fo llowing exarnp1es, the guide-line in example #2 is not as diatonic as the# 1 example (E-9 and G7(b 13) are
1101 diatonic to the key of C ), yet example #2 sounds better due to the sirong chromatic guide-line produced by these
tensions .

:::1 Cmaj7 E-7 A+7 D-9 G13 Cmaj9

-t: 0 e ~ J i ~
e 1l

"?
r.-

.,
t)
Cmaj7
0
E -9
:::e
A+7
,l!"'.lO
D-9 G7(b 13)
I
Cmaj9

I'I
\Vben a .. strong'· or effective guide-line is not present, a more conservative or diatonic approach to tension additions
migh t be in order.

21
There are only seven different tensions available in the more common pop or jazz idioms:

~9 9
11 #11
~13 13
Note the enharmonic functions some tensions might possess:

11 = sus4
~ 11 = b5
~ 13 = #S
T he following will examine each tension's characteristics in these more common idioms . Of course, different styles
a:nd concepts could condition or change these basic assumptions. For example, "modal music" often requires use
of rensions that are not desirable in a more diatonic situation.

I) Natural 9 can appear on any chord type and can be accompanied by any other tension except b9 or #9.

2) b9 and# 9 can accompany each other and any other tension except natural 9. ~ 9 and #9 can only appear on dom7
type chords.
3) Natural 11 can appear on any chord typeexceptmaj7 rypechords. Natural 11 can accompany any tension except
~9 and#1 1 . Natural 11 often funcbons enharmonically as a suspended 4th on dom7 and rnaj6 chords. The use
of natural 11 with the major third i,s a more contemporary sound which will be examined later.

4) #11 can appear only on major type chords tmaj7 I maj6Idom7).~11 can accompany any tension except natural
11.

5) Natural 13 can appear on any chord type except min7~5. Natural l3 can accompany any tension except~ 13.

6) b 13 can appear on any chord type except minor chords containing a natural 5th. ~ 13 can accompany any tension
except natural 13.
The following tension chart attempts to clarify and classify available tensions and chord tones on the most common
chord types (excluding dim7 chords).

( CHORD
CHORD TENSION CHART

FREELY CAREFUL \VEAK

maj -;- 6. () ti ll,~ 5


0
1I 1J
maj6 9 7,b7: # l l 11
min7 9, 11 13 b13
min6 9 7,b7 , 11
. 7( p);
mm -, i l. b13 9 ~9
min maj7 9 6, 11 I
b13
dom7sus4 9, 13 3, ~ 13 #9
i
I b9. 13 I I
I

dom7 I
9. i3 ll I "')
I
!
9, b 13
111
9, li, 13
9,
9, 11,b l3
.
F
b9. 13

r~'f
I

!
p ,
19• 1
I
~9, :9, I 11, 13
b9, 9. 11, b13
\..
j

I · ~
.J

2.2
Again, some of the tensions listed under the "weak" o r "careful" column might in fact be strong or characteristic
notes in a modal setting, or appear in a common diat0nic progression were a melody or strong voice-leading could
make use of an otherwise " weak., tension.

In the fo llowing common chord cadence. theb9 tension is not normally available ro a min7b 5 chord. bm sounds and
voice-leads quite well in this particular example . Note the A-7b 5(\, 9) chord forms a complete C-7 chord over an "A"
bass note; ( C-7/A ).

, .on
A-7b5(b 9)
I
D7(b 9J
·~
G-6

v
, I!~
i~ ~ ~I
'
II
No te that some of the above tension combinations under the dom7 chord diet me specific chord scales:

Lydian b7
\vhoie tone
dominant diminished
altered

\Vitb the exception of dom7 type chords. the tension c han accurntcly descri bes available tensions on these chord
types in the majority of harmonic situations in \vhich they would appear. The dom 7 type chord nc<'ds some harmonic:
cl arification in order to chose the appropriate tensions in relation Lo its function: keep in mind that the namre of a
dom 7 chord can accept most any rens1o n combination. regardle ss of its functi on . The fol Io wing dcscri oes the tension
tendencies of a dom7 chord in a given function.

1) V7 of major

Common 1) natural tensions (9, 13)


2) ahered tensions (b9, #9, bs, #,5)
3) tension combinations: b9113, 9/b 13, e tc.
4 ) natural to altered (before resolving)

Not Common 1) (9, ~11 , 13) sub V sound


2) altere d to natural (before resoiving)

2 l \'7 of minor
Common 1) b9, ~ 9. ~ 13 and natural 5 or ~5
2 J:ens1 0r. comhinarion ...,: b0/ : 3. 91i> l3. e~.:.

NOi Common 1J natural


2) natural to altered
3 l altered to natural
#
4 ) (9 , 11, 13) sub V sound

?) Sub V and/or non-diatonic dom 7th. as well as IV7 and 117:

(Lydian b: 1 9 . ~ 11. 13

Upon e5tablishing some basis for tension possibilities on a given chord. it.J s now important w discuss the pl<Lcement
of te nsions in a four-n ote voicing, commonly referred to as '"tension substitutioi; ..,

23
When a tension is introduced to a four-note voicing, one of the basic chord tones is removed. The least needed chord
tone is usually chosen. The root and fifth (unless altered) are the least needed. while the guide-tones (third and.
seventh or sixth) are more important to the sound and function of the chord. Due to enharmonics, some tensions are
already built jnto the basic four-part chords:

Cmaj7~5 = Cmaj7(#11); C7~5 = C7(#11); C7(#5) = C7(b13).


These tensions could be considered as substituting for the fifth of the chord.

Tension substitution on drop 2 type voicings follows this basic formula: any tension substitutes a chord tone next
to that tension. This a11ows the substitution to take place on the same string.

9 substitutes the root or third


11 [4) subsUutes the third or fifth
13 [6) substitutes the fifth or seventh

Since the guide-tones are needed, we are left with the following tension substitution formula for drop 2 type voicings:

9 substitutes the root {3 5 7 9}


11 [4] substitutes the fifth { l 3 7 1 J}
I 3 [6] substitutes the fifth { 1 3 7 13}

An exception to this formula which must be addressed is when the fifth is altered (b5 or #5). An altered fifth ;s an
important part of the chord sound that should be included. In this case, 11 th and 13th type chords would have to
substitute guide-tones instead of the fift h: 11 for3/13 for7. If the original chord sound and function are not lost, these
substitutions are possible. An example would be a min 7b 5( 1 J) chord with tension 11 substitming the 3rd. A min7b5
chord is the only type of chord that will accommodate a~ 5th and an 11 th. By deduction, the minor 3rd of the chord
is "heard" even though it is not played. If the chord sound is lost by removing a guide-tone on one of these altered
fifth voicings, an alternative voicing to the drop 2 type voicing is required:

1 lth chord 3 5 7 11
13th chord 3 5 7 13
The fifth and the guide-tones are accommodated in these voicings and will be used when appropriate.

In the following tension sections, with some isolated exceptions, the attempt will be made to retain the guide-tones
in every voicing. When this is nor possible. the 7th will be retained in favor of the 3rd. This wili present some new
voicings that are not drop 2 type. voicings but share the same width as drop 2. allowing compatible voice leading.
More "incomplete" type voicings with various tension additions will be examined in the later Enharmonic Chordal
Substitution chapters .

The following tension substitution formulas will be used in thei r appropriate sections:

Tension 9 9 for 1 {3 5 7 9} (drop 2)


9 for 5 { 1 3 7 9}
9 for 3 { I 5 7 9}
Tension 11 11 for 3 { l 5 7 11 } (drop 2)
11 for 5 { l :- -; 1 : l
I I I tdrop 21
1i for i {3 .... 7 i 1 j

*Tension 13 13 for 5 { l 3 7 13 } (drop 2)


13 for 1 {3 5 7 13)

("' With the exception of a doml3b5 chord, Il 5 7 13 l proves too ambiguous or limited to examine.)

24
Tension 9 & 13 9 for 1 I 13 for 5 {3 7 9 13} (drop 2)
9 for 1 I 13 for 3 {5 7 9 13}
Tension 9 & 11 9 for 1 I 11 for 5 {37911} (drop 2)
9 for 1 I 11 for 3 {5 7 9 ·11} (drop 2)

Tension 11 & 13 11for5 I 13 for 1 {3 7 11 13}


11 for 3 I 13 for 1 {5 7 11 13 }

As more tensions are added to a four-note voicing, one or both of the guide-tones will eventually be removed,
resulting in what is commonly referred to as an "incomplete" voicing. Some of these voicings can sound ambiguous
or begin to lose their original chord sound, while others can define their original chord sound by use of unique
rensions or a predictable chord progression. These latter chords often sound better and more "colorful" than the
original "obvious" chord sound.
Here are some examples of incomplete voicings being defined by their tensions:

1) b9 or #9 ~ust accommodate a dom7 type chord


2) l lth with i, Sth must accommodate a min7~ 5 or dim7 chords
3) l lth with 7th must accommodate min maj7 or dim7 type chords
Here is an example of an incomplete voicing being defined by a predictable chord progression:

(II) (V) (J)


G-7 C7 Fmaj7
t
l (AP7#5) l
'~ft
~ ~
II
The Ab7#5 is an incomplete C7(alt5) chord:

Ab7#5 I 3 #S b7

t i t t
Ab c E Gb

i i -1'
I t
C7(alt5) #5 I 3 ~5
The Ab 7#5 chord standing alone has no particular C7 sound. When placed in the above chord progression in
substitute of the normal C7 (and perhaps accompanied by a C bass note), it no longer sounds like and A~7#5 chord.
By examining each tension, we can see which tensions dictate guide-tones and which do not:
1) b9 can appear only on dominant type chords, dictating their guide-tones when missing from a voicing.
2) Natural 9 can appear on any type of chord, thus cannot dictate the guide-tones of any pa.rticular chord type.
3) #9 can appear only on dominant type chords. It can dictate the~ 7th but requires the 3rd to accompany it. Without
the 3rd, #9 might sound enharmonically like the third of a minor chord, #9 =~3.
4) Natural 11 can appear on any chord type except the maj7 type chord. With the exception of an 11 with natural
7 dictating a min. maj7 ( 11) chord, 11 usually dictates a ~ 7th guide-tone. Natural 11 cannot dictate a major or
minor third, although it often can take the place of the third by enharmonically functioning as a suspended 4th
guide-tone.

25
5) #11 can appear only on major chord types, dictating the major 3rd when missing, but not the 7th.

6) b13 can appear on any chord type except minor chords containing the natural 5th. It can dictate the b7th, with the
maj7(~5 ) chord being enharmonically an exception. It cannot dictate the 3rd.

7) 13 can appear on any chord type except the min7b5 chord. It cannot dictate guide-tones.

As more tensions and chordal substitutions are presented, the use of incomplete voicings will become more common.

The maj7#5 and min7#5 chords have been omitted from the following tension chapters. due to their unique sound
being compromised by tension additions. The min7#5 chord will reappear in theAdditionalEnharmonic Chordal
Substitutions chapter with tension additions. Although tensions will not be added to the maj7 #5 and min7 #5 chords,
their four-part structures will reappear as enharmonic su.bstitutions in various tension chapters. As an example, in
the Tension 11 chapter, G-7~5 wili appear as C-7(11) (b3 S b7 11).

26
Chapter 6.
Dominant St1b V Chords
Every dominant type chord, with the exception of those containing a suspended fourth, can be substituted by another
dominant chord a tritone away. This chord is commonly referred tO as a "Sub V" chord (Db 7 is the Sub V chord of
G7, and vice-versa). Any tensions added to a dominant chord will appear as chord tones or different tensions on the
Sub V chord.

The following is a simple tension conversion model for Sub V chords that should be memorized:

i 1 1 Di
#11 5 bl3 13
(b5) (#5)
The above model in relation to C7 and its Sub V chord:

C7 R b9 9 #9
,/7 t I tI I
(Sub V) c Db D D#
"')\ t t t t
F#7 #11 s b13 13

There are four dominant chords that " mirror" themselves on their Sub V chords:

C7b5 = F~7b5
C7(b9)
C9(#5)
=
=
Frb9J
F ·9(#5)
1
c 13(#9) = F 13(#9)

Remember the tension substituuons [9 for R] and [13 for 5] for the above examples, leaving three of the chords
rootless.

All the doll'jnant chords that will be introduced in the forthcoming tension chapters will also examine their Sub V
chord~. The only exceptions will be dominant chords that contain both a b13 and natural 5. These notes produce b9
and natural 9 on the Sub V chord, which is not an acceptable te nsion combination, producing consecutive half-steps
(R - b2 - 2). These chord types will be omitted from the tension chapters but will reappear for examination in the
Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions chapter.
Remember to be aware of Low Interval Limils and b9th intervuls when placing dominant ten5ions on the Sth string.
Tensions #9 and 13 will not be allowed on the 5th string. Both tensions are Sub V substitutes for each other and both
produce b9th intervals (tension #9 over the 3rd arid tension 13 over the~ 7th ). Tensions 9andp13 [#5] are also Sub
V substitutes for each other, but only the 9th (with some exceptions) will be omitted from the 5th string due to low
interval limits .

27
Before beginning the tension chapters, a brief discussion of the "altered" dominants should be given. Altered (or alt)
on a dom7 chord refers to the 9th and 5th being flatted and raised (b9, #9) and ( b5, #5) or enharmonicaliy ( b9, #9 ,
#11, bl3) . Any combination of these tensions will satisfy an "altered sound," but tensions #9 and b13 [#5) are most
characterislic because they are also tensions on the Sub V chord: (#9 = 13) and (bl3 =9). Example:

C7(#91#5) = F #7(13/9)
(altered) (natural)

An additional observation of interest shows the~9 and #5 of a V7 chord to be the "blue·· notesb 7 and b 3 of the related
I chord;

(V7) C7(#91#5) .....................#9 #5

E~ Ab

( 1) F. ................................... b7 b3
!\fore information on altered dominants is presented in the Altered Dominant chapter later in this text.

28
Chapter 7.
Tension 9
By substituting 9 for the root on all of the previous four-part drop 2 inversions, we see many of those original four-
part 7th and 6th chords reappearing on different roots. The following list contains all possible tension 9 additions
to the original four-part chords and the consequent four-part enharmonic substitute chords produced:

Cmaj7(9) = E-7 I G6 C7(9) = E-7b5 I G-6


Crnaj7b 5(9) = refer below C7(b9) = Ctt 0 7 , E 0 7. G 0 7, Bb 0 7
C-maj7(9) = Ebmaj7#5 C7(#9) = refer below
C-7(9) = Ebrnaj7 C7b5(9) = F~+7 (Sub V )
C-7b5(9) = Eb-maj7 C7~5(b9) = F · 7 (Sub V)
I

C6(9) = A7sus4 C7b5(#9) = refer below


C-6(9) = Ebmaj7b5 C+7(9) = E7b51Bb7b5
C+7(b9) = Bb-7b5/Db-6
C+7(#9) = Emaj7b5
C7sus4(9) = G-7/B b6
C7sus4(b9) = G-7b51Bb-6

Cmaj7b5(9), C7(#9). and C7b5(#9) do not produce basic four-part 7th or 6th enharmonic substitute chords, but do
produce their own interesting substitute chords:

C7b5(#9) = Gb7(13) (Sub V)


C7(#9) = Gb 7(b9/13) (Sub V) [lstinv. ofC7(#9) = D#IE).]
Cmaj7b5(9) = D6(9) { 1 3 6 9}, which is not a drop 2 voicing. This maj6(9) voicing will be discussed
later in this chapter.

C7sus4(#9) has been omitted, since it has become a C-7(11 ) chord. As mentioned earlier, Cmaj7#5 and C-7#5 will
not be included in the tension chapters, but will appear later in this book with tension additions. C 0 7 will receive
tensions in the Tension Additions on Dimin 7 Chords chapter.

Realize the enharmonics involved in the above ninth chords with an altered 5th :

Cmaj7b5(9) = Cmaj7(9/~ 11)


C7b 5(9 lb 9 I #9) = · C7(# 11/9) C# ll/b9) C# 111#9)
C7 #5(9/b91#9) = C7(~ 13/9) (b 13/b9) (b 131#9)

If not already listed. realize the Sub V chord for each dorninam chord:

C7(9) = F 7(~5/b9)
C7(b9) = F 7( 9)
C7#5(9) = F +7(9 )
C+7(b9) = F 7(9)
C+7( #9) = F 7( 13/9)

Look at the previous enharmonic substitutions from a common four-pan cho;d root:

Cmaj7 = A-9
Cmaj7b5 = A-6(9) I Ab7(# 51#9) I D7(9/13)
Cmaj7#5 = A-maj7(9)
C-maj7 = A-9b5
C-6 = F9 I D7sus4(b9) I B7(#51b9)
C6 = Fmaj9 / D7sus4 (9)
C-7 = Abmaj9 / F7sus4(9)
C-7b5 = Ab9 / F7sus4(b9) I D7( #51b9)
C7 = Gb 7(b51b9~
C7b5 = Gb 7b5 /A 9+/ D9+
C7li5
,, = Gb9(b5)
C 07 = B7 (b9) I D7(b9) I F7(b9) I Ab 7(b9)
C7sus4 = Eb6(9) 29
Tensions b9 and #9 can combine to form available dom7 tensions (i.e. C7(alt9) I C7b5(alt9) IC+7(alt9)). These
chords will be examined later in the Altered 9 Tensions on Dom7th Chords chapter.

With the exception of the b9 tension on a dom7 chord. this text will avoid using tension 9 on the 5th string. Some
isolated exceptions to this rule might appear in later chapters.

The following is a convenient model which will be used to display different chord voicings and inversions:

maj7(9) {3 5 7 9}: 3 5 7 9 ~ 2nd string

I 7

5
9
7
3
9
5

3
~

~
3rd string

4th string
9 3 5 7 ~ 5th string

Note that the previous seventh chords that avoided their 3rd inversions due to the b9th imerval they contained
(Cmaj7. Cmaj7h5. and C-maj7) are now available as 9th chords (Cmaj9. Cmaj9b5, C-maj9), since tension 9 has
removed the b9th interval that was produced between the 7th and root. Although these inversions are now available,
they do run the risk of violating "Low Interval Limits" since the 7th is in the bass. To avoid this problem, non-drop
2 type voicings. which contain the same basic ·'width'" as drop 2 type voicings, can be used to substitute these third
inversion drop 2 ninth chords:
By removing the fifth degree from a root-inversion close position ninth chord. a fo ur-note voicing comainmg lensior.
9 in the top voice is produced:

Cmaj7(9) no 5 -#Q,-1.._..- -11 C6(9) no 5 _,.,,.._1~-----+111

These voicings can effectively substitute the third inversion drop 2 ninth chords while retaining the desired tension
9 in the lead:

9 can substitute 9
7(6) 5
3 3
1 7(6)
If the 5th degree is needed in these substimte ninth chords, the third can be removed:
Cmaj9(no3) 9
7(6)
5
l

30
When LIL is not an issue, voice leading, sound, and fingering will determine which voicing is best. Examine the
previous list of 9th chords using the new omitted 5th or omitted 3rd ninth chords discussed:

Cmaj7(9) = 1 3 7 9 C7(9) = 1 3 b7 9
Cmaj7b5(9) = 1 b5· 7 9 C7(b9) = 1 3 b7 b9
C-maj7(9) = 1 b3 7 9 C7(#9) = 1 3 b7 #9
C-7(9) = 1 b3 b7 9 C7b 5(9) = 1 b5 b7 '9
C-7b5(9) = 1 bs b7 9 C7b5(b9) = I b5 b7 b9 *
C6(9) = 1 3 6 9 C7 b5 (#9) = i bs b7 #9*
C-6(9) = 1 b3 6 9 C+7(9) = 115~79
C+7(b9) = 1 5 b7 b9 *
C+7(#9) = 1 5 b7 #9 *
C7sus4(9) = 1 4 b7 9
C7sus4(b9) = 1 4 j,7 b9 *

*These voicings will be omitted from this chapter, due to the b9th intervals or the ambiguous sounds produced. Most
will reappear later in more appropriate chapters.
Note: Four of the above voicings have produced previously introduced drop 2 type voicings:

Cmaj7b5(9) ......................... { 1 bs 7 9} = Ab 7b5(#9) I Dl3


C-7b5(9) and C7b5(9)......... { l bs b7 9} = D+7/ A~9~ 5
C9sus4 ................................. { l 4 b7 9 } = D-7 #5
Since the drop 2 inversions are known, they can be applied to these ninth chords:

Cmaj7b5(9); 9 bs 7 1 ,,
7 1 9 bs
bs 7 1 9
1 9 bs 7

C-7b5(9) or C7b5(9); 9 bs b7 1
b7 1 9 bs
b5 j,7 1 9
1 9 bs b7

C9sus4; 9 4 b7 1
'
b7 1 9 4
4 b7 1 9
9 4 b7
~'Common notation for the root inversion of C9sus4 is Bb/C.
Two additional ninth (omit 5) chord voicings whose inversions will be examined are maj6(9) and dom7(9):

maj6(9) 9 .".::. 6 dom7(9) 9 3


6 1 9 3 l 3
3 6 1 9 3 b7 1 9
I 9 3 6 9 3 b7

*The l stinversionofthemaj9 fl 3 7 9 } and3rd inversionofrhe dom7b9 {l 3 b9 b7} willbeexaminedinlater


chapters.

31
Note the C+7(9) no 3 voicing { 1 #5 b7 9} is equivalent to the Bb 7(9) no 5 voicing { 1 3 b7 9}.

C+7(9); 1 #5 b7 9

t t t t
c G# Bb D
t I i i i
B b7(9J; 9 b7 l 3

Since t-he dom7(9) inversions will be used. they can be realized on the dom7# 5(9):

9 #5 b7

b7 9 #S
#5 b7 9

9 #5 b7

At thi s point. we shou ld summarize the substitution possibilities presented for e ach chord, including Sub V chords
of the non-drop 2 dominam ninth chords with omitted 3rd or 5th:

C -7"5 = Bb 9sus4 { l 4 b7 9}
C+7 = G b9b5 = Bb9b5 I Bb-9b5 { J b5 b7 9} = E (alt5 ) { 1 3 bs #S} [Sub V of Bb 9b5]
C7(9) = Gb7(#51b9) = E-7b5 = G-6 = A7sus4(b9)
C7(9) = D+7(9) { 1 #5 b7 9} = F#7(alt5) {3 bs #5 b7} [Sub v of C9] = Ab9(alt5) { 1 bs #5 9 }
{13b79} [Sub V of D+7(9)]
C maj7(9) = E-7 = G6 = A9sus4
C7b5 = G~ 7 b5= Ab+7(9) = D+7 (9)
Cmaj7b5 = A-6(9) = Ab7(#51#9) = D7(9/13)
Cmaj9b 5 = D6(9) { l 3 6 9}
Cmaj7 = A-9
C-maj7 = A-7b5(9)
Cmaj7( ~ 5 ' = A-maj9
C6(9 ) = A7sus4
C7(b9) = (C# 0 I E 0 i G 0 I Bb 0 ) (C7Cb 9)1F#7(b9)/A7(b9)/Eb7(b 9))
C7(#9l = F# 13(b9)
C7 = F#7Cb5/b9)
C7b5(#9) = Gb7(13) = Emai9b5 { I bs 7 9)
C7( ~9 J = F¥ 13b5 {3 bs ~7 !3} [Sub VofC7]
I 1 3· b7 #9}

The Sub V c hord of the C7(~9) { l 3 b7 b9} chord is F#7( # ll ) {3 5 b7 #11 }. Thi s Sub V chord will not be available
to the roOL inversion C7(b9) chord becau se of the b9rh interval between the 5th and# 11 th of the F#7C# 11 ) chord.
In the next chapter, f ~ 7( ~ 11 ) will reappear on the third inversion of the C7(b 9) chord. These ninth (omit 3rd or 5th)
chord voicings, as well as the d:-op 2 type voicings, will have some very interesting additional substitution
possibilities in later chapters.

32
Each 9th chord and applicable inversions previously examined will be presented in the following II-V-I chord
cadence examples. As mentioned earlier, when a single voice is notated on the staff, it will be considered the top
note of a drop 2 type voicing. If a non-drop 2 type voicing is used, all four voices will be notated. This approach will
be used throughout this text.

Imaj7(9) I drop 2 type voicings:

Imuj7(9) = III-7 = V6 = VI9sus4


Cmaj7(9) = E-7 = 06 = A9sus4

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omit
5) voicing:

5 7 9 9
9 3 _,<: 7
7 9 3 3
3 5 7 1

D-7 G7 C maj7(9) D-7 G7 Cmaj9 A-7 D7 Gmaj9


..0. ..0.

4
0 -& -& -& -&
--~
0

Ii 1: II

[IDaj1bs(9) 1

This is a unique chord in that the drop 2 type voicings produce ninth (omit 5) enharmonic substitute voicings and
the ninth (omit 3) chord produces a drop 2 type enharmonic substitute chord.

< Cmaj7b5(9)
Imaj7b5(9) (drop2)
(drop 2)
=
=
II6(9)no 5
D6(9)no 5
>
<Irnaj7b.5(9)110 3
Cmaj7b5(9)no 3
=
=
bV17(b 51#9) (drop 2) I II13 (drop 2)
Ab7b5(#9) (drop 2) I Dl3 (drop 2)
>
A voiding tension 9 on the Sth strin 0 leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omit
(T

3) voicing.

bs 7 9 Q
/

·9 3 bs 7
7 9 3 bs
~
-· bs 7 1

D-7 G7 Cmaj7b5(9\ D-7 G7 Cmaj9b5 A-7 D7 Gmaj9b5


n

l
0 0 €- Jl -& -& -&
lO

II II II

33
Imin. maj7(9)I drop 2 type voicings:
I-maj7(9) = bIIImaj7#5
C-maj7(9) = E~maj7'5
Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omit 5) chord. Due to the physically awkward
fi ngering produced by the 2nd inversion, its register might be limited.

5 7 9 9
9 b3 5 7
7 9 b3 b3
b3 5 7 1

D-7b5 G7 C-maj7(9) D-7b5 G7 C-maj9 A-7b5 Ao7 G-maj9


--& .0. .0.
0 0 0 -e- -& -e-

Ii II II

'
Imin7(9) I drop 2 type voicings:
I-7(9) = bTIImaj7
C-7(9) = E~maj7

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (omft 5) chord.

5 b7 9 9
9 b3 5 b7
b7 9 b3 b3
b3 5 b7 l

D-7(9) D0 7 Cmaj9 A-9 D7b 5 Gmaj 9 A-9 D7b5 Gmaj 7b5


-e- ..Cl.
-e- oe- 0 0 #o -e- ..Cl.

l II II II

34
I min7b5(9) I
< l-7b,5(9) (drop 2) = ~ Ili-maj7 (drop 2) >
C-7~5(9) (drop 2) = Eb -maj7 (drop 2)
I-7~5(9)no 3 = II-r-7 (drop 2) lb VI9b5 (drop 2) >
< C-7b5(9)no 3 = D+7 (drop 2) I Ab9bs (drop 2)

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of three good ninth (omit 5) chord inversions. Due to the
physically awkward fingerings produced by the 2nd and 3rd drop 2 inversions, their registers might be iimited.
drop 2; bs bi 9 ninth (omit 3); 9 ~7 J
9 b3 bs ·b7. 9 bs
b7 9 b3 ,b5 I 9
b3 bs b7 1 bs b7

D-7P5(9) G+7 C-maj9 C-7b5(9 ) F7#5 BP6


'
b-e. . IJ.o.. b.o. -&

~
0 Q Q
ll -9-
1
,. \~ 8F : (~
tr - jj

A-7b5(9 ) .A.07 Gmaj7b5 A-7b5(9) Ao? G-maj9


.0. -& .0. -& -&

~
lz~ 0f
'! 11 'i II
Those rnin7b 5(9) voicings containing no third will be examined later in this chapter for their dominant quality as
well : dom7b5(9).

J maj6(9) I
< J6(9) (drop 2) = VI7sus4 (drop '.2) >
C6(9) (drop 2) = A7sus4 (droo 2)
< I6(9)no 5
- C6(9)no 5
=
=
bVIlmaj9b5 ·(drop 2)
B ~maj9b 5 (drop 2 )
>
Th ree applicable drop 1 inversions and rbre~ applicabie ninth (no 5 J chord inversions:
dr0p 2; 5 6 9 ninth lnO 5): 9 6
9 3 5 ..,
6.., 9 _1
6 9 _1 .) l 9
3 5 6 3 6
Drop 2;

D-9 Ab o? C6(9 ; D-1 G7 C6(9 ) A-'7 D7 G5(9 '


~ 0 0 0

!!

Ninth (no 5) Chord;

D -7 Bo7 C6(9) A-9 D7~5 G6(9) F7sus4 B7 Bb6(9 )


..-.TI\ e ~o -& Q .If -& b.u -a- b.n.
.....
={t·
J' =: II
"

':!r:.
~._,
~ 211 ~~ II
Imin6(9) I drop 2 type voic ings:

I-6(9) = bIIIma j7 b5 = VII7(#51# 9) I IV7(9/1 3)


C -6(9) = E~maj7 b s = B7( #51#9) I F7(9/1 3)

Three applicable drop 2 inversions with the addition of one ninth (no 5) chord voicing. Due to the physicaUy awkward
fingerings produced by the drop 2 (2nd inversion), its register might be li mited.

5 6 9 9
9 b3 5 6
6 9 b3 b3
b3 5 6 I

D-7115 G 7b5 C -6(9) D-7b5 Abo7 C -6(9 ) A-ns D +7 G-6(9 )


~ b,e- ~ Q 0
b.o. -e-

4
0 0

II II II

DOMINANT 9TH CHORDS

Idom7(9) I drop2 {3 5 b7 9} Ninth no 5 {1 3 b7 9}


/

C9 {3 5 b7 9} = E -7b 5 I G -6 I F# ?(b 91#5)


C 9 {I 3 b7 9 ) = F#7(alt5)

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and thre e applicable ninth (no 5) chord
inversions :

drop 2; 5 b7
.., 9 ninth \no 5 ); 9 b7 ..,
q .) 5.., b7
,.,
9 _;
p/ 9 _) .) I 9
....,
3 5 p7 .) b7

Drop 2: D -9 G9 Cmaj9 E -7 A9 Dmaj7 A-7 D9 G m aj9


-e. -e- -e. -e-
¥~
0 0 0 ~

II II @
I
I

~
B~ -9
1 i
A h-9 D ti 7 ( ~9/f 5 ) G tnnaj 9 E b7(b9/#5 ) Ab6 E !J -9 Av 7 ( ~9/ ~5) D b6(9 )
~..o.. -e- ~ a ~ b..o.. -e- ~

~
0
SUBV II II II

36
Ninth (no 5);
D-9 G9 Cmaj9 G7sus4 C9 Fmaj 7 F 7sus4 B!>9 E b6
-e- ~..Q. b.n. b.o. bn
¥"
a

·:
-&

I II I! h'~ II
'
I

I
"'' ~· v
A~ -9 Do7(alt 5) Gt1 m a,i8 C1-9 F:l7(alt1' ' Bmaj7
1
B-7 E 7(a1t5 ) &-naj9
I
!J..o._ -e- i:>-0- to t& z:..e. be- b.o. ~
SUB \'
~ I'. 1! II

I dom7(b9 J l ninth1no51c.:i1ord!1 3 97 79 l
C7(b9) 13 5 b7 ~91 = Do. E, G. and/or Bbdim7 (Eb7(b9 ), F~ 7(b9) , anci/or .~ 7(o9 !J
Four applicable drop 2 inversions plus one additional ninth (no 5) chord inversion. T he drop 2 Sub V chords need
not be presented. since transposing these exercises by a tritone (and minor thirds) will produce the same examples.
T he S ub V will be avoided on the ninth (no 5) chord voicing d ue to the b9th interval produced by S over # l l. The
~9th inte rval produced by b9 over the root is availabie on dominant chords.

A-7 D 7b 9 Gmaj9 A-7 D7b9 Gmaj9


.. :±e -& -e- -€>-

~
0 ;;o 0
Drop 2:
I! II
D -.,...I G7b9 Cmaj7 D-9 G7b9 Cmaj9

-~
-& ·F e-
e e ( }

i __=:Jj
:=t'.
Ninth 1no 3 1;

D 7su s4 Q 7,9 C6(9 ,


~
~Q
C:-&

~
~ ~~ II

37
jdom7(#9)1 drop2 {3 5 b7 #9} ninth (no 5) chord {I 3 b7 #9 }

C7 ( #9) {3 5 b7 9 i # = F~ l3(b9)
C7(#9) {1 3 b7 #9J = F~ 13(b5)
A voiding tension #9 on the 5th string )eaves three applicable drop 2 inversions plus one ninth (no 5) chord inversion.
Due to the difficult fingerings produced by the second and third inversions of the drop 2 voicings. their registers
might be limited.
drop 2; b7 ninth (no 5): #9
3 ~7
#9 3
3 s b7

B?7rn9) G7(#9)
G-9 C7(#9) Fmaj9 F-7 Ebmaj7(b5) D-9 Cmaj7(b5) D-9 G7(#9) Cmaj?
-e- ~ ..0.

I!
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
'I'
,j, 'ii \i'
F#13(b9) E13(b9) Dt> 13(b9) Db i3(b5)
C#-9 B6(9) B-9 A6 Ab-9 G~maj9 Ab-9 Gbmaj9
qo #o -& l>e- ~ b.o. b.o. l>e- b.o. b.o. l>e-
SUB V II II II II
(Eb/E)

ldom7b5(9) I drop2 {3 bs b7 9) ninth (no 3) chord { 1 bs b7 9 }


C9(b5){3b5b79} = F~+7 . .
C9(b5){lb5 b79 } = D,.7 I A~9(b 5 l

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicable ninth (no 3 1chord
inversions:
drop 2; b5 b7 9 ninth (no 3): 9 b7 l
9 3 t1 5 b7 9 bs
b7 '~)-
9 -·
"l
1 9
3 bs ~7 1 !,s b7

38
Drop 2; G-9 C9(b5) Fmaj9 G-7 C9b5 Fmaj7 D7sus4 G9b5 Cmaj9
-a- 0
b.o. b.o. -e- 0 e- 0

'4 C#-9
ii
F#+7 Bmaj9
II

C#-9
.0.
F#+7
~
I Bmaj7
~
II

Ab-7
!>&
I

~
~
II
I

Db+7 Gbmaj7(b5)
r
().O.
II

je ~e
SUBV #o II II II
Ninth (no 3);
D-7b5 G9b5 Cmaj7b5 D7sus4 G9b5 C6(9) G7sus4 C9b5 Fmaj7
-e- -e- .il -& b..ci -&

t~'·)
0 0

' p i'')
....... 1
II i. ... •
II ~};) 1 '~J II
Ab -7
'I-
Db7(alt5) Gbmaj7 Ao-7
~
Db(alt5) Gbmaj9 C#-7 F #(alt5)
l B6
l>e- ~ b.o.. I
Ire- .il
I
().0.

~
f>o !HJ
I #o
SUBV
II Ii II

ldom7b5(~9) I drop2 {3 b5 b7 b9}


C7b5(b9) {3. b5 b7 b9} = F#7
The ninth (no 3) voicing will be omitted, due to the b9th interval produced. This voicing will reappear in a later
chapter as a hybrid chord.

Four applicable inversions: 3 bs b7


b7 : b9 3
bs b7 I
b9 3
b9 3 bs b7
E7(b9/b5) E7(b9/b5) D7(b9/b 5) Bb7 (b 9/b5)
B-7 Amaj7 B-9 A6(9) A-9 Gmaj9 F7sus4 I Ebmaj7
-e- #o -e- b.o.

~I
#~
()-0-
a
il ~e ~
0
II
I! !I II

' F7sus4 Bb7


b..o.. !>&
I
,}
Ebmaj7
0
F-9

II
Q
Bb7
1
E' . E b7sus Ab7 D!imaj9
>maJ 9
e---e !)-&
~
D-0-
w

II
B-7
~
i
w
E7
:k·
·'
Amaj7
~o

~
'
SUBV II

39
ldom7bS(#9)1 drop2 {3 b5 b7 #9 }

C7b5(#9) = F~ 13

Only tvvo practical drop 2 inversions will be used. The root inversion will be omitted because of the b9tb interval
produced by the 3rd over the ~9th. The third inversion will be omitted because of the awkward fingering produced.
The ninth (no 3) chord voicing will be omitted because it has become a rnin7b5 chord. This ninth (no 3) chord voicing
might reappear in later chapters where incomplete Yoicings are more appropriate.

b5 b7 G-9 C7(~9t:i5) Fmaj9 E-7 A7(~9/b5) Dmaj9


t9 3 -e- ~ -&

i
,.e Q Q
~7
....
-~
~9
(-
p)
II 1 II
l
~

~I

F#7sus4 FU3 B6(9) BD-9 ED13 AD6


ie ~0
~ ~

4
0
It
SUB V II tt1

J d om7#5(9) I drop2 {3#5 b7 9i ninth (no 3) chord { 1 ff 5 b7 9}

C9#5 {3 #5 b7 9} = E7b5 / B~7b5 / F#9# 5


C9# 5(no 3) { 1 #5 b7 9) = F#9(alt5)/ B b9(no 5) {1 3 b7 9 } I i:."tlalD)

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and three applicabJe ninth (no 3) chord
inversions. T he Sub V chord will not be included in the drop 2 examples because, like its dom7b5 substitute. it
..mirrors" its original dominant chord: C9#5 = F#9#5.

drop 2; ;s b7 9 ninth (no 3); 9 b7


..,
9 .) #5 b7 9 #S
b7 9 3 #S 9
., -
--. ~= 0 I tt) \J 7
Drop 2;
G-9 C+7(9) Fmaj9 E-7 A9~5 Dmaj9 C-9 F9#5 B:imaj9
-& ~ a 0 Q -& Q Q
e
II II II

'
Ninth (no 3;;

~n
C-9 F9~5 Btimaj ~I

-e-
C-9 po ~ .":";
--~
Btimaj 9 G-9
-&
C9~ 5
b..o.
F6
-e-
:th~
0 e

~
I! !~ II !I~
' J

I II
,; ~· t
F:-7 B9Calt5> Emaj7 Fi:! -9 B9(alt5) Emaj7 C #-7 F#9(alt5 ) Bmaj7
-e- cto b.e
..0. it.a- ~

l
Q '!:Q i;o
SUB V II II II
(E!>9) (Eb9) (B b9)
40
Idom7#5(~9) I drop2 {3 #5 b7 b9 }
C7(b91#5) = Db -6 I Bb-7b5 I F#9
The ninth (no 3) chord voicing will be omitted, due to the awkward fingering and the b9th interval produced. The
drop 2 Sub V chord produced is a dom9 chord, and although all four inversions are available to the dom7# 5(b9)
chord, the inversion producing tension 9 on the 5th string on the dom9 Sub V chord will be omitte d. There are four
applicable inversions:
b7
3
b9
3 #S
C +7(b 9 ) B b7(b9/#5 )E , F7#5(b 9) E7(b 9/~5 )
G-9 Fmaj9 F-7 '6 C-9 B b6(9) B-9 Arnaj9
~ D-e- b-e- b.o.
-e- 0

I!

I!
0
61 0

II
-e-
;I ±to
I

II

' I I

II
C~-9
J
F~9 Bmaj9
l
Sub V not applicable F #-9
I
.jr
B9 Emaj 9 F-7 B"'b9 E bm aj7

'fo
(9 on 5th srring) I

~o :So ;o :[¥0 #o iJ.e. ~ 0

SUBY II II II II
,,
ldom7#5(#9)1 drop2 {3 #S b7 #9}

C7(#91#5) = Emaj7b5

The ninth (no 3) voicing will be omitted. due to its incomplete nature. It forms a complete min7# 5 chord, which will
be examined later for its dominant qualities. ·

Avoiding tension #9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 voicings:

#9
!~
b7
,..,
::> #5

3
7
g 3
b7

E-7 A+7(#9) Dmaj7b 5 G-9 C7 l #9/~5 ) F6(9) D-9 G7(#9/#5 ) Cmaj7b5


0 ~ ~-e- ~ 0 -e. ie- .a.

1 II II ·3
' ~
I

Sub V not applicable


(9 on 5th string)
C#-9
±to ±to
"'
F~7 ( 13/9) B6(9)
....a G#-7
~o
I
-ii
C tt7(13/9) F#maj 9
ie- ~o
SUBV II" Ii II
'
41
J dom7sus4(9) I drop2 {4 5 b7 9} ninth (no 5) { 1 4 b7 9}
C9sus4 {4 5 b7 9} = G-7 I Bb 6
C9sus4 {l 4 b7 9} = D-7#5

A voiding rension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable drop 2 inversions and rhree applicable ninth (no 5) chord
inve rsions:

drop 2; 5 b7 9 ninth (no 5); 9 b7 l


9 4 5 b7 9 4
b7 9 4 4 l 9
4 5 b7 I 4 b7
Drop 2;

G-7 C9(sus4) Fmaj9 F-9 Bb9sus4 E~ maj 9 D-9 G9(sus4) Cmaj9


I
~ Dn -e-
-&
a_=$,
4 e 0 0 0

1: II
(G-7) (F-7 ) (D-7)

Ninth(noS ):

D7sus4 G9sus4 Cmaj7 G7sus4 C9sus4 Fmaj7 D7sus4 G9sus4 C6(9 )


-& ..0.. -e- b..o.. -&

~
0 0 0 0

II II II
(A-7#5) (D-7#5) (A-7#5)
(F/G)

I dom7sus4(b9) I drop2 {4 S b7 b9)

C7sus" ,9; = G-7h5 I B'7-6

The ninth t no 5) c hord voicing will be omitted due to theb9th interval. It will reappear later as a hybrid chord. There
arc four applicable drop 2 inversions:
i 7
4 5 /}, b9
b7 b9 4 5
s b7 b9 4
b9 4 _,.:; b7
F7sus4 Bb7sus4(b9) E11maj7 D-7 G7sus4(b9 J Cmaj9
I
D.O.. o-e- -e- p.e..
t Q
______, 0

@ I I~
(F-7b5 ) (D-7b5)

G-7 C7sus4(b9J Fmaj9 C-1 F7sus(b9 1 B ~maj9


b..a. -e-
-~
e 0 0 0

~
CG-7b5)
i (C-7b5)
II
42
TENSION ADDITION BY STRING
In the following chord progression, voice tension 9 on the 2nd string only. Use drop 2 type voicings first, then repeat
using the ninth (no 5) chord voicings only. This is a good example of the ninth (no 5) voicings being more appropriate
since the drop 2 voicings, having the 7th in the bass, travel below the recommended Low Interval Limits.

G7(9) Fmaj7(9) E7(~9) D-7(9) D~7(9) Cmaj7(9)

Now voice tension 9 on the 3rd string only in the abMe chord progression.
Finally, voice tension 9 on the 4th string only in the below chord progression.

C7(9) B7(~9) B~maj7(9) A7(~9) G-7(9) G~7(9) Fmaj7(9)

Tension 9 on the 5th string will be avoided.


In the following chord progression, tension 9 alternates between the 2nd, 3rd . and 4th strings. After preparing this
progression, the student should compose his or her own line on the same progression using a 9th tension on
each chord.
Cmaj9 A7(b9) D-9 G9 E-7P5(9) A7(b5/~9) D-9 F-6(9) C6(9)

F r 1r r 1#r
a -6-

r 0

!!

'
11 1;

The following examples will use various ninth chords over a typical "Jazz" or "II-V" blues form. Remember to try
both drop 2 and ninth with omitted 3rd or 5th voicings when tension 9 is in the lead. Inversions of the ninth (no 3)
or ninth (no 5) chord voicings beyond the root inversion with 9 in the lead will be completely notated.
- \ I ' r . •. l -~ ~-:--:::>
\.'- ~ 1 ._ :;-:/.'--) \_rQ.nt?YJ \ ,..._>( ,,wr-. ' . ,
-... :
Fmaj9 E-7b5(9 ) D-9 G7(b9) C-9 F+7(#9)
~
f bf #r

Bb9 Bb-9 E b9 A-9 D7b5(b 9) A~ -9 Dli7D5(9)

1* tr
~p.
G
tr 1f 'I !bF bo
I

'
G-9 G9sus4 C7b5(#9) C7#5(b9) F6(9) D7#5(#9) G-9 C9#5 F9

l#f #j ~ b~ ~ 0

1F I' II II

43
This next example makes use of several different ninth chord inversions with the omitted third or the omitted fifth.
Note the chromatic voice-leading in bars two, three, and four into bar five. Also note the voice-led scale pattern in
the last three bars before the e nd. The same "II-V" blues form used above has been transposed to the key of ''B ~"
for this exampie.

/),'
~ ~Bbmaj9 Bb6(9) A-7b5(9) D7(#5/ti9) G-6(9) C7(tt5/#9) F9sus4 B b9#5

j' or 'DO
!? ?- ~

l"f I I Iw'2
I
I

Eb7b5(#9J Eb-9 Ab 9 D-9 G9#5 Db-9 Gb7#5(#9)

r
I
-6- o.a. be- -6- b-e . ~
'. I: I I §a&:
C-9 F7tt5(b9) Bb9 G7::5(b9) C9 F7sus4(b9 ) Bb9
F7 sus4(b 9 ) 1
ba. b.n
&'f e I
11m Df , ~
~
I lr llfrfl 11

The following dominant "turnaround" example uses all four of the inversions of the dom9(no 5) chord.

Bb9 G9 Gb9 F9 Bb9


I
b.o..
!z~E~!
~ ~~ ~§,;; 1t § II 1><~ II

Tension 9 on the 5th string for the above F9 chord has been included for demonstrative purposes. It is above the L.I.L.
for tension 9.

44
Chapter 8.
Tension 11
There are three basic substitution approaches to adding tension 11 to basic four-part 7th & 6th chords:

11 for 5 { 1 3 7 11 }
11 for 3 { 1 5 7 11 }
11 for R {3 5 7 I I }

11 for 3 or 5 is the traditional drop 2 substitutional approach. while 11 for the ram can oflen produce a new drop 2
or ninth c hord with omitted 3rd or 5th. 11 for the root or Sth , subsequently retaining the guide tones, is in most cases
preferable. If the 5th is needed, the root would be the preferred note ro omit with the 3rd being the last choice.

The addition of tension 11 to some oflhe basic four-part chords can produce both physical and harmonic difficulties
wiihin certain inversions. This in itself might dictate which note the 1.lth should substitute. As these probiems arise
rhey will be addressed and appropriate recommendations wi 11 foll.ow. Some of these difficult inversions will become
quite useful as addilional tensions are added.

By use of enharmonics, the previous four-part 7th & 6th chords and 9th chords produce some of the mosr useful J 1th
chord structures:

Cmaj7(~11 ) ( l I for 5] = Cmaj7b5


C6(#11) l 11 for 5] = C6b5 I A-6 I F #-7b5
C -7(11) [llfor5] = F7sus4
,,
[llfor3] = C7sus4
[11 for R] = G~7 # 5
C-7 b5(11) [11for3) = G~maj7b5
C 7(#11) [11 for 5) = C7b5

C +7(# 11) I C7(alt5)/ C7(b5/b 13)


[11 for R] = Gb9(no 5 )
r11 for 3] = Ab9(no 5J

\'ote the unique s ubstitutions arising from the [11for3) C+7(~ 11) chord. Since this voicing is the same as Ab9
{ l 3 ~ 7 9), the past Ab9 substitutions can be added to C+7(# 11) and its Sub V chord Gb9b5 { 1 3 b5 9 ). When 1bis
j::, done. a domi nant type chord appears 011 each note of a whole tone sea.le:

c Gb G~ Bb
C+7(#11J I bs ~5 b7
D7(alt5) b7 '
·' ~5 ,~
-.
E9ialt5) ~: 9 _.., p)

F!9(b 5) bs
-.
l 0
.; 3 (F~maj9b5 )
Ab9 ..) b7
i ....,
9
Bb9<f 5) 9 li5
,, DI

*C-6(11 l [ 11 for 5) = F7
[ l l for 3] = A-7#5
f l ! for RJ :. F9(no 5 )
*C-maj7(1 1) [ 11 for R] = G+7

~-The inversions containing the 11 thin the bass are weakest.

The tritonc produced by the notes Band r (on the C -maj7(1 I) chord) forms an ambiguous or weak sound, since ir
is the guide Lones of G7, C minor's V7 chord . The two inversions placing the tritone in the bottom of the voicing
ar1; weakest.

45
Seven new voicings will be introduced in this chapter:

Cmaj7(#11) [11 for 3] {15 7#11}


[11 for R] {357 !11 }
C6(#11) (11 for3] {156#11 }
[11 for R] { 356~ 11 1
C-7bS(ll) (11 for R] {b 3 b5 b711}
C7(#11) (11 for 3] {1 5 b7 #11)
[1 1 fo r R] {35b7#1I}
C-maj7(11) [ 11 for 3) {l 5 7 11 }
(11 for5] {lb37 11 }
Note the above voicings that function for two differenl chords:

Cmaj7(# 11) [11 for R] -7 3 5 7 #11


E G B F#
b3 bs b7 llf-C# -7b5(1 1) [11 forR]

C7(#11 ) [1 1 for 3] -7 1 5 #11


c G Fff
11 7 f - G-maj7(1 l) [11for5]

Many of these new voicings create physical and harmonic problems within certain inversions. Consideration should
be given to the desired sound and the appropriate context when using these inversions. The tritone can produce a
unique, if not weak, sound when placed in the middle of the following voicings:
7
Cmaj7(#11) [1 1 for 3] #11
1 ~
5
b7
i 11
~
C7(#11) [11 for 3] II

1
5
0
C6( #11) [llfor3] ~ 11
"l ~
5
b3
C-maj7(11) [ 11 for 5] 7 --i
l J __J
1

46
Imaj7(#11) I
11for5 {137#11} = maj7b5
There are three applicable voicings 3 bs 7
7 1
bs 7 1
1 3 bs

G-7 C7(#5/ #9) Fmaj7b5 A7sus4 A7b5 Dmaj7b5 G7sus4 G7b5 Cmaj7b5
0 #o -& -& e. !,a- -& .o_ ..0..

II II II

' 11for3 {l 5 7 #11 }

There are two applicable voicings: #11 7


7 #11
5 1
1 5

G-9 C7b5 Fmaj7(#11) B-9 E7(#9) Amaj7(#11)


-& b..a. ~ #o
ll#o 0

II

11for1 ' {357#11 }

There are three applicable voicings: #I I


Cmaj7(# 11)

5 7
= C#-7b5(11)

7 #11 #11
5,, 7 3
_)
'
..; 5

B-9 E+7 ..A..maj 7(~ 11) E-9 A+ 7 Dmaj7(~ 11 ) E-9 E Vi(b5/#9) Dmaj7(#11)
..a.
##~ i&~
-& '\io c -&

11~
0
"
II II

' 'H

47
Imaj6(#11) I
11for5 {l 3 6 #11} = maj6(b5) C6(b 5) = A-6 / F#-7b5
There are fou r applicable voicings: 3 bs 6 l
6 l 3 bs
bs 6 1 3
1 3 b5 6
G7(#5/ b 9)
G-7 C7(#5/b9) F6b5 E-9 A7 (# 5/~ 9 ) D6b5 D7sus4 C6b5 B-9 E+7 A6b5
0 b-e- 0 .;+.. 0 -e- #o -e-
II II II
11for3 {15 6 #11}

T here are two applicable voicings: 6 1 B-7 E7(fi9) A6(#11) B-9 Bb7 A6rnll )
ll 11 5 -e- -e- b.n. -e-
·'1 ~o
s
#11
6 @ ;e#! II 1;: ffi
11for1 {35 6#11 }
There are two applicable voicings: 6 5 Db7(b5/#9)
#11 #11 D-9 C6(#11)
3 6
5 3 II
lmin7(11) I
llforS {1 b3 b7 ll}C-7(11) = F7sus4
All fem inversions are appiicable: b3 JI b7 l
~7 1 ~3 11
]J h7 1 b3
b3 11 b7

C-7(11 ) B9 Bb6(9 ) E-1(11 ) A7b5 Dmaj7 C-7(11) F7(b9) Bbmaj9 G-7(11 ) C7b9 F6(9 )

'
I
-& -& -& D..O. -& -&
lte se 0 0 0

"" !I !! II II
11for3 11 5 b7 i ! l C- 7(li ! = C7sus-l

A ll four inversions are applicable: JJ 5 b7 1


'
1 1I 5
5 ~7 J 11
1 J l 5 b7

C-7(11) F7b9 B, maj9 C-7<il) F+7(b9) B='maj9 A- 7(11) Ab7 Gmaj9 A-7(11 ) Ab7 Gmaj9
60 n bo ~o -e- -e- b-e- b-e-
t!
Q
e e e
Ii ..ii Ii II
48
11for1 {~3 5 b7 11 }C-7(11) = G-7(~5)
I

All four inversions are applicable: 11 5 i,7 b3


b7 b3 11 5
5 b7 b3 11
b3 11 5 b7

C-7(11) B7 Bb6(9)
0 ,o io ~e

(Eb/F)

Imin7~5(11)] 11for5 not applicable

llfor3 {lbs b 7ll } C-7~5(JJl = Gbmaj7b5

There are three applicable inversions: 11 b7 1


~7 11 b5
b5 1 11
1 bs b7

C-7P5(11) B7 B~ - 6(9) C-7~ 5(11 ) F7b9 B~ -maj9 G-7~5(11) Gb7 F-6


b..a. -e- -& 0 bo 0

II II II

11for1 {b3 bs h7 ll}C-7~5(11 ) = Bmaj7(~11)

There are three applicable inversions: 11 bs b7


b7 11 11
bs 1~
P I b3
b3 b3 bs

D-7b5(11) Db 7 C-6 C-7b5(11 J F7~5 Bb-6 D-7~5(11) G7rn5/#9 ) C-6(9J


~.o.
I
I
0-0- ' b..o. .a- b ~.n

1I
0 ~
i!~
lift ii
'
!I -9-- II

49
l min6(11) I
Tension 11 on a min6 chord produces a very strong IV chord sound in relation to the Irnin6 chord:

C-6(11) ; 11 for 5 = F7
11for3 = F(add9) (A-7#5)
11for1 = F9

Those voicings containing the characteristic b3rd of the min6 chord might sound a little more complete than the l !
for 3 voicing { 1 5 6 11 }.

11for5 {Ib3611}
The re are four applicable inversions: b3 lJ 6 1
6 J b3 11
11 6 l b3
l b3 11 6

F~-7b 5 B7b5 E-6(11) D-7P 5 G'i C-6(11) D-7o5 G7 (# 9/~5) C- 6( 11 ) A -7P5 D7(b9) G-6(11)
-& -& ~ -& b.o. ~

~
,j,I.
0 0 e 0 0

I~ Ii I!
~e
II
j
IV (C,7 )
(A 7) (F7 l (F7 >

11for3 {l 5 6 11 }

There are four applicable inversions: 11 5 6 I


6 l 11 5
5 6 1 11
11 5 6

F~-7 b 5 F7 E-6(11) E -7i15(11) E:i7 D-6(11) B-7b5 E 7(tt9) A -6( 11) A-7', 5 D7(~ 9/~5 ) G-6(11>

ii j!
b.a. -e- -e- 0 ~
- 0
§ I! i: 'Z !~

11for1 {b3 5 6 11)

There are fou r applicable inversions: 11 _; 6 b3


6 k- 11 5
_, 6 D3 1'l
-

b3 11 5 6

G-7b 5 Gb9 F; 6(11) D-7:, 5 G+7 C-6( 11) C-7b5 F7(b9) B~ -6(11) F#-7!, 5 B7(b9) E-6~ 11 )

~;
b..o.. b.n.
~ w
-&
~ h~
0
I!~ j :e ~e
0 Q

h'~ II !! II
4t)
(Bb9) (F9) (Eb9) (A9)

50
Iminor maj7 (11) I
The tritone produced by the 11 and 7 of a minor maj7 type chord is also the guide-tones (3 and b7) of its V7 chord,
producing a potentially ambiguous sound. The notes B and Fare both 11 and 7 of C-maj7(1 l) and 3 and b7 of G7.
The root and/orb 3rd of the min maj7 chord are basic chord tones that are not common to its V7 chord and best support
the 7 and 11 of the min.maj7 chord. This implies the f 1 b3 7 11 } voicing and is perhaps the strongest of the three
different voicings introduced here. Of all the voicings used, those inversions placing the tritone (11 and 7) in the
bottom are the weakest.

11for 5 {1 b3 7 11 } C-maj7(1 l ) = F7(~ 11 )


There are two applicable im'ersions: 7
7 ~3
I1
l 11

G-7b5 C7 (# 5/~9) F-maj7(11) D-7b5(11) G7(~9 ) C-maj7(11)


-&

~
! .n.
0 ~o • p-e.
q~* 11 Jf !I~ ! I!

11for3
' {15711}
There are three applicable inversions: 11 5 7
7 1 11
5 7 1
1 11 5

D-7b5 Db7 C-maj7(11) E-7b5 A7b5 D-m aj7(11) B-7'.,5 E 7(#9 1 A-maj7(11)
b.n.
~~
f t°
-& -& -&
e

-&
i Ii +· ~ II :; ~

11for1 {b 3 5 7 11} C-maj7( 11 ) = G+7


T here are four appiicabie inversions: 11 5 I b3
7 b3 11 5
5 7 b3 11
b3 11 7

D-maj7(11) C-maj7(11) A-mai7(11) G-maj7(11)


E-7b5 A7b9 D-7b5 G7(b 9 ) B-7b5 E7rn 9) ~ A-7b5 D7(b 9)
!>& -& .>j. -& b.o.
~
Q Q Q Q Q :t O Q

~
II e
II II I~
(A+7) (G+7) (E+7) CD+7)

--
51
Idom7(#11) I 11for5 { 1 3 b7 #11} = dom7b5
,.,_,
There are four applicable inversions: b5 ~7 l
b7 1 3 bs
bs b7 1 3
1 3 hs b7

G-9 C7b 5 Fmaj7


G-7 C7b5 Fmaj7 G-9 C7!?5 Fmaj9 D-7 G7b 5 Cmaj9
- .. . - ,u._ -e- b.o. -e- - ......
-" -
0 0
-~
~ ~
~

;
" "
~
I
l
C#-9 F #7b5 Bmaj7 C~-7 F~7~5 Bmaj9
,, '¥
C"-7 Gb7b5 BmaJ t
•r;
Ab-9 Db7bo GbmaJ9
'It
-
~J~a-o~,-,~jo~~
l l'-
; ~~~~~~
1 1 .o.~-
b~b_
.o.~~bo~~bo~~
~~ll
fj

SUBY ~ -· ; II I •.

11for3 {I 5 b7 #II} C7(# 11 _\ = G-maj7(1 1)


There are two applicable inversions:
~~ 1 b7
#11
5 1
1 5
Bb-7 Eb7(#11) Abmaj9 F-7b5(9) Eb-6
~ b.o. b.o.

:w
j
E7sus4 A7b5(b9) D6(9) B7sus4 E7b5(b9) Amaj7(#11)
-e- -e- -e- ~o
SUBY
II l
llforl {3 5 b7 #Il} C7(#11 ) = Gb7(~9) {l 3 b7 b9 }

There is one applicable voicing: ~~ l

3
This is the same voicing as the lst inversion of the ninth (no 5) voicing for a dom7(b9): i
B7sus4 E7(#11) Amaj9 3
.0. b9
b7


F-7(11) B h7(b 9) Eh6

SUB V
~~~~~b~~~-b~~~~
11

52
!dom7#S(# ll) I dom7(alt5) I [11 for 5 not applicable]

A unique chord in that 11 for 3 and 11 fo r i produce the same inversions found in the dom7(9) { l 3 b7 9} chord:
C7(alt5): 11 for 3 = Ab 9
11 for 5 = Gb9
11for3 b7#IJ}
I -
There are four applicable inversions: P>
l! . l
I.I I -
I•

H.5
•'
l
l ~5
,.

E7sus4 E7Calt 5 ) A6(9 ) A-9 D7(alt 5 ) Gmai9 E -9 A7(alt5) D6(9) D-9 G7Calt5) Cmaj 9
: -
~ on -e- -e- €-'
if ~o
Q 0

1:
v
i
J.
II ?J II
(E b9 )
.
(C9 ! (Bp9 1
'i'
(F9J
.., '!·
E D-7(11} A~ 9:i 5 Db6(9i Bb-7 Eb9b5 A'')6 Ab7sus DD 9(b 5 ) Gb6(9)
'0€- Oi l re.- ire- Q o-e- ~ n b-e-
SUBY ll., ~J §
~ I:
I

'. 1
t,

(Tension 9 on 5th string)

11for 1 {3 #5 b7 #11}
There are four applicable inversions: ~1 1 3
b7 f5
~ Ii
~7

A7(a1t5 )
A-7 D7(alt5 ) Gniaj9 G-9 C7<ait5) F maj9 E-7(11) D6(9) D-9 G7(ali5) Cm aj7b5

,j Dbmaj7(#11 ) "
t
'i' '•
E b-7(11) Ab9 C#7sus F::S Brna.F BP-0 E b9 Ab6 Av-S D'~9 G::i maj7
I

i~·~
-:o :t& !)-& 0 9--0- t.>.O. Cl.fr D.O..

SUB V k> hH Ii jl
~
(Tension 9 on 5th string)
(11 for 3 / 11 for 1 combinations):

D-9 G7(alt5 ) Cmaj9

(A :.>9; ! G~9 , (Eb9) (Db9)

53
The following examples will use various eleventh chords over a typical "Jazz" or "JT-V" blues form. Some unique
non-drop 2 type voicings have been introduced in this section. They will be fully notated when used.

Drop 2 type voicings also give the option of substituting tens.ion 11 for the 3rd or 5th of the chord. If the 5th is altered
or voiced in the lead, tension 11 will substitute the 3rd. When either option is availabie, voice-leading and L.I.L. will
determine which is best and will be fully notated when only one option is desired.

An additional voicing for the dom7tl5( # 11) or dom7(alt5) chord which was not presented earlier will be introduced
here. This voicing has the# ll th ( orb5th ) substituting the~ 7th; (1 3 ~5 #5), andenharmonicallyproduces adom7#5
chord: C7(alt5) (1 3 ~ 5 #5) = A~ +7. This voicing will appear several times in the following example.

Fmaj7(#11) E-7b5(11) A71'5 D-7(11 ) G7#5C#ll) C-7(11) F 7(alt5)

e
.12

E e I

1€ I~ 111r
~
' I

'
I

'
I
'
(A -n5) (E b9) (B9)

B b7 B b7b5 Bb-7(11J E9+7(#11) A -7(11) D+7(#11) A~-7 ( 11) DVi(alt5 )

!~
' r ~ I~
(Eb7sus4)
+f (B+7)
Ip~

(D7sus4)
~
(Bb+7)
•I
CG9)

G-7(11) G-7 C7(alt5 ) C9(b 5) F6(9) D7(~ 11 ) G-9 C7b5 Fmaj7(~11 )

t± b.a.. I

kr tlO.

~~!
a
i!~
~

1~~
I
~~~~
I
I
I· ~~ I! :: i
(A':> +7J <G~+7 )

54
The following example transposes the "II-V" blues form to the key of "D." Note the contrary chromaric voice-
kadino of three voices from the D7(a!t5) chord to the G9 chord and the two voices from the G9~5 chord to the
G-9 chord. Also note the parallel chromatic voice-leading of rwo voices from the C7~5 chord to the F#-7(11) chord,
the B~+7 chord to the E-7(1 1) chord, and the D6(9) chord to the B7(alt5) chord. Three voices move in parallel
chromatic motion from the E-9 chord to the A7(alt5) chord.

D6(9) Dmaj7(#11) C#-7bi5(11) F#7(alt5) B-7(11) E7(alt5) A-7(11) D7(alt5)

1~~ ~~ If
l
~ E
~~ I #~
.:..-
I
Wf~
q-6-
(D+7 )
,.
(F#-7#5) (C9)
(E-7#5)
'~.. I
(B~+7 )

G9 G9b5 G-9 C 7~5 F#-7(11) B7b5 F-7(11) Bb+7


-6- ~5 I
1r= TI lhg f?
.&
1

! l#±f 5

' I (Db+7)
I
I
-6-
(C-7#5)

, E-7(11)
I
E-9

#~
A7(alt5 )

1&tp±J~
D6(9)

IE
B7(alt5)

I 1;
E-7(11) A+7
.,,.
!
D9b5

II
~
II

'
(B-7~5 )
I
(E~ 9 l (F9)
I
(G9) (B-7~5)

55
Chapter 9.
Tension 13
13for 5or1 {l37 13} or {3 5 7 13} will be the tension substitution formula used ll:i this chapter. The only exception
willincludeoneofthe two new voicingsintroduce:dhere. The dom7b 5(1 3)will introduce 13 for3 { 1bsb713 }. These
notes dictate a major 3rd even though it has been removed. The other new voicing introduced is the dom7sus4( 13)
{1 4 b7 13}. Note the 3rd inversion forms an upper-structure triad: Fl3(sus4) = BblEb.
This chapter will refer to tension 13 as a 6th when used on chords containing a maj7th. The 6th can be placed above
or below the maj7th, while the 13tb (which accompanies the b7th) can only be placed above or next to the b7th.
As mentioned earlier, this chapter will avoid dominant chords containing both a natural Sth and b13th. These notes
produce a weak Sub V chord containingb9 and natural 9. This applies to the dom7(b 13) chord. b13 must substitute
the Sth enharmonically, producing a dom7#5 chord. This chord has already appeared under the Tension 9 chapter
as the Sub V of the dom9b5 chords, C7#5 = Gb9b5. Its related II-V-I situation can be observed there. Dominant
chords with a natural 5th and tension b13 will be examined in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions
chapter. Dom7bS(b 13) has already been introduced in the Tension 11 chapter as a dom7#5C# 11) or dom7(alt5)
chord.
This chapter also will avoid using the b 13th on a dom7sus4. This produces a very ambiguous sound:
C7sus4(b 13) { l 4 b7 b13 } = Ab6(9) or F-7(11)
C7sus4(b 13) {4 5 b7 b13} = Abmaj7(6/9) or Fm(l 1/9)

jmaj7(6)j

6 for 5 { 1 3 6 7}
Cmaj7(6) = Fmaj7(#11 ) = F# -7b5(11)
....
There are three applicable inversjons: .) 7 1
7 3 7
6 1 3
l 6 6

G-7 C9(b 5) Fmaj7(6) F7sus4 B7 B~maj7 (6) C-7 F7(alt5) Bbmaj7(6)


I
b.a. 17..0. -e- b.n. -0- -& 1'.n. ~ bee-
~ II II '~!! ~ II

56
6 for 1 {5 3 6 7}
Cmaj7(6) = Fmaj9(b5) = G6(9){ 1 369 }
'
')
There are four appiicable inversions: .) 6 7
6 7 3 5
....
5 6 7 .)

7 3 5 6

A-9 D7(#5/#9) Groaj7(6) F-9 Bb 7(b5/b9) Ei>maj7(6 )


.n. b..o. b.o. -& bn. b..o.
1'1 ' I

~;
.. II I~
II
-..J

C-9 F7(!:5/#9) B~maj7 (6 ) A-7( 11) D7sus4(b 9) Gmaj7(6)


~a
I
-e-

9
Q t(O 0
'8 II ±t! l

Imaj7b5(6) l (6 for 5 not applicable)


6 for 1 {3 bs 6 7} Cmaj7b5(6) = B7sus4

There are four applicable inversions: 3 bs 6 7


6 7 3 bs
bs 6 7 3
7 3 bs 6

D -9 G7rn5/#9) Cmaj7b5(6) F-9 Bb7(b9} E bm aj7b5(6)


!
-& ;J.C.. -e- 0 [)€- ~
'"'
~I.I (B'7sus)
II
(D7sus)
II

A-7 D7 (~ 5/~9) Gmaj705(6 ) C-9 F7 (# 5/~9) Bii m aj7P 5(6)


-e- fl.e- ' ..0.. b..o. -& -&

~ (F~'isus)
Ii
(A7sus)
~

57
Imin maj7(6) I
6for 1 {b3 5 6 7} C-maj 7(6) = B+7

There are four applicable inversions: b3 5 6 7


6 7 b3 5
5 6 7 b3
7 b3 5 6

D -7b 5(11) G7(#5/#9) C -m aj7(6) D-7b5 G7(b9) C-maj7(6)


b..o. -a-
-
~
0 e e 0

i II
(B+7) (B+7)

B-7ti 5(9) E7(# 5/ #9) A-maj7(6) A-7b5 D7b9 G-maj7(6)


I
0 -& -e- tl.O..

II ij
(G#+7 J <F#+7)

6 for 5 {l b3 6 7 } C-rnaj7(6) = F7(#11 ) = B7(b 9) {I 3 b7 b9)


,,
There is one applicable voic ing: 7 C-7 b5(11) F7(#9) Bb-m aj7(6)
b3
1 ~ bn #o
6 II
lmin7b5(\, 13) I m in7(alt5) I
b13 for~. 5 is not usually an appropriate substitution. since the b5th is an important characteristic chord tone. But in
fac L the bl 3th tension on a minor c hord does dictate an accompanying bSth c hord tone. T he only other possible c hord
sound would be a very incomplere dom7( ~ 51# 9) chord. For this reason. the bJ 3th for b5th substitution , { I b3 b7
b 13( #5) I = min7~ 5 . will be examined as a mildly incomplere mi n7 b5(b 13 l chord.
C-7(#5) = F-7( 11) {b3 5 b7 11 l = B ~9sus-~ { I 4 b7 9 }

There arc fo ur applicable inversions: I b3 #5 b7


b5 ~7 I
!
I
p ·'
~

i -.
v •· ~ :' b-: I
b7 l ~3 #5

C-7 (~5 ) B7 Bb-6(9 ) E-ns A7Cb 9) D-6(9) A-7 ~5 D7(alt5 ) G-6(9 >
-& b.o.. -e- -e-
~o be 0

!I ii t:H 3! l

58
b13forl {b3 bs b7 bl3} or {b3 bs #5 b7}
C-7b5(b13) = G b6(9) {l 3 6 9} = Emaj9b5 = Bmaj7(6)
There are four applicable inversions: b3 bs

~~
'; b7
b7
C-71'5(b13) F7(fJ9) Bb-6(9) E-7(alt5) A7(#5/ b9) D-6(9)
be-
! bo PA b.o. -e-
e
~t9 II ': II
' G-7b5(b 13) C7(t5/#9) F -6(9) A-7(alt5) D7(#5/f,9) G-6(9)

1
~i~~;%~i~-~~-~~ll· ~2~-~--&~4
0 1 6

(Cm/F)

Idom7(13) I
13 for 5 {l 3 b7 13} C7(13) = Gb7(b51#9J = B bmaj9(b5) {1 bs 7 9}

There are two applicable inversions: 3 1


b7 13
13 3
l b7
C-9 F13 Bb6 D-7 G13 Cmaj9
I I

17.n -& OD..


0
e
II § II

' F#-7
-& -&
v
B7(b5/ #9; E6(9)
_o_
A~-7
bo bo

I
i
Db7(f,, 5/#9) GfJmaj9
be-
SUBY zjJ
'
11

13 for 1 {3 5 b7 13 J CU = G-6(9) { 1 ~ 3 6 9}

There is one applicable inversion: 13 G-9 C13 Fmaj9


-& -e- a
3

'
b7 II
5 j'
'
~
C#-9 F #7(alt9) Bmaj7
-e- ~-&
SUB V
~..; ~o
..
@)
II
59
Idom7b5(13) I (13 for 5 not applicable)

13 for 1 {3 bs b7 13 } C13b5 = Gb7(#9) { 1 3 b7 #9}

There is one applicable inversion: 13


3 G-9 Cl3b5 Fmaj9
-& 0
b7
bs II

C#-9
l
F#7(#9) Bmaj7

SUBY
Eo if&
---#';~~·- -- - ------+ill

13 for 3 {lb s b7 13 }

There are two applicable inversions:

D-9 G13b5 Cmaj9 F7sus4 F13b5 Bb6(9)


~
I
-& IJ..0.

#~
0

II 'tt:: ! II
' Ab-7
j
Db7(b5/~9) Gbmaj7 F~7sus4
I
v
B7(b5/#9) E-6

SUB V lk, 0
I
on..
Ii
..u ..a. ..0.

II

Idom7sus4(13) I
13 for 5 {1 4 b7 13)
There are two applicable inversions: 4 1
b7 13
E .
!-
,_
p.

F13sus4 F+7 Bb6(9) F13sus4 F+7 Bbmaj9

'~n
-e- 0 e e e
II II
(Bb / E b)

60
13for1 {4 5 b7 13} Cl3sus4 = G-9 {l b3 b7 9}
There are two applicable voicings: 13 13
4 5
b~b7
5 4

C13sus4 C7(alt5) Fmaj9 C13sus4 C9b5 Fmaj7~5


f,e- b..n -a-

~~ ~~~ ~g II fi II

The foll owing examples will use various thirteenth chords in a "Jazz,. or "II-V" blues form. Note that the
dom7 #5(# 11) or dom7(alt5) chords that were introduced in the past chapter appear again in this chapter as
dom7~5(~ 13).

Fmaj7(6) E-7(b 13) A7b5(b 13) D-9 G7( ~13) C-9 F7(H3)
I
J
19-

~ r I~ ~r 1: ~ 1r :
(E -7#5) (Eb9) ' (G+7) (F+7)

Bb13 Bb7b5(b 13) Bb-7(11) E b7(b 13) A-9 D13!i5 Ab-9 Db+7

~ br: gl'
(E9)
1&iz'
(Eb+7 )
~ 1r
I'
(A,7(#9))
Ibr: E

G-9 G-7(11) C7(b5/b 13) C7(b 13) Fmaj7(6) D7(alt5) G-9 C7(b9/b 13) Fmaj9

~
b-F' 19-

~&, 1:~ #i~ i


I

~~
I'
I
I

11(7 II II
I
(C6(9)J (Ab9)
(G#+7 ) (C+7)

61
In the next example, note the multiple fu nctions of the dom7#5 and min7#5 chords. Also note the different functions
of the maj6(9) chord on the first three voicings. Finally, note the common lead tone on the last four bars. This "II-
V" blues is in the key of "C.,.

Cmaj7(6) B-7b5(b 13) E7(#9) A-maj7(6) D9b5 G-9 C7(b 5/b 13)

ir i~ 1;; !~I If t'


-f9-

~, r I
(G6(9 )) (G6(9)) (F6(9)) (Ab +7) (Ab +7) (Gb9)

F9 F13 F-7(11) Bb13ti5 E-9 A7 (~ 5/b 13) E b-9 Abl3b5


I b.p.
@"F E 1
1 91~ ~
-9- ~·~
I
I
ir ~~~~
'I
I' I I
( C-7~5 ) (E7(~9)) (Eb9)

@ ,
D-7(11)

~
(A-7#5) (A-7#5 )
G+7

I (2
G7(b 5/ b13) E-7(b 13) A7(b5/', 13) G 13sus4 G7(b5/1'13) Cadd9

1f~
(Eb+7)
11
(E-7#5)
i·~
(Eb9 )
! I~ ~·~
(D-7-(9/ 11)) (Eb9)
I! I ~
(E-7#5)
II

62
Chapter Ten.
Two Tensions
This chapter will examine the three different two-tension combinations produced by tensions 9, 11, and 13: (9 &
13), (9 & 11), and (1 1 & 13). The preferred four-note voicings will include two tensions and the guide-mnes, thus
omitting the root and 5th. Wnen a bSth or #Sth is needed, the least needed guide-tone (usually the 3rd) will be
removed.
Some of the most effective voicings place the guide-tones on the lower two strings (4th and 5th strings) and the
tensions on the upper two strings (2nd anc 3rd strings). The first and third inversions of drop 2 type voicings arrange
their intervals in this matter, producing some of the most useful voicings in this chapter.
Since 9 and 13 are perhaps the most common tensions fo und together, this chapter will begin by examining them
first, followed by (9 & 11) and ( 11 & 13).

Tensions 9 and 13
Those chords containing a~ 5th and natural 13 rension will be examined enharmonicallv under the Three Tensions
chapter as# i1 and 13: ~ ·

{9 #11 13} {~9 #11 13} {#9 #11 13}


Those dominant chords that contain both bs and tension b13 will examine two different voicing formulas:

{3 bs 9 b13} and {bs b7 9 b13}

*The {b 5 b7 9 b13} formula will also be used as the min7b 5(b 13/9) voicing formula in this section.
This voicing will serve both subdominant and dominant functions in their following relative II-V-I examples.

Note the ninth (no 5) enharmonic substitution chords produced by the {3 b5 9 b13} formula:
C7b5(~13/9) =E9 {l 3 b7 9}
C7b 5(~ 13/b9) = E6(9) { l 3 6 9 }
C7b5(b 131#9) = Emaj7(9) {1 3 7 9 }

Additional enharmonic chord symb0i normion could also oe used to aescrioe ti1e aoO\·e cbords:

C7b5(b 13/9): C+7(# 1119) I C+7(9/b 5) I C9(# 111~5) I C9(#51b5) I C9(alt5) I C9(b 13/~5) I etc.
C7bS(b 13/b9): C+7(~ 11/b9) I C+7(b9/b5) I C7bs(i9!# S) I C7(b9/alt5) I C7(b91#51b5) I etc.
C7b5(b 131#9): C+7(# 111#9) I C+1(#91b5 ) I C7b5(~91#5) I C7(#91alt5) I C7(#91#Slb5) I etc.
As discussed in the Chord Symbol Notation chapter, #11 and b13 will be avoided in chord symbol notation.
Consequently , I recommend avoiding the following symbol descriplions of the above chords:

C7b S(b 13/9): avoid C7(b 131# 1119) or C9( j, 13/~ J 1>
C7b5(b 13/b9): avoid C7(b 131# l llb9)
C7b5Cb 131#9): avoid C7(b 13/~ 111#9)
Due to the incomplete nature and limited voicings, the natural Sth produces, {5 7 9 13} voicings will be avoided
in this section. They will be examined later in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions chapter.

With the exception of a dom7( 13/9) chord. all of the voicings used in this section have been previously introd~ced
as basic four-part (7th and 6th chord~) or 9th chords. As was the case in the Tension 13 chapter. a dom7sus4( ~ 13 i
chord with 9 or b9 will be avoided.

63
The following <lorn7 chords have already been introduced enharmonically in the Tension 9 chapter. Tneir relative
II-V-I examples can be observed there:

C7(b 13/9): C+7(9)


C7(b 13/b9): C+7(b9)
C7(b 131#9): C+7 (#9)
The fo llowing dom7 chords were introduced by their Sub V chords in the Tension 9 chapter:

C?f 13/9) = Gb+7(#9)


C7(13/b 9) = Gb 7(#9)

Imaj7(6/9) I {3 7 6 9} Cmaj7(6/9) = E7sus4

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable voicings:

6 7 9
,,
9 .) 6
7 9 3
3 6 7

D-9 G7{#5/ #9) Cmaj7(6/9) C-7(11) F7sus4(b9) B11maj7(6/9 ) A-7 D7(#5/!19) Gmaj7{6/ 9)
I
b..o. -& -e- b.n -& 0 0..0. -e-

II II II
(E7sus4) (D7sus4) (B7sus4)

Imin maj7(6/9) I {b3 7 6 9} C-maj7(6/9) = B7# 9 { l 3 h7 #9}


There is one applicable inversion: 9 A-7b5 (11) D7(#5/#9) G-rn aj7(6/9 )
6
·b3
7
l& 0
b..o.

CF n(rt9) 1

Imin7bS(b 13/9) I {b 5 h7 9 b13} C -7b5(9/b 13) = Bb+7


Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable voicings:

bl3 I '7
p I 9
9 bs bB
b7 9 b5
bs I . ,,
!11 .: bi

C-7b5(b13/9) B9 B b-6(9) A-7h5(h13/9) D9(b5 ) G -rnaj9 F#-7b 5(b 13/9) B+ 7(#9) E-6(9)

~ i... bo e 0 ~o -e-
#
IJ-.o
qo ..
"" a
II
-.; CBr>+7) (G+7 ) (G;:+7 ) CE+7)

64
Idom7(#9113) I {3 b7 #9 13} There are two applicable voicings: 13 #9

~~
13
3
3 b7
Only one example is needed, since the Sub V mirrors the original chord:

C 13(#9) = Gb13(#9)
C#-9 F#l3(tt9) Bmaj7
13 ............. A .... ...........#9
-a- ~
#9.............Eb ............. 13 ~
b7 .............Bb............... 3
3......... ... E ........... ... b7 G-9
l
C13(#9) Fmaj9

~&lt==-e-===========-e-====================~II
0

(SUB V)
~

Idom7~5(~ 13/9) I [dom9(#51b5)] or ldom9(alt5)]

{bS b7 9 b13} C7b5(b 13/9) = Bb+7


Those voicings producing tension 9 on the 5th string will be avoided. However, the Sub V' s of these voicings will
be examined since b13(#5) now appears in the bass.

Four applicable inversions: 9 bs b13 b7


b13 b7 9 bs
bs b13 b7 9
b7 9 bs bl3

C7b5(b 13/ 9 ) A7b5(b l3/9 ) G9(#5/ b5) E9(alt5)


G-9 . Fmaj9 E7 sus4 D6(9) D-9 C(add9)
b~
~ ~ ~ 0 -a- 0 -a- -a- e.

\)/
(Bb+7)
I! ~
(G+7)
11
J
(F+7)
'Z II
(Dtl II
I

II I
'Y' ~
I
I
·l
j
C#-9 F#(9/ #5) B6(9 J (Sub V not applicable) Ab-9 Db(9/#5) Gb6(9) F7sus4 Bb+(9) E b6
jto jo ~o b.a. -e- b.& b.a. b.a. b.a.
,,
jl
11 II

65
-
{3 hs 9 ht3} C7h5Ch 13/9) = E9 { 1 3 b7 9}
Four applicable inversions: hs b13 9 3
9 3 b5 bl3
b13 9 3 bs
3 bs b13 9

C7b5(b l3/ 9) A9(~ 5/ii 5 )


C7b5(b 13/9) p-7 Fmaj7 E-9 Dmaj7(9/6) Gb9(alt5)
G-7(11) F6(9)
0
on j:t -e- .0.. .0.. .il b.o.
\;
I! \j:
1:
t
II
(E9) (E9) (C#9) (Bb9)

I
V/
C#-9 F#9(#5) Bmaj9
j l
C#-9 F#9(#5) Bmaj9 (Sub V not applicable) G-9 C9(#5) Fmaj7(#1lj
l
I ,

S®v-4-io__i_o_#_'o_~11~n_ _~_o_~
--ll-----€ = ~

ldom7b5(hl3/b9) I [dom7(b9/alt5)]

Those inversions containing tension b13 on the 5th string will omit their. .Sub V chords, which would subsequently
contain tension 9 on the 5th string.
Note the fourth intervals produced by these tensions and the b5th:

C7 ~5 (b 13/b9):b5 Gb
>4th
b9 Db
Ab > 4th

{ b5 ~7 b9 ~13} C7b5l ;d3/~91 = B ~-7(tt5l


"
Four appiicable inversions: b9 b5 bl3 ~7
b1 3 b7 b9 ~5
b5 ~I ~ b7 b9
b7 b9 bs b13

G?(~g/alts i F 7(b9/alt5) , ~
D-9 . C(add9) C: ?(ll) ,Bt1 o

;&
-e- ;:>-Er Cl -&

+
-e-
!I
""'" i I E II'-"- "-"- '"" l
~ 1
(B~-n5 >
II \•
( G-7~ 5 )
v
( F- 7~5 )

(Eb -7~5 )

l
t
C~-7 ( 11 ) F~ (9 )
'
Bmaj? (Sub V not applicable) A,-7(11) D;;i (9 ) Gi> 6(9) F,7sus4 B(9)
l . E6
~ #0 :±-e- ~ b.& b.& ..0.. ..0..
.0.

SUB Y ~·e-i----H!I----~
~
! h :~>-L;;___
. _ _ -+!1-- ---+!ll
66
{3 bs b9 bt3} C7b5(b 13/b9) = E6(9) {1 3 6 9}
Four applicable inversions: bs bu lq
p -
~
_,

b9 3 b5 b13
b13 ~9 3 ~5
3 ~:'\ ;;I 1_~., ~9

C%5(P13/P9) A7(~9/alt5 ) G7(~9/alt5 J


C7P5(b13/1'9) ,G-7 Fmaj7 E-9 b Dmaj9 D-7 Cmaj7
G-7(11) F6(9)
0
b.o. · -& n n -e- -e- .n. .il

(E6(9)) <E6(9)) (C#6(9)) CB6(9))


~
A~-9
~
I

~I Gb &
Cf,-9 Bmaj9 C~-7 F~9 Bmaj9 J
(Sub V not applicable) b.o.
D'19 !)_Q_
..Q. -:to ~-e. ~

Idom7b5(b131#9) I [dom7(#91alt5)]

The voicing formula containing the b7th will be avoided due to the ambiguous sound produced. Without the third,
the { b5 b7 #9b13} voicingfunctionsbetterasamin7b5(b13) { b3 bs b7 bB} chord.

{3 bs #9 b.13} C7b5(~ 131#9) = Emaj9 { 1 3 7 9J

Two applicable inversions: bs b13


~i3 #9
3. ~5

,F-7 B ;; 7(~9i alt5 ) E~maj7(6 )

4-~~~!~-~~1~~~
0

;~!-~~~ll
0

(Emaj 9 ) (Dmaj9 j
t ~
C~-7( ll j F;7(13/9 ) B6(9) B-9 E7(13/9; Amaj7(6 )

SUB -J
-:fr-'-+-~--_,,,
1
i~ -~j~e~~---e-
-&--~-------~--------"" ----
______,~~·+---~~·.,~·---
'.: ~;:--· l
@.)

67
ldorn7sus4(9/13)j {4~7913} C7sus4(9/13) = Bbmaj7
Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves two applicable inversions: 13 9
Q
,, 13
b7 4
4 b7
C7sus4(9/ 13) C7(f,5/ ~9) Fmaj9 A7sus4(9/ 13 ) Eb9 D6(9)
l>e- 0
.0. b.o. .a-

II II
{Gmaj7)

Idom7sus4(b9/13) I I 4 b7 b9 13 } C7sus4(b9/l 3) = Bb -maj7


, . .,
A voiding tension 9 on the Sth string leaves two applicable inversions: l _1 b9
b9 13
b7 4
-+' b7
C13sus4(b 9) C7(tt5/#9) Fmaj9 Al3sus4(li 9) E b9 D6(9 )
~ 0
b.o. b.o. / -e-
I! II
(G-maj7)

The foll owing examples will use variouschords cornaining tensions 9 and 13 in a Tl-Vblues form. Chords introduced
in past chapters will be included to enhance voic~- leading. In this first example. note the same dominant voicings
used on beats three and four m measures five and six.

Fmaj7(6/9) Fmaj7 E-7b5(b 13) A13(b9) D-9 G7(tt 9/b 13) C-9 F13(~ 9 )
? b.a.

&r !r
~ fr 0 #a
~
l&i I i I
CBb6(9))

Bb9 B b9f13) B 119fo 13) Bb- ~l E,-;-7(~9) EH7(9 J A-9 D 13(~9; Ab -7( 11) Db,13(b5J
r. ~ fr ~ G.£ .f2 .a.
1t
o.a.
;,g ===i
1 1~!
t9
: I

' I~ I
-jr
~
I
CG7
G-9 D b9 C7(9i l 3 j C7 (~9i !i 13) F 7(9/ 13) D7(!i 9/b 13) G9 Cl3(b 9) Fmaj7(6t9)

¥f
kr
I
,r !)?

1%
D.a. fr

!\
fr

II
0

II

68
In this next example, note the descending chromatic voices against a common lead voice in the last two measures.

Cmaj7(6/9) C9b5 B-7b5(9/bl3) E7(b9/b l 3) A-9 D7(b9) G-7(11) C7(b13/b9)

Ii'
~
€ iE I #~ ~
IF j~

' F 7(9/13) F7b5


I
CA+7)

F-7(11 ) Bli 13(b9) E-9 Al3(#9)


(B:(9))
Ab13sus4 Ab 7(9/13)
bp.
11{~ ¥
'::.a. L2.. I

,~
fr

~ : I

'
11
i
(C-7#5) (Eb-7(9/ 11))

D-9 D-7 G13sus4(b 9) G7(b 9) C9 A13 D7(l:9i G7(9/13) C13(#9)


? -9 ~ ~ a fr i9- fr -e-
I
I
i
I Ii II !I
' (F-maj7)

This last example utilizes some of the dominant type chords that contain b5 and b13 { b5 9 b13}, f b5 b9 b13 },
{ bs fi9 b13 }. In this example, b13 will be enharmonically substituted by #5, producing chord symbols containing
{ ~ 5 #S} or (alt5). These versatile and interesting voicings present some unique chromatic and constant structure
voice-leading possibilities. Additional examples of these dominant chord types can be found at the end of the Three
Tensions chapter.

*1
C9 C7(13/ 9)
-9
B-7b5(H3)

Ii
E7( ~9/ al t5 J

~
A -6(9)

Iii
D7(b 9/ alt5)

#~ ,, G-9
.
C9(#5/b 5 )

~
(F6(9)J (APmaj9) (F~ 6(9)) (Bb+7)

F9 C9(#5/b5) F-9 Bb7(:i9/ alt5,1 E-7(11 ) A7(b9/alt5) E b-7(11 ) Ab9

i&u Ii~ ;gr l·~


·h~ ~Ii
'1
,, I~
fr
Q~ 1~~~
~ Df-

I I
I
I I
(E9) (G~ - 7#5 ) (B-7#5) (G-7::5 ) <Bb-n5)

D-9 D-7(11' G7(:t9/ :!5) G7(b 9/alt5) C(add9) A7{b9/alt5) D9{no3) Db? Cmaj?rnll >
~-H-.....,~l'-----.,,..-6---~+it"'--'"9-
- ___ ~ I
-1...-f___,__,'-f-"-r~
_.. ~
J.l

_L
-""1'-li ?-+L-r- I •:f i!
p
11 ?8
-e-
I!
CF-7#5) CE-7#5) (Db6(9)) (C6(9J)

69
Tensions 9 and 11
The two types of voicings used in this section follow the traditional drop 2 substitution formula: 9 for 1 {3 7 9 11 }
and 11 for3 or 5 {S 7 9 11}. With the exception of ihedom7(#9J# 11) chord, all of these voicingshave been introduced
in previous chapters.
Those dom7 chords containing a #5 have already been introduced enharmonicaliy under the Tensions 9 and 13
section:
C+7(9J# 11) = C7b5(~ 13/9)
C+7(b91#1 ,1) = C7b 5(b13/b 9)
C+7(#9J#ll ) = C7b 5(b 131#9)

The following chords that have 9 for l and 11 for 5 {3 7 9 11 l tension substitutions have been previously introduced
enharrnonically under the Tension 9 chapter. Their relative II-V-1 examples and Sub V chords can be found in that
chapter.
Cmaj7(9J# 11) = Cmaj7b5(9)
C7(91#11 ) = C7b5(9)
C7(b9J# 11) = C7b 5(b9)
C7(#9J# 11) = C7b 5(# 9)
Nore the unique character of the maj6 and min6 chords with the addition of tensions 9 and 11 . 6, 9. and 11 form ::i
complete triad a whole step above the root of the original chord:

C6(9J# 11) forms a D major triad.


C-6(9/1 1) forms a D minor triad.
·'

Imaj7(91#11) I {5 7 9 #11} Cmaj7(9J# 11) = Gmaj7


A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves two applicable voicings: 7 9
#11 5
9 #Il
5 7

B-9 Bb13 Amaj7(9/H l ) A -7(11) D%5(b9) Gmaj9(U : 1

#a #a -&
~ #e h~
1:l!
I
(Emaj7)
1
1

'Z (Dmaj7)
11

I
lmaj6(91#11) {3 6 9 ~11} C6(91# 11) (C6~ 5(9 )) = F# -7f.5

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves lhree applicable rnicmgs: :+ l. 6 9


it - 1
9 3 #11
6 9 3
~11 6

B-9 E7 (~5/b 9 ) A6(9/# 11)


D-9 G+7 C6(9/# 11) B-9 E9(#5) A6(9/# 11)
-& ~ b-e- .0..

ll ~e ~e J.I.
~!
0 .,.e
II II
' (DIE)

70
{5 6 9 #11} C6(91#11) = Al3sus4 {l 4 b7 13}

There are two applicable inversions: 9 6


5 #11
#11 9
6 5

Bb9sus4 E ~7l15(l19) AP6(9/ Ul) F13sus4 B13 Bl16(9/#ll )


~

--#-=&--t:;e-_ _D..o.--~-=-11-~--7-t.='_,. . . _lH-~ =--~-==It 0 0


1

..; (F-7) (A7) (F13sus4) (Bb/Ei:i) {C/F Jand(G 13sus4)

Imin.maj7(11/9) j
As discussed in the Tension 11 chapter under the min.maj7( 11) chord, 11 and 7 produce the guide-tones (3 and b7)
of its V7 chord, producing a potentially ambiguous sound. Tension 9 further complicates this by being a chord tone
(the 5th) of its V7 chord. The weakest possible voicing {5 7 9 11 } includes all of the basic chord t0nes { I 3 5
;, 7} of its V7 chord. This produces an extremeiy ambiguous sound and therefore will not be included in this section.

{b3 7 9 11} C-maj7(11/9) = F13b 5


There are two applicable voicings: 11 7
9 'b3
7 9
b3 11

D-7b5 C·maj7(11/9) G7(#9)


D-7\,5 C-maj7(11/ 9)
G7b5
\,& -0-
~
[:;:
' .fr

~
Q

~! II II
Imiu6(1119) I {b3 6 9 ii } C-6(1119) = B7b5(#9) I Fl3
There are two applicable invers1ons: f l'
'17 -<. 9
9 6
11 b3

D-7b5 G7 C-6(11/9.J E-9~ 5 A+7 D-6(11/9)


I

-4~ Q I :;.e.. l>.n. -e-


''e~;
(F13)
"
~ _Jj
(G13)and(Em/F)

71
{5 6 9 11} C-6(1119) = F6(9) {1 3 6 9}

Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions: 5 6 9


9 11 5
6 9 11
Ii 5 6

E-7b5 E b7 D-6(11/9) C-7b5 B7 Bb-6(11/ 9) B-n5 E7(#5/b9) A-6(11/9)


b.o. -& ?.0. -e- -e- -& .Q_

~ tz~
0

!~ II II ~i
,, II
tJ (Cm/F)

lmin7(9/11) I {b3 b7 9 11} C'-7(9/ll) = Fl3sus4 = Ab6(91#11 )


There are two applicable inversions: b7 11
b3 9
9 b7
]1 b3
C-9(11) F7 (~5/b9 ) BPmaj7(6 ) C-9(11) F7(~5/ b9) Bbmaj7(6/9)
I

'On -e-
I II 0

(Bb/E b)
~e 0

II

{5 b7 9 11} C-7(9/11 ) = G-7

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions: 9 b7 5


5 11 9
11 9 b7
b7 s 11

C-9(11; F7(#5/b9) Bb6(9) B~-9(11 ) A7 Ab6(9) G-9(11) C7(#5/b9) Fmaj9


I I
~ :;& ?.C.. €- Ot-
0 0 ?0 0 I
0

Ii II I!
@(G-7) (F-7) CD-7)

lmin1bs c9111) I [11 for 5 not appiicable)

{bS ~7 9 11} C-7b5(9/l 1: = G~ maj7 ;5


There are two applicable inversions: ~ 7 9
11 bs
9 11
bs ~7

C-7b5C9/11 ) F+7 Bb-6 A-7b5(9/11 ) D7(#5/#9) G-6(9)

~ ~fi
I
b.o.
_-e-_ _ _ -t+--
!I
D.D.. .Q_

------Mll
(GPmaj7#5) (Ebmaj7#5 )

72
j dom7(91#11) I {5 b7 9 #11} C7(91#11 ) = G-maj7
b7
There are three applicable voicings:
~~l #11
9
5
5
9
9
5 ~~ 1
Note that tension 9 is not available on the 5th su-ing but becomes available on its Sub V chord as the #Sth.

F9(#11) F-9 B ~ 9(;! 11 ) Eb6(9) -


E" . A9(#11) D(add9)
..a. ~ b.o. .0. ~

;:
0
II i,1ig
t II II

' 1
(C-maj7)

j
(F-maj7)
lj:
(E-maj7)

F#7sus4 BC#5/b9) E6 E7sus4 E(~5/~9 ) A6(9) Bb-7(11) E brn5/b 9) Ab6(9)


..a. ..a. ..0.. -e- b-e- b..o. I f>& q.n. bn
SUB Y
Ii
'
Idom7(b91#11) I {5 b7 b9 #11} C7(b91#11) = Eb7(#9)
( F~7sus4)

There are three applicable inversions: ~~ 1 b7 b9


~ 11 5
5
b9 ~9 ~~1

C-7 F7(b 9/Ul) B, maj9 F -9 B'r>7{b 9/Ul) Eb6(9/Ul) D-7(11) G7('~9/~11) C(add9)

' bn ~

i
(Ab7(#9)J
-&

II
(D~7(#9)
0

J~
;
f~
zz ss \.,
and E/F) (FIG )
-&

II
0 ~

i
(Bb7(#9))
·§ II
II \ I !
I / I
~
\

\l I
w
F#7sus4 B (b9) Emaj7 B-9 E (b 9) Amaj7 Ab-7(11) Db(b9) Gbrnaj9
..a. ..a. ~ 'o-e-

II 11~
" #o ~o

4
-t:o
SUBY II ::o II

73
ldom7(#91#11) I {5 ~7 #9 #11}
Only two voicings are physically available, and one of these cannot be used due to the #9th te nsion being located
o n the Sth string. These voicings will reappear in the Three Tensions chapte r, where both will be available.

F-9(11 ) B , 7(#9/#11) Eb6(9/ #11)


b7 b.u \>e. ~

~
Ul
Bb 7 (~9/ tt11 J = C~rn/F ~9 I!
5 (Eb/Abl (Dtim/ F) (FIG)

I
i
B-7Cl l) E13(b 9) Amaj7C#ll )

-1;,,.~,.----=..-:1---'*----..n..#:~:~=----------1~
0
SUB V

The followin g examples will use various chords conta ining tensions 9 and 11. Additional ch0rds from past chapre:-
are used ro enhance voice-leading. This first example is a II-V blues in the key o f "F."

Fmaj7 F6(#11/9) E7{tt5/ #9) A13(#9) D-9 G7(Ul/1>9) C-9 F9(#11 )

~
~
~I 1€ ~ 1€ i,#~ I~ 1.~
-6)..
(G/A) CC~ / D ) (C-maj7 )

Bb9 Bb9(#11) Bb-7(11J Eb 9(~11 ) A-7(11) D7(#11/1>9) Ab-7(11 ) Db7(a1t5)


ba
kr b-6- ? .?
~
G
;; 1l·i; 1§! I
{i~ j
I

'
:
I I
(F-maj7 ) (F-7#5 ) (G#/A) (Ab7sus4; (A9)

G -7( 11' C13(~ 11 ) C9(~ 11 ) F9 D7(# 9/ ~ll ) G-7 C7(Hl/!!9 ) Fmaj7 (~ 11/ 9 )
I
oa

~'
?~ ·bbO~
1.,
gif-
lb~ !
I
I tl !f ! If

(D-7,,5 ) (Gl> 7 (~9)) (E 11 m/G) (Em/A)

This next example is an.eight-bar c.hor~ progre~sion star~in~ in "A'' minor and e n~ing in the relative "C" maj o r. In
an attempt to use two different ma37~ ) mvers1ons as nun7!1 5(9/l J) chords. tension 9 appears o n the Sth string in
the first measure . Althoug h above L.l.L. for tension 9. care should be taken to avoid a potential p9th interval if the
minor 3rd of the chord is voiced or played by another instrument.

74
i
A-6

r
F ~ - 7b5(9/ 11) B-7b5(9/ 11)

I'
E7 (~5/#9)

f
A-6(9)

If
A-maj7(6 )

:~ If I,,
G-9 C7(#11/b 9)

'
(Cmaj7#5) (Fmaj7~5) (Gh7) CF#/G)

1 1¥
F6(tt ll/9) Fmaj9 F-maj7(11/9) Bb9(#11) Cmaj7(6/9)A7(alt5) D-7(9/ 11) G7sus4(b 9) Cmaj7(9/#11)

f I~, 111i~ IL f II
(GIA) (F-maj7) (E b9) (Gmaj7)

,:·~:·.:
...:.·. ·:\, Tensions 11 and 13
We are left with very few chords in this section, since most have been previously introduced cnharmonically.
Only one dom7 voici ng will be examined in this section: C7(tt 11/ 13) {5 b7 #11 13}. The remaining dom7 chords
were introduced earlier.
C7(tt 11113) { I b7 tt 11 D} and {3 b7 #11 13} are examined as C7b5(l 3) chords in the Tension 13 chapter.

As discussed in the Chord Symbol Notation chapter,# 11 and~ 13 should be avoided in the same chord symbol. If
these notes are desired, dom7( » 111ttS) voicings under the Tensions 11 chapter will suffice.
The traditional drop 2 tension substitLition formula [ 13 for 5) and [ 11 for 3] produces a very incomplete {1. 7 11
13 } voicing which will be omitted from this section. Instead, the more complete {3 7 11 13} and {5 7 11 13}
voicings will be examined.
Only one ~ew voicing is introduced in th is section:
min7b5(1llb 13)

This voicing is an inversion of the previously introduced rnaj7(9) { l 3 7 9) voicing:


3 ............. b7
! .. ........... bs
7 ...... ....... 11
9.... ......... b13
The min7b 5( I lib 13) chord presents unique voicing possibilities, since any combination of the basic chord tones can
accompany tensions 11 and b13:
C-7 b5( 1l/b13): lb 3 Ilbl3 = A b6/F-7
l bs l I b 13 = Ab 13
tb 7 tlb1 3 = Ab6(9) { I 3 6 9)
b3 bs i1 bB = B6Ctt 11 ) {3 5 6 " 11 )
b3b7 tt b l3 = Bb 7(sus4)
bs b7 11 bt3 = Gbmaj9 {I 3 7 9)

Those voicings not containing the b7th could be examined as dim? chords with tensions 11 and b13. This makes the
b7th a rather characteristic note in this chord. Thus, the single most cha1~cteristic voicing would contain both the
~ 5th and b7th {~ 5 b7 11 b 13}. This voicing, as well as the voic ing containing the guide-tones {b 3 b7 11 b13} will
be examined in this section. Students are encouraged to explore the remaining voicing types .

75
lmaj7(6/ff 11) I

{3 7 # 11 6} was previously introduced in the T ens ion 13 chapter as a maj7~ 5(6) chord.

{5 7 #11 6} Cmaj7(61#l 1) = Gmaj9 {l 3 7 9}

T here are two app licable inversions: 6 7


tt 11 5
7 tt 11
5 6

C-9(11) Bl3 Bbmaj7(6/# 11) A-7(11) Ab7 Gmaj7(6/#ll)

~·-~:~~----+II-I(Z--~-"'-t-~-----+'I
Imin maj7(11/6) I
As discussed in the Tension 11 chapter under the ruin maj7(11) chord, 11 and 7 produce the guide-tones (3 and 7)
of its V7 chord, forming a potent ially ambiguous sound. Also mentioned was the support the root and/orb 3rd have
on these ambiguous voicings. Of the two voicings displayed here, {b3 7 11 6} appears to be the stronger, while
{5 7 11 6} is quite ambiguous.

{b3 7 11 6} C-maj7(6/l l ) = F7b5 / B7b5


Note: s inceF7b5 = B7b5,Cmin.maj7(6/11) = G bmi n.maj7(6/1 1).

T here are four applicab le inversions: b3 11 6 7


6 7 b3 11
11 6 7 b3
7 b3 11 6

D-7b5 G7b5 C-maj7(6/ll) D-7b5(9) G7(#5/#~) C-maj7(6/ll)


b..a.
~~ 0 e ~ bp
1:1 I~
(F7b5) (F7b5)

D-7b5 G7(tt9) C-maj7(6/ 11) A-7b5 D7(alt5) G-maj7(6/ 11)


-e-
- b..a. -e- b..a. b..a.
~ ~lzU
0

~~ II ~
(F7b5) (C7b5)

{5 7 11 6} C-maj7(6/l I) = G9 { 1 3 b7 9}

There are four applicable inversions: I l 5 6 7


-- 6 7 11 5
5 6 7 11
7 11 5 6

76
A-7?501) D7(~5/~9) G-maj7(6/ 11) B-7!> 5(11/ 9) B~7 A-maj7(6/11)
~ 0
.... r..
~
-e- _...,,.
~
b.o. ls
~M~~--g~
·:--~~~4~44

D-71alt6 rn, g C-maj7(6/11 I D-7ii 5(11 ) G7(b9., C-maj7(6/11 )

I dom7 (~ 11/13) I {5 b7 ,,Hn 13} C7(~11/13! = G-maj9 ll b3 7 9)

The re is one applicable voicing: 13 F -7( 11 l B~ 7 (~11/13 °1 E~maj9


~ ll
b7 =f;i-_!!5::.·~~~~~~n'--~~~~~s~
- ~~~~--.­
.
~ .--~~~~~~~~Jlt

B7sus4 E (alt9J A...'11aj7(6 )

~~-e------~~:1'-'------t1ll
0

(SUB VJ

I min7~ 5(11/~ 13) J {~ 5 b7 11 ~ 13 } C-7 b:'\ (J l/b !:< ) = Gbma_i9 11 3 7 9}

There are two applicable inversions: b13 - ~7


i1 b5
~- I:
b:; D[3

G6(91

C-7r5<1 l/~>l3 1 = Bb/(sus-+ 1


..'.\ '.'t1it:ing :·-:c r.me n ti ~.d '? S•th 1mcn al 1h:.-,t couiu :csuir oy oiacmg lension ii on tile Sth strin g tc;r: ;;s tilr::e ~tf:)iic:.ib1~
in\'Cr;-,ion:-. .

Jl b7
: 1
J J
I ..,
DI

G6•.9 J G-7o 5(ol2/l:!.; C7(!:51::>t;J F-6(9

77
The following eight-measure example will use various chords containing tensions 11 and 13. Additional chords from
past chapters are also used to enhance voice-leading.
The C7 (f 11/~ 13) chord is yet another way to notate this voicing, which was originally introduced as a C+7 C# 11)
or C7(alt5) chord and later as a C7~5(~ 13) chord. As mentioned earlier, this notation (b 131# 11) in the same symbol
has various and confusing implications. While still recommending its avoidance, it is included here for demonstra-
tive purposes.
Also note the additional chordal substitution for a dom9(no 5) chord { ~ 3 ~ 7 9} at the end of this exercise:
CC# l l/9J = D9.

A -6(9j A-maj7(6) B-7b5(b 13/11) E7b5 A-maj7(11/6) A-6(9) G-7(11) C7(b 13/#11)
!
D.p. bP-
bi
~ :r I~
f- ~
() I I

I:": - I ~".

'
"." ..
(!)
I I
(G#+7) (Fmaj9) (D7~5) (Gb 9)

Fmaj7 Fmaj9 F-7(11) Bb 13(~11 ) C6(9) A 13(;:9) D- 7h5(~13/11) Gl3(~11) C(#ll/9 )


I
I
~ D-6'- f: D.f4 ..

4 ~
I
l
I iJ~
I
(F-maj9)
I ;?
i :
I
l i1~
I

(Bb 13)
R~
...
I
'I'
I ::~
(

(D9)
1~
,,
11
I

This next II-V blues example uses various chords from the past tension chapters. Also included are a couple of new
functionsinthesecondmeasure:G-maj9 {1 ~ 3 7 9} = E-7~5(11/9) and G-9 [1 ~3 b7 9} = A7(b9/b 13).
This example incorporares chromatic voice-leading to a greater degq::e than previous examples. Note the voice-
ieading motif in measures five and six is repeated in measures nine and ten and inverted in measures seven and eight.
Also note rhe contrarv chromatic voices in the last two measures.

F6(9 l Fmaj9 E-7b5(1 1/9) A7(b 13/ b9) D-9 G+7 C-7(11/9 ) F7(b 9/~5 )
(G-rna,i9l (G-9 1
~..,.:;.
~i
fr
±zG
~
* I ;=~
C2

~
- r-6'
- I

t)
-
I I
I
I
B P7(13/9) B~9(#11 ) B?-7(11 " Eb9<#11 l A-9 D9(b 13) A~-7 Db 9 (~ 13)
(C+7)
I I I
D.a. . bfr .a. oa. t>-@- b-.9-
~
C2 " ins'
bg 11i~~ 5:.t-
--""'

G..,
- I D~7(13/9 ) C9(ii 13) Cl3(b9 ) F(add9) D7(alt5) GO' -
v DO C9(b 13 ) F9
i (A-7~5 ) (Ab 9 )
Q
D.p. ~ Clfr Q ltc;i fr [>fr

I ~~ '3
'ro·
i
%~
I

~
'
I 1

!~ ~;§ 11
u I I
I
I I

78
Chapter Eleven.
Voice-Leading Chord Scales
Upon completion of sin~le tension additions to the basic four-part chords, it is possible to voice-lead any note from
any chord scale.

2 4 5 6 7
(9) (11) (13)

The addition of two tensions often eases the physical difficulty (fingering) that some of the single tension voicings
produce. Examples:

maj7(6) - - - - l o -- - - maj7(9/6)
6 6
1 9
7 7
3 3

The following are examples of harmonized chord scales. The "avoid notes" can be harmonized by standard
dominant, chromatic, or diatonic approach techniques. These avoid notes are based on traditional jazz harmonic
concepts and might be available in today's more contemporary music where an increased dissonance level is more
accepted. These notes are in fact the more desired notes in modal music.

(Ionian) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 7 6 1 9 3 (1 l is an avoid note)


(Gmaj7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Gmaj9 Gmaj 7(9/6) Gmaj7 GS GmajS umaj':
0 -e. .a.
" #o
II
(Lydian) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 ,.,
6 I 1 9 3 #11
(Gmaj7) ___ _ __ __ Gmaj9 G6 Gmaj7b5 G6b5 Gmaj7(9/6) Gmaj7b5 Gmaj9b5
-0-- .n. ;f-e-
'. ::o 0

lmin7J
(Dorian or Aeolian) _ _ _ _ 5 b7 1 9 b3 11
(13 and b 13 are avoid notes)
(G-7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G-9 G-7 G-7 G-9 G-7(11) G-7(11/9)
b.a. -e-
-&
=&_,_~~~~~~-~~~~~--H
e 0

II
79
lmin7bsl
(Locrian) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ b5 b 13 b7 1 b3 11
(b9 is an avoid note)
(Locrian with natual 9) _ _ b5 b13 b7 1 9 b3 11
(A -7b5) ____ _ __ _ A-7~5 A-7b5(;, 13) A-7; 5( 11) A-7b5 A-7b5(9) A-7b5 A-7b5(11)
..a.

4""
..0.. ~
0

IJ

'''With the exception of the voicing containing the 9th. these voicings work in a pure Locrian situation as well.

ldom71

(Mixolydian) __ __ _ _ 5 13 b7 1 9 3 ( I 1 is an avoid note)


(07) - - - - - - - - - - G9 G7(13/9) G9 G13 G9 G7
-e- ..a.

~
0
t 1 0
0
II
(Lydian b7) __ ____ _ _ 5 13 l>7 1 9 3 #11
(07) - - - - - - - - - - G9 G9(13) G9~5 Gl3 G9(13) G7b6 G9b5
0 -& ..a. ~
11 0
0
II
(Mix. b9/;, 13) (with addition of# 9) (11 is an avoid note)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 b13 b7 1 b9 #9 3
(G7) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G7(b9) G7(#9/~5) G7(b9) G7#5 G7(b9) G7(#9/#5) G7(b9)

!JC I 0 0 ~ la- ..a.

II
(altered) _ _ __ ___ __ b5 #5 b7 1 b9 #9 3
(07) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ G7b5(~9) G7#5(b9 ) G+7 G+7 G7b5(b9) G7#5(~9 ) G+7
0 De- ~ ..a.
0

II
(whole-tone) __ ___ _ D5(#11) ~5(b 13) b7 1 9 3
(07) _ __ _ _ ___ _ _ G9b5 G9#5 G+7 G+7 G9#5 G7b5
..a.
p 00 0 0 -&
ll

(domina:1t-diminished) ___ 5 13 b7 1 b9 ~9 3 #11


(07) _ __ _ __ ____ G7(~9 J Gl3(~9) G7(b9 ) G13 G7(b9) G13(#9) G7b5 G7b5(#9)

I) 0 0 be- ta- n #&


II

80
Chapter Twelve.
Three Tensions (9/11/13)
The past tension- substitution formulas become inappropriate when deaiing with three tensions on a four-note
voicing. The approach used here will involve determining the most appropriate guide-tone or chord mne to
accompany the three tensions. All of the three tension combinations presented in this chapter form complete triads:

9 ~11 13 major triad


9 11 13 minor triad
9 1i b13 diminished rriad
b9
#9
i
I
11
11
13
13
minor triad
diminished triad

When these triads occur on the top three voices, they produce upper-structure triads over the basic or original chord.

As discussed earlier, ~ 11 and b 13 will be avoided in the same chord symbol. The following three-tension
combinations (which do not produce basic triads) are enharmonically examined in the Tensions 9. and 13 chapter:

dom7(b 13/fill/9) = dom7bscb 13/9)


dom7(b 13/~ 11/b9) = dom7b5(b 13/b9)
dom7(b 13/t.111#9) = dom7bscb 13ti9)

Withtheexceptionofthedom7(13/P,lllb9) {l b9 #li 13} andthe dom7(131#111#9) { b7 #9 F, 11 13} chords,


all voicings have been previously introduced.

C7(131# 11/b9) { 1 b9 # 11 13 } = Eb7(131#111#9) { b7 #9 #11 13}

Imaj7(91#11113) I

#
The onJy characteristic voicing would have to contain the 7th {7 9 #11 13}. The {3 9 11 13} and {5 9 ~ 11 13 }
voicings have been previously inrroduced as rnaj6(9i# 11) chord voicings under the Tensions 9and11 chapter. The
#
remaining { 1 9 11 13} voicin·g, though incomplete, will be exarninec. Keep in mind that this voicing. lacking a
7th, could function as an incomplete dom7(91#11113) chord as well.

Note the major triad rormed by tensions 9, #11, and 13; Cmaj7(9/~ 11/13) - tensions form a D major triad

{7 9 #11 13} Cmaj7(91# 11113) = B-7 I D6


Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string 1eaves three applicable inversions: 9 13 7
13 9 #11
F. 11 I 9
'i #11 D
Cmaj7(9/~ll/13)
D-9(11) G7019/~5j C-7 B7 Bbmaj7(9/ Ul/13) A-9 Af17 Gmaj7(9/;tll/ 13)
-& b..o.. -& -e- c ito -&
!1
II
II 1I· ii
(B-7 ! (A-7 ) (Ftt-7)

81
{1 9 #11 13} C(91# 11113) = D7
A voiding: tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions: 9 13 1
13 9 #11
#11 1 9
1 #Il 13

D-9(11) G7(~5/b9) C(13/~11/9 ) C-7 B7 Bb(l3/# ll/9'l A-7(11) A b7 G03/#11/9)


0 -;:o -& v.n -& v.n l>e- b-s-
l! 'Z II

' (D7) CC7)

*These voicings will reappear in a dominant functi~n under dom7(91# I i/13).


It
(A7>

Imin.maj7(9/ l 1/13) j
The most characteristic voicing contains the 7th {7 9 11 13 }, yet it produces one of the m ore ambiguous sounds
bec ause these notes also form Lhe V9 c hord of the originai minor c.:hord. This dual (tonic/dominant) functi on can be
a very confusing sound and should be used with care.

The lb 3 9 11 13} voicing (perhaps the best voicing using these three tensions} has oeen previously introduced as
a min6(9/l l)chord undertheTensions9and llchapter. The {5 9 11 13} voicing was also introduced in that chapter
as a min6(9/l l) chord.

Note the minor triad formed by tensions 9 , 11, and 13: C-maj7(9/l 1/13) - tensions form a D minor triad

Also note that those voicings not containing the 7th could have a~ 7th (modal dorian sound).

{7 9 11 13} C-maj7(9/11113) = B-7~5 I G9

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions: 9 13 7


13 9 11
ll 7 9
7 11 13

D7 Cb l3/~ 9 ) G-maj7(13/ll/9) D-7b5 G7 (~5/b 9 J C-maj7(13/11/9)


I
v.n b& ~
I!
(F!:-7b5l CB-7~5 )

C- 7b5 F7( ~9 i B l:> -m aj7(13/ 11/9 J


i on ~o
~~-------5=@
(A-7b5J

82
{l 9 11 13} C-maj7(9/ll/13) = D-7
*Note that this vojcing also could function as a dom7sus4(9/13) chord.
Avoiding tension 9 on the 5th string ieaves three applicable inversions: 0.... 13 1
13 9., 11
i1 J 9
li 13

G-7b5 C7( ~ 13/b9) Fm(l3/ll/9; D-7b5 G7C#5/#9) Cm(l3/11/9)


-e-
t>e- 0..0. -&

~
0 0

I! ~
(G-7) (D-7)

C-7~ 5(~ 13..i B7 B11m(l3/ll/9)


!).fr

(C-7'1

lmin7b5(9/11/b13) I
The only characteristic voicing would contain the~ 5th {~ 5 9 11 ~ 13}. The remaining voicings will be examined,
although less complete and producing some very ambiguous, if not weak, sounds. The tritone produced by tension
9 and b13 is partly responsible for this ambiguous sound.
Note that tensions 9. 1Landb13 produce a diminished triad~ C-7~5(9/l l/b 13 i - censions form a D 0 rriad
The two inversions contr.ining 9 or 11 on the 5th string will be avoided.

{65 9 11 613} C-7h 5(9/ll/~13J = A~13(b 5)


(•
Tnere ~re l\ ·0
1 ~pp lic :ible inver-:1on::: bi.?. ';!

11 bs
9 11
bs bu
C-7b5(9/ 11/b 13) F7(~9 ,1 A-7;,5(b13/11/9) D7{#5/ ~9) G-6(9}
I
a.a. b.n.
~ ~
9..0. I

f;. Qi• =i·,


4
~1",·-
. c--
--~-..(0-._::--
_- _-
_-_-
_-_-
_-_-
_-_-
_-_-_-
_-_-
_-_-
_-_-
_-_-
_-___,+:.;_,-_-_-_
--''---------~· ;_•
-----'-

83
{b7 9 11 ~ 13} C-7b5(9/ll/b 13) = Bb7
There are two applicable inversions: 9 b7
b 13 11
11 9
b7 b13
G-7li5(b 13/ 1119) C7('.,9) F-6(9) B-7b5(bl3/ 11/ 9) Bb7 A6(9)
I
~.fi -e-
-e- ~PA
~~--'~~~
~o~~~
11 #13 II
(A7)

{b3 9 11 b13} C-7b5(9/l l /b 13) =Ab6 (#1 1) ( I 5 6 ~11)

D -7b5(9/ 11/b 13) G7(::5/b9) C-6(9 )


There is one applicable inversion: 11
9
b 13
b3

{l 9 11 bt3} C-7b5(911lib13) = D-7b5 I F-6


There are two applicable inversions: 9 1
b13 11
ll 9
I b13
E-T, 5(013/11/9) E b7 D-6(9 • A.-7?5(~ 13/ ll/ 9) D7(~5/D9 ) G-6
..a_
0 -e- lt-e-

(D-6 ,

ldom7(9/~ 11/13) I
There is one characteristic voicing {b7 9 ; 1 J 13}. Incomplete {3 9 #11 13} and {5 9 #11 13} voicings have
been previously introduced as maj6(91# J 1) chcrds but wi ll be examined here for their dominant iunctions. Aiso . the
( l 9 ll 11 13 } voicing introduced as~ maj7(9/~ 11/13) chord wi!! be examined for its dominant fonctic!'l.

T he im·ersion containing rension 13 on the 5th srring wili be avoicied. The inversion containing tension 9 on the 5th
string will be avoided when the dom 7 chord is functioning as a V7 chord. When the dom7 chorci is functioning ~
a Sub V chord. the 9 on the 5th string will be aliowed. since it is really functioning as a #Sth on the V7 chor,i: (th:-
,, of Db 7)'
9th of G7 is the !5

* Keep in mind that tensions 9, #11. and 13 on a dominant chord are most characteristic in a Sub V function .

. iote the major tri ad formed by tensions 9 . : 11. and 13: C7(9/f 11/l 3: - tensions form a D major triad.

84
{b7 9 #11 13} C7(9/~ll/13) = Bb maj7~5

There are three appiicable in versions: in l 9 13


b7 13 9
13
,., ~ll b7
'-j ~7 #11
G-7(11) C7(9/ Ul/ 13) F6(9J D-9 G'7(9/Ul/ 13) C(add9 , E7( 13/~ 1118;

&bn 0
p
~ -e-
('3
e
(B 11 m aj7#5 l <Fmajn5 ) (Dmaj7!l5)
...

SUB \"

{3 9 #11 13} 091#11113) = F#-7#51C6(91#11)


There are three applicable inversions: 3 #11 13
13 9 3
#11 13 9
9 3 #l l

G7sus4 CC131ttll/9) :r·maj9 G-i Cd3/ :: 11/ 9) F6(9l F( 13/ ;.ll/9)

~! ig
0
£&;
v (F~-n5> CB-7!:15 >
(F~ -7#5 >
f..
j

I
C~ - 9( 11 ) F~7(:;5/~9> B6(9J C~- 8 F:!7(;!5/ ::9) Bmaj9 Ft:-9 B7(~5/~9 l E6(9 i
:: E' ~~~~ ~~--
-e-~~-~~-e-
~~--.,~~~R~
. ~---~~~~n~~~.,
SUE\' ~~ ~~l
•'

~
(DIE )

85
{5 9 #11 13} C(91# 11113) = A13(sus4) I C6(91# 11)
There is one applicable inversion: 13 E-7 AC13/U l/9) D6(9)
a
,;! -a-
#li
9
5 4 B11-7 Ej,(jt9/#5) At:imaj9
II

(SUB V) ~~ ... 0
f
a

I!
(B/ E )
{1 9 #11 13} C(91#11/13) = D7

There are three applicable inversions: 9 li 11 13


13 "I 9
#11 13 l
9 #11
D-9(11) G(13/#11/9) C(add9) G-9 0(13/#11/9) Fmaj7 E(13/#11/9)
j±.e.

j II ·;
(A7) (D7) (F #7J

l
Ab-9 Db(alt5/#9) Gbmaj9 C#-9 F#(alt5/#9) Bmaj7
l t
F7sus4 Bb(alt5/#9) E bmaj9

SUB V
ft; a.. JI ll~
+!:a -& 1±-e-
II
b.o. b.o. b.o.
II

Idom7(b91#11113) I
The b9th dictates a dominant type chord aiiowing it to be the mosr charactenstic nore. This means the guide-tones
will noc be missed in voicings not containing them. Again, tension 13 will be avoided on the 5th string.
Note the minor triad produced by tensions b9, #11. and 13: C7(b9/~ 11/13) - tens ions form an F# minor triad.

{b 7 ~9 #11 13} C7(b9/~ll/13) = Eb 7t#91#11 ) {5 b7 #9 #11}


There are two applicable inversions: ~9 13
13 b9
~ 1l b7
b- til
D-9 G7(:i9/lHl/ 13) C(add9) G-: 7(11) C7(b 9/~11/13) F6(9)
~ :I
0.0. I -e- a
!' -
-~~ II
I
t t
Ao-7(11) D,(~9 .l Gl,maj7 C#-9 F~(#9) Bmaj7
I
I
DO !>& P.O. to -& #e-
SUB V
-&
v (C~m/F )
Ii II

86
{3 b9 #11 13} C7(b91# 11/13) = F#-7
Note that the Sub V chord forms a complete min 7 chord. and when used in its related V7 situation, it has the
ambiguous fu nction of an incomplete V7(#9) or V-7 chord.

There are three applicable inversions: 13


3
13 b9
3 #11
D7(13/~ 11/ b 9 ) C7(13/#ll/b 9)
A7sus4 Gmaj7(6/ 9) G-7(11) Fmaj7
0 -& b..o.. -& -&

(, 1: Ii II
(B-7) (G#- 7) (F~-7 )

B7(~9)
l Emaj7 E b-9(11) Ab7(#9) Db6(9)
t C#- 9
l
F#7(#9 ) Bmaj7
F#- 9
#o ~ ~
&i~
f±o
SUBY 11,
@) ••
1•
• ! II

{5 b9 #11 13} C7(b91# 11/13) = A 13 I Eb 7b5(#9f


There is one applicable inversion: 13 F7sus4 Bb(13/#11/b 9) E t>maj7
~ 11 I

;9 ' ,.. :
(G13)
0

!I
B-9 E(alt9) Amaj9
f;o
II
{1 b9 #11 13} C(b91#llll3) = Eb7(#91#1 1/1 3) {b7 #9 #1 1 13 }
There are two applicable inversions: ~ 1 ! 13
l b9
13 1
bq ~I!
I

',..
F7sus4 F(13/::11/!>9) B 96(9)
I

F~7sus4
::..0.

~!
\'
-&

§!
B(:;ll/,9) Em aj7(9 J
II
G-9

C$.-9
-&
C(l3/# 11/l>9)
'
';!i;
F;t (~
tr

1 J/i:9)
F6
-9·

Bmaj7
II

..0.. ..0.. .fi tio -e- l>-&


(S UB V)
4 11 · II

87
ldom7(#91#11113) j
The { 1 #9 #11 13} voicing will be omitted due to the rather ambiguous sound produced by the complete dim7 chord
formed: {l #9 #11 13} = {1 b3 bs bb7}.
Those voicings that contain tension 13 or #9 on the 5th string w ill be omitted.

Note the diminished triad produced by tensions #9, #11, and 13: C7(#91# 11/13) - tensions form an Eb 0
triad.

{~ 7 #9 #11 13} C7(#91#11113) = A7(b91#1111 3) {l ~9 #11 13}


There are two applicable inversions: #9 13
13 #9
~ 11 b7
~7 #11

G-7(11) C7(# 9/# 11/13) Fmaj9 G7( 1 3/~1V#9)

'bn
D-9 Cm aj9

~ 0 -0- fie- .n.

II l
11
v \'i

F#(13/F,9) B6(9) Ab-9(11) Db(13/#9) Gbmaj7


b.o. b.o. b.o.
(SUB V)
II
{3 #9 #11 13} C7(#91# 11/13) = A6(# 11) { 1 5 6#11}

There are two applicable inversions: ~ ~ 1 13


3
13 #9
3 #11
A-7(11) D C13/:fll/~9 ) Gmaj7(9/ 6 ) G-7 C(13/UV~9) Fmaj7(6)
I -0- b.o.
I'
E~ -9(11 ) A?l3(#9) Dbmaj9 C11-9 FH3(tt9) Bmaj7(6)

(SUB V)
~ k k
~]~--------·-------';:~-~
k 11 .Q ~ ~a ~
{5 #9 ~11 13} C7(#91# 1l/13J = Al3b5
There is one appiicable inversion: i3
E-7 A(13/#11/#9) Dmaj9
~ 11 -&
r9
II
i
B~-9 Eb(l3/alt9) Abmaj7(6)
:±e
~Q II

88
The following examples will use various chords containing tensions 9, 11, and 13. Additional chords from past
chap1crs are also used to enhance voice-leading. Hybrid chords will be listed as 1hey occu r.

Thi s firs1 "·Il-V" bl ues example in the key of " F" contai ns some interesting chromatic voice-leading. In measure
three, the top three voices contain contrary - chromatic motion while the bottom voice sustains. Measure four into
measure five [F7(~9/alt5 )-Bb 7(9/ 13)) contains a good example of contrary chromatic motion in all four voices;
the top three voices ascend while the bottom voice descends. In measure eight to measure nine [Db 7(91# l l/13) -
Gm(add9)], the top three voices descend chromatically wh ile the bottom voice sustains. Tn measure nine to measure
ten, those same three voices again descend chromatically. Fin ally, note the chromatic constant s tructures produced
by the last six chords.

*Note that the E-7b 5(9/1l/~ 13) voicing conrains a major 7th width .

F6(9) E -7b5 A7 D-9 G7(b9/alt5) C-7(11) F7(b9/alt5)


.....
: . .
_:,:,
~
(9/11/b 13) (\,9/b13) (F-7#5) (G-7#5) (A6(9))

~1~f~~~
w~br~p~
r ~,~;~~~:::::!E-~~
Bh? Bb7(9/#11/13) Bb- 7(11) Eb7(9/#llll3) A-9 D7(b9/alt5 ) Ab - 7 Db7
(9/13) (Abmaj7#5) (Db/Eb) (Dbmaj7#5 ) (Ebm/ Ab ) (11) (9/#11/13)

~--~~-~1~
-,; q ~1r~~b~~~-~-1-~1_~
~,~- ~ __
Gm Do7 C7 C7(tt9/alt5) Fmaj9 D7C#9/ alt5) G-7(9/ 11) C7(b 9/alt5) F (9/ ttll/ 13)
(add9) (9/ 13) (9/13) (Emaj9).... (Fmaj9) .. (F#maj9) (F/G) .... (F#/ G# ).... (G/ A)

~~·~-+--f-==----==---
bf-===--=Ll-__
f _ . ~~
.;i. ~,'-.----#1~-~____,~--==--t!l+-.-.-l=: : ;,~-==t.i1

89
This next example also contains some interesting chromatic voice-leading as well as another chord voicing
containing a major 7th width (F-9). In measure four to measure five [Eb 7(b9/alt5)-Ab6(9)], three voices descend
chroITJ&tically while one middle voice ascends . In measure seven, again, three voices descend chromatically while
one middle voice ascends . In measure seven to measure eight the top three voices contain minor triads w hich descend
chromatically. Finally, note the same structures a whole step apart on the last two chords.

Cm A-7h5 D-7b5 G7 C-maj7 F7


(9/11/13) (9/11/b l 3) (9/11/b 13) (b9/alt5 ) (9) ( ~9/alt5 )
( G/E ~)

,i,
(F1 3) (G7) (E 0 /Ab) (F-7lt5 ) (Db7)

t! ~~ ~ I~~ &
"bl I ~~
Bb -7(11) E b7(b9/alt5) Ab6(9) Abmaj7 Ab-7(9/ 11) Db7~5( 13 )
CDb6(9 )) (Aadd9) (91 #11/1 3) (Gbl Ab) CG7(#9 ))

I~"¥
b b b
~~i
~' lbf bi ij 1f
(G- 7)

Eb(9/#11/13) C7(b9/alt5) F-9 Bb 7(b 9/ #11/ 13) E b m aj9(#11)


(FIG) (E6(9)) (Abmaj7) (G13) (Fl3 )

~ J &~- (Dbm/Gb)
11.I'~
(Cm/Ab)
ijg~
(Em/F)
II~!
(Drn/Eb)
II

) ·..
•"·l-,,..

90
Chapter Thirtee110
Altered 9th Tensions (~9 and #9) on Dom7 Chords
These dominant chords contain both tensions b9 and #9 in their voicings. Since tension b9 dictates the dom7 chord ,
voicings with and without the guide-tones will be examined. Some of the Sub V chords will produce very incomplete
structures and should be used with care.
\Vith the exception of the dom7(alt9/13) {3 b9 #9
13 }°chord. all of the voicings in this chapter have been previously
introduced enharmonically. Those inversions placing tension #9 on the 5th string will be avoided. Those chords
using tension 13 wiU avoid this tension on the 5th string as well .

Idom7(alt9) I
The most characteristic voicing would include the guide-tones {3 b7 b9 #9 }.

{3 b7 b9 #9} C7(alt9) = Db -6(9) { l b3 6 9}

There is one applicable inversion: ~9 C-9 F7(alt9) Bbmaj7


~-~7 J-
.
;b ~
~~~~~~-
_

(F-
ar
.~~
-6
-(-
9)-
-e-_---H
0_ _11
-

)~~~~~~~~-'
~
· · - 1 -_ _

F~-9 B13
l E6(9)

(Sub V) -4-#o___#n____~.....___i---Hll
{l b7 b9 #9} C7(alt9) = Gb6C# 11) {3 5 6 #11}
There are two applicable inversions: #9 b9
1 1

t~ f~
C-9 F7(alt9) B~ maj7(6J E -9 A7(alt9) Dmaj7(# 11)
b.o.
lz~ ~ II
A Dea.
g #;t II

(Sub V)
' F#-7
-e-
J,
B6(#11)
jio
E6(9)
.n
Bb7sus4

rbs I b.&
I
v
Eb6(#11)
b..o.
A~maj9
I

hii;;;23
{5 b7 b9 #9)
' C7(a1t9) = Eb7

~~
There are three applicable inversions: b7 b9
~99 5

~~
5
b9 5

91
Fmaj7 D- 9 G7(alt9) Cmaj9
-9- be- 0

II 1 II
(Ab7) (Eb7) (Bb7)
F #-7 B13(b9) Emaj9 C~-7 F#113(b9) B1maj9 Ab-7 Db13(:i9) Gbmaj9

(Sub V ) _,,4~--e---~-· o_ _ s_' o- --rrJ[-.o. ___ 1>&_--'~-9-<~B---tij[


_ _ _v_.o._ _ i-
- - -v..a. ++-11

{3 5 b9 #9} C7(alt9) = Eb7(b9) { l 3 b7b9}

There is one applicable inversion: #9 D-7(11) G7(alt9) Cmaj7(6/9)


5 b.o.
'9 lH ij ~! II

(Sub V)
t Ab-9
bn
Db 13(b9)
bn
1---- - - - -- _.:;. . Q'&-B-- - -tttl
Gb6(9)
,:,,.

{1 3 b9 #9} C7(alt9) = Db-maj9 {1 b3 7 9}

C-9(11) F7(alt9) Bbmaj7(6)


There is one applicable inversion: #9
1
3
b9

~
F~-9
=
B13 (~ 11 ) Emaj9
II

(Sub V ) --l';kt ,._,.,..,;g,--_ _ ~ -------:#~:1----+tii


11_0

{1 5 b9 #9} C7(alt9) = E~ 13 { 1 3 b7 13} I A7b5(#9)


Note thal this voicing comains a strong modal phrygian sound: { 1 b3 5 b9} .

There is one applicable inversion: #9


C-9(11) F7(alt9) Bbmaj7(6)
1 I
~

i
F~-7 B(l3/Ul/b 9 ) Emaj9
(Sub V)4
_,,___-e-_ _ __ r_o----""z~#1~·- ----+lll
-.;
<BIE)

92
I dom7(alt9/ff 11) I
{~7 ~9 #9 #11} C7(alt91#1 1) = E~ -7/G~6

There are three applicable inversions:

C- 7 F 7b5(alt9) Bbmaj7 G-7 C7b5(alt9) F6 E-9 A7b5(alt9) D6(9)

'~fi
I
-e b.o. I b.u -e- .0.. !V.O. -e-
~I~
F#-9
it'
B6 Emaj7
Ji

F #7sus4 F#6
\}'

Bmaj7
II
Bb-7
'f
Eb6 Ab6(9)
II

:!to #o .0.. t,e- ~ b.& ~.il. b.a.


~ ~i
(Sub V) ~tf~
(LI
"
!! II 118 II

{3 ~9 #9 #11}
There are two applicable inversions: !;9
C7(alt91#11)

11

9
= A6(#11) {3 5 6 ,,#11}

F7sus4 F(b5! alt9) Bb6(9)


G-7(11) C(# 11/ alt9) F9 I I
17..0. 17.Q.

t~
I

#*r.~!
~Q II \g I!
I (C/F "
\
C ~ -9 FH3 B(add9) F#7sus4 Bl3 E6(9J
_o_
;o ..0..

~ ~a
-e-
(Sub V ) #~a, II I

{l ~9 #9 #11} C7 (alt91# l l ; = Gb6(#1J ) {1 5 6 #1 1 ]

There is one ::i.pplicable inversion: li9 Bbmaj7(6)


"1 C7sus4 F(alt9/b5)
v.o..
~ l;
~
~9
~~
I \!'
n

Ff-7 B6(#11)
,,
E6(9)
e. 'Ito
..0.

(Sub V)
&
E;)

93
{5 b9 #9 #11} C7(alt91#Il ) = Eb7(~9) {l 3 b7 #9}
This voicing cannot be used, since the single available inversion has tension #9 on the 5th string.

Idom7(alt9/~ 13) I [dom7#5(alt9)]

{3 b9 #9 bl3} C+7(alt9) = Amaj7(#11) {3 5 7 #11}

There are three applicable jnversions: #9 3


#5 ~9
,9 !~
G-7( 11) C+<alt9) Fmaj9 F7sus4 F+(alt9) Bb6 C-9 F+(alt9 ) Bbmaj7
Ii.,,_ !#~ b.u 0

(C/F)
II dH II

(Sub V) -l*r---~#
# ,. . _,--++-jl ----H-11-~-r..e-.o------ttll

C+7(alt9) = Eb 7sus4
b7 b9
~~
There are three applicable inversions:

#5 ~~ i~
~9 tt5
,, ~7

E-7(11} A+7(alt9) D6(9 ) C-8 F+7fa1t9} Bb6(9 l F -7(11) Bb+7(alt9) E,maj7(61


;J..0.. ~ ?.O. D-6- f).0.

~
? 0

,:.
(C7sus4)
1I· i
(Ab7sus4)
"o Ii
(Db7sus4)

I

';'
B!,-7(11) E76(9/ Ai>majS
F;l-7 B6(9 l Emaj9 (Sub V not applicable)

(Sub V ) ~k.
v
tti:
17.n.
:e ::
-& :tl:c :lo
11 II

94
{l b9 #9 b13} C7(alt9/b 13) = Eb 13sus4
There is one applicable inversion: #9 C-9(11) F+(alt9) Bb(13/#ll/9)
1
~13 be
'(B~Eb)
0

b9 .:. II
(Db / Gb) (C/ F )

J
F~-9(11 ) B(13/ #11/ 9) Emaj9
_o_
#o io
(SubV)
II
t(E/A) (C#/F# ) (B/E)

The {5 b9 #9 b 13} voicing will be omitted, as was done in earlier chapters, due to the natural 5andb13 it contains.

Idom7(alt9/13) I
(3 ~ 9 #9 13}
There is one applicable inversion: -
C-9 F13(alt9) Bbmaj7

:~
0 -&

II

~@-#_
0
(SubV) _ _ _ ~_
0
_
0
_ __ _ # ---+1~

{b7 b9 ;9 13} ~ : ' (".


C7(alt9/l.J i = c:;, '!t1 l ) { 1 5 ~7 ~l lj

There is one applicable inversion: ~9 E-9 A13(alt9) D6(9)


13 _o_

·r
~9 "'b_o_

~
-&
-prr 7 II
v
B~ -7( 11 ~ Eb{13/ #9) Ab6(9 )
~..a. b..a.
(Sub V ) ~~%: II

95
{1 b9 #9 13} C I 3(alt9) = Eb13(b5) {1 bs b7 13}

There is one applicable inversion: #9 C-9 Fl3(alt9)


1

~
13 ' b.o
b9
~
~2 II
J,
F#-7 B( l3/#1 1/~9 ) E6(9)
-& #o
(Sub V )
~ II

{5 b9 #9 13} Cl 3(alt9) = A7(b5) I E b7(b 5)

There are two applicable inversions: #9 13

~~
13
5
b9 5

f.Q C- 9 F 13(alt9)
~
B~ maj 7(6)

~
G-7 C13(a lt9) Fmaj9
b.o ~ - ~
II

F #-7 B13(a lt9) E maj9

(Sub VJ I!

The following dom7 chords have four tensions ana no c:iord tones. These unique voicmgs imply specific chord
scales and have several enharmonic spellings.

I. dom7(alt9/alt5) I dom7b5(alt9/b l 3J I dom7#5(al t91# 11) I dom7(~91#91#1llbl 3 )

{bS ;s b9 #9} {b5b9 #9bl3} 1~ 5b 9# 9# 11}


These tensions im)'ly the "altered" scale:

b'.2 ~2 3 b:- f5 b7
(b9J (#9) ( ~ 11) C'b 13 )

II. dom7(alt9/pllll3 ) (b9 ~ 9 ~I J 13 ] I doml3b5(alt9J {b 5 b9 #9 13 }

These tensions imply the symmetrical "dominant diminished'. scale:

b2 #2 3 6 b7
(b9) <# 9 1 (13 )

96
Idom7(alt9/alt5) I C7(alt9/alt5) fb9 #9 bs #5} = Ab7sus4

There are three applicable inversions:

B~7(alt9/alt5)
C7(alt9/ alt5)
C-9 F7(alt9/alt5) B:imaj7 G7sus4 Fmaj7(6) F7sus4 Eb maj7(9/ 6)
1± -& 0 -& b.o. ~ -e-

II II 1 II
(C#7sus4) (G#7sus4) (F #7sus4) (G7sus4)

F~-7
l
B6(9) Emaj7 C~-9
1
F#6(9) B(add9)
~o ito
(Sub V not applicable)
(Sub V)
II II

Id om7(alt91#11113) I C1 3(b5/alt9) {b9 #9 # 11 13 } = Eb-7(b5)


,,
A voiding inversions containing tensions #9 or 13 on the Sth string leaves two applicable inversions:

#9 13

f~l #~~11
13

F13(alt9/ :i5) B:imaj7 G- 7 C13P5(alt9) Fmaj9


C-9
·ito -& b.o. -e-

!"'
(G:!-7o5J
I! l
(Eb -7,5)
n
(CIF'J
I!
I

F#-9
~t

B-6 Emaj7~ 5 C#-!? F~-6


1 Bma57
.c. -e- ii-e-
-&--#-----------+i---------~
0 'l!o ~o
(Sub V)
II I!

The following exampies will use various dominant chords containing alrered 9th tensions. Additional chords L'"orn
past chapters also will be used to enhance voice-leading.

This first "II-V blues" example in the key of "D" contains some interesting constant structures and chromatic motion.
The.first two chord structures arc re~eated a whole step lower in tne second measure. The E7 (alt; structure in measure
three is repeated a whole step higher in the following measure. The three chords starting m measure five contain one
common tone while the top three voices descend chromatically. The B 13(alt9) chord in measure seven has two
common tones while the remaining voices move in comrary chromatic motion to the next chord. Measure eight" s
two chords share one common tone while the tap three voices descend chromaticaliy . Measure ten 's A7(alt) chord
has t wo voices ascending and two voices descending to the next chord. Finally, note the last three chords use the
same structure descending chromatically.

97
Dmaj7(6) D6(9) Ctt-7b 5(b 13) F~7(b 13/ alt9) B-9 E7(alt) A-7(11 ) D7(b13/#9)
(A6(9)) (B7su s4) (G6(9)) (A7sus4) (C7sus4) (D7sus4) I

~
#fr
,"'2

£f
-6-

1; ~
I
I
!~~ ~~
Q

l
l?:f
"'19-

I
D.t.2.

G7(13/9) G7(b 13/alt9) G-9 C7(#11/alt9) F;-7(11 ) B13(alt9 ) F -7 Bb 13(,9)


(Bb7sus4) (F6(9)) (Eb -7) CD7b5 ) (G7)
I

~
~
~I &:~ ~
-9-

I~ ~
I

=§= !I

E-7 E -7(11/9 ) A7(alt9) A7(alt) D6(9) B7b5(alt9J E- 9 A7(b 9/ alt5) D9


(DI E ) (C7) (F7sus4) (Bm/E) (B~m/E,) (Am/D)
lb.a.. -f'T
~ ::~ 1 ~~ ii~ I ~ l ~I ~~~! Ii M
' II
! I
I I
This next example in the key of "C' also contains some interesting voice-leading ideas. In the first measure, the top
two voices sustain while the bottom two move in contrary chromatic motion. Note that only one voice moves
(chromatically) in measures two and three on the C7(alt9) to Abmaj9 chords and Abmaj9 to G7(alt51#9) chords.
Measure three' s G7(alt51#9) chord sustains the lead tone while the remaining voices produce contrary chromatic
motion to the C6(9) chord. Measure four's C7(alt) chord contains contrary chromatic motion between the top two
voices ascending while the bottom two descend to the Fmaj7 chord. Finally, note the contrary motion between the
top voice and bottom voices on the last two chords.

Cmaj9 B+7(alt9) B, 13(b9 ) A7(alt9 ) Abmaj9 G7 ( ~9/ alt5 } C6(9) C7(alt ;


(G7) (C7) (E b7) (Ab7sus4)
I

if- ··7
' r>-:9-

4~ ~ I~ -~ i:-~ ~I ~

Fmaj7 F- 6(11) E7(~9 ) A7(alt9) D7(alt9) G7ti5(alt9) Cmaj7


(Bb7) (BP-6(9)) (F7) (D~ 6 )

,r
t>.a. -5- -6- v.a. b.n.
I~
-6-

4~ ~~~ !:!~
I

~!1~ i~ II
I

98
Chapter Fourteen.
Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions
The following chords (highlighted within boxes) appear in the order they were introduced in this text. Enharmonic
substitutions for each one of these chords appear in the order they were introduced as well. Chords include the basic
four-part chords and all the chords introduced in the tension chapters. To the left of each chord is the tension chapter
where that chord can be found. Additional enharmonic substitutions of the same voicings that have not been
introduced to this point will be examined in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions chapter.
This chapter will include the Substitute Vth chord for eacr dom7 chord introduced as well as the most common
relative major and minor situations. Some of the more incomplete voicings will receive additional notation for the
same root to the right of that chord in parenthesis. A more in-depth and organized approach to relative major and
minor chords can be found in the Relative Major - Minor chapter.

Tension I major7 I
Chapter c E G B
Cmaj7 1 3 5 7
(9) A-9 ~3 5 ~7 9
(9 & 13) D7sus4(13/9) ~7 9 4 13
(9 & 11) Fmaj7(# 11/9) 5 7 9 #11

Imajor7~s j c
,

E Gb B
Cmaj7b5 1 3 bs 7
(9) A-6(9) b3 5 6 9
(9) Sub V~Ab7#SC#9) 3 #5 b7 #9
(9 & 13) D7(13/9) b7 9 3 13
(11) F#-7b5(1 l) bs b7 1 11

j major7#5 I
c E G# B
Cmaj7( #5) 1 3 #S 7
(9) A-rnaj7(9) ~3 5 7 9
(9 & 11) F #-7b5(11/9) bs b7 9 11
(9 -11 -13) SubV ~ D7(131# ! 1/9) ~7
.., 9 #11 13
Ab7(#91#5) ;) #5 1 #9

99
I minor7 I
c Eb G Bb

C-7 l b3 5 b7
E b6 6 l 3 5
~

(9) Abmaj9 .) 5 7 9
(9) F9sus4 5 b7 9 4
(9 -11 ) F-7(9/il ) 5 b7 9 II
(9-1 1-13) Db maj7(9/~ 11/13) 7 9 #11 13
(9-11- 13) B b-maj7(13/l 1/9) 9 11 13 J [Bb7sus4(13/9)]
Sub V ~ F#7(13/~ l 1/b9)
....)
(9-11- 13) #11 13 b9

~~
C7 f9 (C-7) 1
I 5 b7
(dom/alt9) Sub V ~A 7 5(alt9) #9 b7 b9
Eb 13 (Eb6) 13 3 5

l minor7bsl
c Eb c' 7tl Bb
C-7b5 b3 bs b7
Eb-6 6
..,
l b3 s
(91 SubV~Ab9 :- s b7
...,
9
(9 ) D7 (b 91#.SJ bi b9 :· ~~
:r -
(9) F7sus4(!79) 5 b7 b9 4
(11) Gb6(# l l ) ff 11 6 l 3
(9 -11-13) Db-maj7(9/l l/13) 7 9 11 13
(9- 11-13) B b-7b 5(b 1311119) 9 11 bl3 1
(dom/alt9) Sub V""Al3b5(alt9) #9 bs 13 b9
Eb 13(#9) (Eb-6) 13 #9 5

I minor7#S I
c E~ GuTI Bb
C-7( #5) l b3 Fs b7
(9) Bb9sus4 9 4 p7 I
(11) Rei ~ F-7(1 11 5
..,
b7 b3 I!
A!7 (add9l _) s I 9
(1 1) Eb-6(11) 6 I Ii 5 (Eb I 3sus4)
(9 -13) Sub v~ D7b5(b 13/b9) b7
...,
b9 bs b13 (07(b 9/alt5 )
A~9 ,)
-' I 9
(9- l l ) Gb6(ff I 119J tlI 6 9 3
(9 - 11-13 ) SubV ~ ob 13( ~ 1119) ..~ 11 13 9 3
"- C7(~9f'#S \ I rt~9 ~s b7

Iminor6 ! refer to minor7b5

I major6 I refer to minor7

100
ldom7 I
c E G Bb
SubV~C7 ] 3 5 b7
(9) F#7(b 91b5) bs b7 b9 3
( 11) G-6(11 ) 11 6 i b3
(9- J 1-13) Sub V~Bb7(131# 1119) 9 #11 13 l
(9-11 -13)
E7#5C# 111#9) #5 1 #9 # 11 [E-7b 5(b 13)]
(9-11-13)
Bbmaj7(131# 1119) 9· #11 13 1 [Bb6b5(9)]
D-7b 5(b 13/9/ 11 ) b7 9 1I bl3
(dom/alt9) Sub V~A7 (alt9) #9 5 b7 b9
.,
Eb 13(b9) 13 b9 .) 5

ldom7#SI
c E GU Bb
SubV~ C+7 l 3 ~5 b7
(9) Frb5(9) bs b7 9 3
(9) Sub V ~B . 9(b5) 0/ bs b7 I [B b-7b5(9)]
(9-11-13) E7(alt5) #5 1 3 b5
(11 ) F-maj7(1 1) 5 7 b3 Ii
(11 ) Db-rnaj7(6) 7 b3 5 6
(9-13) D-7~5 (b 13/9) b7 9 bs bl3
(9-13) Sub V ~ D7b5(b 13/9) b7 9 b5 b13 [D9(#51b5)]
Ab9(#5) 3 #5 _, 1 9

I dom7bs I
c E Gb Bb
SubV~C7b 5 1 3 bs b7

(9)
F#7b 5
Sub V~A~ 9(# 5)
bs
3
b7
#S ,,
11 1
1 3
9
.,

~~
(9) :D9(#5) b7 9 j

( 11-13) G-maj7(1 l/6) 11 6 7


(11 -1 3) Db -m~j7(1 l/6 \ 7 b? lJ 6
(dom/alt9) Sub V ~ Ai3 (alt9) #9 5 u p9
(doml alt9) E b 13(alt9) 13 b9 #9 5

Idom7sus4 i
c F G Bb
C7sus..: .
-+ 5 b7
(9) Rei Eb6(9 1 6 (I
3 5
~ C-7(1 1)
7

(11) 1 11 5 b7
(11 ) R el ~G-7 ( 11 ) 11 b? I
b3
B b6(9) 9 5 6 1
(13) D bmaj7b 5(6) 7 3 bs 6
(9-1 3) Rel ~ Abm~j7(9/6) 3 6 7 9
F-70119) 5 1 9 11 [F9sus4]
(1 1-13) D-7bscb13111) b7 b3 1: bl3
(dom/alt9) Sub V ~ A+ 7(alt9) #9 .. -
t, J b7 b9
Eb 13(9) 13 9 3 5
SubV ~ E7(a1t9/alt5) ll,. s b9 #9 b5
Bb9(1 3) 9 5 ,. 13 1
101
Idimin.7 1
c E~ Gb Bbb
C07 1 b3 b5 bb7
E b0 7 bb7 1 b3 bs
A07 b3 bs bb7 I
Gb 0 7 bs bb7 1
,,
b3
(9) D7~9) b7 b9 .J 5
(9) F7( 9) 5 ~7 b9 3
(9) Ab 7(b9) 3 5 b7 b9
(9) B7(b9) b9 3 5 b7

Iminor (maj7) I
c Eb G B
C-maj 7 1 b3 5 7
(9) A-7b5(9) b3 b5 b7 9
(9-13) D7sus4( 13/b9) b7 b9 4 13
(9- 11) Sub V~ F7(#11/9) 5 b7 9 #11
B7(#51b9) b9 _..,
#S 1

Imajor7(9) I 9 for 1Idrop 2 {3 5 7 9} ...refer to mi.

c E B D
,,
(9) Rel ~Cmaj 9 1 .J 7 9
A-( 11/9) b3
,..,
5 9 11
(9-13) Sub V~Ab7b5 (b 131#9) .::; b 13 #9 bs [Ab 7(#91alt5)]
D7(13/9) b7 9 13 I
,..,
(11-13) Fmaj7(131# 11 j 5 I #11 13
(11-13) F#-7b5(b 13111) bs b7 11 b 13

j major7b5(9) I 9 for I I drop 2 {3 b5 7 9} refer to major6(9)


Ninrh(no3) { l b5 7 9} refer to dom7b5(# 9)

jminor maj7(9) I 9 for 11 drop 2 {b3 5 7 9 } referro major7#5

c E !)' B D

(9) C -mai9 l ~3 I 9
(11-13) Sub V~F7(13!# 11 ) 5 b7 #11 13
(dom/alt9) B7(alt9 1 b9 3 #9

!minor7(9) j 9 for 1Idrop2 {b3 5 b7 9} refer to major7

c E~ B~ D
(9) Rel ~c-9 l b3 b7 9
~7
'---- E bmaj7(6) 6 l 5
( 13) Fl3sus4 5 b7 4 13
102
I minor7~ 5(9) I 9 for 1Idrop2 fb3 bs b7 9} refer to wjn. maj7
Ninth(no3) { I bs b7 9 } refer to dom7#S

Imajor6(9) I 9 for 1 I drop 2 13 5 6 9} refer to dom7(sus4)


c E A D
....
(9) Rel C6(9) 1 .) 6 9
(9) ~ Bbmaj7b5(9) 9 bs 7 ....
.)

Am(l l) b3 5 1 11
(13) Rei ~ Fmaj7(6) 5 7 3 6
D-9 b7
I -
9 s i (09)
(13) Ft-7b5(b 13) p) b7 b3 b13
(9-1 3) Sub V~A 7b5(b 13/b9) ....
.) bl3 b9 bs
09 b7 9 5 1
(9- 11) G-6(1 1/9) ll 6 9 5 (G7sus4(13/9))

Iminor6(9) I 9 for 1 I drop 2 {b 3 5 6 9} referto major7b 5


c E~ A D
(9) C-6(9) 1 b3 ..6 9
(1 3) SubV~ F l3 5 b7 3 13
(dom/alt9) B7(alt9) b9 3 b7 #9

ja om7(9)j 9 for 1 I drop 2 {3 5 b7 9} refer to minor7b5


c E Bb D
(9) Sub V S C9 1 3 b7 9
(11) CF#+7(# 11)) F~7(alt5) bs b7 3 #5
(9) Sub V ~D7ti.5(91 b7 is
(9-13)
(11)
I (A~ 7f 5( ~ 1319)) Ab 91altS ,
Sub V ~E+7(~ 11)
,,
.1

#5
9
;s
l
L'
'7

#l J
l
p)
b7 {E-7b5(b 13)}
I B b9b5 9 b5 l ....
J {B bmaj9b5}
(11 ) G-6(1l 1 11
6 b> 5
(11 -13 ) r-maj7( J 1/6) :
1 J

-
I 11 f::

Idom7(b9) i 9 for 1 I drop 2 { 3 5 b7 b9} refer to dimin.7

c E Bb D~
(9) Sub V ~ C7Cb9) i 3 b7 bCJ
(11 ) F~7(~1
,. 1 ) #I 1 b7 ~
5
(13) -; ' ._
Ctt-mai7(6J ~
I ::>.) 6
p9
I•

(dom/alt9) S ub V ~ A 7(alt9) -·' b9 ".)

EbJ3(b9i ,_.
I "1
~9 <:, ~7

103
l dom7(#9) I 9 for 1 I drop 2 {3 5 b7 #9}
E G Bb Di
(9) Sub V~C7(#9) 3 5 b7 #9
(9-13) F#
I 3(b9)
l -
r> I b9 3 13
(9- l l ) Sub V~A7(ij 11/~9) 5 b7 b9 #11
Eb (~9) b9 3 5 i

9th(no 5) voicing ....... C E Bb D#


(9) Sub V~C7(#9) 1 3 b7 #9
(13 ) Ft13(b5) bs b7 3 13
(9-13) D -maj7(6/9) 7 b3 6 9
(dom/alt9) Sub V~A7(# ll/alt9) ¥,9 5 b9 #11
Eb 13(b9) 13 b9 5 l

Idom7p5(9) I 9for 1 /drop2 {3 bs b7 9) refertodom7#5


Ninth(no3) { l b5 b7 9 } refer to dom7 tt 5

Idom7~5(b9) I 9 for 1Idrop2 {3 bs b7 b9} refer to dom7

9th (no3) chord voicing not available until triad over bass chapter:
C7(b9/b5) {1 bs b7 ~9} = Gb/C

Idom7b5(#9) I - 9forl/drop2 {3 bs b7 #9 }

E Gb Bb D#
(9) Sub ~.,,'~C7(#91b5 ) 3 I -
p) b7 #9
( 13) F#13 . b7 1 3 13
(9) Rel ~Emaj9b5 1 9 bs 7
(9-11 ) Ci -60 119 1 rI -·
...,
. i 1
0
·-~
01 -13) B~-7b 5(~ 13/11) ~5 ~1 3 l 11
(9-1 1- 13) Sub V~A7(131# l llb9) 5 13 b9 #11
·Eb7(alt9) b9 #9 5 1

ldom7#5(9)l 9forl / drop2!3 #5 b7 9}refertodom7b5


Nimh wirh oniUred 3rd chord voicinJ? { 1 #5 b7 9} refer to dom7(9)

j dom7~ 5(b9) I 9 for l / cirop 2 {3 #5 b7 b9} refer co minor7b5


Ninrh with omitted 3rd chord voicing not available.

ldom7~5(#9ll 9forl/drop 2{3 #5 b7 #9}refertomajor7b5


Ninth with omitted .)rd chord voicing not applicable: { 1 #5 b7 #9} forms an
incomplete dominant sound. This voicing will appear later in a dominant capacity.

104
Idom7sus4(9) I 9 for 1Idrop2 {4 5 b7
9} refer to minor7
Ninth(no5) voicing { 1 4 b7 9} refer to minor7#S

j dom7sus4(b9) I 9 for I I drop 2 {4 5 b7 b9} refer to minor7b5

Imajor7(#11) I
11for5 { 1 3 7 #11 } refer to major7b5
11 fo r 3 { 1 5 7 #11 }; no enharmonic substitutions through the tension chapters. The
relative minor forms a model dorian voicing:

c G B F#
Cmaj7# JI l 5 7 #J l
A-7(13/9 ) b3 b7 9 13

11 for 1 {3 5 7 #11 } E G B F#
(11) Cmaj7(# 11) 3 5 7 #11
(11) C #-7b5(1 l ) b3 bs b7 11
(13) Rei ~Gmaj7(6) 6 1 3 7
Em(9) 1 b3 5 9
(dom/alt9) Sub V~Eb +7< alt9) b9 3 #5 #9
A 7( 13/9) 5 b7 9 13

I major6c# 11) 1

11for5 { l 3 6#11} refer to minor7b5


11 for 3 { J 5 6 #11 } c G A F#
(11) C6(# 11 ) l 5 6 #11
(9-11 -13 ) E-7b5(b 13/l l/9; bl3 ~3 11 9
Sub V ~ EP(l3/~ 111¥9) #l l #9
r
(9- 11-13) 13 3
A7(131#9) ~7 l 13 (A-7(13))
<dom/alt9) Sub V ~ F~7(# l l/alt9) 11 b9 lt9 1
c 13(# 1 1) l 5 13 #11

11 for 1 {3 5 6 #11 } E G A F~
(11) C6(# 11) 3 5
Ip.)
-
6 #11
(ll- 13) CH-7b5(b 1311 1) b3 bl3 11
(dom/all9) Sub V ~ Eb7b5(alt9) b9 3 b5 #9
Al3 5 ~7 I i3
(dom/alt9) Sub V ~ F #7(alt9) b7 ~9 #9 1
C l3(# l l ) 3 5 13 #11

105
Iminor7(11) I
ll for S {l b3 b7 ll} refertodom7sus4
11for 3 { 1 5 b7 11} refer to dom7sus4
11 for1 {b3 5 b7 11} refer co minor7#5

j minor6(11) I
11 for 5 { l b3
6 11 J refer to dom 7
11 for 1 {b 3 5 6 11) refer 10 dom9

j minor maj7(11) I
llfor5 {l b3 7 11}refertodom7(#11) {I 5 b7#11l
11 for 3 { 1 5 7 I J } unique... no substitutes
11 for1 {b3 5 7 11} refer to dom7# S

ldom7(#11) I
11 for 5 { 1 3 b7 i 11 } refer to dom7b5
11 for 3 {1 5 b7 #11 } C G B~ F#
( 11) SubV~C7(# 11 ) 1 5 b7 #11
F#7(b9/b5) bs b9 3 1
(11 ) G-maj7(11 ) 11 l b3 7
(dorn/alt9) Sub V~A,13(alt9) #9 b7 b9 13
Ei, 1 3(~9)
·'
13 3 5 #9
11for1 {3 5 b7 #11} refer to dom7(b9)

Idom7 ~ 5(t 11)!


11 for 3 { l #5 ~ 7 #l l } refer to dom9
11 for 1 { 3 #5 'rJ 7 #11 J refer to dom9

lmaj or7(6) !
6 for 5 {l 3 6 71 rcier to major7(#11;
6 for 1 {3 5 6 7 } refer ro major6(9;

Imajor7b 5(6) I
6 for 1 {3 hs 6 7} refer to domisus4

Iminor maj7(6) I
6 for 5 { l b3 6 7} refer to dom7 (#11)
6 for 1 {b3 5 6 7} refer to dom7~5

106
Iminor7b5(b 13) I
13 for 5 { 1 ~3 b7 b13} refer to minor7!5
13 for 1 {b 3 b5 b7 b13} refer to maj6(9)

j dom7(13) I
13 for 5 { 1 3 b,7 13} refer to dom7b5(#9)
13 for 1 {3 5 ~ 7 13} refer ro min6(9)

j dom7b5(13) I
13 for 1 {3 b5 b7 13} refer to dom7(#9)
13 for 3 { 1 ~5 b7 13 } C Gb Bb A
(13) Sub V ~Cl3b5 1 ~5 ~7 13
""'F#7(#91~5) bs l "'-' #9
l ,.., q
(9-li) G-maj7( 11/9) II 7 [) .1
(9-11-13) E-7bS(b 13/11/9) ~ 13 9 ~5 11
(9-11-13) SubV~Eb 7(131#111#9) 13 #9 5 #11
(dom/alt9) Al3(alt9) #9 , 13 b9 1

Idom7sus4(13) I
13 for 1 {4 5 b7 13} refer to minor7(9)

13 for 5 {1 4 b7 13} c F Bb A
(1 3) (13sus4 1 4 b7 13
(9-11 ) Rel ~G-7(11/9) 11 b7 b3 9
Bbmaj9 9 5 7
(9-11 ; E~6(l:l l/9 1 l 0,· : ..,. 1 t

Sub V ~Eb 7( lJI# 1.1/9)


,.>....
(9- 11 -1 3)
(dom/alt9) A+7(alt9)
.t 9
#S
5
b9
*- 1
1
i
#9

Imajor7(9/6) I
f 3 7 9 6} refer rn dom7sus4

I minor maj7(9/6) I
{b :i 6 7 9) refertodom7(#9)

!minor7b5(b13/9) I
{b 5 b7 9 bl3} refertodom7#5

107
Idom7(13/9) I
{3 b7 9 13} refer to maj7b5

Idom7(13/b9) I
{3b7b9 I3} refertodom7(#9)

Idom7(13/;9) I
{3 b7 #9 13} E Bb D# A
(9- I 3) Sub V~C13(#9) 3 b7 #9 l3
(9- 13) F# 13(#9) b7 3 13 #9

jdom7Cb 13) with 9, b9,or #9 I


refer to dom7~ 5 with 9. b9 . or #9

jdom7b5(13) with 9, b9, or #9 I


refer to three tensions as dom7 with:
(91#11113), (b91#11113), or (#91#11/13)

Idom7b5(b 13/9) I
{3 b5 9 b13) refertodom7(9) {l 3 b7 9}
{b5 b7 9 bl3} refertodom7(#5)

Idom7b5(bl3/b9) j
{3 b5 b9 b l3 } refertomaj6(9) {l 3 6 9}
{b5 b7 b9 o13} referro min7(#:)

Idom7b5(b 131#9) i
{3 I> 5 ff 9 bi:; I refer w maj7(9) l l 3 7 9 }

Idom7sus4(13/9) I
\4 b7 9 13 ! refer to major7

Idom7sus4(13/b 9) I
{4 b7 b9 13} refer to minor maj7
108
j major7(#1119) I
{3 7 9 #11 } refer to major7b5(9)
{5 7 9 #11 } refer to major7

j major6(#1119) I
{3 6 9 #11 } refer to minor7#5
{5 6 9 #l i} refer io dom7sus4(13)

Iminor maj7(11/9) I
{b3 7 9 11} refer to dom7b5(13)

Iminor6(11/9) I
{ ~ 3 6 9 11 } refer to dom7b5(#9)
{5 6 9 11 } refer to maj6(9)

Iminor7(11/9) I
{b3 b7 9 11 } referto dom7sus4(13)
{5 b7 9 11 } refer to minor?

Iminor7b5(11/9) I
: {b5 b7 9 11} refer to major7#5

Idom7(# 11/9) I
{3 b7 9 i 11 } refer to dom7b5(9)
{ 5 ~: 9 f.11 } refer to minor maj7

Idom7(~ 11/b 9) I
D b7 ~9 fi 11} referto dom7bS(b9)
{5 b7 b9 ~ 11} refer to dom7(#9)

109
Idom7{# 111#9) I
{3 b7 #9 #l l} refer to dom7b5(#9)
{5 b7 #9 #11 } G Bb

(9-11 ) Sub V~ C7(#111#9) 5 b7 #9


F# 13(b9) b9 3 13
(9- l 1-1 3 I Sub V-.:::::-A7(131# l llb 9) b7 b9 #11
"'--Eb(#9) 3 5 1

Imajor7(#11J6) I
{3 7 #11 6 f refer to major7b5(6)
{5 7 ffll 6) referto major7 (9) { l 3 7 9}

Iminor maj7 ( 11/6) I


{b3 7 11 6} rercr to dom7b5
{ 5 7 11 6} refer to dom7(9) { 1 3 b7 9}

Idom7(131# 11) j
{3 b7 #11 13} refer to dom7b5{13)
f 5 b7 ~ 11 l 3) refer to minor maj7(9)

Iminor7b5(b 13/11) j
{b3 b7 l J bD } refer to dom7sus4
{~ 5 ~ 7 l 1 b! 3 ~ refer to ma.ior7(9 ·

l major7<t3/~ 11/9) I
{7 9 #11 13 } refer w minor?
{l 9 .# l l i3 I refer to ciom7
(3 9~1113 } refertoma_ior6 (~ 11/9)
! :; 9 ·~ ll i3) refer1omajor6(~ 11/9 }

Iminor maj7(13/ll/9JI
('7 9 l! 13freferto minor76 5
{I 9 ! I 13 } refer to minor7
{b3 9 l l l 3 i refer LO minor6(11/9)
{5 9 1 l U I refer to minor6(11/9)

110
Iminor7b 5(~ 13/11/9) I
{1 9 11 b13} refer to minor 7b5
{b3 9 11 b13} refertomajor6(#11)
{b5 9 11 b13} refer to dom13(bS)
{b 7 9 i1 b13} refer to dom7

j dom7(131#11f9) I
{ l 9 #11 13} refer to dom7
{3 9 #11 13} refer to minor7#S
{_5 9 #11 13} refer to dom7sus4(13)
{b 7 9 #11 13} refer to major7#5

Idom7(131#1llb9) I
{3 ~9 #1 1 13 } refer ro minori
{5 b9 #J 1 13} refer to dom7b5f#9)
{b7 ~9 #11 13} refertodom7(#1Il#9) {5 b7 #9 #11}
b9#11 13}
{l C ,/
Db F# A
(9-11-13) Sub V~C7(131#1 llb9) 1 b9
""'F# (lil 11# 9) #11 5
(9-11 -13) Sub V~E~i(Bl#ll/#9) 13 b7
"Al3(#9) #9 3

I dom7(13/#111#9) I
·{ l #9 #11 13} not appiicable
{3 #9 #11 13} refer to major 6(#11)
( 5 :±9 ~ l t J3 f refer to dom13(~51
{b7 #9 ~11 13}retertodom7(131#1llb9)

I dom7talt9) I
{ 3 b7 b9 #9} refer to minor6(9) { 1 b3 6 9 }
{1 ~7 b9 #91 referrnmajor6(#11) {3 5 6 #ll}
{5 b7 b9 #9} referto dom7
13 5 ~9 #.9} refertodom1(~11) {3 5 ~7 #11 }
{ 1 3 b9 #9} refer to minor maj7(9) { l b3 7 9)
{ 1 5 b9 #9} rder to <iom7b 5(#9)

1 dom7(li ll/alt9)

{~ 7, ~9 #9 ~ 11 j refer to minor7
{3 ~9 #9 #11 } referrnmajor6(#11) {3 5 6 #11}
{l p9 j 9 #11 } refertomajor6(#11) {1 5 6 #11}
!5 b9 #9 #Ii} refer todom7(ff9) {L
3 b7 #9}

111
Idom7(bl3/alt9) I
{3 b9 #9 b13} referco major7(#11)
{b7 b9 #9 bl3} referto dom7sus4
{1 b9 #9 b13) refer lo dom13sus4
{5 b9 #9 b13} not applicable

I dom7(13/alt9) I
{ 1 b9 #9 13} refer to dom13(b5)
{ 5 b9 #9 13} refer to dom7b5
{b7 b9 #9 13} refertodom7(# 11) {l 5 b7 #Ill
{3 b9 #9 13} E D!, D# A
(dom/alt9) Sub V~Cl3(alt9) 3 b9 #9 13
""'- F# 13(#9) b7 5 13 #9 CFlt-13J

Idom7(alt9/alt5) I
{b9 #9 bs #5 } referto dom7sus4

Idom7(131#ll/alt9) I
{b9 #9 #11 13 } refer to minor7b5

112
Chapter Fifteen.
Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions
Up to this point. our enharmonic chord.al substitutions have been produced by tension additions. dorninant Sub V
chords, and relative major and minor chords. By relaxing some of the rules established through the tension addition
chapters, additional chordal substicution possibilities can be added to our previousiy established voicings. Though
some of these substitmions \Vill produce .. incomplett" voicings. they might prove more effective in certain situations
than a more complete chord voicing.
Aiong with i:hese ircomplete voicings . two additional voicing types that were previously omitted will be examined;
dominant 7th chords with a namral 5th and tension~ 13. though its Sub V will not be examined, and tensions 9 &
11 on a rnin7~5 chord.

At the e nd ohhis chapter the ''incomplete" Sub V chords that were produced by their Sub V relation to the dominant
cnords presented in the tension addition chaprers wili be displayed.

Imajor 7~5 !
c E G~ B

Cmaj7b.::: -".\ ~ :i 7
E9(bl3 ) ~1 : 9 5
Bsus4(~9) ~9 4 5 1

c E G# B
..,
Cm~j7 (#5 ) '
i. ::i ¥,5 7
E7(li 13) b13 1 3 5
B l 3sus4(h9) J,9 4 13

Iminor 7 I ~
r r
>-- u .1.>:·

C-7 b3 5 ~7
G-7~5(11 l 11 #5
,
1 b3
E~ 7sus4(13/9 ; r·
> .., 1? I {B~ -raaj7(13/l l/9) j

i' rimn7 ~~ !
' ,. '
....
....-
r:.. G'.-~. B~

C7# 5 3 ~5 b7
E~ 13sus<-t1 li't J i_-; ~~ 4 5

113
I dom7bs I
c E G~ Bb
....
C7b5 1 .J bs b7
Bb9(alt5) 9 bs ~5 l (Bb -7b5(b 13/9))
E9(alt5) #S 1 9 bs CE-1bscb 1319))

j major7(9) I
c r;>
. B D
Cmaj9 l
...,
.J
..,
I 9
E7(b 13) b13 5 b7

j minor maj 7(9) I


c Eb B D
C-mai9 ] b3 7 9
Suh V ~ Dl3(b9) ~, 7 b9 13 l
A~ 7(~ 111#9 1 3 5 !9 a,, i 1
A-7b5 b3 bs 9 11

I minor7(9) I
c Eb Bb D
C-9 1 b3 b7 9
Sub V ~ D7(b91#5 ) b7 b9 #5 1
Ab9C# 11) 3 5 9 #11 (Ab (# 11/9))

Imajor6(9) J

c E A D
C6(9) l _... 6 9
E-7 #5 (11) #5 11 b7

Iminor6(9) J

c Eb A D
r ...,
C-6(9) j p -' 6 9
Sub V ~ D7( b9)
I -
DI [,9 "'\ '
1
...,
Ab 71 (~ l llb9) _; 5 b9 #11
A-7b5(1 l ) ' .... o5
p-' 1 1i
E bmaj7b5(6) 6 l b)- 7

Idom7(~9) r
c E B ;; Db
....
C7(b9) 1 _.,
I -
b7 b9
Bb-7b5(9) 9 p) b3 ....

114
Idom7(#9) I
c E Bb D#
C7(#9) 1
~

~ b7 #9
A b7(id 3/9) 3 b13 9 5
Bb-7b5(1 l/9) 9 bs 11

l d om7b5(#9) I
E Gb Bb D#
C7(#91b5) 3 bs b7 #9
A b9(b 13) bl3 b7 9 5

Imajor 7(# 11) I


c G B Ftt
Cmaj 7(tt 11) ,1 .:;:
..) 7 #11
B7(b i3/~9) b9 ,,6'l _..,"1 5
F f.''
~
,._ G B
Cmaj7(# 11) 3 5 7 #11
F#7sus4(b 9) b7 b9 4 1

Imajor 6(# 11) I


c G A F~
C6(# 11) l 5 6 #11
G-mai70 l/9) 11 9 7
bi
I

B7(bi31b9J . b9 bl 3 5
E G A F ~''

O:· t,,1 : l ; 3 :.
- 6 #' j l

Relative ~Em( 1119) b3 11 9 (E-7b 5(1119))


Gmaj7(9/6) 6 l 9 7 (G-maj7(9/6))

I minor m aj7(11) I
c G B F
::
C-m~j7 (11) - ! 11
E71 b 13/all9) v13 liq
!I~ J b9
A-?n5(9) b3 ~7 .
Q #5
Sub,. ~ B7(b9/alt5) b9 f.. 5 ! b5
........._ F9(~ 11) 5 9 ~!l {f(~ 1119)}

115
Idom7(#ll) I
c G Bb Ff.
C7(# 1 1) 1 5 b7 #11
E-7b 5(b I 3/9) b13 b3 bs 9
E G Bb F#
C7(# 11 l 3 s b7 #l l
E-7b5(9) ~3 b5 9

l dom7~ 5(13) I
c Gb Bb A
C1 3(b5) l b5 b7 13
,.,
_,
D7(b 13) b7 b13 s

Idom7sus4 (13) I
c F B~ A

Ci3sus4 1 4 b: 1.3
D7(b 131#9) b7 #9 b13 5

@om7(13f #9) I E Bb D# A
....
Sub V ~C l 3(#9) _) b7 #9 13
Ff13(#9)
Sub V ~ E 7(~ 1 llb9)
b7
~9
3
5
13
1 :~1
A7(;111b9) -~.
b9 . ''
~ I 1
I

acm703/j;ll/b9) '
c D~ F: A

C7(l 31# l I /b9 )


F7(~ 13/b 9 }
j,9
~ i:.
~; J 13
..
'- -

j dom7(1 3/a lt9) j


J;"
....... D~ D~ A
...,
Cl 3(alt9) _..,
b9 #9 13
E-maj7( : 1/6) l 6 Jl
D~-7#5(9) b3 1 9 F='
Sub V ~ E~7(~9/b 5 ) 9<}
I -
r . b5
A7(#1 1) s 3 #11 (A(#l J))

116
Incomplete Sub V Chords
This is a list of the dominant Substitute V chords that were introduced in the tension chapters by only their Sub V
relation and not by tension additions. Some of these voicings appear quite incomplete and might not prove very
useful in dominant situations. The list will be in order of the Sub v· s appearance through the tension chapters and
will include the original dominant chords that produced the Sub V chords and the original chords that introduced
the voicings.

Sub V Chord Original Dom Chord Original Chord

1 C7(alt5) {I 3 bs #5} F#9(b5) {l bs b7 9) Ab+7


2 C7b5(b9) {l 3 bs b9) : F#7(# 11) { 1 5 b7 #1I) F~7(#11)
3 C7b5(9) { 1 3 b5 9} F#+7(#11) {1#5 b7#11} D9 {1 3 b7 9}
4 C7b5(#9) { 1 3 b5 #9} F#I3(b5) {l b5 b7 13} F# 13(b5)
5 C9(#5) { 1 3 #5 9 } F#7~ 5(b 13/9) {b5 b7 9 b13} E+7
6 C9(#5) {1 #5 b7 9} F#7b5(bl3/9){3 b5 9 b13} Bb9 {13 b7 9}
7 C9 {1 3 5 9} F#7b5(b 13/b9) {b5 b7 b9 b 13} E-7(#5)
F#7b5(bl3/b9){3 b5 ~9 b l3}
8
9
C9 11 5 b7 9}
C7(13/9) {l b7 9 13} F#7b5Cb 131#9) {3 b5 #9 b 13}
I
I
Bb6(9) {13 6 9}
B bmaj9 {l 3 7 9 }
i
II
10 C+7(b9) {1 3 #5 b9} F #7(9/#, 11) {5 b7 9 #11 } Db-maj7
11 C7(b9) {l 3 5 b9} F#7Cb91# 11){ 5 b7 b9 #11 } A7(#9) {3 5 b7#9)
12 C13(b9) {1 3 b9 13} F#7C#91# 11) {5 b7 #9#11} F#7(#91#11)
13 C7(#51#9) {1 3 #5 #9} F#7(91#11/13) {b 7 9 11 13} # Emaj7#5
14 C?(#Sl#9) {1 b7 #5 #9 } F#7(91# 11/1_3) {3 9#11 13 } C-7(#5)
15 C7(#91alt5) { 1 b5 #5 #9} F #7(91#11113) {l 9 # 1113 } Ab7
l
16 C7(#9) { 1 5 b7 #9} Fff7(b91#11113) {3 b9 #1113} C-7
17 C7(#111#9) {l 5 #9#11} F#7(~91# 11113) { 1 b9#11 13} F#7(b91# 11/13)
18 C7(ff9) {1 3 5 #9} F#7Cb91#11113) {b7 b9#1113} A7(# 111#9) {5b7#9#il }
19 C13(#9) {I 3 #9 13} . Fff7(#91# 11/13) {b 7#9#11 13} Eb7(b9/~ll/13) {l b9#1113 }
20 C13(# 9) { 1 b7 ~ 9 13 i
I
F~ 7(#91# 111! 3) {3 # 9~11 13 }
J
Eb6(#11 ) {1 5 6 tt ll}
21 Cl3(b9) { 3 5 b9 13} F #7(alt9) {5 b7 ~9 #9 } A7
22 C13(#11) {3 5 # J I 13} F#7(alt9) { 1 b7 b9 #9} C6(#11) {3 5 6#11}
I
23 C 13(b9) {5 b7 b9 I3 ) F#,7(alt9) {3 5 b9 #9} l Eb7(#11) ( 3 5 b7 # 111
24 C13 {l 3 ~
~

13}
! F~7(alt91#11) (~t b9i9 #II }
~
.,
A-7 I C6
25 C l 3{15 b713} F #7(alt91#11) {3 b9#9 #11} Eb6(#1 1) {3 5 6#,IJ}
26 Cl3(#11) {l 5 # 1113 } F~7(alt91# 1 1) { l b9 #9 #11} C6(# 11) { 1 5 6 ~11}
27 C13(b9) { 1 5 b9 13} Fff7(alt91# 11) {5 b9#9 # 11} A7(#9) { 1 3 b7 #9 }
28 C7(13/9) {5~7 913} F #7(alt9/b 13) {3 b9 #9 b13 } E~maj7(#1 1) {3 5 7 # 11 }
29 C7(13/9) { 3 5 9 13} F #7 (alt9/b 13) ·{b7 b9 #9 b13} A7sus4
30 C7(131#9) {3 5 #9 13} F # 13(alt9) {b 7 b9 #9 13} A7(ff ll) {l 5 b7 # 11}
31 C7(131#9) { 5 b7 tt 9 13} F # l3(alt9) { 3 b9 #9 13 } F ~.. 13(alt9)

32 C7 (13/9) {1 5 9 13} F #7(alt9/alt5) {~ 5 #5 b9 #9 l D7sus4


33 C7(131#9) { 1 5 #9 13} F#13(alt91#11) {b9#9 # 1113} A-7b5

All of these Sub V chords can be found in a II - V - I simai:ion placdl under the original dominants.
117
Chapter Sixteen.
Relative Major-Minor
In this chapter both the relative major to minor (and vice-versa) and the relative minor to minor 7b 5 (and vice-versa)
will be examined:

C major to A minor (A minor to C major)


C minor to A minor7b5 (A minor 7b5 to C minor)

The following chord types with tension additions will be explored:

1) major 7/major 7b5 and major 6/major 6b 5 relative to minor:


Crnaj7/Cmaj7b5 and C6/C6b5 relative to A minor.

The relative minor of major chords containing natural 5th and #11 form a "dorian" minor (b 7 & 13) which
will be examined in a later section.

2) minor 7 relative to major: C-7 relative to Eb major.

3) minor 6 relative to both major and minor 7b5: C-6 rel ative to Ebmajor and A-7b5.

4) minor 7b5 relative to minor: C-7 h5 relative to Eb minor.

5) minor maj7 relative to minor 7bS: C-maj7 relative to A-7b 5.

With the exception of the drop 2 C-maj7(9), which is relative to Ebmaj7#5, the minor(maj7) chords' relation to
major chords will be avoided, since the majority of these chords would produce tensions on a major 7#5 chord.

Those relative chords that were not displayed in the tension chapters will receive asterisks and an example of a IT-
V-I situation at the end of this chapter. Chords are listed as they were introduced in this text. Some of the relative
voicings are so incomplete that they can have more than one function in relation to the root of the chord. When this
happens, the additional function will be listed in parentheses.

Four-P.art 7th & 6th Chords (Drop 2):


Cmaj7 .............. relative to ....... A-7(9)

Cr.J.aj7 ~ 5 ................................. A-6(9)

Cmaj7#5 ................................. A-rnaj7(9)

C6 ...... .................. .................. l\-7

C-7 ......................................... E b6

C-6 ......................................... Eb6b 5 or Eb6(~ 11) and A-7 b5

C-maj7 ......... ........................... A-7b5(9)

C-7b5 ..................................... E~-6

118
Original
Voicing ITension 91
Cmaj9;
E-7 I G6 drop2{3 5 7 9}relativetoA-7(11/9){5 b7 9 ll}(A9sus4)
{ 1 3 7 9} re.lative to Am( 11/9) {b3 5 9 11 } *

Cmaj9b5;
06(9) { 1 3 6 9} drop 2 {3 bs 7 9} relative to A-6(11/9) {5 6 9 11} (A7sus4(9/13))
Ab7b5(#9) {l ~ 5 7 9} relativetoA-6( 1119) {b3 6 9 11}

C6(9);
(A7sus4) drop2 {3 5 6 9! relative toA-7 (11 ) {1 5 b7 11} (A7sus4)
Bbmaj9b5 {l 3 6 9}relmivetoAm(JJ ){l b3 511}*

C-7(9);
Ebmaj7 drop 2 {b3 5 b7 9 } relative·to Ebmaj7 {1 3 5 7}
{I b3 b7 9 } relative toEbmaj7(6) {1 5 6 7} *

C-6(9);
Ebmaj7 b5 drop 2- {b3 5 6 9} relative to Ei,maj7b5 {1 3 bs 7}
relativetoA-7b5(11) {l b5 b7 11 }
{l b3 6 9} relmivetoEbmaj7b5(6) {1 bs 6 7} *
relative toA-7 b5(ll) {1 ~3 bs 11\ *

C-maj7(9);
Ebmaj7#5 drop 2 {~ 3 5 7 9} relative to Ebmaj7#5
relarivetoA-7b5(1119) {b5 ~7 9 11}
f l b3 7 9} relarivetoA-7b5(1119) {b3 bs 9 11 ~ '"

C-7b5(9);
Ev -maj7 cirop2 {~ 3 ~ 5 b7 9} relam·e toEb-ma.i7 { l b3 5 7 i
0+7 {! b5 b7 9jrelativetoEb-maj7(6) {b 3 5 6 7 1

119
Original
Voicing ITension 11 I
Cmaj7(# 11);
11for5 = Cmaj7b 5 under Four-part 7th & 6th Chords
#11 and 5 not applicable

C6(#11); 11for5 = C6b5


C6b 5 relarive to A-6
#11 and 5 not applicable

C-7(11);
C7sus4 {1 5 b7 11 } relative to Eb6(9) {3 5 6 9}
F7sus4 { 1 b3 b7 11} relarive to Eb6(9) {l 5 6 9 ) *
G-7(#5) { b3 5 b7 11} relativeto E b(add9) 11 3 5 9 } *

C-6(11);
A-7(#5) { 1 5 6 11 } relative to Eb6(?f# 11) {3 b5 6 9 }
relative to A-7(#5) { 1 ~3 #5 b7}
F9{ 1 3 b7 9 } {b 3 5 6 11 } relative to EbC91b5) { 1 3 ~5 9} *
relative toA-7b 5(b13) {l bs bl3 b7} *
F7 {l b3 6 11} relativetoEb(91#1111 3) {l b5 6 9}
relative to A-7b5(~ 13) {1 b3 bs bl 3} *

C-maj7(11);
{ 1 5 7 11} relative to A-7# 5(9) {b3 ;s b7 9 } *
G+7 !b 3 5 7 ! l } relative toA -ibscb1319) fp5 #S b7 9 1 (A9(alt5) J
F7 ( ~ l l J {1 t::: I >} reicmvewA-7p5( o 13l9 J {~3 ~ = ~S 9 ' ·
{ 1 5·b7 ¥, 11 }

C-7b5(11);
Gbmaj7b5 { 1 ~:., bi I 1} relative w Eb-6(9) {b 3 5 6 9 }
Bmaj7('. 11) {~3 b5 b7 11} reiative toEbm (9) { l b3 5 9} *

120
Original
Voicing ITension 13 !

Cmaj7(6)
Fmaj7(# lJ) { 1 3 6 7}relatlvewA-(add9) {1 ~ 3 5 9} *
G6(9) { 1 3 6 9} {3 5 6 7 i relarive to A-9 i 1 5 ~ 7 9 1 (A9) '~

Cmaj7b5(6)

B7sus4 {3 b5 6 7} relative to A-6(9) { l 5 6 9} * refer to maj6(9) { 1 5 6 9}

C-maj7(6)
F7(~ 11) { l b3 6 7 } relative ro A-7~5(9) l b3 ~5 9) '''
B.-7 { b 35 6 7)relmive to A-7 ~ 5(9) 1 ~ 5 b7 9 }

C -7b5(b13)

C-7(#5) {1 b3 #5 67} relativeto Eb.-6(11) {15 6 11} (Eb l3sust.P


G66(9) { 1 3 69} {b3 b5#5 67} relacivetoE~m(ll) {1 63 5 11} *

I Tension 9 &13 I

Cmaj7(13/9J
E7sus4 {3 7 9 6} relative to A-701/9) { l S 9 11) tA9sus.d. 't ,,.

Cmaj765(13/9)

C-m aj7 (6/~t

BHli9) {b3 7 9 6} relative to A-7 65(1119) ! l bs 9 11)


{ 1 3"b 7 #9 }

C -7b5(b 13/9)

Bb+7 [~5 ~ / 9 ~13} relarive TO Sb-maj7(1 ! ' j i;3 5 7 ] J l

121
Original
Voicing I Tension 9 &11 I
Cmaj7(#1119)
#11 for 5 = Cmaj% 5 under Tension 9
#11 with 5 not applicable

(# 11for5 =C6b5(9))

(F#-7(ff 5)) { 3 bs 6 9} relative to A-6(11 ) {I S 6 11} <A13sus4)


{ 1 b5 6 9} under Tensions 9, 11, & 13

C-7(11/9)
FI 3sus4 {b3 h7 9 11} relative to Ebmaj9 {1 5 7 9} *
Bb6 I G-7 { 5 b7 9 11 } relarivetoEbmaj9 {3 5 7 9}

C-6(1119)
{ i 6 9 11 } refer to C-maj7(13/ll/9)
B7b5(#9) {b3 6 9 11} relative to E~maj9b5 {1 bs 7 9}
relative to A-7b5( b 13/11) { l b5 #5 11} *
F6(9) {l 3 6 9} {5 6 9 11} relative to E bmaj9b5 {3 bs 7 9 }
relative to A-7#501 ) {I #5 b7 11 } *

C-maj7(11/9)
F1 3b5 {b3 7 9 11 i relative to A-7b5(b 13/1119) {b5 9 11 b13 }

C-7 b5(11/9)

Gbmaj7# 5 (b5 b7 9 11) relative to Eb -maj 9 l b3 5 7 9 )

ITension 11&13 1
C-maj7(11/6)
F7b5 (b3 7 6 11} relacive ro A-n s(b 1319) {l bs #5 9} *
G9 (1 3 b7 9} (5 7 6 11} relativewA-7#5(9 ) {1 #S b7 9 } *

C-7h5(~ 13/11 i

Gbrnaj9 {I 3 7 9}
I •
{b 5 b7 11 bl3 } relativeto Ebm(ll/9) {b 3 5 9 11) *
.Bb 7sus4 {b3 b7 11 b13 } relazive to E~m(I 1/9) { l 5 9 11} (Ebsus4(9))"'

122
Original
Voicing j Tensions 9. 11, &13 j

Cmaj7(13/;11/9)

{5 9 ~ 11 13 } is not applicable
B-7 D 9 t 11 131 relarive to A-6(11/9) { 1 6 9 11 J
D7 (1 9 ;11 13 i relaiive to A-6(11) {1 ~3 6 i 1}
{3 9 !t 11 i3 1 under T ension 9 & 11 as C6(il 11/9)
•• 1t •

C-maj7 (13/1119)

B-7~5 /D-6 {7 9 li 13}relativeroA-7#5(il/9){1#5(b13! 9 Il l


D-7 { l 9 11 13 1 relm~ve to A-7 #.5 0 1) { 1 ~3 f5 1 l} ~,
relcaivetoE~nrnj7(131#1119) {7 9 #1 11 3 )

C-7b5(~ 13/11/9'1

{ ~ S 9 l l \>13 } relarive toE~ -ma_j7<1I/9){b3 7 9 l}!

The new relative chords that have been discovered, (and receiv ed asterisks), will now be displayed in various II V
1 examples. These chords will be grouped into three different categories: major, minor, and minor7b 5. The relaci ve
chord or chords will be listed as well as the originai chord to first introduce that voicing.

The following is an organized list of the relative chords that will be examined. showing the order in which they will
appear and any multiple funcnons they mighl nave.

:MAJOR Functions
major (add9 ) 11 3 s o./ J· dom7(9i, maj7(9'
,.,
')
majorb5 (add9) {l .) bs 9) dom7~5(9) I maj7~5(9 )
_,
~
n:aj7(0'\ !l ::: 7 c
4 maj6(9) { J s 6 9) maj6(9 J I min6(9)
5 maj7(6) {l s 6 7} maj7(6) I min. maj7(6)
I -
6 maj7 b5(6) {i ;J) r: 7 :
·-· maj7 b5<6 1on]~.:
7 maj7(6/9) 11 6 7 S1 \ maj7(6/9) i min. 1m~j7(6/9 i

MINOR Functions
l minon add9.1 min7(9 ) I min. m2~j 7 (9 ) I min6(9}
2 minor( add 11) {i b3 "" 11 } min7(1 l )/min. map(! I )/min6( 11 )
..,
_; mmor(9/l l ) {'7:-1 5 CJ l! } min7(9/1 l)/min.maj7(9/l l )1min6(9/ 1 I )
4 mino:(9/l 1,l {i 5 9 J1} same as above plu&ciom9sL:s
5 minorf9/l n {1 ~ 3 C) J; l min7(9/i l Jirnjn.maj7(9/l i l:min6(9/1 1 1
6 minor 7(9) { l 5 b7 9 \ min7(9) I dom7(9)
7 min.maj7(9111 J ll 7
9 1l J m.in.maj7(9/l .l lonly
8 min.maj7(6/l 1~ { 16 7 11 ) min.maj7 (6/l l )only

123
MINOR 7b5 Functions
min7 ~ 5(9) { l b3b5 9} min7b5(9) only
2 min7 b5(11) { 1 b3 bs 11} min7b 5(1 l) only
";) min7 b5(9/l l ) {l b5911} min7b 5(9/l 1) only
4 min7b5(9/l 1) {b3 bs 9 11 } min7b5(9/1 1) only
5 min7b 5(b 13) {I bs b7 b n } min7b 5(b 13)idom7(alt5)
6 mjn7 b5( b 13) {l b3 b5 b13J min7b5 (b 13) I dom7(# 91alt5)
7 min7 b5(~ 13/9) {b3 b? 9 bi3} min7b 5(b 13/9)only
8 min7 bs cb 13/9) {b3 bs 9 b 13 } min7 b5(b l 3/9)only
9 min7 b5(b 13/9) {lb5 9 bl 3 } min7b scb 13/9)/ dom9(alt5)
10 min7b 5(b 13/9) {l b7 9 b l 3} m in7bs cb 13/9)/ dom9+
11 min7 bS(b 13/9) {l b3 9 b l 3} min7 bs cb 13/9)only
12 min7b 5( ~ 1311 1) {lbs 11 bB} min7 bs cb 13/ll )only
13 min7b 5(~13/1 l ) {l b7 11 b13 } min7b s cb 13/ l l )only
14 min7bscb 1311 1) {l b3 11 b l3 } min7b5 (b 13/1 l )o nl y

Imajor 1add9) I {1 3 5 9}

C(add9) relative to A -7 (11 ) ( b3 5 b7 11 }


original chord E -7#5

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applic able inversions :
9 l 5
s 3 9
~ 0./ l
1 5 3

G-7(11) C7(b9/ alt5) F(add9) C-9 F 7b 9 B ~( a dd9 ) C-7(1 1) F7(b9/alt 5 ) BJ (add9 l


0 -e- [).0.

jz~a
fi 11 ·;; II w,§ P! ' II

Imajor bs (add9) I 11 3 bs 9 l

C(9/~ 5) rdative t0A-6(ii)(~ 3) 6 ll }


original chord D9 { 1 3 b7 9}
A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

bs 9 1
9 bs 3
I 3 9
: -
~
p)

124
D-7(11/9) Db (9/b5) C(add9) A-7( 11) D7(b13) G(9/b5) B-7(11) Bb (9/b5) A (add9)
-& -a- -& .0. b.o. -&

11'Z #~§ §&§


II t: ·z #o:g II

Imaj7(9) I {1 5 7 9}

Cmaj7(9)relativetoA-7(11/9) {b3 ~7 9 11 }
original chord D1 3sus4 { l 4 b7 13}

Avoiding tension 9 on 5th string leaves only one applicable inversion: 9


7
5
E-7(11) A7(#5/#9) Dmaj9
1

~ ~i
'U ~ ~n II

jmaj6(9) j { 1 5 6 9} (min6(9))

C6(9) relative to A-7(11) {1 b3 b7 11} ; C-6(9) relative to Ebmaj7b5(6) {3 bs 6 7}


original chord D7sus4

Avoiding tension 9 on the Sth string leaves three applicable inversions:


6 I 9
9 5 6
1 9 5
5 6 1

D-9 G7(#5/b9) C6(9) B-9 E7(#5/b91 A6(9) A -7(9/11) Ab7 G6(9J


e- l1! -e. -e-

~*
II
"
iii 0:: II

Imaj7(6) j {l 5 6 7}
Cmaj7(6)relativetoA-9 { l b3 b7 9}
original chord A-9
There is one applicabie inversion: 7
5 C-7(11) F7(alt9) Bbmaj7(6)
~

~ 9'£ ;I
I
6 II

125
Imaj7b5 (6) I {lb567}
Cmaj7b5(6) relative to A-6(9) { 1 b3 6 9}
original chord A-6(9)
There is one applicable inversion: 7
C-9 F7(alt9) B~maj7 b 5(6)
bs ,-&
1
6 '13
1

11

Imaj 7(6/9) I {l 6 7 9}

Cmaj7(6/9) relative ro A-(11/9) { l b3 9 11}


original chord F6(# 11) {3 5 6 #11 }
There are rwo applicable inversions: 9 l
7 7
6 9
6

F#-7(11J B7(b9/alt5) Emaj7(6/9) E9sus4 E7(alt9/b 5) Amaj7(6/9)

'#1 ~2 p~ I~ ~q #~ I
"' ote: The above E9sus4 voicing is introduced in the New Voicings chapter.

Iminor(add9) I { lb.359 }
Cm(add9) relative to A-7~5(11) {b3 ~5 b7 11} and E~ maj7(6) fl 3 6 7}
original chord A~ma.i7(~ l l 1 ; ? - 7 hl ;
I ...,
There arc three applicable inversions: p.) 9 5
9 5 9
b:::
l

G-7b5 C7(13/ ~ll/b 9 ) Fm(add9) A-7P5(11 ) D7(H l/ b9) Gm(add9) E-%5 A7(a1t5) Dm(add9 J
P.O.. ~ -e. b.o..
~~
1-G -&
· ~~
~

l+!! ll °it ~~ II ~:'! ! ~; :

' I
II !!
(F #-7) (F+7 )

126
Iminor(addll) I {Ib35 11}

Cm(addlllrelativetoEb6(9) il .3 6 9} andA-7~5( bl3) {b3 bs b7 b13}


original chord Eb6(9)
There are four applicable inversion:;: I ~ -
~.
~3
~3 j lI
... 11 b3
.17· ' -·.- 1j 1 ::"

,. F#-7(#5 )

Rm
B13(i:J9 ~

i·H
(G#7)
Em(ll)
€--

8
D-7b5(11)

II;,5
G7b9
~
Cm(U)

"2

A-'7b5(b 13) D7b9 Gm( llJ B-7o5(bl3i E13(:,9 l Am(ll i


-& on
r;iz
-Go

i&
jlo
1zg «'£ d~
t)
II H •'g'
(C#7J

Iminor(ll/9) I {b3 5 9 11}

Cm(ll/9)relativetoEbmaj9{137 9}andA-7b5(bl3/ll ) {b5 b7 11 b13}


original chord Ebmaj9
There are rwo applicable inversior.s: 11 5
9 b3
5 9
b;. 11

~ -7b5( 11) B7( 13/~ll/b9) Ern,( 11/9 ) D-7!15 G7C~9/alt5) Cm( ll/9)
gg~ =
! ~ ,,
~ .~ el
~-B~~-=:~~~!~~~~___...l!~__&h~?;J.__-v_~=t~!~===!J
j minor(ll/9) I
Cmfll/9)relativetoEbma_i7(6/9') 136 7 9 i :rndA-7b5(bJ311 1) lb3 b7 11 b13l
original cnord G7su,..!
A voiding tension 9 on the 5th smng leaves three appiicable inversions:

9 5
1i 5 9
9 1, t
.I.

5 1 11
Am(9/11) D7(b9 ) G6(9 1 Gm C8/11) C7(~0ialt5l Fma.i9 r .-7(11/8) F7(a1~9 ) B~ m a.~716/9 '

=~&_.~i--~~~--i~~~~.c__~~~~''~·z~~-1i~10~~*-~·l
(Ab7J
Iminor(ll/9) I {lb3911}

Cm(ll/9) relative to E~maj7(6/9) { l 6 7 9}


originalchord A~6(#11 ) {3 5 6 #11}

There are two applicable inversions: 11 b3


9 9
1 11
b3 1

Dm(ll/9) G7(alt5 ) C<add9) Em{ll/9) A7(alt5 ) D(add9)

II

*Nore: The above A7(alt5) and D(a<ld9) voicings are introduced in the New Voicings chapter.

Imin7(9) j { 15 b7 9}

C-9 relative to Ebmaj7(6) {3 5 6 7 J


original chord B~6(9) { 1 3 6 9}
A voiding tension 9 on the 5tb string leaves three applicable inversions:

I 9 b7
5 ~7 9
9 5 1
b7 1 5

A-9 Ab7 G6(9) F -9 B7


-&
.t>-0- E9 Ebmaj7 C-9
?..a.
B11m aj7

-~ g
-& -&
I
i 0
I!~~ § li''9 ! Ii ~~ II

Imin. maj7(9/11) I {179 11 }

C-maj7(9/11) relarive to A-7b5(b 13/11/9) {r3 9 ! I b131


original chord F6(# 11) { 1 5 6 ~ 11)
A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves only one applicable inversion: 9
7
11
G-7b5(9) C7(~9/#5 ) F-maj7(9/ll)
b.&
~i ~~ i
la
~~~ !!
u '

128
Imin. maj7(6/11) I {1 6 7 11}

C-maj7(6/ll) relative to A-7b5(b13/9) { 1 b3· 9 b13}


original chord A b13(alt9) {3 b9 #9 13}
There is only one applicable inversion: 7 B-7b5(H3/ 11) E7(alt9) A-maj7(6/11)
11
1
6 II
u(Fmaj9) (F-6(9))

Imin7bs(9) I {l b3 b5 9}

C-7b5(9) relative to Eb-maj7(6) {1 b3 6 7}


originalchordAb?(#ll) {3 5 b7 #11 }
There is only one applicable inversion: 9 G-7~5(9) C7(#5/~9 ) Fm(add9)
b5 ~
b3
l II

lmin7b5(11)1 {l b3 bs 11}
C-7 h5(11 ) relative to E b-6(9) {l h3 6 9}
original chord E b-6(9)
There is only one applicable inversion:
ll F#-7~ 5(11 ) B7(13/#11/b9) Em(ll/9)

4~t
1

t~ ~1~ ~ II

Imin7 ~5(11/9) I {lk' 911}

C-7~5(11/9)relativetoEb-maJ7(6/9) {b3 6 7 9)
original chord D7(~9) { 1 3 b7 #9 J
There is onl .v one available inversion, and unfortunatelv
. this one has tension 9 on the 5th strim!: ~

11
1
bs
9

Imin7b5(11/9) I (~3 b5 9 11}

C-7 b5(1 l/9) relative to E ~ -maj9 { l b3 7 9}


originai chord Eb-maj9
There is only one applicable inversion: E -7,5(11/9) A7(#5/b9 ) D-6(9)
li
-e-
9
I -
p)

~3
-~I
129
Imin7bS(b13) I {1 bs b7 b l3 }

C-7bS( b l3) relativetoEb-6(11 ) {b3 5 6 11}


original chord Ab9 { l 3 b7 9}

There are four applicable inversions: b7 l bs bi3


bs bi3 b7 1
1 bs ~1 3 b7
b13 b7 1 b5
A-7b5(b 13) D7(alt5/#9) G-6(9) E-7(alt5) A7(#5/#9) D-6

i:-~
~
Ii~
e
~~~
..: If!' ~ II
'E -7 ~5(b 13)
b..a.
A7(alt5/alt9) D6C9)
!
tJ.o.
D-7b5(b 13) G7(#5/#9)
b..a. b..a.
Cmaj7(6)
, -&

'·~
'-e-
Ii
!i :! ~~
; lillo§ ~ 9 q~
2J
jmin7b5(b13) I {1 b3 bs bl3 J
C-7bS(bl3)relativetoEb-6(11 ) {1b3 6 11}
original chord Ab 7
There are four applicable inversions: b13 1 bs b3
b3 b5 l b1 3
l b3 b13 bs
bs b...1"::- b3 l

A-7b5(b 13) A~ ? G-6 B-7115(b 13) E7rn5/t.9J A-6(9)


v..o. .0. -e- il.
I ~

~ ,8 11~~ 1stl '! It! Jj

D-7b5(b 13 ) G7b5 C-6(11) E -7!7 5(bl3) Al3(b9 ) Dm(ll)


~ n
~ &~ ~~ ·,
I
~~
e
r:!~
:;i:~ q~ Ii
CFT! CF~7 ) (F6(9 ))

I min7~ 5([, 13/9) I l'b3b7 9 ~l3 i 1min7 f.4 5(9)\


•I

C-7~5(b13/9 ) relative toEb -maj7(lJ){l 5 7 l lJ


orif?ina! chord E ~-n..J7( 11 l
q
,_
There are three applicable inversions : D
I
b L'
'.,

b13 b3 9
I...,
b3 Si p,
I -
D / b13 b3

130
A-7#5(9) D7(:!5/ ~9 .l G-6(9) B-9~5 E7(#5/b9'1 A-9 D-7~5(9)G7(~5/ h9) C-maj9
b.o.
t 0.0. I
_o_ -e-
~
ire-
g 1: -=·: bi
E I! n 1:

j min7~ 5(b13/9) I
C-7b5( b l3/91relacivet0E:>-mai7(11 ) :i b3 7 11 ;
original chord Ab 7(# 11 ) ~ 1 5 ·b 7
11 } #
There are two applicabie inversions: b:: 9
9 b5
; ' - I
iJ L' p.)
b? b13
A+7 D<9/b5 ) A -7:i 5(ol3/9) D7(#5/#9 l G-6(9)
' ..o_ D-'l. -e-
ibR !1!1E
I

tcg---t/~.k~;--~!j
I

I min7 b 5( ~ 13/9) I
C-7b5(b 13/9) relative to E?-maj7(6/l l) {b3 7 6 11 }
original chord Ab7b5 / D7b5
i'\oce: Since the original chord mirrors the same chord a critone away, ic applies co any substitution chords of the
original chord:
Ab7~5 = D7bS
E~-maj7(6/l 1) = A-maj7(6/1 l)
C-7 b5(b 13/9) = F# -7b5(~ 13/9)
,-woidmg tens ion Si on lt1e 5til smng leaves mree appiicabic inversions:

1 ~ 13 9
b:' 0 bl3
,,
t I
l ~5
bl ".\ bs 1

A-7:i5bl3/9) D7 G--6C9 _:,_7,5.., 1319; D 7!?Sl G-r A-7;,5 '. l. 131~ 1 D7\;,5 ; Gr."ai7~2
..Q. -6- £..

I min7~ S(b 1319) I


C-7b5(b13/9) relativetoc.b-maj7( il/6 l {5 7 6 11 )
origir.al chordB b9 {l 3 b7 9 }
.~;.vo id ing tension 9 or. the 5th s~rin; ieaves rnrec appiic:J.ble in versions:

i 9 [,7
b13 b7 9
' \ I
'-; b13 J
l ...,
D I bi ~; ..
131
A-7#5(9) D7(alt5/#9) G-6(9) E-7#5(9) A7(alt5/b9) Dmaj9 D-7#5(9) G7(b9) Cmaj9

I ~1
f\
I
t)e-

~~ I ~ ~#~ #~ I~
-e- b.a.
I
.0.

~
§ (G9J (Gbmaj9 )

I min7b5( b13/9) j { 1 b3 9 b 13 } (rn.in7#5(9))

C-7b 5(b 13/9) relaiive to Eb-maj7(1 l/6) { 1 6 7 11}


orig inal chordBl3(alt9) {3 b9 ~9 13}

There is only one applicable invers ion: ? F#-7tt5(9) F9 E6(9)


tJ 13

~3 ~ 6!2
j min7bS(bl3/ll) I {I b5 11 bl 3}

C-7b5(bl3/ll)relativetoEb-6(l l/9) {b 3 6 9 11}


ori}?inal chord D7b5(#9) I A~ 13

There are two applicable inversions: b13 1


11 ~5
1 11
bs bB
B-7b5(b l3/ ll) A-7b5(b 13/ 11)
E (!79) A-6 D7(tt5/#9) G-maj7
I
-& I P.O. D.il.

II

Imin7b5(b 13/11) I {l b7 l1 b13 } (min7# 5(11 ))

C-7b5(~ 13/i 1; reiauve iO E~ - 6(i 119) ( 5 6 9 l l;


original chord Ab6(9) { 1 3 6 9}

A voiding tension : l on the 5th string leaves three applicable inversions:

b7 1]
11 b,,,!_) b7
11 b3
~1 3 b;
A-7#5(11) D7(Ul/ b9 ) G-6(9) G-n5(ll ) C7 (~ 13/ #9) F -6(9 ) E -7;5(11) A7(alt5/b 9) D6(9 )
e- j±e-
1i~tg==:=;5__
:::&-=:_ffi~~ 1~~-==--.'.G.
m±:=-==-~
-'-- 1,b5-,:=..-==--=tt=-I!.- 1;~.:_
.-0. _ '-==-~ z. . _ _ -==--:::::::.6 ;~
..fi

i ==:-:1! ..........__t .........,..._:-==--==:::II

132
Imin7b5(b 13/11) I {l b3 11 bl3} (min7#5(1 1))

C-7b5613/ll)relmivetoEb-maj7(13/ll/9) fl 9 11 13} orEb-6(11/9) {1 6 9 11 }


original chord F-7

Avoiding rension 11 on the 5th string !.eaves three applicable inversions:


I- ~
;1 ~ 11
11 b<"'
L'> j
~3 1i bl3
bl"'_, b3

A-7 ~5( 11) D7(b9) G6(9) G-7~5{11) Gb7 Fmaj7 E-7 ~ 5(11 ) E lD,7 D-6(9)
I I
-e- I i).Q. D..O.. b..u
I!

133
Chapter Seventeen.
Additional Substitutions in II-V-I Examples
After removing all of the chords that were examined in the Relative Major-Minor chap ter, only dominant type
chords remain in the Additional Enharmonic Chordal Substitutions chapter. These can be organized into three
different groups:
J) Dominant chords with b13 and natural 5 l HO Sub V's).
2) Dominant sus4 chords with b9 (no Su b V 's).
3) Rem~ining cominant chords (including Sub V's).

T he dom7sus4(13/9) {1 4 9 13} voicing (original chordmin7 /maj6) will be omitted, due to the ambiguity produced
by formi ng a complete 16 chord in relation to the V7sus4(13/9) chord: C 7sus4(13/9) F6. =

ldom7(b 13) I
{1 3 5 b13} C7(b1 3) = Ab maj 7#5
.....
There are three applicable inversions: .) .)
b1" A_) i 5
5 bi ~ ...
.)

1
...
.) bl 3

Gm( ll ) C7(b13) F(9/b5) F-7(11) Bb7(b 13) E~rnaj9 D-7 G7(b13) Cmaj9
I b.o. b.a. ~..a. -e- ..0.. .0.

@ i~
I

~lg ~~(i
'
!~I~~ ~~ 6~ I! I~ 11~ G~
II

{15 b7 ~13} C7(b l3 j = Ab maj9 { 1 3 7 9}


T here are two applicable inversions'. ~ 7 l
5 b13
~1.3 b7

E-9 A7<b l 3 ) D6(9) F7(9/13 l F7(~ 1 3 B11 (add9 )


-e-
;I
~ bg as II:M] ~~
'1-0 ~:· I!

{3 5 b7 ~ 13}
-
There are two appiicable inversions: ~ ~ .)

5 b13
.) 5
b7
E-9(ll J A7(bl 3 j D6(9J D-9 G7(b 13) Cmaj9
-& -& ..0. .0..

I; !! II
134
Idom7(b13/9) I
{l 5 9 b13} C9(b 13) = Abmaj7(b5)
There are two applicable inversions: 9 1
b13 5
5 9
l b13
D-7(11) G9(b13) C6(9) F-7( 11) B~ 9(b 13 ) Eb6(9)

~&-'e~_hi~~~~!~f--~11~~n~m ~~t~11
{3 s 9 b13} C9(b13) = E7(#9) {l 3 b7 #9}
There is one applicable inversion: 5 A-7 D9(1' 13) G6(9)
9
I l"'
p .)
,, '.}

f.
.
t1
{S b7 9 b13} C9(b 13) = E7b5C#9) I Bb 13
There are two applicable inversions: b7 9
5 b13
9 5
bl3 b7
E-9(11) A9(P 13) D6CU1/9) C-9(11) F9(b 13) Bb(add9)
, b.n.

9

Idom7(b 13/b9) I
{l 5 ~9 bl3} C7 ( b l 3/~ 9) = Dt>maj7(#11 ) {l 5 7 #11}
There are two applicable inversions: S
5
(] .. -
' 1~
' b9
!,c; ~ 1~

E -7(11 ) A7 ( ~ 13/,9) D6(9) B-9(11) E7(b 13/ b9) A 6(9)


-e. -6- -a

~ ! 9g :·§g ]

135
{5 b7 b9 bt3} C7(bl3/b9) = Db6(# 11) {l 5 6 #11}

There are two applicable inversions: b7 b9


5 bl3
b9 5
b13 b7
E-7( 11) A 7(b13/b 9) D6(9) Dm(ll/9) G7(b 13/b 9) C(add9)

1·! i.m ; I
{3 5 b9 b13} C7(b l3/b9) = 07(131# 111~ 9) {l ~ 9 # II 13}

There are two applicable inversions: 3 b9


b13 5
5 3
b9 bl3

E-9 A7(b 13/b 9 ) Dmaj9 F7sus4 F7(b 13/b9) Bbmaj9


I
~..a.
b.o. -e- ,o..o.. -&- -e-

l i ~~~! lf'~~
J±:!
;l
!!'' ~ ~ ~~ -~
"I<
II

Idom7(b131#9) I
{5 b7 #9 bl3} C7(b131#9) = Bbl3sus4 {J 4 b7 13}

There are two applicable inversions: b7


5

!iJ
F-9(11) Bb7(b13/#9) Eb6(9) E,maj9 C-9(11) F7(!113/#9) Bbmaj7(6)
I

0-&
~s
I

L t
1 :1 Dv: ~
(Constant strncture 1- -
A· (F6(9 ))

Idom7(~ 13/alt9) I
{5 b9 ~ 9 b13} C7( bl3/ait9 ) = Ab -maj7(JI) {1 5 7 11 }
There are two applicable inversions: ~ o b9
- ~ 13 5
5 £9
b9 ~1 3

E-9 A7(!J13/a1t9> Dmaj9 C-9 F7(b 13/alt9) BP6(9)

&·t '-"- .. ' b.o. \,.. ~

136
I dom7sus4(~ 9) I
{l 4 5 b9} C7sus4(b9) = Dbmaj7(~5)
There are three applicabie inversions: 4 5 1
1 b9 4
5 1 b9
J,9 4 5

C-7(11) Fsus4(1:i9) Bl:imaj7(6/9) A-7(11) Dsus4(~9) Gmaj7(6/ 9) E-7(11) Asus4(~9) Dmaj7(6)

~~~Q'£====~
~t =====~~l·-==-~~IE~z~_: : :~---=-'__,_'
: :- 0.:!_
. . .,._: : .: : : - -' "q<_l.'-·'---!,_~--=-~l1-0-I
. .i i_=-.=_::-~i=.=:§J!f"-'-,:,..e--.§"=~II
{l 4 b7 b9} C7sus4(~9) = Gbmaj?(# 11) {3 5 7 #11}
There are three applicable inversions: 1 4 b9
4 ! 1
~9 ~7 4
~7 b9 b7
D -7(11) G7sus4(b9) C6 C-9 F7sus4(b9) B~muj7 ( 6) Dm(add9) G7sus4(~ 9) Cmaj7(~11 )
'
I

~ ::5
I
D.U

r
I 1).0.

u ,,§ qg 11
Ii~
l I I
'
11 : ; i=
(Constant structure)

Idom13sus4(~ 9) I
{l 4 b9 13} C13sus4(~9) = Dbrnaj7#5
Avoiding tension 13 on the 5th string leaves two applicable inversions: 4 13
] b9
13 1
b9 4

C -9(11) F 13sus4(v9) Btimaj7(6j Am(ll) Dl3sus4(b9) Gmaj7(6}

f~-==-~. ;: : : :_ :-: : - - -~~n


1
'- --'--~-==---==ti!_
. ~-=--=--=-1
1 -,-,H'- A----i_.~_:::-h?_i..___- _-qf,_,__ ==II
·._.___:

{4 5 b9 13} C13sus4(~9) = A+~·

.'-\voiding tension 13 on the Sth string leaves three applicable inversions: 4 5 13


13 b9 4
5 13 b9
~9 4 5

C-7 F13sus4(~9) B~maj9 A-7(11) D13sus4(1:i9) Gmaj7(6/9) E-7 Al3sus4(~ 9) Dmaj9


b..a. b.n. -e.
~!,~ -- '-e-
II 00
·'
"i i* I! I W! ;~ II

137
Idom9(alt5) I
{1 bs #S 9}
Sub V C9(alt5) { 1 ~5 #5 9} = D7 ~ 5 /Ab7b5

~F#9(alt5)
-1 J,, -1 t
{ b5 1 9 #5}

Remember to avoid tension 9 on the 5th string leaving two applicable inversions:

Not:::: T his voicing also was used in the R elative Major-Minor chapter as a min7bs (b 13/9) chord { 1 b5 9 b13 ).

G-9 C9(alt5) Fmaj 9 E-7(11) A9(alt5 ) D6(9)


-e-

~
-&

~
-&

:g I! ! ;! Ji ~

Sub VI
' C#-7(11) F#9(alt5) B6
avoid Sub V ...
has tension 9 on 5th string
I
I
II II
' doml3(b 9) I dom7(~ 11/~ 9) I
{1 ~ 7 b9 13} I { 3 5 #9 #11} !

Sub V C i3( b9) { l b7 b9 13 } = Bb -maj9 {l h379 }


'\ . . -1
I

~ -~-
I
I
" "!;'

F#7(# l 11#9l {#11 3 5 #9 ~

Ti1ere is one applicable inversion: D -7(11 ) G13 (b 9J C6(9)

--7~11
l
l
U--7 #9
b9 --7 5 .j,
SubV .
I A~- 9 DVi(#9/ #11) Gb6(9)
b7--7 3
! ~b.o. bo 1b.e-
I_ -~''"ii II

138
dom7(b91#S) I d.om9(#11)
{11j5 ~ 7 b9} I {3 5 9 #11}
Sub V C7(b91# 5) { 1 #5 b7 b9 } = B b-9 { 1 b3 b7 9}

~F#9(#11)
1 1 J, J,
f~ 11 9 3 5}
There is one applicable inversion: D-7(11) G7(b9/#5) C6(9)

I
II
Sub V
Ab-9
l
Db9(#11) Gb(add9)

&1:~: ~o I~
II

Nore: The dom9(# 11) voicing could have a lydian function since no 7th is present:

{3 5 9 #11} CC #1119) = Cmaj9(# 11). The following II-V-1 example displays the Lydian function:
D-9 G7(b 9/#5) .C(#ll/9)

II
dom7(b9) I dom7(# 111~9)
{1 5 b7 b9} /{35~9#11}
Sub V C7(b9L ......... { 1 5 b7 b9 } = Bb-6(9) { l b3 6 9}

~F~71~1l/b9• {i71:9: ;;
There is one applicable inversion: D-7(11) G7(b9) C6(9)

; t& n
! ~
;, § I!
Sub VII J,
Ab -7(11 l D~ 7 C:.llt li9) Glixµaj7(6/9 )
1
1_ ~
, ' ·-
~- - bo - l~g &----n:I
'...!:....;;.--0'

139
dom7(b9/alt5) I dom9(#11)
{1 bs tts b9} / {t s 9 ~n}
Sub V C7(b9/alt5) { 1 b5#5b9} = D b-maj7(1 1) {l 5 7 11}

~F#9(#II)
-1 j,J, j,
{tt ll l 9 5}

There are three applicable inversion: b5 ~ J


1 ~ #11
#5~ 9
~9~ 5

C-7(11) F 7(alt5/t,9) B1'6(9) G-9 C7(b9/alt5) F6/9(#11) E-7(11) A7(alt5/b9) D6(9)


b_a_ :ta. b..o. ~ -e- ~ -e-

!- ~ &;~ •--g-+;-~-fu!j. §i
1
II F~tg #3,____IJ
Sub V I l
F::-7(11) B9(# 11) E6(9) C~-7( 11 ) Fli 9( ~11 ) B6(9)
avoid Sub V ...
has tension 9 on 5th string
, ~n .o. =&_..a. ,.. ~ ~
L i§f~! Jig ll ;Cf,..._
: _ · o~zt#e.__---tt-
1! ----~
Note: The dom9(#11) voicing could have a lydian func tion since no 7th is present:
{ 1 5 9 #11} C(#
1119) = Cmaj9( #11). The following Il-V-I example displays the lydian function.

A voiding tension 9 on the 5th string leaves two appropriate inversions.

C~ -7 F#7 ( alt5/ ~ 9) BC# ll/9) Ao-7(11J G7 G~ (~ ll/ 9 )


#~ ~
11 :· ~~
.0.

ei! ~!n ~~i ~; ~ J


dom7(#11Jb9 ) Suh \' C7( ~ 11/~ 9) : '. 5 ~ 9~J l ) = Al 3( ~ 9l/Eb! 3 (~0l f3!, ; !:91; ·
{ l 5 b9 #} l } ! '~ ~ -i j, -1 i

'- F #7( #111 ~ 9){ # 11 b9 5 1 }


T he re is one applicable inversi on :
C-7(11 ) F7(Ul/b9) Bb 6(9)
#II ~ l

~ =t ~~
b9 ~ 5
1
i'"'
~= '!! ~.;1
0..0..

~ ~
I
I I
I \
Sub \'
F~ - 7 ( 11 ) B 7(U l / f;9 J E CU l )
I n. .n.
I
fi-tr
I
~#II
Q)
~~ I~

140
dom7(b9/b5) I dom7(#11)
{l b5 b7 b9}/{13 5 #11}
Sub V C7(b9/b5) {l bs b7 b9 } = Al3(alt9) {3 b9 #9 13} Thereisoneapplicableinversion:

~#7(#11) i iii
{# 11 1 3 5 }
I -7#11
b5 -71
b9 -7 5
b7 -7 3

E-7(11) A7(b9/b 5) D6(9)


-e- , .a- -&

§ ~'8 §¥s II

Sub V
I
' Bb-7(11)
I
l
Eb (#ll) Ab (add9)
~ I 0..0.
L ,~1 'f; 11
Ii
•'Z
II

Note: The dom7(#11) voicing could have a lydian fu nction, since no 7th is present:
{l 3 5 #I I} C(#ll ) =Cmaj7( jll) .-
The EC# 11) chord under dom7(# Illb9) presents this function.

141
Chapter Eighteen.
New Voicings
By examining all of the possible interval combinations that are physically available within Lhe established
framework (9,~ l 0, 10. 11, and~ 11) on the middle fo ur strings of the guitar, (excluding doublings and ~9th intervals),
we see that the vast m aj ority of these voicings already have been introduced in the tension chapters.

W ith the exceptio n of one voicing. the few remaining interval combinations physically available within this
framework appear to be inversions of the ninth (no 3) or ninth tno 5) chord voicings introduced in the Tension 9
chapter or drop 3 type voicings. b oth of which produce some physically difficul t fingerings and potential voice-
leading problems wher. inte grated with drop 2 voicings.

L O\\" l merval Limits allowing. these voicings offer ail of the enharmonic possibilities previously applied to their
chord tones and tensions under the Enharmonic Chordal SubsUtution chapters .

~inth (no 5) Chord Inversions :


dom7(9) 9 ... dom7(#9J
~7~b7
3~9
1

T he foll owing ninth (no 3) or ninth (no 5) chord voic ings can be produced by using the same inversion formula:

9 9
Z> <!
_1 .)

I 7

dom7(9) 9 dom7(# 9) maj6(9) 9


]
,,l
_..,
3
b7 ~7 6

min 7(9) 9 dom7sus4(9) '.'J domn5(9) 9


J 1
b3 k.
b7 b7

I n:.: followmg drop 3 type voicings arc physicaliy available on the middle fo ur strings:

d orn7 3 dom7 b5 3 min7b5 b3


J I I
::. b ~' . b5
b7 b7 b7

142
dom7#5 I min7#5 1
b7 b7
3 b3
#5 #5

dom7sus4 b7 min.maj7(11) 7
5 5
I 1
4 11

Obvious enharmonic substitutions:

b3 - l l - 3 7 - #11
1 - 6 b7 - 9 5 - 9
bs - b3 b3 - 5 1 - 5
b7 - 5 #5 - 1 11 -1

The final voicing introduced in this chapter is unique in that its chordal structure has not yet been introduced. This
voicing also affords only one "legitimate" chord. although a couple of "progressive" enharmonic chordal
substitutions will be offered.

major 3rd C::::::::::D#


~ 5
perfect 5th<::::::B ~ 1#9 Ab7(b 131#9)
major 3rd<::::::::E ~ 1d3
C ~ 3

AdditionaJ possible enharmonic chordal substitutes:


Cmaj7(#9) {l 3 7 #9 } A-9(#11) {b3 5 9 #11 }
This voicing aiso might imply an incomplete polychord. The bottom two notes form a major 3rd intervaL suggesting
me root and third of an incompl~re major triad, while the rop rwo notes also fom1 a m~ior 3rd interval, suggesting
a major triad a half-s tep below or major 7th above the bottom structure:

D~ implies a B ;najor triad over a C m~ior triad. FJ


B c
E
c

143
Chapter Nineteeno
Enharmonic Substitutions of Ninth Chords
with omitted third or fifth
The ninth (no 3) and ninth (no 5) chord voicings introduced in the Tension 9 chapter produce some of the most
interesting and useful enharmonic chordal substitu tions. Some of these chords have so many substitutions that it is
possibie to find one voicing that will satisfy all three basic harmonic functions:

Cmaj9 = Am(l 1/9) I F#-7b5(b 13/ll) I Ab 7(alt51#9)


{ l 3 7 9} {~35911} {b5 b7 llbl3} {3b5#5#9 }

Tonic Sub-Dominant Dominant


Am(l 119) B-7 b5( b 13111) E7~alt51#9)
(Cmaj9) (Fmaj9) (A~rnaj9)

It is conunonly referred to as "constant structure harmonic motion" when moving one voicing around to satisfy
different chords. This conrept will be examined in more detail in the later chapter appropriately titled Constant
Structure Har monic lVfotion.
The follow ing list will include all of the ninth chords with omitted 3rci or 5th and their enharmonic substitmions.

Cmaj9 Am(l 1/9) I Fmaj7(131# 11) I F#-7b 5(b 1311 1) I A b7(alt5/#9) I D9(13) I E7( b 13)
{1 3 7 9}
Cmaj9(b5) Ab 7b 5(#9) ID 13 I A-6(1119) I F# -7 bscb J 3/11) I FI3(# 11/b 9) I B7(alt9)/E9( b13)
{ l b579}
C-maj9 F13(# 11) I B7(alt9) I Dl3(b 9J I Ab7(# 111#9) I A-7b5(l l/9J
{ l b37 9 }
C -9 Ebmaj7(6) I F13sus4 I D7(b9!#5) I Ab9(# 11 )
jl b3 b7 9 }
C -9 b5/ C9b5 D7#5 IAb9(b5)1F# 7(al6)/G-maj7(11)!Ep-maj7(6)/E-7b 5(b13/9VE9(alt5)/Bf,9+ /Fbsus4( b'l
{lb5b79)
C6(9) Am(l i) I BP maJ9(b5.i / Fmaj7(6) I D-9 1F~ -7\alt5) I G-6( 11/9) I A~ 7(alt5/b9) I D9 I E-7 #5(1 l !
{ l 3 G 9}
C-6(9 ) Fi 3 I B7( alt9) .' D7Cb9) I A~ 7: ~ ll/b91!A-1lf, 5 I E~maj7(6/b5 )
llb369}
C9 G? 7(alt.5J /D9+ /Ab9<alr5 l /E7<alr5) /B ~91 ~5 l /G-6(11) /F-maj7(1J /6) /B ~(91~ 5) /E- 7<alt5VD-7~5{91
f l 3 ~ 7 9\
C 7(b9) Gb7( ~I I) I Db -maj7<6"l I Eb l 3(bQ) I A 7< alt9) I Bb-7b 5(9)
{13 b7b9}
C7(lt9) G!, 13(b5) I Db-maj7(6/9) I ..:.. 7 (alt9.' :! 1!1IEb13(b9) I Ab9<b i3) I Bb-7b5(1 l/9J
{I 3 b7 #9}
C9(b5 ) refer to C-9(b 5) abo\'e
C9(#S) refer to C9 above (C9 = D9#5J
{ l ~5b79}
C9sus4 D-7 ~ 5 I G-7(1 1) I B b! add9) I F-6(11 ) I Ab6(91ff l I ) I Ab 13( #11/9) I D7 (#91#S) I E7( alt5/b9 l I Bl,9
{ i 4 b7 9)

144
The following "blues" progression will use ninth (no 3) or ninth (no 5) chord voicings to substitute each chord. The
original chord changes are above the stave while the ninth chord substitu te~ are below in parentheses.

F6(9) Fmaj7(6) E-7b5(b 13) A7(b9) Dm(ll) G7(alt5/b9) Cm(ll/9) F7(#9)


~

r I' 1z#~
?
~~ 1p 'if i~r
' F
(F6(9)) (C6(9)) (Bb6 (9))
I
(G-6(9 )) (F6(9)) (Eb9sus4) (E bmaj9)
!
(F7#9)

Bb13 Bb7(alt5) Bb-7(11) Eb9 Am(ll/9) D7(alt9) Ab-9 Db13(#11)


I
1) 1~1I ~~,
:~
I

, 1,F 11it~ &[~ &~~


I I

(F-6(9)) (E9) (E b9sus4) (Db6(9)) (Cmaj9) (Eb -maj9) (Gb6(9)) (A~ -maj9)

Gm(ll/9) G-9 C7(alt5) C7(alt5/~9) F6(9) D7(alt9) G13(b5) C7(alt9) Fmaj7(6)

~~
I
$
~~ 1t; 1;1 I~ ;,~; I &~ II i II
' ' I

(Bbmaj9) (G-9)
I
(Gb9) (Emaj9)
I I
I
(F6(9)) (Eb-6(9)) (Db7(#9)) (Db -6(9)) (C6(9))

145
Chapter Twentyo
Tension Additions on Diminished 7th Chords
Ir must be noted that when tensions are added to a dim7 chord. the symmetrical quality of the chord is destroyed and
the resulting voicing is often heard as something different than a diminished chord. To further compound this
problem. most dim7 chords already functio n as dom7b9 chords, even before any tensions are added. Therefore,
exploring tension additions on dim7 chords might prove of limited value and is presented with this in mind.

All \'Oicings produced by the addition of tensions on dim7 chords have been previously introduced enharmonically
as dominant chords with various combinations of tensions~9, #9, #11, and 13. Further examination of these tensions
will be performed under the Symmetrical Dominant Substitutions chapter.

There are basically two approaches to the addition of tensions on diminished 7th chords. The first is the symmerr]r ·
approach. in which a whole si:ep above any dim7 chord tone is an available tension. The second is the diaton.
approach. in which the tensions are chosen from the key or function of the moment. In either case, the tensions must
be reaiized on the true function of the dim7 chord. If the dim7 chord is functioning as a dominant chord, the tensions
added to the dim7 chord must be realized on that dominant chord:

C 0 7(9) is functioning as F13(b9) ...


the 9th of C0 7 is the 13th of F7(b9).

In comrasL. if tbe dim7 chord has no dominant function. and instead is functioning as a "tonic-diminished" or
chromaticallv descendin2: diminished. the tensions should be realized on that dim7 chord. Uoon further examination
of the symmetrical appro'ach to tension addition on dim7 chords, we see tensions 7, 9, 11, a~d b13 appearing a whole
step above the chord tones. Combining chord tones and tensions produces the traditional symmetrical diminished
scale;

2 4 #S( ~13) 6(b b7) 7 8


L l _j L112_JL 1_JL l/2_J L l _J._____l/2 __J ~-- 1 _J L112 J

Tension b13 will be used instead of its enirnrmonic #5 spelling, which might apoear confusrng withm a dirr1ir.ished
context (aug:rnented Sth on a dimi nished chord ). although !5 does . in facL describe this tone 's relation to the scale
more accurate1Y. . since the naturc:.i 5th m!~ht
-- r~c m1oiied
. b~;- ~ ~3. Within this chanter. bl3 \\ill nm imoiv
. ... .
nmurcl 5
~ote that the major 7th appears as a tension above thebb7 chord tone. When the major7th is added to a dim7 chord,
it is commonly referred to as a "dim.ma,i7" ..or .. tonic diminished" chord.

Since d1m7 chords duplicate the111selves tnrOL:gr. .minor .);·d inversions. b.e aware of rension adcfaior.~ on ~l! four
relative dim7 chords:

no ~ensiom C 0 7 = Eb 0 7 = Fr'/ = A c7
oncrens1on C;maj 7 = Eb 0 7(b l 3) =.F~ 0 7(JJ~ = N,7(9)
twotensionsC·maj7 (9; = Eb~maj7(1:>1 ?. = F #..;7(ol3!li; = N '7(11/9)
two1en:;ionsC0 maj7(11' = E~ 0 7!bl3/9 ) = F~ 0 mai7(1}) = .A 0 7(b!3/C};
threetensionsC·maj7(11/9) = E b-maj7<b13/9J = Ff ::maj7(u13/l!; = A 0 7(~ i3ill/9)

Note that if all fo ur tensions (7. 9, i 1. anci ~ 13) are used in a four nme voicing. a complete dim . Jrd is rormed a
whole step above the original dim7 chore'.:

c:maj7(b 13/l 1/9: =D 0


7

146
Since a dim7 chord commonly functions as a dom7(b9) chord a half-step below any dim7 chord tone, tensions added
to the dirn7 chord should be realized on all four relative dorn7(b9) chords:

no C0 7 = E~ 07 = F# 7
0
= A0 7
diminished
tensions B7(b9) = D7(b9) = F7(b9) = Ab7(b9)

one C0 maj7 = Eb 0 7(b l3J = F# 0 7(1 I) = A 0 7(9)


diminished
rension B(b9) = Dl3(b9) = F7(# l llb9) = Ab7(#9)

two C0 maj7(9) = Eb maj7(b 13) =


0
F# 0 7(b 13111) = A 0 7(11/9)
diminished
tensions B(#9) = D l3(b9) = F J 3(# l llb 9) = Ab7(# 111#9)

two C0 maj7( 11) = E b 0 1cb 13/9) = F# 0 maj7(1 l) = A0 7(~ 13/9)


diminished
tensions BC# I llb9) = Dl3(~ 9) = F(# l llb9) = Ab l 3(#9)

three C0 maj7(1 l /9) = Eb 0


maj7(b 13/9) = F# maj7(b 13/11) =
0
A 0 7(b 13/ 11/9)
diminished
tensions B(# 111#9) = D ( l31#9) = F(131#l llb9) = Ab 7(1 31# 111#9)

Note the dominant tensions (b9, ~9 , #11, 13) formed by the symmetrical diminished scale. By combining these
dominant tensions and chord tones, the symmetrical dominant diminished scale is produced:

b2 #2 3 #4 5 6 b7 8
L l /2_jL. 1 _J 1- l/2 _J '._l_J:_ l /2_JL 1_JL1;2-1L1 ~

This scale and subseouem chords will oe examined further in the s,·mmetrical Dominan t Suhstitutions chanter.
• • L

All substitute chords produced by the addition of 1ensions 7, 9. 11 and b 13 on a dim7 chord are either dominant and/
or hvbrid chords and have been oreviouslv introduced as dominant chords with various combinations uf tensiom
'.'9,f.9.~11,13: , -

147
One tension; c cmaj 7 = E b 0 7(~ 13) = F # 0 7(1 1) = A 0 7(9) ._.
First introduced as a dom7(# 9) (Ab7(#9)) chord. One inversion forms the hybrid chord B/C.
Two tensions : ccm~j7(9J = Eb ~maj7( b 13 J = F# 07( b1311 l) = A07(1119)
First introduced as a dom7(# 111#9) (A b7( #111#9)) chord. Two inversions form t\\'O different hybrid chords, BID
and Bm!Dff.

Two tensions: cc maj 7( 1 JI = Eb 07(bl 3/9) = F ~ <Jmaj7(1 I) = A 07(b 13/9)

First inrroduced as a d om13(# 9) (Ab 1 3( ~ 9) I D l3(~9)) chord.

Three tensions: ccmaj7< 11/9) = Ebcmaj7( b 13/9) = F tt 0 maj 7(b 13111) = A0 7(b 13/11/9)
First introduced as a d om 7 (b 91~11113) (F( J 3, ~ 11/b9) { I ii 9 ~ 11 13}) chord. One in version forms rhe hybrid chord
Bm/F.

The diatonic approach to tension addition, on a dim7 chord can form different tensions dep~nding on the key or
function of the dim7 chord. In the key of C. c~ ~7 C#I-c·7l would have tensions 7 (C), b9 (D), ~ I l (F). and b13 (A),
#I
which are derived from the key of~. Since 0 7 usuall y functions as a dominant V7 b9/II chord (A 7( b9)). the C ~ 0 7
tensions should be realizea on A 7(b9) : ~9 (C) . 11 ( D ), ;ii3 (F).root (A ).
The following chan might be helpful in determin ing the ··function·· of a di m7 chord. A diminished chord will either
ha\'e a dominant func tion or its own dimin ished functio n. If there is no clear dominant fu nction. the v "
assume irs own tuncrion of ronic diminished (I"7 l or descendir.2 chromatic diminished (~ IIF7 I j, \

Keep in mind , since one dim7 chord equuls three other dim7 chords, there are only three different dim/ c ..
possible:

1) C0 7 = E~ 7 = F# 7 = A 7
0 0 0

2) C # 7 = E 7 = G 7 = Bb 7
0 0 0 0

3) D 7 = f 7 = Ab 7 = B 7
0 0 0 0

The foliowing chart is relative to the key of the moment:


lI V IT0 7 = IT 0 7 = JV 0 7 = ti V 0 7
dominant tuncrions~ V7l ·)J l - of· VI. or V7( b9)

2) bVII07 = ~1°7 = III07 = V07


dominant functions: \ '7fl,tl l - of - !!. o~· V7(b9 1 - f,f - TV

3 ) VI0 7 = 1°7 = bm
7 = b\'0 7 0

<#II 7) ( ~ TV 0 7)
0

dominant functions: V7(,9 J - of- III. or V7C b9 i - of - V


I Tonic Diminished cr·1 !
I Chromatic descending dimi nished ( i, n1c7 I~ y c:7)

Jn the key of C:
j I s c7 = Dc7 = F~ 7 = G zc7
domin ant functions; E7 < :> 9l/ G 7<~9;

2 1 B;"7 = c : c7 = E"/ = G"7


dominant function!-. : A7( ,9 1 I C7( ,c.; J

-' > A"' 7 = C ·i = Eb c7 = u~-7


< D ~ c7 J <Fr7 >
domin ant function s: B7(f>9 ) I D7(b9 1
I Tonic Dim inished (C 0 7l (C"maj7 1
I Chromatic descending <l1mini.sl~ed 1E1 "'7 I Gb"7l
148
Chapter Twenty-One.
Constant Structure Harmonic Motion
The E nharmonic Chordal Substitution chapters present many different chord types and functions within a single
chord. It is subsequently possible to harmonize a progression of di ffe rent chord types and fun ctions with a single
chord type. If on ly one inversion of this single chord is used while harmonizing a progression, it would be referred
lo as "constant structure harmonic motion."
The following example uses a maj6(9) (l 3 6 9) chord to harmonize the original chord progression (written in
parenthesis).

G6(9) D~ 6(9) C6(9) B6(9) Bb6(9) Db6(9) F6(9) Db6(9) C6(9)


(Cmaj7) .(A
........ ·.,·,
7) (D-7) ~ G 7) (E-7b 5) (A7) (0-7) (G7) (C)

Although this approach can go "outside" of the original harmonic functions, often by symmetrical motion of one
voicing, the approach here wi ll be to satisfy the original fu nctions through the use of their enharmonic substitu tional
possibilities. Dominant chords offer some symmetrical constant structure possib ililies that will be examined in the
fo llowing chapter. Obviously, this concept will often comprom ise vo ice-leading, but this can be accepted when the
harmonic structure never varies. Voice-leading is at its best becween varied structures.
Those chords found to have the most s11 bstitutions and varied functions perform best in a constant structure approach.
The followin g chords will be examined fo r their most co mmon substitutions and functions, and each will be placed
in a number of II-V-I situations to display their di fferent functions. Those chords that can satisfy all three basic
functions have che best constant structure possibilities.

Maj or7bs
Cmaj7b 5 = A-6(9) = F tt -7b5(1 1) = 07( 13/9) = Ab7( #9 #5)
Tonic Function I) D-7 G7 Cmaj7b5 (Lydi an)
2) B-7b5 E7 Cmaj7b5 {A-6(9)} (Minor)
3) G7 A7 Cmaj7~ 5 {D7(13/9)} (Blues)

Sub-Domi nant Function 1) Cmaj7b5 {F#-7b5(11 ) ) 87 Em

Dominant Function 1) A-7 Cmaj7b 5 {D7( 13/9)) Gmaj7


2)Eb -7 Cmaj7b5 {Ab 7C H9#5)) Db n1aj7
Mult i-Function (Constant Structure)
1) Cmaj7b5 Ebmaj7b5 Gm<tj7b5
{F#-7b5(1 l)) {B7(#9US)} {E-6(9()
2) Fmaj7b5 Dbnrnj7bs C1naj7 p5
{G7(13/9) } {A7( #9#5 ) ) I 0 7( 1319) l

149
Minor7bS ...

C-7b5 =Eb-6 =Gb6(b5) = Ab9 = D7(b9tt5)

Tonic Function I ) Ab-7 Db7 C-7b 5 {Gb6(b5)} (Lydian)


2)F-7b5 Bb7 C-7 b5 {Eb-6} (Minor)
3) Db7 Eb7 C-7b5 (Ab9 } (Blues)

Sub-Dominant Function 1) C-7b5 F7 Bbm

Dominant Function 1) A-7 C-7b5 {D7(b9tt5)} Gmaj7


2)Eb-7 c~b5{Ab9} Dbmaj7

Multi-Function (Constant Structure)


1) C-7b5 Eb-7b5 G-7b5
{F7(b9tt5)} {Bb-6}
2) F-7b5 Db-7b5 C-7b5
{Db9} {E b7( b9tt5)} {Ab9}

Minor7#S
C-7#5 = Ab (add9) = F-7(11) = Dbm<tj7(6/9) = Bb9sus4 or Bb-7(1119) = D7(b9/alt5) = C7(#91#5)no3

Tonic Function I) Bb-7 Eb7 C-71 5 {Ab(add9)}


2) Eb-7 Ab7 C-7 5 {Dbmaj7(6/9)}
3) G-7b5 C7 C-7 5{ F-7(1 1)}
Sub-Domi nant Function I) C-715 {F-7(11)) Bb7 Ebmaj7
2) C-7 5 F7 Bbm
3)C-7 5{ Bb-7(11/9) } Eb7 Ab6
Dominant Function l ) A-7 C-715 {D7(b9/alt5)} 06
2) G-7 C-7 5 {C7(#91tt5)} F6
3) F-7 C-7 5 {Bb9sus4} Eb6
Multi-Function (Constant Structure)
1) C-7#5 Ab-7 tts G-7#5
{F-7(11)) {Bb7(b9/alt5)} {Eb(add9)}
2) C-7#5 Eb-7#5 F-7#5
{C-7bS(b l3)} {F7(~9/alt5 )} {Bb -7( 11)}

150
Dom7#S
C7 #5 =D b-maj7(6) =F-maj7( 1 l) = Bb -7b5(9) or Bb7b5(9) = D7(9/alr5) = E7(alt5) = Ab 7 # 5(9) = Ob 7b5(9)

Ton ic Function 1) Eb-7b5 Ab7 C7 #5 { Db-m<~7(6) }


2) 0-7b5 C7 C7#5{F-maj7( 11 )}

Suh-Dominant Function 1) C7# 5{B b-7b5(9) } Eb7 Abm

Dominant Function 1) B-7 C7 5{ E7(alt5)l Amaj7


2) A-7 C7 5 {07(9/alt5)} 06
3) F-7 C7 5{B b7b 5(9)} Eb6
4) Eb -7 C7 5{Ab7#5(9)} Db6
5) C# -7 C7 5{F#7~5(9)} B6

Multi-Function (Constant Structure)

1) C7~ 5 B7#5 Eb 7 #5 ...... ... or. ......... 07#5


{Bb-7b 5(9) } {Eb7(alt5)} {Ab -maj7(1 1)} {Ab-maj7(6)}

Dom7sus4
C7sus4=B b6(9)=G-7(1 l)=Eb6(9)=C-7(1 l )=Ab maj7(9/6)=F-7( 11/9) or F9sus4=A7 #5(alt9)=E7(alt9/alt5)

Tonic Function 1) C-7 F7 C7sus4{Bb6(9)}


2)F-7 Bb7 C7sus4{Eb6(9)}
3)Bb-7 E b7 C7sus4{ Abmaj7(9/6)}
4)A-7b 5 D7 C7sus4{G-7( 11)}

Sub-Dominant Function l) C7sus4{ G-7(11 )} C7 F6


2) C7sus4{ C-7(11) } F7 Bb6
3) C7sus4{F-7(11/9)} Bb7 Eb6

Dominant Function 1) E-7 C7sus4{A7#5(alt9)} D6


2) B-7 C7sus4{E7(alt9/all5)} A6
3) C-7 C7sus4{F9sus4} Bb6

Mu lti-F unction (Constant Structure)

1) C7sus4 E b7sus4 D7sus4


{G-7(11)} {C7 #5(alt9)} {F6(9)}
2) C7sus4 C# 7sus4 D7sus4
{C-7(11 )} {F7(alt9/alt5)} {Bbmaj7(9/6)}

Major7(9) (1 3 7 9]
Cmaj7(9) =A-(1119) = F#-7b S(b 13/11) = D7(1 3/9) = Ab 7(# 9/alt5)
Tonic Function 1) D-7 07 Cmaj7(9)
2) B-7b5 E7 Cmaj7(9){A-(l l/9)}
3)07 A7 Cm<tj7(9){D7( 13/9)) (Blues)

Sub-Domin an t Function 1) Cmaj7(9) {A-(11/9) } D7 06


2) Cmaj7(9){ F#-7 b5(b 13/11 )) B7 Em

151
Dominant Function I) A-7 Cmaj7(9){ D7(13/9)} G6 ...
2) Eb -7 Cmaj7(9) {Ab 7(#91alt5)} Db6
Multi-Function (Constan t Structure)

1) Cmaj 7(9) F #maj7(9) Gmaj7(9)


{A-( 11/9)} {D7(#91alt5) }
2) Cmaj7(9) Eb maj7(9) Gmaj7(9)
{F #-7 b5( bl3/l l) } {B7( #91alt5)} {E-(1119)}
3) Fm aj7(9) Db maj7(9) Cmaj7(9)
{G7( 13/9)} {A7(#91alt5)} {D7(13/9)}

Major6 (9) [1 3 6 9]
C6(9) = Am(l l) = Fmaj7(6) = Bbmaj7b5(9) =D-9 or D9 = F #-7b5(b13) =Ab769/alt5)
Tonic F unction 1) D-7 G7 C6(9)
2) B-7b5 E7 C6(9){Am(l l )}
3) G-7 C7 C6(9){Fmaj7(6) }
4) E-7b5 A7 C6(9){D-9}
5) C-7 F7 C6(9) {Bb maj7 b5(9)}

Sub-Dominant Function 1) C6(9){ Am(l l)} D7 G6


2) C6(9){F#-7b 5(b 13) ) B7 Em
3) C6(9){ D-9} G7 C6

Dominant Function l) A-7 C6(9) {D9} G6


2) Eb-7 C6(9) {Ab7( b9/alt5) } D b6
Multi-Function (Constant Structure)

1) C6(9) F#6(9) D6(9)


{Am(l l)} {D7(b9talt5) } {Gmaj7(6)}
2) C6(9) Eb 6(9) G6(9)
{F# -7b5(b 13)) {B7(b9/alt5)} {Em(ll)}

Dom7(9) (1 3 b7 9]

C7(9) = G-6(11) = Bb(9/b5) = E-7bscb 13) or E7(alt5) = F#7(alt5) = D7#5(9) = Ab7(9/alt5)

·,,.·. •
:~··
Tonic Function 1) A-7b5 D7 C9 {G-6(11)}
2) C-7 F7 C9 {Bb (9/b5) }

Sub-Dominant Function 1) C9{E-7bscb 13)1 A7 Dm

Dominant Function 1) B-7 C9{ E7(alt5)} A6


2) C#-7 C9{ F# 7(alt5)} B6
3) A-7 C9{D7#5(9) } G6
4) Eb-7 C9 {Ab 7 (9/alt5)} Db6
Multi-Function (Constant Structure)

l) C9 Eb9 G9 ....... or ........ E9


{E-7b 5( bl3)} {A7(alt5) ) {D-6(11 )L {D(9/ b5)}

152
When only one inversion is used in the multi-function examples, it is considered a "constant structure" approach
to the progression. If different inversions of the same chord are used, the constant structure sound is lost, but voice-
leading improves and the "sound" of using one chord type remains . This might half-jokingly be referred to as
"constant chord type structures."

The following is an example of the two approaches discussed on the Dom7(9) chord"s multi-function progression:

C9 [E-7~5(b 13)] Eb9 [A7(alt5)] G9 [D-6(11)]

I) (Constant Structure) 2) (Constant Chord Type {different inversions})


C9 Eb9 G9 C9 Eb9 G9
q 0. I~ qc@
II
At this point, special attention should be given to the minor II-V-I cadences that appeared in the multi-function
examples. It might have been noted, (as in the above example), that a certain interval pattern was evoi ving between
the II, V, and I chords. By establishing one chord voicing that will satisfy all three functions, it can be moved a minor
third from the II to the V and a major third from the V to the I:

t h'
,lfd) ....... G - 7 p:: t h'Ird,
"\ ....... B -J"' 1p::J-
1-
E -7pI ~- .....lmmor
• . • •
....... (ma:Jor
II-7b5 {E-7b 5} V7 l A7(b91#5)] Im {D-6}

Any chord that will satisfy the II-7b5 chord, with or without available tensions, can be moved through this interval
pattern to produce a complete minor II-V-I cadence.

The following is a list of some of the most obvious chords that could function as min7 b5 chords;

F# -7b5(9) = A-maj7 ....... Ab7#5


F# -7b5(11) = Cmaj7b5 .... A-6(9) (l b3 6 9]. ...Fmaj7(#11) (3 5 7 #11]
F# -7b5(b13) = D7 .... D9 [l 3 b7 9] ...... C6(9) [l 3 6 9]
F# -7b5(11/9) = Cma,j7#5 ..... A-maj7(9) [1 ~3 7 9J ......A-mai7(9) fb3 5 7 9]
F# -7b5(b13/9) = E7#5
F# -7 b5(b 13/11) = Cmaj 7(9) [1 379]. ..... D 13 & Ab 7(#91b5) .......E7sus4 ....... F6(# 11) [3 5 6~11]

Each one of these chords will satisfy all three minor cadence chords (II-7 b5, V7, and I-) and each one can be moved
through the interval pattern to establish a constant structure minor II V I cadence. In relation to their present roots,
. will function as Fli,. -7 bs, Ab 7, and A minor chords.
rhev

Appiication of these concepts would make n possible to harmonize an en tire song with just two or three chord rypes.
The following is an example of a typical "two-five blues" harmonized with just three chords; dom 7sus4, maj6(9)
[l 3 6 9], and dom7(9) [l 3 b7 9). Their inversions will aid iu some harmonic. variety and voice-leading, whiie
integrated with constant structure phrases.

153
F6(9) Fmaj7(6) E-7b5(b 13) A7(b9/alt5) D-9 G7(b9/alt5) C-9 F7(alt5)
(F6/9) (C6/9) (Bb6/9) (D~6/9) (C6/9) (Cb6/9) ~ (Bb6/9) CB9)
I I I
Iii

B b6(9) *Bb9 Bb-7(11) E~9 A-7(11 ) D7(b 9/ alt5) Ab-9 D b7(alt5)


(G7sus4) (Bb9) (Db6/9) (Db6/9 ) (A7sus4 ) (Gb6/9) (Gb6/9) (A9)
I I
I b~
1 ,b'
l

1+"' b,,~

G-7(11) G-7(11) C7(#9/alt5) *C7(a1t) Fmaj7(9/6) D7(#9/alt5) G-7(11) C7(b9/alt5)


(Bb6/9) (C7sus4) (Gb6/9) (Ab7sus4) (A7sus4) (Ab6/9) (Bb6/9) (E6/9)
? I
bf l,~rfa II
tJ I

F(9/b 5)
(G9)

~ ·~ II
* L.I.L. violations on weak half of measure.

Here are some additional minor II - V - I cadences with two different chord types moving through the "minor rhird-
major third" interval pattern;

1) (A-n5) - - - - - - - - - - - - (D7 )- - - - - - - - - - - - - (Gm)- - - - - - - - -


C-6{9) Eb6(9) Eb-6(9' Gb6(9 \ G-6(91 B~6(9 1
€-"
I~ of+

i fib§ '!18
71J 1~8 i8 i

2) (A-7b5) _______ ____ _ _ __ (D? ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (Gm) _ _ _


E:imaj7b5 E:imaj9 Gt1maj7t16 G~maj9 G-maj9
I
I
D..Q.
.~ i;-&

~§ ~I !~§
I . ,,,., --n
.:
~~~ I ii ~

'
11

3) (A-7b5) _____ _________ _ _ (D7J __________ ___ ___ (Gm)_ __


Eb6(9) F6(9) Gb6(9) Ab6(9) B~6(9 )
~.n. -0-

41
i54
4) (E-~ 5) ___ __ __ _____ _ (A7) _ __ _ ____ _ __ _ _ _ (D m ) ___ ___ ___ __ __ _
Btirnaj7,5 E-7b5 D::imaj7»5 G-7P5 Fmaj7b5 B-7b5
..n

bu
!H
5) <E- 7~ 5) ·- ·- __ __ _ __ _ _ ___ (A 7 J __ _ __ ___ _ ___ _ _ (Dm) _ ___ ___ __ _ __ - -
Bbmaj7#5 E-7~5 DDmaj7!=5 G-7~ f1 Fmaj7~5 B-7 ~ :3
-e. #
~tsu
~ !)
g I~
';;
~~g I±n

··f1.fajor'' cadences ;

l ) (ll-7 - V7 -1); 2 ) n - Vl i - I !-7 -V 7 - iJ:


G-7(11/ 9) C7'.15\13/b 9) Fm ~i9 D6(fl B7, 5(aJt8 l E-7' 11 A7 ~5(alt9 / D m a i/(9/C:
•D-7~ ff::C-1 !.A-7 • :E /su.s.-! <D7sus·~, <A7sus41 (C7sus.:. iF;/sus4
;;.e- -€'>-
r ~- , D.D.. ~L:_

TI ~ I ~
~*
.1
II @ .: ~!! i

155
Chapter Twenty-Two.
Symmetrical Dominant Substitutions
Every dominant chord has at least one symmetrical substitution a tritone away which has been presented as the "Sub
V" chord. Specific tension combinations derived from the whole-tone or diminished scales can be placed on a
dominant chord which can then be moved symmetrically ("constant structure harm onic motion") in accordance with
those tensions chosen: diminished (minor third intervals), and whole-tone (whole-step intervals).

Any combination of tensions 9, #l l(b5), and b 13(#5). which are in common with the whole-tone scale. can have
whole-step substitutions. Seven different dominant chord structures can be produced from the various tension
combinations;

C7f5 C7b5 C9(no5) (I 3 ~7 9] C9(~5) C9(b5) C7(alt5) C9(alt5)

i
1\ ote that it is perhaps more appropriate to refer to# 11 and b13 as b5 and 5, si nee# l I and b13 could imp Iy a natural
5th.

Three different voicing possibilities exist for each of the last four chords:

C9(#5) ........ .... [3 #S


b7 9J, (1 #5 b7 9j. and [l 3 #5 9)
r3
C9(b 5) ............ b5 b7 9] . [I b5 b7 9) . and [13~59]
C7Calt5) .......... [3 b5 #5 b7J. ll ~5 its Ii 7). and [l 3 h5 #5]
C9(alt5) .......... [3 b5 ~5 9], [1,5f,51' 7 9), and [J ~ 5 ~5 9]

When examining the whole-step substitutions for each chord, we find only three different interval combinations exist
for four-note voicings within the whole-tone scale; _,

1) C7 h5 D9(#5) E9(alt5 ) F# 7h5 Ab9(#5) Bb9(alt5)


[1 3b5b7] [3 nsb7 9) [!~5#59] [l 3b5b7J ~3 #5~7 9] [1~5#59]

2) C7t5 I
D9(alt5 J E7(alt5J F#9( b5) Ab9(#5 ) B b9( b5)
[I 3 ff 5 ~ 7) [b 5 f5
,, b7 9) (13b5tt 5J [3b5b79] [13~59] [I bs b7 9]

3) C9 D9(#5) E7(alt5) F~7(alt5 l Ab9(alt5} Bb9(b5 )


[I 3 b7 9) [! ~5 b79J ll b5 ~s b11 [3 b5 !i5b7]
,, f3p5~59] [I3b59]

Note the symmetrica l Sub V chords in the first example;


.~7 .., ....- _F "" 7'b""-
'- ./-·- TT ... , D9l;5)=Ab9(#5) E9(alt5)=B b9(alt5 }

Also note those voicings missing a third could function as min 7b5 chords. and the B b9cb 5): [I 3 b5 91. could function
as a Bbmaj7b5(9) chord.

Any combination of tensions b9, ~9 , ~ 1 I, a:id 13. vvhich are in common \Vith the symmetrical dominant diminished
scale (1 b2 ~2 3 ~4 5 6 b7 8), can have mi nor third substicuuom. fifteen different dominant chord structures can be
produced from the various tension combinations :

156
Single Tension;
1) C7(~I• 11) or C7b5 2) C7(b9) 3) C7(#9) 4) C7(13)

Two Tensions;
5) C7(# l llb9) 6) C7(# 111#9) 7) C7(131# 11) 8) C7(13/b9)
9) C7(131#9) 10) C7(alt9)

Three Tensions;
11) C7(# ll/alt9) 12) C7(13/alt9) 13) C7(131#1llb9) 14) C7(131#111#9)

Four Tensions;
15) C7(13l#lllalt9)

Note that all those chords containing a# l lth tension could be accompanied by a natural 5th, or function
enharmonically as ab5th. Also note the dom7b5 is the only chord that can function in the whole-tone system
and the diminished system.
Unlike tbe whole-tone scale, the diminished scale offers many different dominant chord types with very few
reappearing under a new chord type. The following will att~mpt to organize the various dominant tension
combinations and their related symmetrical substitutions over four-note structures.
Single tension combinations;
1) C7b5;

(13 bs b7] = Eb 13(alt9) (5 b9 #9 13] = F#7b5 [l 3 b5 b7J = Al3(alt9) [5 b9 #9 13]


C7(#11);

[3 ~ b7,11] = ~b7(alt9) [3 5 ~9 #~] = F#7(b9) (1 3 ~7 b9J = Al3(b9) (5 b7 ~913)


[1 ,:, b7 11] reJer to Eb 7( # 11) unoer C13(alt9) [b 7 ~9 ~9 13]
[13~7 11] refer to C7b5
#
1

[1 3 S 11] refer to A(# 11) under C13(alt9) (3 b9 #9 13]


2) C7(~9);

[3 5 b7 b9] = Eb 7(b9) = F#7(b9) =A7( b9)


(1 3 b7 ~9] refer to F~7 ( b9) under C7(#11)
[15 b7 b9] refer to E~7( b9) under C7(alt9)
[1 3 5 b9] refer to Eb(b9) under C7(#9)
3) C7(#9);

[35~719) =E b (b9)_[13 5~91 =F~ 13(b9) [3 b7b9 l3J =A7(# 111~9) [5b7b9#ll]
[13 ~7 9] refer to Ff7C#9J under Cl3(#11)
[1 5 b7 9] refer to Et>7( #9) under C7( #1llalt9) [b7 b9 #9 #11]
[1 3 S #9] refer to F#C#9) under C13(#11Jb9) [b7 b9 #1113]
4) Cl3;

[13 b7 13] = E b 13(#. l I/b9) [5b9#11 13] = F#7C#91b5) [3 b5 b7 #9] = A7(alt9) [1 5 b9 #9]
[3 5 b7 13] refer to F ~ 13 under C7(alt9)
[15 b7 13] refer to F~ 13 under C7(#11Jalt9) [3 b9 #9
#11]
[13513] refer to F# 13 under C7(#11Jalt9) [b7 b9 #9 #11)

157
Two tension combinations;
5) C7(# 11/b9);
[3 b7 b9 #HJ = Eb7(alt9) [5 b7 b9 #9) = F# 7 [l 3 5 b7] = A13(b9) [3 5 b9 13)
[1b7 b9 ·#llJ refer to Eb 7(# I llb9) under C13(alt9) [3 b9 #9 13]
[5 ~ 7 b9 #HJ refer to A7(# I llb9) under C7(#9)
[1 3 b9 #HJ refer to A 7(# 1 llb9) under C13(alt9) [b7 b9 #9 13J
[1 5 b9 #HJ refer to Eb 7(# l llb9) or A7(# ll/b9) under C13(#9)
[3 5 b9 #llJ refer to A7(# 1 l/b9) under C7(alt9)

6) C7(# 111#9);

[3 ,5 #9 #HJ = Eb 7(alt9) [l 3 b9 #9J = F# 13(b 9) [1 b7 b9 13J = Al3(# 11) [5b7#11 13J


[3 ~7 #9 #HJ refer to F~7(#91b 5) under C13
[1 b7 #9 #HJ refer to Eb7(# 111#9) under C13(#1llalt9)
[5 b7 #9
#'11] refer to E b7(# 111#9) under C13(#1llb9) [b7 b9 #1113]
[13 #9 #111 refer tO A7(# 111#9) under C13(alt9) [1 b9 #913]
[1 5 #9 #HJ refer to F#iC# I ll#9) under C13(#1llb9) fl b9 #1113)
7) C13(#11);
[3b7#1113] = Eb7(#11/alt9) [5b9#9#1I J= F#7(#9) [1 3b7#9J =A13(b9) [15b913]
[1 b7 #1113} refer to Eb 13( # 11) under C13(alt9) [1 b9 #9 13)
[13 #1113] refer to Al3(# 11) under C13(#1llalt9)
[15 #1113] refer to F#BC# 11) under C7(#1llalt9) [1 b9 #9 #11]
[3 5 #1113] refer to Al3(# 11) under C7(#lllalt9) (3 b9 #9 #111
[5 b7 #1113) refer to Al3(# 11) under C7(#111#9)
8) C13(b9);

[3 b7 b9 13) refer to F# 13(b9) under C7(#9)


[1b7 b9 13J refer toF# 13( b9) under C7(#111#9)
(5 b7 b9 13J refer to A13(b9) under C7(#11)
[13 b9 13] refer to A13(b9) under C13(#111b9) [b7 b9 #1113]
(15 b9 13] refer to Al3(b9) .under C13(#11)
(3 5 b9 13J refer to Al3(b9) under C7(# 111b9)

'.! ! C13(#.9);
[3b7#913] =Eb7(#lllb9) [l 5h9#11J=F#13(#9) [3b7#913J = A7(#1llb9) ll 5b9#11]
[1h7 ~9 13) refer to Eh 13(#9) under C7(~11ialt9) [1 b9 #9 #11)
[5 ~ 7 #913] refer to F# 13(#9) under C13(alt9) [3 b9 #9 13]
(13 #9 13) refer to A13(#9) under C13(#1llb9) [1 b9 #1113]
[15 j 9 13] refer to Ftl 13(#9) under C13(#1llalt9)
[3 5 #9 13] refe r to Ff 13(#9) under C13(alt9) rh7h9 #9 13]
10) C7(alt9);

[3h7 h9#9J =Eb7(b9) [I 5b 7b 9J =F#13 [3 5b713) = A7(~lllb9) [3 5b9#11]


fl b7 b9 ti.9J refer to Eb 7(alt9) under C7(~11/alt9) (3 b9 #9 f111 ·
[5 h7 b9 #9J refer to Eb 7(alt9) under C7(#1llb9)
[1 3 b9 #9J refer to Eb7(alt9) under C 7( #111#9)
[1 5 b9 #9] refer to A7(alt9) under C13
[3 5 b9 #9] refer w Eb7(alt9) under C7( #11)

158
Three tension combinations;

11) C7(#11Jalt9); ~

# #
[ b7 b9 #9 #11] = E b7 ( #9) [ 1 5 b7 9] {E b-7 } = F# 13 [ 1 3 5 13 J {F#6 } = A 13 ( #11 I b9) [3 b9 11 13]
[3 b919 #11] = Eb 7(alt9)[1b7 b9 #9] =Fi 13 [1 5 b7 13] = A.13(# 11) [35 # 11 13] {A6(# 11)}
[lb9 9i11J=E~13(#9)[~b7 # 913]=F,1 3 (#11) [15#1113] {F#6(#11)} =Al3(#111#9) [3#9#1113]
[5 b9 9 #HJ refer to Eb7( # ll/alt9) under C13(#11)
12) C13(alt9);
[3 !,9 #9 13] = Eb 7(# 11/b9) [l b7b9#11] = F#, 13(#9) [5 b7 #9 13] =A(# 11) [l 3 5 #11]
[b 7 b9 #9 13] = Eb 7(! 11) [l 5 b7 # il J = F~ 13(f, 9:' [3 5 #9 13) =A7(# 1 l/b9) [ 1 3 b9#11]
[1 b9 #9 13] = Eb13(i 11) [1 b7#11 13] = F# 13(# 111#9) [5#9#11 13] = A7(#111#9) [13 #9#11]
[5 b9 #9 13] refer to Eb 13(alt9) under C7b5

13) C13C#lllb9);

[lb9#1113] =Eb13(#1llt9) [b7#9#Il 13] =F#7(# 111#9) [l 5~9#11. J=Al3,(~ 9) [1 3#913]


[b7 !,9 #1113] = Eb7(# 11/~9) [5 p7 #9 #11 ] = F#(~9) [I 3 5 #9J = A 13(p9) [13~913]
[5 !,9 #1113] refer to Eb13(# 1 l /b9) under C13
[3 b9 #1113) refer to Al3(# 11/b9) under C7( #1llalt9) [b7 b9#9 #11]

14) C13(#111#9);

[3 #9 #1113] refer to A13(# 111#9) under C7(#1llalt9) [1 b9 #9 #11]


[5 #9 #1113] refer to F# 13(# 111#9) under C13(alt9) [1 l,9 #9 13]
[b7 #9 #1113] refer to Eb 13(#111#9) under C13(#11Jb9) [1 b9 #1113]
(1 #9 #1113] is enharmonically the same as C0 7; 1 b3(#9) b5(# 11) b b7(13), therefore C13(# 111#9) =
Eb 13(# 111#9) = F#
13(# 111#9) = A13(# 111#9).
Four tension combinations;

15) C13(#1llalt9);
[b9#9#11131 =Eb7(#111 ~ 9) [l b7#9#11] {Eb-7 b5 } =F#13(#9) [15#913] {F#-6 } =
Al3(# 11) (13 #11 13~ {A6 b5 )
Note, with the exclusion of the dom7 b9 and the domlJ(# 111#9), the symmetrical Sub V chords in the dom7 b5 and
dom13<li9) chords;
"
C7b5=F#7b5 .............................. Eb13(alt9) = Al3(alt9)
C13(#9) ~ F# 13(#9) ......................Eb 7(# 11/~9) = A7(# 1 llb9)

Also note those incomplete voicings 1bat contain dual functions;

Under C7(#1llalt9);

E~ 7(#9) [ 1 5 ~ 7 #9] =Eb -7


F# 13 [ I 3 5 13]_ = F~ 6
Al3(# 11)[35# 11 13] = A6(# 11)
E b13(#9) [1 b7 ~ 9 13J = E~-7(1 3) {Modal Dorian}
F#I3( #11) [15 ~ 1113] =F#6C # ll )
Under C13(alt9);

F# 13(#9) [5 b7 #9 13] = F.#-7(13) {Modal Dorian}


A ( #11 ) [ l 3 5 #11 ] = A7 ( #11 J or Arnaj 7( ~ 11)

Under C13(# 111#9); [1#9#11 13] = C0 7

Under C13(# ll/aJt9); Eb 7( # 111# 9) = Eb -7b 5 A 13(# 11) = A6b5

159
The following II - V - I examples will present a single voicing in all of its relative symmetrical dominant functions.
1) Whole-tone (dom7 b5):

D-7 Gn 5 Cmaj7 E-7(9) A9(#5) D6(9) F#-7(11) B9Calt5) E6(9)


~
..0. ..0. ..a. ..a. -& ..0. ..0. ..0.

~~ I! ~! II &~ II

' Ab-7(11) Db7b5 Gbmaj7 Bb -7(9) Eb9(#5) Abmaj7(9) c...,


- / F9(alt5) Bb6
b.o.. -& .0.. b..a. b.o. b.o. b..a.
Ii &! II II

~) Diminished {doml3(b9)};

F6 (~11/ 9 } A:i maj7(9/ 6)


E -9 A13(b 9) Dmaj9 G-9 C7(P.11/b 9i B l1-9 E:;i7 ( ~9) n7sus4 F~ 7(b 9 ) B6(9 ~

!
~

~m
..a.

~- i~
..0. 0..0. ,µ..O.
~;
-&
~e~
11&1 II II ;J~ l+j2

' Db7(U l /b 9)
F-9 Bb13(~9) E bmaj7b5 Ab-7b5 Gb-6 B-7b5(b 13)
El3(~ 9 ) G7(Ul/b 9)
A-maj7(6) D-7( 11) C-6(9)
bo l

~ ~~~ 1:~
120
',#~ II B .,#~ b~~
0 0 0

I! II 231
The following II - V - I examples wW move one voicing symmetrically , "constant structure harmonic motion." over
a ~ ingle dominant chord.
J) Whole-t0ne (dom7#5);
D-7(11 ) D-9 G9rn5 1 G9(b5 i G9(alt5 ) G7#5 C6(9)
(B7~ 5 ) <CP:.5 ' (F7 ~ 5 · (G7;5 l

~~
I
II
I ;fG
~: .~! I
0
I .... >

c;::-
'

~fr ~t..o'
Q
I I
I ti!
'
2) Diminished {doml3(~9)};
A7sus4 A-9 Gmaj7

()

·· ~ I I

160
Chapter Twenty-Three.
Altered Dominant .,..
As was presented earlier in the Dominant Substitute V Chord chapter, altered or "alt" on a dominant chord refers
to the fifth and ninth being flatted and raised; ( b5, #5) and (b9, #9) . Adding the root and guide tones to these altered
notes produces an ''altered" scale or seventh mode of the "real" or "jazz" melodic minor scale;

b2 #2 3 bs #S [,7 8
(b9) <# 9) (#11) (b13)

Observing the altered dominant scale fror- its Sub V shows a "natural" dominant scale, (or "Mixolydian" mode),
with# 11. This scale is often referred to as the "Lydian b7" scale or fourth mode of the "Jazz" melodic minor scale;

C Melodic Minor.. ................. C D Eb F G A B c


F Lydian b7 ......................... ... 5 6 ~7 1 2 3 #4 5
B Alrered................................ b2 #2 3 ~5 #S b7 l l,2

Tension #9(#2) and~ 5 (sometimes referred to as I, 13) appear to be the most "characteristic" altered chord tones or
tensjons since they are al~o tensions 9(2l and 13(6) on their relative Sub V chord.
The following lists the different dominant chords and tension combinations that have been presented and could be
used as "altered" chords;

1) Basic 7th chords; dom7#5 dom7b5

2) Single tension chapters;

Tension 9; dom7#5(b9) dom7b5( b9) dom7#5(#9) dom7b5(#9)


Tension 11; dom7#5(# 11) or dom7~alt5)
3) Two tension chapters;

Tensions 9 & 13; dom_7b5(~ l3/b9) or (~9/alt5) dom7b5(b131#9) or C#91alt5)

4) Altered 9th Tensions on Dom7th Chords;

dom7(alt9/no5) <.iom7b5(alt9) dom7#5(alt9) dom7(alt9/alt5)

The altered dominant contains a unique and characteristic property in the placement of parallel voicings a whole-
step apart on the b5th and #5th of the original altered chord. By placing either major triads, dom7ths, or dom9th
chords on these notes, an altered "upper-structure" sound is produced;

G7(alt); (b5th) - Db , Db7, or Db9 (#5th) - Eb , Eb7, or Eb9

Realize each chords relation. to the original aitered chord ;

Db .......... . 1 3 5 9 Eb ........ 1 3 9
G7(alt) .... . bs l,7 b9 #5 G7(alt) .. #5 1 ~7

Note the sixteen different dom9th voicings produced by using all four "drop 2" [3 5 b7 9) and all four "ninth (no
5)" [1 3 b7 9] chord inversions on both Db9 and Eb9.
Two additional structures, major(add9) and dom9(no3 ), can be placed on the b5th and #Sth of an altered chord as
well. These structures could be viewed from perhaps a more familiar enharmonic root;

Dh add9) =F-7# 5 E b(add9) =G-7# 5 Db9(no3) =B6(9) [1 3 6 9] Eb9(no3) =D~6(9) [l 3 6 9]


RootrelationtoGaltered; bVII-7#5 I-7#5 III6(9) bV6(9)
"""'
161
Notice three of the above voicings have rhree alrered tensions while G-7 #5 has two. Also note G-7 #5 and Db 6(9)
contai n the " charncre ristic" #5 and # 9 altered tensions. while F-7 n5 a nd B6(9) h<.~ve the same three tensions; (b5,
~ 5. and b9).
G-7 #5: G F D b6(9): Db
G7(alt) ..... ... ..... .. . I b7 ................................ . bs

F-7P: F Eh B6(9); B
G7Calt) .. ........... . b7 #5 ................................. . 3

Additional 110H-sym111e1rical structures built off the b5th and# 5th of the dominant altered could include the triad plus
any remaining altered notes:

(G alt1: Db6[1356] Eb(add4) [I 3 4 5] Eb(b 13) [1 3 5b13]


These 1riads could place their additional notes in the bottom voice producing some interesting hybrid structures that
could be used as G altered voicings:

Db/G DbJBb CBb-7 ) Eb/B


* Bottom voice should not violate L.I.L. for G altered.

l\otice the B note i~ the o nly non-triadic note for both Db and Eb triads . T his note mig ht function as an interesting
pedal under these two triads: Db/B - Eb/B.

The foJlowing examples combine the altered upper-structure concepts introduced here with past altered voicings;

J) (D-7 )-- - - -- - - - - - -- CG7altered )- -· - -- - - - -- - - - -- - (C l


D9sus4 F6(9) D:19 B~ 7sus4 E~9 B6(9 J C(add9)
~ o.a:.
:&'-" M
§ j110i! :z;g b! g~ I ·f ]
') I
-1 (G7altered l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - CC;
E ti9 D::i6(9 J Do9 B6,(9) Cmaj7(9)

I§ II

<G7al t.ered l - - - - - - - - - - (C)


D :i7 D ~6 ( 9 • F-7z5 Bo7sus4 Cmaj7(91
Oi9-
~q: - 'lg
:w -~
'-'
I
J ~ ?
"' 11
o~ I)!$'
~ I
4) <G7al t.)- - - - <G7al t)- - - - -
D-9 Eb9 D::i 9 Cmaj7 D-9 Db9 E\>9 Cmaj?
o.a
n I 0--S- .0.

q)
!5L-;~ I -e-~ Ii ¥ !'iz~ ~1 Ig II

162
The following alrered voicings include some "constant structure motion" ideas;

I) (D-9) (G7alt1- - - -(Cmaj7(#11/ 9 ))


C6(9) B6(9) D?6(9 J D6(9)
I !

2) (D-7(11/9;) (G7a1t) - - - - (CC13/ ~11/9 )


E-7f5 G -7~5 F -ns F#-7~5

3) (C-7(11 )1 (F7aJtL - - - - (B~ (add9))


G-7f5 F-7~5 E?-7}5 D-7~5

II
, I
Chapter Twenty-Four.
Approach Voicings
Three basic approach techniques, referred to as "diatonic," "chromatic," and "dominant," can be applied to voicings
that are used to introduce established chords.

Diatonic approach voicings are relative to the key or mode of the moment, and usually resolve to the chord being
approached by diatonic step. These voicings can often be viewed as diatonic extensions of the previous voicing,
(displayed in the followin g example).

(C-7) - - - - - - - - - ·- - - (F7)
C-7(11) D-7( 11) F7(13/9)
l I

Domiilanr approach uses voicings that have a dominant reiation to the chord being approached;
(C-7 I - - - - - -- - - - - - (F7 J
C-7(9) C7(b9} Fl3(h9)

l[i II
Chromatic approach uses voicings that are the same as the chord being approached, a half-step above or belo\1: that
chord. This could be considered chromatic "constant structure" mat:ion.
<C-7) - - - - - - - - - - - - (F?)
C-7(11) E13 or Gb 13 F 13

~i g.tf !~~
'
~
~r:~ l
Note the above G~ i 3 cnora could ai~o be conswercd a dommanr <t?proach voicing . Cnromauc approacn vo1cmg:-
have additional possibilities that will be examined iater in this chapter.

As noted above, approach voicings can often ha\'e 1wo and. in rare cases, three approach funcrio ns in one ,·01cing:

"Chromatic" and "dominant" approach functions in one voicing;


<G7) - - - - - - - - - - - - f C )
G7(;,S G7;;5(a1t9; C6(9 )

II

Note the above approach voicing could also have :in addirional "diatonic., function; (diatonic to G ahered scale).

-
164
"Dominant" and "diatonic" approach functions in one voicing;
(F7) - - - - - - - - - - - - (Bb )
F9 F7(13/9) Bb6(9)

br ~~ i II

'
!
I
I

"Diatonic" and "chromatic" approach functions in one voicing;


(C-7) - - - - - - - - - (F7)- - - - - - - -
C-7(11) D-7(11) F7#5(alt9) F7rn9)

~'..&l·i..;-
.:.- , 1 -----f'.~,._ '-----il~1f+"'--·_____.hf__"r - 1
The usual and perhaps most effective piacement of an approach voicing is on the weak area of the harmonic rhythm
where traditional rules such as "Low Interval Limits'·, can more easily be violated. In the previous examples, the
approach voicing was placed on the weak half of the measure; beats 3 & 4.

Some of the most effective uses of approach voicings are found in "stagnant" harmonic situations. Here, the
harmonic color and variety these approach techniques offer can enhance an existing "basic'' progressjon or vamp.

In the following chord progression, which was taken from a common "standard" tune, each chord receives the
duration of eight beats, producing a somewhat stagnant harmonic situation. By the addition of approach voicings,
the progression receives more hannonic variety and motion. The original chords are in parenthesis.
-
(G7#5) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (C-7 ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

,,
G7(#9) Ab13 G7#5 D~-7(9) C-7(9) D-7(11) C-7(11 ) G9
'

~ ~ Jti··
I

j i~ jili~ 19~iI ~ I
''
I 4
~
(Ab7) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (Bbmaj7) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (E-7b5 .l
Ab9 D7(±:!> Ab7( U ~ 1 F ?( ;it,1; bt?maj7 E 11maji Bb6<9i Df.-7b 5 E -7b 5

~&t! i~ li·t~ "!~ l&j ~&f--i-1---~-1---~~-IHH9-&~-


The following is an example of using only chromatic approach voicings on the beginning of the same '·standard··
tune.

(Bb7) - - - - - - - - - - - - CE~maj7)
B b7(13/9) E6(9) Eb6(9)

~@:~
i I r I '-'
165
Many different voicings could chromatically approach a single chord when the various combinations of above and
below half-step resolutions to that chord are considered. In fact, considering all possible chromatic resolutions to
a four-note structure produces fourteen different available approach voicings to that structure, although some will
be omitted due to ~9th intervals. doublings, and awkward f~ngerings.
In examining these fourteen approach voicings, we see there are four possible combinations of three half-steps
ascending and one descending, six combinations of two half-steps ascending and two half-steps descending, and four
combinations of one half-step ascending and three descending.
The following examples display nine different chromatic approach voicings to the "drop 2" root inversion Cmaj7
chord. The remaining five approach voicings were omitted due to~9th intervals, doublings, or awkward fingerings.

1) Three half-steps ascending and one descending;


Bmaj7(#11) Cmaj7 Bmaj7(6) Cmaj7 D ~-7 Cmaj7

~#~~u
(?)
~
-&
II ~=i~I
u
~G
-&
11~#~8
' if&
®
t)-0-
II
2) Two half-steps ascending and two descending;
E~ 7sus4 Cmaj7 Gb6(#11) Cmaj7 Gbmaj7 Cmaj7

§:"b~
'

~~~~. 11k;w ~fl lls?i ~5~ IJ


-& .a. -e-

3) One half-step ascending and three descending;


Ab / Db Cmaj7 G~ maj7(~11 ) Cmaj7 D b6 Cmaj7

41.~~ ~9-e- II ~i ~9
-& ""?? µ-;
-&
II

The following exercises harmonize the chromatic scale. (ascending and descending), with a Cmaj7 type chord. while
the non-diatonic notes receive chromatic approach voicings.
1 \ Ascending chromatic lin ~:

2) Descending chromatic line;

Crnaj7(9/6) Ab7sus4 C6(9) Cmaj7(~11) G~maj7'.,5 Cmaj 7(6 • E b7sus4 C6(9) C(#ll)
..a. b.o.
§i .9).l>e-
0.0.

!f rr!
-&
~;
' t 111,!! 9§ §~s \~§
Gt>maj7 Cmaj7 G7(#9/#5)
I
Cmaj7(9) B6(9) c
I};;
# ;
u l 'iS ~9i

166
Chromatic approach voicings could also involve one common tone while the remaining three tones resolve in various
chromatic combinations. Thirtv-two potential approach voicings can be produced from these combinations! While
one note remains common; four different chromatic approach voicings are produced by three ascending half-steps,
four more voicings produced by three descending half-steps, !\velve more voicings proC:uccd by two ascending and
one descending half-steps, and twelve more by two descending and one ascending half-steps. Of course ~9th
intervals, doublings, and awkward fingerings will omit quite a few voicings, (although some doublings will be
occasionally used).
The following examples display twenty-four of these chromatic approach voicings, (with some doublings), to the
drop 2 , root inversion, Cmaj7 chord. Common ronc&will be darkened for reference.

1) Three half-steps ascending ;


B-maj7(11) Cmaj7 B Cmaj7 Bmaj7#5 Cmaj7 c-ns Cmaj7

@fi ;
-e-
llt~~ U'
s
-&
1 #f~ 1
U'
~
-e-
I

11~~~
~
§i~
-e.-
II

2) Three half-steps descending;


Db-maj7 Cmaj7 Db7 Cmaj7 Dbmaj7b5 Cmaj7 Fm Cmaj7

4~2 ;
-e- I \? ~
-e-
Ii
&*
D
t).
Ii 1l8

~
-<>-
=ii
3) Two half-steps descending and one ascending;
Db-6 Cmaj7 Gb7(#11) Cmaj7 D b9(n o3) Crnaj7 Gb-maj7(11) Cm aj7

'"·~?
I

§s
-e-
II ~~g §8
-&
1 1i§[? 98
-&
11~vi ~2
-&
II
G-7b5 Crnaj7 Eb13 Cmaj7 Ab6(9) Cmaj7 Ab/C Cm aj7

~t! .. ..
1

..
I

§~ II~~ q~ l 1z~~ !~ 111;'11 ~~ II


-e- 0 -e- 4i>-

4 l Two half-st:eos
- ascending
- and one descendin£: ~

F#7 Cmaj7 BC~ll J Cmaj':' D#.- ,.,)J


( ,,0. Cmaj? G~m/ B Cmaj7

~;:~ii
4L·;-a- q-&
; I ~~ u
~
-e-
II =1~
. ::-s- q-e-
~ 11 ~1
u
6g-e;.. Ii
Eb7 Cmaj7 F~maj7b5 Cmaj7 C-7#5 Cmaj7 cc Cmaj7

;f&[! ' '

r~
-e-
i ;~~ ' -0-
~
'fir
- ii ~;z:~
-0-
a~~ 11~:~~
. -<>-
~ II
'°' -0-

167
Two or three common tones in chromatic approach voicings are possible, but begin to destroy the "approach" quality
of these voicings. Some of these voicings will be explored along with additional concepts in the Chromatic Guide-
lines chapter.
The following example uses the three chromatic-one common cone approach voicings on the beginning of a
"standard" chord progression;

(A 7 ) _ _ -· _ _ _ _ (C- 7)_ _ ____ _ _ (F7L ____ _ _


(E-7b5)_ ___ _ _
A7(#9/#5) C # 7(~9 l C-7( 11) Dmaj7 F13 A6(# 11)
E-7b5 B ~9(#5)

t~ I~ ~ \&bi d
CF-7}__ _ __ _ _ (Bb 7) __ _ _ _ _ (E C, maj7) _ _ _ _ (Ab7)_ _ _ __ _ (BPmaj7)
Bb13 Gb/Ab E b6(9 l A7~5 Ab 13 E!i -7(9) B b6(9)
F-7(9J Eb7(#9)

~~ ~~!

The following is an example of a backward cycle-five chord progression that could be considered a chain of
chromatic and dominant approach chords with one lead common tone;

A13 D7(#9) G7(13/9) C13<#9J B9 E9<#5) A7(13/9J


fr fr ~

I.... -
~
19-
;i6 ___u
i 1=:- Ii

168
The following "F Blues" uses a variety of chromatic approach chords with the emphasis again on a lead common
tone. Voicings not fuily notated are drop 2 type voicings;

Fl3 Bb7(#9) Fl3 B9 Bti 9(13) B9(#5) C9 E9(13) F13 Bb7(#9) E b9(13) Bb7(#9)

f r 1r------'-r_ __._r-----+~r-1~-+-~r-----l-r---+:---+r--I
F13 E9(13) F9(13) B9 Bb9 A9(#5) Ab9(13) A9(#5) B?9 B9 Bb9(13) F~9

~ f tf r #•
1¥ : r r 1: #r e
~!··1
F7 E7sus4 Eb7C#ll) E b 7(~9 ) G-7(11 )
I
b..e.. b.c. o..a. b..a.
;
I

I ~#jii~ b!:§
·~
II I

C7(#9/#5) B13(#9) F13 Eb9 D7(#9) Ab-6 G-7 Db7 C7sus4 Gb13
Db7(#9) C7(#91#5)

t~ i~ r \~
~ #r #r #r #r 1 r
9
If f r !, II

F13

* 'i II

169
Chapter Twenty-Five.
Fourth Voicings
There are five b asic fourth-type voicings available to the middle four srrjngs of the guitar. The following will list
each voicing as well as the initial chord type to first introduced it. Additional enharmonic chordal uses for each
voicing can be fo und in the appropriate Enharmonic Chor dal Substitution chapter containing these chords.

l) C. .. 4th ..... F ........ 4th ..... BL.... 4th ..... E~ (perfect fourths) {F7sus4}
2) C.. #4th ..... F #· ···· 4th ..... B .. ..... 4th ..... E (one tritone) {Cmaj7~5}
3) C ... 4th ..... F.... #4th .....B ....... 4th..... E (one tritone) {Fmaj7 (~ 11)}

4) C ... 4th ..... F ........ 4th..... B ~ . .. #4th..... E (one trjtone) {F-maj7(1 l)}

5) C.. #4th ..... F tt ........ 4th ..... B...... ~4th.....Eff (two tritones) {Dl3(#9) or Ab 13Ctt9)}
Of course different inversions of the above chords are available. but do not contain
all fourth intervals as do the specific inversions listed.

When all or most of the voicings used in a comping situation are fourth voicings, a contemporary and sometimes
.. modal'· sound is produced. It is also comm on to find a good deal of chromatic and diaronic approach chords using
fourth type voicings in this conrem9orary environmenl. Occasional fourth voicings can and do appear in many
different styles. bur a contemporary ··quarntl" sound can only be produced by using many fourth voicmgs. Fourth
voicings can be found in " modal" or ''diatonic" situations, and each requires a different approach.

Modal music, where many fourth voicings are commonly found , does riot contain the traditional "avoid" or weak
notes that are commonly fo und in diatonic harmonies. In fact, many of the avoid notes in diatonic harmonies are the
desired "characteristic" notes in modal music. The incomple te or ambiguous nature of fourth voicings seem to
enhance this modal sound. It is certainly easier to play many different fourth voicings in a modal situation. where
~voicing is available, than it is in a diatonic situation where voicings that contain avoid noces should be omitted
or placed on weak harmonic rhythms. Of course in many diatonic situations there are places where the harmony can
be stagnant. allowing for a temporary modal approach to those harmonies.

When trying ro make the majority of voicings in a Diatonic situation fourth-type voicings. a difficult irony is
produced by the need for !lliillY voicings cc clarify harmonic function. (often two o r more incompietc rounh voicing"
are needed to clarify one chords function), and a consequent reduction in voicings due to diatonic avoid notes. Often
a compromise between these two proi:>!en:s 1s needed ro ham1omz.c. ..changes.. \vith fourth type voicing~. Perhaos
the .. need·· for harmonic cmrificarion 111 diatonic progress1om could De reducea and .. avoid. notes· could oe acceprcd
more often .

The following will examine fourth voicings oy diaconicall:: moving them through specific sca1es nnd determrning
their modal and applicable diatonic use.:. .

MAJOR SCALE
Modallv, all seven of the fourth voicings produced here will be arnilao1e to any one of foe seven maj or scale modes.

Fourth vo1cmgs in C major scale . (or any of ns seven relative n.odes 1;

-n -& ..0. -e- .£!..


-e-
~
e
g § g ~ ~ jj

Nole that four of the five basic fourth-rype voicings originally preseQted are contained in the major scale.

170
A unique and contemporary chord symbol notation depiciing the different modes has recently evolved and appears
quite different from traditional chord symbol notation since many of the characteristic modal tensions are "avoid
notes" in traditional harmony. The following modal chord symbols are not uncommon in today's music.

Ionian; m aj(add4)
Dorian; rninl3 or min7(13 )
Phrygian: min6 9) or sus4(b 9) or min(l lib 9)
Lydian: maj7(# 11)
M ixolvdian; dom7(addl I) or dom7(add4)
Aeolian: min( add b13)
Locrim;: min7b 5(b 9l

Descriptive modal chord symbols haYe also become quite common:

C (lydian) = Cmaj7(# 11) and possible tensions 9 and 13(6)


C (dorian) = C-7(13) and possible tensions 9 and 1J
C (phrygian) = Cno3rd( I lib 9) or Cmin(b 9) und possible tensions 11 and~ 13
C (aeolian) = Cmin(add bi3) and possible tensions') and 11

These symbols which are most common in modal mu.sic have also found there way into diatonic tune s, modifying
many of the basic harmonic func rions by rhe use of traditional av0id noles . Contemporary diawnic runes ofrcn
coma.in modal approaches to some or all of their hannonies. his nor uncommon to find a TI-7( l 3), V7(addl l l. or
r·-n scb9) chord in today's diatonic nrogre ssions. Although these chords can involve many difforem types of
voicings. fourth voicings still play a major role in supporting their "modal'' sounds.

lts worth noting at this time that the dorian mocie is the relarive rninor of the lydian mode, allowing past maj7 (~ 11 )
and maj6(# 11) voicings (with or withour available tensions 9 and 13) to function as dorian voicings. As an example ,
Cmaj7(# 11) [ l 5 7# 11 ) = A-7(13/9) [b 3 ~7 913].

T he following wili examine o ne of the fourth voici!lgs established in "C major.. and apply some of the relatiYe modes
and consequent chord notations.

Fourth voicing: G ..... C ..... F ...... H

l ) D dorian........... ... .... ..... ..... 11.. .. . b7 ...... b3 ...... 13 ...... D-7(13/9)
::'.iEphrygian ............ ............ ~=1 ..... ~ 13 .. ... b9 ....... 5 ...... Em(b 13/~9 )
3) F lydian ... ..... ...... .......... ..... ':! .. ..... . 5 .. ...... ! ..... tll ..... F(~ll/9)
4 ) G mixolydian .................... 1..... . 11...... b7 .. ..... J ....... G7 1add 11 j
51 A aeolian ............... ......... .. ~ : ..... . !) 3..... b13 ....... 9 ........ A-7(~ 13/9)
a
6) 10cri<!l! ............................ ~ := ···· v ~ ... b: ........ 1 ....... R-7 i·~:',.~13/bQ

Addirion3l dominant possibilnies of above voicinf:

G7( add 1 i ) - G mixolvdianh 91~ B (C harmonic minor!


B7(b9/alt5J . E7(b J~/alt9 J
::.:~<lwnic
applicauons of fourth voicmgs usually involves finding one or mo re "safe'· voicings. <no aYoia noces and
c:1ear harmonic function ). to begin and en.:i with whiie the mncr voicings conraining uYoid nores anci rncomol~~::
strucrures are used in between. It is aiso common to find "chromatic ap!Jroach .. voicings and/0r ·· s~·:nmemcal
- ..._ \,:.. ,,·iii !:res::'nt som::
constant struclUre .. \'Oicm2s in 1.1crween or lillhlTI£ mese · · s~:L-- · voicins:c;. The follo wm!l ex:i.m.o1:!S ~

of these diatonic ideas with fo~1 rth voicings over typical II - \ · - l chord cadences

171
This first example uses~ diatonic fourth voicings in the key of "C ",ending on C lydian.
D-7_ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ __ _ ___ G7 __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _
Cmaj7

@ ~ f ~ 1
'
This next example introduces chromatic approach voicings to the diatonic fourth voicings.
F ~ II

D-7_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - G7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Cmaj7

~~ -f ___,_~ ~-: : t. .1- 'i9- f,._-- _-_ -=: . ,.·.,ll:--


.-._=~.i---===-:=::.::=:....:..-
----'-
"-r-t..--f 1.. __-_-_-_ ---H---111

The following examples will examine symmetrical constant structure fourth voicings in different II VI situations.
Some of these examples will present a major7th n0te on a dom7 chord; a very unique and contemporary sound.

# I 1 Whole-steps;
b) D-7 __ __ _ _ G7 _ _ __ _
c) D-7 _ _ _ _ _ _ G7_ _ __ _
Cm aj7 I Cmaj7
~ .g . I I
~
~ ~
ba !:.~ ; ~--!--!F.l....,_---till

c) D-7_ _ _ _ _ _ _ G7 _____ _ _ Cmaj 7 (Lydian)_ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _


b.a. b-e-
z
-&

~F
I 1>

Ii I
I
#e
I
II

#2 ) Symmetrical diminished, \whole-half-whole-half):

b l D- ':° _ _ _ ·- _ _ _ _ _ 07 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ·- -
.a.

~
• , p...

i~iI
-19-
~
t±I: ·/[ 9~e II

' •
it
:j
I
I
'I
t

#3 ) Minor thirds; B- 7___ _ _ _ _ __ E7_ _ _ __ _ _ __ 'Amaj7


a I
...a..

~
1T if"'9-

~;
I

:;~
l'''f i
172
The major scaie modes also have some aitered dominant possibilities that can be examined. There are four major
scales; E b, Ab, D~ , and Gb, which produce altered dominant tensions on a G7 chord. The following will.
ennarmonically realize the notes of each major scale in relation to the G7 chord.

Eb major scale (G phrygian) .. G A~ Bb c D Eb F


G7 chord ................. ................ l ~9 it9 4 .:::.
_, b13 b7
"
A~ Bb D~
A b major scale (G locrian) .....G
G7 chord ................................. l j,o #9
C'
A Ip ,)-
Eb
~5
.',.,
F
'V I
"'
Db m~jor scale ........................ Gb Ab B~ c Db E~ F
G7 chord ................................. 7 b9 #9 4 ~5 4-
it) ~7
Gb major scale ......... ., .............G ~ A~ B~ Cb Db E~ F
G7 chord ....................... .......... 7 b9 #9 ....
.) bS #5 I
I> 7

Note the porentiai probiems wi th A l7 and D~ maj or :-;ca1es. The lith and b5tb in the same
voicing strongly suggest a min7 ~ 5 chord. and the l lth and natural 7rh produce dominant
guide-tones a half-step above the original gujde- tones.

1 he fo liowing lists those fourth voicings rhar are in common wiih more than one of tbe above major scales. Of speci al
note is the B D-7sus4 or F-7( 11 ) voicing which is in common with all four scales.

Db and G~ major scales share the voicing: Ab7sus4 [Eb, Ab, D~, G~]
Eb and Ab major scales share the voicing: C7sus4 [G, C,F, B~]
A~, D~, and G~ major scales share the voicing; Eb 7sus4 [B~, E~ , Ak D~]
Eb , Ab. and Db major scales share the voicing; F7sus4 [C, F. Bb, Eb ]
Eb , Ab , Db , and G~ major scales share the voicing; B b7sus4 [F. Bb , E b. Ab ]

The following II V I examples \Vill examine all four aitered dominant sounds presented.

i l E:J major (G phrygian j:

(N ore the following D-7 voicinf!s are the same as those VClicing.:: under G'7 rransposed un a minor third'
G7CS ~ n:a::or sea~~. _ _ _____ _
D- 7 __ _
G7(~ 13/17 Si G7sus 4 G7(b l 3/ a lt9 1
~
·
: V~·!~~--
$'---~~·~-.--Ja
~·- -~----
~ ~~~~~~~--,-
j I~
~~~-====7-.===========~~======-:::~~------~-------~~'.-.:.:;~::.===========~€-.~---_-_-_-_-~:,~~~:-;__.-::.::.::.::.::.::.~1::.·~::.===-=--=--=--=--=-=====~
~
~
·---~~--~~-,--~-~
..... l 'r'l-V~----~- .... _ __ _L.._ _ _ ~~r-----~-~I
-:;

2 ) Ai} m ajor (G Jocrian~ :


D- 7 ___ _ _ _ ______ _ G7(A, maior scale. ___ _____ Cmaj';
G+7talt9 · G7(i:i 9/alt5 J Chrom A pp. >
~ ~ --~~-----.<..,;:._ _ _...,.... ~
, ...,.,....-·_ __ _ _ ..J...~~----E'-1- - - , -,...,---
~""~t+--!.L.
.....
~
-<~'>'------~~-----~=""-·===~::!"1~11-0~~~,~·====-=-=-=-=-~~or~~~:~-~=-=-=-=~--=~-J:-~
~1;,.~·.~~~~~=-~l-l;:,-·i7,~:~~~~~=-~=-~=--~==-=~=-n31;1
tn: ' -tr
I

173
3) D~ major;
D-7 __ __ __ _ _ _ ___ _ G7 (D~ major scale) _ _ ______ _ Cmaj7

Note the chrol.latic motion of each voice in lhe above approach chord: three voices descend
while the 4th-string voice ascends in upproaching Cmaj7.

-+ J Go major; G?< G~ m ajor scale.) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


D- 7 _ _ _ __ __ __ _ __ _ G+7talt9 ) G7~ 5 (maj 7)
G7(b9/alt5/ maj7 J. G+7rn9> c

~~~~--~~~~1b~~=~-1r~; ~"--~~~J~~~1~a~- I I
II

Although the major scale offers the most diverse uses of fourth voicings in a modal or diatonic situation , other scales
can be examined for their potential use in quartal harmony. T he remaining seven-tone diatonic scales, (without
consecutive half-steps). are the melodic minor, harmonic minor, and harmonic major. Primary interest will be placed
on the examination of the me lodic mino r and its modes. as well as the th ird mode of the harmonic major. The
harmonic minor will be omitted due to its limited modal uses and problematic «avoid notes." The usefuif{flh mode
of the harmonic minor(Mixolydian ~ 9/b 13) can besubstiwted by the thirdmodeofthe harmonic majorwhic:h. unlike
the harmonic minor, has no avoid notes. Both modes are dominant modes and commonly func tion on a V7 of a minor
chord.

The following modes are related to a G7 chord:

C Harmo!1ic mm or t rrom its fi !'th moac :


G7 chord ........... .......................................
G .AL
~~
B
_,
~

"--
4
D
5
E~
I 1-
p • _1
-
r
b:
,_,--..

Eb Harmonic IlliUQI (from it:; third mode l: G A~ B~ cb D Eb F G


G7 chord .............. ................................... " bl ~Q
I
....
_1 5 ~ J3 ~7

Students are encouraged to examine and experiment with tne additional harmonic major and minor modes.

l 1nlike rhe ma.io1 scale. the melodic minor and han:ionic major cannot maimain fourth intervals on each degree of
tne1r sca1e::i. When atten7pring LO construct fou:tn voicings on each degree, a mnj orthird inte rval is produced on those
voicings containing the~ 3rd and nmural 7th in the melodic minor, and the ma.ior 3rd and~ 6th in the harmonic majo:.-.
In addition. both of these scales contain two trit0nes each while. by com!Jarison. the major scale contains only one.
Altho ugh admi ttedly wc:aKer than the ma_1or scale:. there is some quarrnl value to these scales since the m~jority of
their voici ngs will contain fourth intervals. In their fa vor is the Jack of avoid nores . mai<mg mor~ voicings avai lable
to their differem modal anci dimonjc runcuon::i.

174
MELODIC MINOR SCALE
Examination of this scale and its modes will include the same intervals ascending and descending, commonly
referred to as the "jazz" or "real" melodic minor scale. With the exception of the fifth mode, there are no avoid notes
in the melodic minor modes, allowing use of any one of the fourth voicings produced. The 4th degree of the fifth
mode is the only avoid note.

Diatonic use of the second mode will be omitted due to its "unstable" nature. This mode has limited harmonic use
with the possible exception of a modal II-7 chord in an established melodic minor key, or as a modal I minor chord ;
( Dorian~ 9). This mode does contain a valuable "melodic" relation to its parallel dominant chord;

D dorian b 9 .... ............ . D E~ G A B c D


D7 chord .................... . ~9 4 5 13 b7 8

Unfortunately, the dorian b9th mode appears rather unstable "harmonically" in supporting irs parallel dominant
sound.
C Melodic minor scale harmonized in fourths;
-& .0.
..a. 1-&

@Ii~-e- i 9§ bf § ~ 11~
II

*Note the major third interval in the above voicings containing E~ and B.
The following will examine each above fourth voicing, from left to right, in relation to the available modes.

First mode (C melodic minor);


C-maj7(1 I) C-(11/9) C-6(9) C-maj7(1 l/6) C-maj7( 11) C-6(9) C-rnaj7(9/6)
* Note the 9th is in the bass, (L.l.L. violation), on the second voicing.
Third mode (E~ Lydian augmented);
E b +(9/6) Eb maj7(9/6) Eb maj7 ~ 5 E~ +C# 11/9) E~ +(9/6) Eb maj7~ 5(6) E~ maj7(alt5)
Fourth mode (F Lvdian b7):
F7(ffll ) F6(9) ~7(13i9; Fib.:' F(~ll/9) F6(9) F7~5(1 3)

Fifth mode (G Mixolydian ~ 13);


G7(b 13iadd4) G7sus4 G9(b 13) G9(b 13) G7(add4) G9sus4 G9(b 13)

Sixth mode (A Locrian-namral 9 );


A-7b 5(b 13/9) A-7~5(11! A-7~5(1 1 ) A-7ii5(bl3/9) A-7#5(9) A-7(111 A-7 ~ 5( 11/9}
* Note the 9th is in the bass, (L.I.L. violation ), on the last voicing.

Seventh mode (B altered);


B7b5(b9) B7(alt9/alt5 1 B7#SC#9) B7 ~ 5 B7( b9/alt5) B7(alt91#5) B7(#9)
*Note the #9th is in the bass, (l.I.L. violation) , on the second voicing.

175
The fourth and seventh modes offer the best and most common use of these voicings in a diatonic situation;
Lydian~ 7 is common on dominant Sub V chords.
Altered is common on dominant V7 chords.
Thefirsr and sixth modes also offer some common diatonic uses;
Melodic minor is common on I and IV minor chords.
Locrian-natural 9 is common on min 7~ 5 chords.
The third and fifth modes are not quite as common as the above modes, but offer some interesting uses nonetheless;
Lydian augmented is useful on a Imaj7# 5 chord.
Mixolydian ~ 13 is useful on a V7 chord, (commonly V7 of II-7).
The following examples will examine the four most common melodic minor modes in their related diatonic
functions.
~ 1)

,,
D- 7P 5 (F melodic minor) G7(alt) (Ab mel min ) C-maj7 (C mel min) ___ _ _ _ ___ _ _
'

;,i
~
~:
C>*

Ii~ 1q ~§ bf I~ f'
.£!. 1> ..0..
t -&

I i'~ ~

#2)
*' I

F7 (C mel min)_ _ _ _ _ _ _
'
I J
I
I I

E7 CF mel minL _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A-maj7 (Amel min)

&r==== ===~==1br=====~===-'==-~@-==--=:::::-1~ :_.-_---nll


::=::'
1
1.= = -

~3 )
C6(9) (C major) _ __ Bb7(F mel min) _ _ Ab7(Eb mel min) _ _ G7(a1t)(Ab mel minL C(lydian)

,._ • ~ . I ~ ba. ,~ t5 d :
~
-r~;---~~F-1[~
,~ ----;~
~ F ~1&~~~~5b~=~1~~·s~iits~
1 ~!~~

#4)
C6(9) (C major) ___ Gb7(D, mel min L _ F7 (C mel rninJ_ _ Bb7(F mel min , __ C6(9 l
... .a..

5== 1~·~
~
&; ~~ ~
.L ~IJ.L .Jll. I ~

~ ~
eJ
: I!~
5 bf I:,;
I I I
~:
I

i76
HARMONIC MAJOR SCALE

C Harmonic major scale harmonized in fourths;

~ ..0. -e-
:0: ~
~ g
:,:§ ~ lz~ II
*
*Note the major third int~rval in those voicings containing E and Ab.

Only the rhird mode will be examined in this chapter. The following will relate each above voicing, from left to right,
w this dominant mode:

E7(b 13/b9) E7(b 13/alt9) E(b9) E7(b 13/alt9) E7(b 131#9) E7

The most common function of this mode is on t.l-ie V7 chord of a minor chord, although it could aiso resolve to a major
chord. Both resolutions are displayed in tl1e following example.

F#-7b5 (F# locrian) B7(G h a rmonic major) __ Em(E dorian) ____ _ E7 (C harmonic major)
.,,.
~ I
j,; ~
'#~
~

1 .~. ~I ttfI g
~a.

t.i -6-
ef~
" I
1~ ~ &
"i
5 I
f II I
I

A-7 D7 (Bo harmonic major)_ _ _ _ Gmaj7

The following summarizes the modes and related fourth voicings available to a single dominant chord:

G7 Chord;
Major scale dominant modes;
G Mixolydian (C major): 9 3 11 5 13 b7
G Phrygian (Eb major): b0 f 9 11 5 b13 b7
G Locrian (Ab major); 1 b9 ·~9 11 bs b7
G furered/natural7 (D~ majorj,
G Aliered/natural7 (Gb major);
'°!
I
7
~9
b9
.!lo
~ -"'
'#9
1'.l
3
~5
~5
1i;-:i
b7
b7
Melodic mmor dominant modes;
G lv'lixolvdian b13 (C meiodic minor); 9 3 11 -·' bl3 b7
G Lydillii. b7 (D melodic rninor); 9 <_, #11 5 13 b7
G Aite.red (Ab melodic minor); b9 #9 .J.... bs #S b7
Harmonic major dominant mode;
G Mixolydian b13/a1t9 (Eb harmonic m~jor); b~ *9
ff 3 5 bl3 ~7

177
Out of the five different fourth type voicings originally introduced, only one: D1 3(#9)/Ab 13(#9), has not appeared
in the scales presented. This voicing will be included in the followin g exa~ple of a "standard" tune harmonized with
fo urth voicings. Both of its dominant functions will be used; Dl3(#9)/A~ 13(#9) and B7(# 1llb9)1F7(#1 llb9).
Originally presented in the Constant Structure Harmonic Motion chapter, note the multiple functions of the
F7sus4 and Cmaj7b 5 fourrh voicings presented in the beginning of this chaprer. and their subsequent varied use in
the following standard rune. Given their many functions, it would be possible to harmonize an entire song with these
two voicings. Voice-leading and variety could be enhanced by introducing additionai inversions of each voicing,
even though the quartal sound might be compromised some.

In the following "standard" tune. all different approach chords, chord patterns, and modal sections will be labeled.
Be sure to realize, with the exception of certain approach chords what chord tones and tensions each fourth voicing
produces on the ori!!inal chords. Also note the "B"' section has single chords sustaining for two measures. allowing
them to be approached as temporary modal modulations with a specific scale for each chord voiced in fourths.

E -7b5 (Dia. App .) A7 (Chrom App.) C -7 (Dia. App. ) F7 (Chrom App. )


~ I I
II
I I , fr
j q~
I

I~ ~g jZ~ !~~g ~ i~ i~
' DV-

F-7
~

(Dia./ChromApp. J
~fr

Bb7
]!• -6'-
'
-6--

E~maj7
(Chrom App.} Whole-tone pattern _ _ __ _____ _ _ _ _ __
·b
Ab7
l

b~ 1.~
I
I :.a. ~ I
042.

~'1 I
1 ~%f If f I''' 1\f II
B~ maj7 E -7 b5 A7 D-7 B~ -7 E b7
(Dia. App. ) Constant Structures _ _ _ _ (Dia./ Chrom App.)

~
I
•"~
I~
Ii
I

~ ~~ ~ 1 ·l~~
&~
~ o~ ~~ I
I

Fmaj7 (Dia. App. ) E -7 b5 A7 A-7b5 (Dia. App. ) D7 (Chrom App. )


Lydian __ __ _ _

I~,
fr ').t:;_ ~:ta. ' -6- fr

i ~
'
I
~I Ip ;r;~
I
1 .~ ~ l~
I
I
~ ~~~I ~

G7(alt) C-7
@] _ 1e1o di.c mmor
A>v. J\f · _ __ __ 1 _ -· _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ ·- C dorian _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

~ ,~
1 1
ba
-
I

[1&%
i:>i9- •~
h!S It~
1

;'.'g 19; ~
•V
,:g 1 e ~i; ~
! l D-6-

'
Ab7(13'# 1119) B"maj7
Eli Melodic minor _ _ __ __ ____ __ _ _ _ B~ lydian _ _ _ __ __ ___ __ _ _ _ ___ _

-:$-- o.a

~
I 5

I~ i ~~ ~ II
I .. I

178
E -7b5 A7(alt) D-7b5 .G7
B~ Melodic minor ___ (Dia. App.) (Chrom App.)
~ I
ff
fr .(2.. I

pi ~~
-\9- I D-!9-

~ 11~f
1"'J

r ~~ ilz&r
' I
"b~
I

I Fine

PENTATONIC SCALE
Although seven-tone scales probably offer the most useful applications of four-note quartal voicings, the traditional
pentatonic scale; ( 1 2 3 5 6). has some quartal qualities worth examining. Unlike seven-tone scales, this pentatonic
scale contains no half-steps. Since the half-step is often the source of "avoid" or weak notes in diatonic harmonies,
the pentatonic scaie might offer some voicing alternatives to seven-tone. scale voicings.
While fourth voicings are constructed by skipping every two notes in a seven-tone scale;
(1)-2-3-(4)-5-6-(7)-8-9-(10)-11- 12-(13). etc., pentatonic fourth voicings are produced by
skipping every other note; (1)-2-(3)-5-(6)-8-(9)-10-(12)-13-(15), etc.

The following voicings are constructed off each degree of the pentatonic scale. Notice that two of these structures
are complete fourth voicings while the remaining three structures contain two fourth intervals and one major third.

C Pentatonic fourth voicings;


C6(9) C(add9) C6(9) C6 C6(9)
-a- -a-

4i g ~ ~ ~ II

Al though the major third interval does compromise the quartal sound to some degree. the majority of fourth intervals
produce an overall satisfactory quartal sound. What is equally, if not more important to their quartal value is the
strong and descriptive "pentatonic sound" these structures contain when at least two, and preferably more, are used
as chordal substitutions. Further more, this pentatonic scale can often reflect the different music styles it is commonly
used in such as "country," "rock," and "blues." These styles can be "heard" or imnlied by using several of the
voicings produced by the pentatonic scale as substitute voicings.

The following relates D~ major pentatonic to B~ minor, (Db ' s "relative" minor), and G Altered;
D~ B~ (possible D~ '·country" sound)
I

D~ Pentatonic ......... r ·I
c~ F A~
, ! -
B~ minor. ................ b3 '"t 5 DI (possible B ~ "rock" or "blues,. sound)
G Altered...... .......... bs #S b7 b9 #9
When two or more of the five possible Db pentatonic voicings are used as G7(alt) voicings, a "duality" of sound is
produced. DI> major or B bminor are clearly "heard" while G altered is also "heard." lt might also be possible to "hear"
two styles at the same time; Db "country" or Bb "rock,. against the dark "jazzy" G altered.
The following will list the possible pentatonic scales, (and subsequent voicings), that can be used as substitutes for
the four "basic" chord groups.

179
Major7tb or l\.1ajor6th;
]) C pentaronic ............ c D E G A (I pentatonic of C)
Cmaj7/C6 ............... l 2 3 5 6
,,.,
2) G pentatonic ............ \J A B D E (V pentatonic of C )
Cmaj7/C6 ............... 5 6 7 9 3

3) D pentatonic ........... D E Fi!r. A B (II pentatonic of C)


Cmaj7/C6 .............. 9 ~ li 11
'
6 7

Minor7th;
l) Ebpentatonic ......... Eb F G Bb c (bTII pentatonic of C minor)
C-7 ..... ................... b3 lJ s b7 1
2) Bb pentat0nic ......... B~ c D F G (b VII pentatonic of C minor)
C-7 ........ ................. b7 1 9 11 5
,..
3) F pentaronic ............ F G A \.._, D (IV pentatonic of C minor)
C-7 ......................... l! 5 13 9
(C-6 or C-maj7) .... .... 11 5 6 9
l\linor7~ 5;

l) Ab pentatonic ......... Ab Bb c Eb F (bVi pemaronic of C-7 b5)


C-7b5 .................... b13 b7 b3 11

2) Db pentatonic ........ Db Eb F Ab Bb (bii° pentatonic of C-7b5)


C-7b5 .................... b9 b3 11 bl 3 b7

3) Gb pentatonic ......... Gb Ab Bb Db Eb (b V pentatonic of C-7b 5)


C -7b5 ........ ............ b5 b13 b7 b9 b3
1\ote that tension b9 is traditionally considered an '·avoid" note on a min7~ 5 chord, yet it is not uncommon to appear
as an available tension in today's mus.ic. Keep in mind. placement of a voicing that contains this tension on the weak
harmonic rhythm of a measure or phrase \\'Ouid produce the least dissonance. The most "characteristic"~ Sth wne
is contained in only one pentatonic which also incluaes the b9th.

Dominant 7th:
The following pentatonics will be organized into three groups depicung their differences and possible ar :.:ations.

Group I;
.,.-
1) C pentaronic .....
~

'- [, c G r. t L pentatonic of C7 J
C7 ....... .................. 9 3 5 1"-~

2l Gb pentatonic .... G~
I ,.... 1
A "> D •> D~ f'.' (b V pentatonic of C7)
C7 ..................... ..... ~.:;
v. ~5 b7 b9 #9
Group II:
l) F pentatonic .... ... F G f\ c D (IV pentat0nic of C7 sus4)
C7sus4 .................... ~ 5 13 I l)

2) Bb penta tonic ...... Bb r-


\...., D F G (b VII pentatonic of C7sus4)
C7sus4 ... ....... ........... b7 i 9 4 5

3) D~ pentatonic ...... D ~ Eb h
i Ar B~ <blI pentatonic of C7sus4)
C7sus4 ................ ..... b9 #9 4 b 13 b7

180
Group III;
1) E pentatonic ..... E
,, F~ G# B
..., C# (Ill pentatonic of C7)
C7 ........................ .) bs #5 I b9
2) B pentatonic ........... B C# D I\r. .Ftt G# (VII pentatonic of C7)
C 7 ........................ 7 b9 #9 b5 #5

The first group includes the two most commonly used pe ntat0nics in a dominant capacity; C pentat0nic - '·natural''
tensions. and Gb pentatonic - "altered" tensions.

The second grour includes those pentatonics most commonly used on dom7sus4 chords;
B~ pentatonic - C9sus4, F pentawnic - C9sus4(1 3). and Dbpentatonic - C7sus4(b l 3/alt9). In an appropriate s ituation
and with care, it might be possible to use these pentatonics against a dom7 chord without the suspended 4th. The
Db pentatonic, wh ich contains altered tensions. is probably the best c hoice for this application.
The third group includes two different pentatonics that contain altered tensions and a major 7th. The B pematonic
appears most characteristically altered of the two, supporting the major 7th with all the altered tensions; (b5, b9, #5,
#9). Again, this is a "progressive" sound that should be used in an appropriate context.

Note those pentatonics that contain dua1 functions;


(C .Pent. - Cmaj7 or C7), (B b pent. - <;:7sus4 or C-7). (F pent. - C7sus4 or C-6),
(D~ pent. - C 7sus4 or C-7b5). and (G~ pent. - C7 or C-7b5).
The followmg examples wiil present the pentatonic voicings discovered in various Tonic, Sub-dominant, and
Dominant capacities. Be sure to realize the tensions imposed on the basic 7th chords by these pentatonic voicings.
In more musical applications, these voicings would most likely appear within isolated phrases over an entire song
form.

These first two examples present pentatonic voicings over major and minor II V I cadences. Note in both
examples the dominant chords use the typical "altered" sound by selecting pentaionic voicings a tritone
away.
I ) Minor II-V-1 cadence;
B-7b5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ E7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A -7 _ _ _ ___ __ _ __ -
CF pent) (G pent) CB~ pent) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (C pent) (G pent)

__..~L---t___=-n__.
1
= !. . .-,.~ _ -=:_-:=_-f-:_ _,_,~ . I._ -:~.=_ - =;~.J~-_.__t:
1
¥-"'-¥--' _ __ __ -._ ;. .c_~-:_-=-_ii- ':~ _-:=_-:=_-:._ .1 .; . ._f- ___..
¥ "'-,, - -- ?:~===f===d
-+--r-
i

2) Major II-V-1 cadence:


B -7 ___ __ - - - - - - E7 ______ _ ___ _ .. Amaj7 __ ____ ____ _ _
CD pent) (A pent 1 <Bv pent) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ (E pent) ____ __ ____ _

The next examp1es present .t he.four different pentatonics that produce altered tensions on dominant chords:
C7(alt): G\1 pent. (b V). Db pent. (bU), B pent.(VII), and E pent. (III)
Note the chromatically ascending pentatonics over these first four I1 VI examples. The first two examples use the
bVth pentatonic o n the dominant chords while the last two use the Vllth.

181
I ) D-7 (C pent) G7 (C# pent) Cmaj7(D pent) 2) F-7 (Eb pent) Bb 7(E pent) E bmaj7(F pent)

-~" " 1- -~+c--+F11~~ ;:~:F I:f "I


II 4*"i
I
~~ I "I 1f
'
Wa
I

3) D -7(F pent ) G7(F# pent) Cmaj7(G pent) 4) B -7 (D pent) E7 (Eb pent) Amaj7(E pent)
I

I I

This next example uses the bII pentatonic on the dominant chord.

D-7(F pent) G7(Ab pent) Cmaj7 (D pent)


I D-6- i>.a. ?'-

ll~
1

~ ~
-~
I!~ I i~I· ~ :!
'
This next example uses the ill pentatonic on the dominant chord.
I

,, G-7(Bb pent)

bi
11~
•1
C7(E pent)

~~;
F6(9) (F pent)

1§ I!

This next ~xample uses the bV pencatonic on both the II chord and the V chord.

F#-7b5(C pent ) B7 (F pent, E -7(111

*~ ~ If f 1! i
This next example mixes pentatonic voicings with other voicings over a domi nant chord. Note the natural tensions
on the first three voicings and the altered tensions on the next three voic ing~. This natural to alcered progression o~
tensions on a dominant chord is quire common.

F6(9 )

!I

182
This next example will notate the lead voice orJy. The complete voicings can be derived from the pentatonics listed.
G maj7 __ _ ____ ___ _ G-7 - - - - C7 __ _ _ Fmaj7 __ - - - - - - - - -
D pent _ ___ ___ _ __ _ B~ pent G11 pent C pent ____ __ _ _
I

i
o.a.
I! r I ' 1 ·
r 1:
F -7 ____ _ _ A-7b5 _ _ _ _ _ D7 ___ - - -
Ab pent E b pent Gb pent
0 p
1r 1 ·

Gmaj7 _ _____ _____ _ __ _ _ C-7 ______ _ F7 _ __ ___ _ Gmaj7


D~nt _ __ ____ _ _ ____ __ _
Eb pent F pent

This last example mixes pentatonic YOicings and fourth voicings in a "II-V Blues" form. Since the ''effect" of
pentaronics requires two or more voicings from one pemarcnic sc-ale. it will be lost in many of these II--v pane ms.
although the voicings used are in common with pentaronic voicings. Note the ascending whole-srep founh ,·oicing
pattern produced in measures eight and nine, while the same pattern descends in measures eleven and tweive.

,
Fmaj7 _ __ E-7b5 A7 D-7 G7 C -7 F7 B b7 __ _ B b-7 Eb7
C pent ___ Bb pent ___

I ~ Ii~
-9

i~f
i bi
~f I I
l9;
I
A-7 D7 A~ -7 D b7 G-7____ .C7 ____ v
.L' D7 G7 C7 Fmaj 7
I
I I
I , b'~ f~
I

I~
Li ~
! -fr [}.Q.
"J.a..

~ ~ #~ 1 1(~ h~ 111
.
~"' .., ~.. It
I
Measures eleven and twelve would maintain the descending whole-step fourth voicing pattern on the rop three
strings if ·'guide-t0nes·· piaced in the JO\'.·er voice were desired to ciarify me harmony;

=4-~ ~bf I O&


I

"'.~
• b-2
IDft:=
w ~ r l; : -~j9--··
,; b~e. ~- II~ . ~
"I I

183
Chapter Twenty-Six.
Chromatic Guide-Lines
Sustaining voices, (common tones), and chromatic motion are the two strongest techniques used in voice-leading.
While common tones are most effective over chord changes. chromatic guide-lines can enhance a single chord as
well as a series of chord changes. Up to now, emphasis has been placed on voice-leading the top note or 2nd string
of every chord voicing. This chaprer will examine the chromatic voice-leading or chromatic guide-line possibilities
of every voice or string in a given chord or series of chords. One, two, three. and four chromatic guide-lines over
chord changes will be presented while just one and rwo chromatic lines over a single chord will be examined. All
possibie voice or string combinations of two, three, and four chromatic guide-lines ascending and descending,
(including parallel and contrary motion), will be explored.

As more chromatic voices are added, they become more difficult to continue over a series of different voicings.
Contrary motion only complicates this situation while parallel motion and an obliging chord progression might
continue further. For this reason, the three and four conirary chromatic guide-lines presented later in this chapter
will be limited to two adjacent voicings. Some isolated examples will explore three and four contrary chromatic lines
over three adjacent chords.

The following string combinations will be used for the various chromatic lines;
(strings will be notated as hold numbers in parenthesis).

One chromatic voice: (four combinations); ((2)] [(3)J [(4)] [(5)]


Two chromatic voices: (six combinations);
[(2)(3)] [(2)(4)] [(2)(5)) [(3)(4)] [(3)(5)] [(4)(5)]

Three chromatic voices: (four combinations);


[(2)(1)(4)] [(3)(4)(5)) [(2)(3)(5)] [(2)(4)(5))

Four chromatic voices: (one combination); [(2)(3)(4)(5)]

All possible voice or string combinations of ascending and descending chromatic iines, (including contrary and
parallel motion), will be examined. The follow ing model will be used to portray the chromatic motion of each string
or voice;

(a) will refer to an ascending chromatic voice while (d) refers to a descending chromanc voice.
No reference will imply no motion or "common tones." Strings will again be depicted as bold
numbers in paremhesi:.-i.

Example: (2a)(3d)(4d)(5a). would depict the 2nd and 5th strings ascending chromatically while the 3rd and
4th strings de5.cend chromatically.

The following i:nodel dicrar.es the chromatic motion over the three di fl;;rem voicings in the accompanying musicai
example; (2d) (3a) (4a) (5)

The following wil1 examine all possibJc combinations of chromatic motion in a four-note structure:
1) One chromatic voice;
Two different directions: ascending and descending. for each scring gives eiQht different possible chromatic iines.

184
2) Two chromatjc voices;
Four different direction combinations for each of the six two-string combinations gives a total of twentv-four
different possible chromatic lines.
Parallel;

[(2a)(3a)] [(2a)(4a)] [(2a)(Sa)] [(3a)(4a)] [(3a)(5a)] [(4a)(5a)]


[(2d)(3d)J [(2d)(4d)] [(2d)(5d)J [(3d)(4d)] [(3d)(Sd)] [(4d)(Sd)]

Comrary;

[(2a)(3d)] [(2a)(4d)] [(2a)(5d)J [(3a)(4d)] [(3a)(5d)] [(4a)(Sd)]


[(2d)(3a)] L(2d)(4a)J [(2d)(5a)j [(3d)(4a)l [(3d)(Sa)] [(4d)(Sa)]

3) Three chromatic voices;


Ei£ht different direction combinations for each of the four three-string combinations gives a total of thirtv-two
different possible chromatic lines.

Parallel;
[(2a)(3a)(4a)] [(3a)(4a)(5a)] [(2a)(3a)(5a)] [(2a)(4a)(5a)]
[(2d)(3d)(4d)] ((3d)(4d)C5d)] [(2d){3d)(5d)] [(2d)(4d) (Sd)]

Contrary, (Two parallel/one contrary);

[(2a)(3d)(4d)] [(3a)(4d)(Sd)] [(2a)(3d)(5d)] [(2a)(4d)(Sd)]


[(2d)(3a)(4a)] [(3d)(4a)(5a)] [(2d)(3a)(Sa)] [(2d)(4a)(Sa)]

[(2d)(3d)(4a)] [(3d)(4d)(5a)] [(2d)(3d)(5a)] [(2d)(4d)(5a)}


[(2a)(3a)(4d)] [(3a)(4a)(5d)] [(2a)(3a)(Sd)] [(2a)(4a)(5d)]

[(2d)(3a)(4d)] [(3d)(4a)(5d)] [(2d)(3a)(5d)] [(2d)(4a)(5d)]


[(2a)(3d)(4a)] [(3a)(4~)(5a)] [(2a)(3d)(5a)] [(2a)(4d)(5a)]

4) Four cnromanc voice~ :

A total of sixteen different direction combinations and chromatic lines are possible.

Parallel:

[(2a)(3a)(4a)(5a)] r(2d)(3d)(4d)(Sd) ~
Contrary, (Three parallel/one comrary):

[(2a)(3d)(4d)(5d)] [(2d)(3a)(4d)(5d ))
[(2d)(3a)(4a)(5a)] [(2a)(3d)(4a)(Sa)]

[(2d)(3d )(4a)(5d)] [<2d)(3d)(4d)(Sa)]


[(2a)(3a)(4d)(5a)] [f2a)(3a)(4a)(Sd)]

Conrrary. (Two paraliei ascending/two parallel descending);

[(2d)(3d)(4a)(5a)] [(2d)(3a)(4a)(5d)] lf2d)(3a )(4d)(5a)]


[(2a)(3a)(4d)(Sd)J ( (2a )(3d)(4d )(Sa) J [(2a)(3d)( 4a)(Sd)]

*Remember the 5t.h string has the additional problem of L.l.L.. omitLing some of the line possibilities
available to the other strings.
185
While observing the chromatic guide-line possibilities on or through different chord types, it becomes obvious that
dominant chords contain the most chromatic possibilities. This will be most evident in the examples showing
chromatic lines over a sin!!le chord. A chord progression containing many dominant chords will also yield more
chromatic line possibilities than one with less dominant chord types.
In the following examples, before preparing an entire exercise. begin first by isolating and playingh!fil the chromatic
voices. This will allow you to better "hear" the quahry and motion the lines have to offer. It might also be beneficial
to record the chromatic guide-lines and play them back while performing the entire exercise.
This chapter will begin with the examination of one and two chromatic voices on a~ chord voicing. But for a
few isolated examples, (some of which will be presented at the end of these single chord examples), three and fou r
chromatic guide-lines over a Single chord will not be included. This many chromatic voices on a single four-ncce
chord can begin to lose or compromise the function of that chud.
In the following examples, an occasional non-functional voicing might appear. \Vben this occurs. it can simply be
considered a "chromatic approach" to the next functional voicing. The following example will demonstrate;

(E7) _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ (A)
E7f.5C#9> M7 E7 ~5(b9 )
(Chrom App.) A6(9 )

:&:ii
~l
o~~ !i II

One chromatic guide-line on a sin&le chord

The following rhythms are arbitrary and it might be most effective to attack the full voicing with each chromatic
note. "Chromatic approach" voicings are put in parenthesis.

1) 2nd string ascending; Bb9(f,5 ) Bb9 Bb7~5(#9)BH3(# 9 ) Ebmaj7(9 )


I I Ji I J
~ i.~ • ~..-~ l~I ii
i

2) 2od string descending; a) Gl3(~9 ) Gl3(9) G7~5( :>9 ) G7 ~5 Cmaj7(U1/ 9)

~ I I

b) D-7ii 5(ll)(D7,5) D-7ii5 D-7 , 5(f' Gn5 G7~5(1 3) G7(alt 5) G7(Hl 1 C-6

--~-+---Ii~_b.!___,.....,h~..,..----
· ---+-j&i_ i~·__.~.. . . . ._~- :l-*-r---1~:i-----"-[!

186
___
3) 3rd string descending; Bb13Bb?(b13) Bb7 Bb7b5 Ebmaj7

~~.-.-'9-,_bJ~t~~;- J. : : : : : -: =r-1-
~:~
,'--_--------ttlj

Bb7b5(9)
4) 3rd string ascending; a) Bb7tt5 Bb7tt5(b9) Bb7b5(#9) E bmaj9

t ; j ij br nJ l&~--11
(D-maj7(11))
b) D-7(11) G7(b 9)G7tt5(b 9) Cmaj7(6)

~-#}.,----!.Jl~~1~JOL.--'-1'7-__
1J _.._,i·- -111

5) 4th string ascending; a) B7 B7(b9) B9(alt5)B7(#9/alt5) Emaj7(9/6)

ff~J~1t·~~~~j~-~l#f_·~~--11
b) C-7(11)(C-7b5) C-7 C-7#5 F7tt5 (Eb9) F7(alt5) F7(b13) Bb (add9)

6) 4th string descending; E9(13) E9(b 13) E9 E9(b5) Amaj?

~#~! qF F bf 1#-i ~

7) 4th string ascending and descending;


C-(11/ 9/b 6)
C-7(11/9) C-6(11/9) C-(11/9) F7#5(b9) F7#5(9) F7#5(#9) F7#5 Bb (add9)

8) Stb string ascending; A13(9) Al3(b 5) Al3 Dmaj9


~~ Al3sus4(9) , ~

~~4r~=~~r~~l~~r~~r~~~~·~~~--~_-_-~1

187
9) 5th string descending;
A-(add9) A-maj7(9) A-7(9) A-6(9) G(add9) Gmaj7(9) G7(9) G6(9)
.0.. -e-

i ~ #f §f ~r I~ #r qr
r 11

The following example will demonstrate ascending and descending on one string and one chord;
D-7 (9) (D7) G7 (b 13) (b5) Cmaj9 (C9) C6(9)
j ~j
vE J
I~ 1iJ J ~J
I~ ~ ~ ~~ I~ I

The following examples w ill demonstrate different string or voice combinations of one chromatic guide-line;

a) C9(ttll) C9 C7 tt5(b 9) C7 #5(9) C7tt5Ctt9) (7) C7 ~5(tt9) Frnaj9

~
~~ &' §~
'~
§J
18 II

'

188
Two chromatic guide-lines on a sin~le chord

After playing each of the following twelve examples, prepare their chromatic guide-lines in the reverse direction
ror ali twentv-four possible line combinations for two chromatic voices in a four-note structure. A new target or
ending ch.o rd might be needed when lines are reversed. Before examining rhe following twelve examples, two
examples of reversed guide-lines and new target chords are given;

Parallel chromatic motion, [(2a)(3a)];


c~· -c 0 l
to·t:J '1v C9 cn5<tt9) Fmaj7 ~5
I -e-
,~~i ~~;
--e
~e I p
I9~ -
Ii
II
~J

The above example in reverse direction, [(2d)(3d)] . with new ending chord:
C7#5(#9 ) C9 cn5(b9) F6(9)
#~s: 1 ~··Q_~:-:---~~be
b~
~-~-
--
I
~+-tll-
, ~i,_.:::=-
-= ---Tl~11

Contrary chrom:uic motion, [(2d)(3a)J ;


C7 ~5 C7 ( ~9 ) F6(9 )

The above example in reverse direction, [(2a)(3d)] , with new ending chord;
C9(~11 J C7(b9) cn5
F(add9)

J&; ~~! &~i &!: I ~§ I!


~

Tne fo llowing twe1ve examples display 1wo ch:omacic guide-iin::'.s on a single chord ;

I) Parallel. [(2d)(3d)]: 2) Contrary, [(2a)(3d)J:


r; . ;-
EIJrn9 ! E9(b 13\ E7('.,9 E ' -'-' El.: E7(v13/ t>9 ~ E S A(a.dd9

0 0 :!1-t-

3) Parallel , [(3d)(4d)]; 4) Conrrary. [(3d)(4a)];

,., El3 E7(b13/~9 ) E9 E7o5 (.~ 9) A(~ll/9 )


r.
E7C13/9 ) E7<bl3/#9) E7 Ala<ld9 J
_J1__.~1} __._!_,I --.··~1!
• (, cg -..i
I : U c __
a
. •_'._ I~ ~ I f< - H
-. -, G ~ -.:::-- . ~-e- .

5) Parallel, [(4d)(5d)]: 6) Conrrary, ((4a)(5d)]:


G7b5 (Ee) G9(alt5 } G7<t ll/b9) crn111 G9(b5 ) (E<>) G7(alt5 \ C(add9 '
e ~!
~1
!U ...LO_

~D~
10

~=
. I~
'.)
....
I =t~ I] ~; ~~; ff _j
'
! 1!L
f:' f',
I
8====:JJ i '.e
~ ~

189
7) Parallel, [(2d)(4d)J ; 8) Contrary, [(2a)(4d)];
F7(~ 13/#9)
A 7b5(#9 ) A 71'5(13/9 )A7b5(b 13/b 9) Dmaj7 F7(13/ 9 ) F7 Bbmaj9

+~?i §~ ~~a 1 1~ II f1 Ii~


r,.._
(1~
I 'ii
-a-

II
9) Parallel, [(3a)(5a)] ; 10) Contrary, [ (3a)(5d)] ;
E 7(alt5) (E6) E7~5 Amaj9 E (add9) (Af7) E7(13/9) A6(9)

~i~~
u ... ~! ::§ I ~®
~ -&
II ~~i @~i ~I ~tg
i '-&
II
11 ) Parallel , [(2d)(Sd)] ; 12) Contrary, [(2a)(Sd)] ;
C7(b 13/b 9) (E-6) C7b5(b9) Fmaj7(#11)
E7~ 5(tt 9 ) (Ab7) E7~5(1' 9 ) A6(9 )
b.L ~
-0- ..0..

~v ~~ eli ii I '~
~··-e-
II ~~i~
~
~~ ~ I~~ II

The following example uses different combinmions of strings or voices and parallel or contrary motion "vith two
chromatic guide-lines;
G7# 5 (~ 9 )
D -7(1 119) (F-7 )
i,;~
...
D-7
....G9 I,.
Gl3 C6(9) (C9#5 )
...
Cmaj7(9/ 6)

~ •ij I~ #~ ! 1$ ii
' A7#5

· ~ =;S
A13
~
A7(alt5)

f~E
D-9 D-7b5 (D7a dd4)
~
G7b5(b9)

I~,~
G7sus4(b9)
G7(h 9/alt5) C6(f
=

v
~~ 18 b~ a ~~ 11~ Iqf_ _A
The following example combines ascending and descending chromatic motion on any one of two strings over ~
singie chord ;

G13rnll ) G13(# 11) G7rn9/ alt5l C6(9 ) C(U l / 9) C 6~9)


(D6(9)) (Dli 6(9)) (F-6) (F-6)

The following presents three and four paraiiel chromatic guide-lines on a sinirie chord. Contrary motion w
many chromatic voices is much more difficuJt to extend over three or more different voicings on a single eh(,

The following example presents four parallel chromatic voices on a single chord, and requires a chord that when
transposed up or down a whole-step. \'\'ill still function on the originai chord. The chords in between fu nction as
chromatic approach chords.

E7b5 (E ~ 7-5 ) E9(~5 ' (Db7b5) E9<alt5) A6(9 )


C E7~ 5 ) __ _ (E b7b5 ) _ _ _ (D7b5J _ _ _ _ (Db7b5J _ _ _ _ (C7b5 )

&ii 9~~
"

110 I~
~ ~i ~~~
~
i#i+-e-
,. ~ II

190
The following is an example of three parallel chromatic voices;

E9<#5) (Db7) E7(alt5) Amaj7(Ul/9)

':; ,~! ..
~9; Ii~
~
II

CHROMATIC ';UIDE-LINES OVER CHORD CHANGES


ln this half of the chapter chromatic voices will be examined over chord changes, beginning with II V I chord
cadences and followed by more extended musical examples.
Three and four chromatic voices present some unique problems. Contrary motion with this many voices is difficult
to extend over three or more chord voicings . For this reason, the contrary motion examples for three and four
chromatic voices wi!J be combined into a single II VI example; II( three voices) - V(four voices) - I. Some isolated
examples of three or four contrary chromatic voices over the entire II VI cadence will appear later in thjs chapter.
Parallel motion for three or four chromatic voices will be attempted over a complete II V 1 cadence.

Three and four chromatic guide-lines will share some voicing cadences with a few of those previousiy introduced
in the Chromatic Approach Voicings chapter. The primary difference between "chromatic guide-hoes .. ancl
'·chromatic approach voicings·· over chord changes is the guide-line must be aware of chord functjon while the
approach voicings need not. If a functional chord with three or four chromatic guide-lines cannot be found , a
chromatic approach chord with no function could be used to continue a desired chromatic motion.
One chromatic guide-line in a chord progression
The followi ng II VI examples present the same chromatic line on each string or voice;
Descending chromatic line;
I)
F7(b9) 2) C-7 F7(',9) B bmaj9
C-9 B'::>maj9 -e- -0-
1-0-

~l! ~8
~o
8
0
II E!-ff= h~ ~ II
3) 4\ C-7 F7(b9) B ~ maj7
C-7 F7(b9) ff,maj7
0.0. 1-e- -e-
~
.--IiLO_
li.n: - - e -===tj ~~-~-
_J -~ ·-- - I ·-
r>-4'u
' g- >I
...,
i'B
~ b! ii
IV -0- -e- t:rcr

Ascending chromatic line;


...,
11 - J C-7Cl l > F7(b 9 i B~maj7( 9/6 ·
C-7<1 11 F7i,9 · Bnnaj7(9/6 '
f&~ ~IB$
.- -e-
bll!!
1-0- . -e-

~ 9~
-&
9i ~
-~
tJ
~ !I
":> ) 4 > C-7(11 ) F7(b9) Bb6(9)
C-7( 11J F7(:i9; B~6

~<> -& b.o.


l;! ;:;,
I

~· ~ ~~
1111

-e-
--?~ :~
..i
~ II

19J
The following example presents an extended descending chromatic guide-line on the 4th string;

C6(9) A13(b9) D-7(11/9) G7(bl3/ b9) E -7b5(11) A7#5 D-%5 G7(alt5) Cmaj7(#11)
-a- b.a. ~

'
~ ~=.. ~a lz~~
- ~s f,9! ~te j±~
" -&

Using the same chromatic line in the above example on various strings or voices establishes an interesting way to
"pull-together" chords that are not voice-leading to each other. This chromatic guide-line acts like a thread holding
II

these leaping voicings together :

Cmaj9 A7(alt5) D-9 G7(b 13/ C. 9) E-n5(11 ) A7(#9) D-7b5(11) G7(b9) Cmaj7(13/#11)

,*
I~
I
~
l ~
' i wl qq~ ~~!
1

' i,q~

The following is an example of octavely displacing every other note of the above chromatic guide-line. Note the
II

interesting line pattern produced on the iop voice.

Cmaj9 A9(13) D-7(11) G9(#5) E-7b5 C(#ll)


.._ A7 D-7b5 G7#5

~l
.a. -a- b.... ~
!! ~i '! ~~ #~ qc~
#! #i II

'
The following examples present a chromatic guide-line that ascends and descends.on one string or voice, and finally
on three strings or voices;
1) 4th string chromatic guide-line;
Bbmaj9 G7jt5(b9J C-7 F7#5 D-71;5 G7#5(P9) C-9 F7(P 13/P9) Bbmaj9
,~.a. ~

~
~ J~
!l ~ ! !~ !~ b~
I ~
llj~
I

!~
b.a.
'ltf!
~i
~~
~

II
='
@.!

2) 3rd string chromatic guide-line;

Bb6(9) G7(b9) Cm(ll) F7;5(b9) D-7b5(11) G7(b 13/ b9) C-9 F7(b 13) Bb ( ~ ll/9 )

~i it ~
e e ,~ ~e 1
I

:1~ ~8 ~\~ 1:·!18 ti e, t~ !:! II

3) Single chromatic guide-line continued through the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th strings;

Bbmaj9 G7 ~ 5(b9 ) Cm(ll ) F7#5Cb9) D-7b5(11 ; G7(alt5) C-9 F7(alt5) Bbmaj9


I~

Wi ~
I I

~1 :a
1! ~ ~§§
bb5 -&
~9a b-u
n II

192
Two chromatic guide-lines in a chord progression
The following examples will present all twentv-four possible combinations of two chromatic guide-lines over a
TI V I chord cadence. Many of these examples will also contain additional chromatic voices, some of which might
reappear in the sections containing three orfour chromatic voices. Some exercises might also contain more than one
example of two chromatic voices. The foliowing example will display three different two-chromatic guide-line
combinations, [(4a)(5d)] [(2d)(4a)] [(2d)(Sd)];

G9sus4 C7(~9/alt5 ) Fmaj7(9/6)


l>e-
~e
~! ~~~ j

1n two of the following contrary motion examples, [(3a)(4d)) and [(2d)(4a)), a progressive new approach to
dominant resolution is introduced . In these examples. the chords that are substituting the original V7 chords,
(Fmaj7# 5 for F7 and Emaj7 for C7), contain the major 7th of those original V7 chords. The Emaj7 chord could be
considered a "chromatic approach voicing" or an altered C7 chord with natural 7; (3 #5 7 #9) , while the Fmaj7# 5
chord is a direct parallel substitute for F7; (YmaJ7#5).

The ..reason" naiUral 7 appears to function in a V7 capacity is its chromatic resolution tendency to the natural 5th
of the I chord: The natural 7, (B). of C7 resolves to the natural 5tb, (C), of F. This chromaticresolmion is characteristic
of "altered" V7 chords, and is probably why the natural 7 functions best with alrered tensions; (b9 #9 b5 #5), if
tensions are desired.

Notice how above and below chromatic approach notes to a major triad include the guide-tones, altered tensions,
and major7th of that triads V7 chord; (E, Gb ) (G#, Bb ) (B , D~) are half-steps above and below an F major rriad
(F) (A) (C).Realize these notes on a C7 chord, (Fs V7 chord);

C7 .................. 3(E) ....... . bS(G b) ..... . #S(G#) .. .... b7(B b) ..... . 7(B ) ...... . b9(D~)

*Natural 7 on dominant chords should be used in an appropriate context where this contemporary sound is desired.

Two chromatic voices ascending in parallel mOLion:


l) C-7(11) F7#5(b9) Bbmaj7(6) 2) C-7(11) F7b5(b9) B b(l3/#ll/ 9)

ti ~~§ ~= ij!
~

~ [}
~8
I
~
u -e-
~~r ::

C-7(11) F7#5(!>9) B?maj7(6J C-7 F7(alt5) B~6(9 )


3) I 4) I
. 0.£!. ::Le. b~
~ · '" ~
1-B- l'I TI
-:/ .

t.
!l :
;!;;: ~
=fl
IJ
~
~ !' ~!'
e
,.e
~~
=t I ~~ =!ijj

5) Cm(llj F7Calt9 ; BPmaj7(9/6J 6) C-7(11) F7Cb9/alt5) B ~(~ll/ 9 }

193
Two chromatic voices descending in parallel motion;

,
I) C-9 F7(bl3/b 9) Bb6(9) 2) Cm(ll/9) F7(bl3/ b9) Bb(#llf 9 )
I

q:
'd \§ q
I ~i II ~: &t: II

3) C-7 F7b5(b9) Bbmaj7 4) Cm(ll ) F7(b9/alt5 ) Bb (add9)

~~----1~i------""'l-"<-t!--i--- - H1 -ll'k---'-'"--
4 11~---_------IL-'11~~Ce---=--~~·~~
E-(, -====II
rr-

5) 6) C-9 F7#5(alt9) Bb6(9)


C-9 F7(alt5) Bi'maj9 I

~ij &!i
~=
i%1 'PJ1'$ q~~
~

&~ II

Two chromatic voices in comrary motion, (upper voice ascends/lower voice descends):
C-9 Fmaj7#5 B~6(9 )
1) C-7(11/9) F7(bl3/b9) B!)maj7(9/6) 2) b
G !i.~

'u
!).D.

~~~
f)O
~

[
_.... ~~ tl
' -e-
JI :: j:ll•

II
a:
'O
II
:I
~o tJ

3) G-7(11/9) C7(b9/alt5) Fmaj7(916: 4) Cm(ll l F7( ~9/alt5 ; B:ima_i7t>5


D-e- •
~~
i± Q
~
,, ~
I

' ~ . , iJ~
l
·~ Ii ~15
.'
~o
-~~ -11
~

G-9 C7!)5(b 9) F maj7(~ 11 >


5) 6) Emladd9, A7(U9/ alt5, Dmaj9
li+ ~

~ ::· ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ z; 9g µ;~ II
' t) r ...

194
Two chromatic voices in contrary mmion, (upper voice descends/lower voice ascends);
G-9 C7(~13/#9J Fmaj9 F7(~13/ # 9) B~maj9
1 I
I J 2) Cm(ll/9)
• .~
it:
~

&§ #bg II

* 9;, II

' &i 9! ==-±i

G-9 Cmaj7#5rn9) Fmaj9


~ ' D-7(11) G7 #5(~9 ) Cmaj7(#11) 4)
CEmaj7)
'
..
,..
=° .~
~
e
~: ~ ! "!:o ff - -~ 4u
~l
i:i <S!
b
~~
e ~l
I!
!i

5 ) G-7b5(b13/9) C7011 3/ ~9 ) F6(9! 6) G-7b5 ( ~ 131 C7Calt5; F'~~ ll/ 9 )

fbt!...
I

..
' r-G.
~
,1)-t?

,~~
q
' 5~
~
r-

. ,
ll
-y-:-!
~c
1'.9. ~
.+

§~~ .
r

if
;1

Applying two chromatic guide-lines over an extended chord progression introduces problems the single chromatic
line did not offer. This is especially true of rwo contrary chromatic lines over an exrended progression.

The following example uses two parallel chromatic guide-lines over an extended progression;

Cmaj7 A7b5(b9) D-7 G7b5(b9) Cmaj7 A9(13) D-7P5(P 13) G9(13) G7(~ 13/ P9) C(add9)
.II.. b.11.. .... .~
z:;
=l,
f..
fj
e
litt"
"e
b. ;e 55 t; ; ,\i• p ,llt! · I

~~ ~I
I" ::o
v

The follow mg two examp1es use c:0ntrury mouon berween twc cnromauc voices OYer an exreuaea progression. T r:
lI nes must change strings or voices to continue tneir ci1rommic motion. Before displaying tnese examples, It should
be noted that there are only two possible contrtlfy chromatic lines over exrended chord progressions;

1 J Ascend ................ . £, c~ r D:' ,_


F Fl' ~
,-.
~.J o;
A'
'
Descend .. ............. B B~ A~ G G~ F 1=
,_ E~ D
Inrerval ................. . 1 "
.) b.: ~t -
~.)
,.
•p. '")
8 "
;, 10 ~l
2 ) .'\scend .............. c c:;.
r,
L• D~ ..:: F F ~,, •--~
._;
3~
r-
J

Descend .... .... ..... B B;. r\ / -\ I) G Gr L


- .t:.p
ImervaL ... ....... b2 ~3 4 5 6 7 b9 ~ 10 11

Note the doubling or octave (8) in the first example and the b9th imerval in the second example. I~ either lm:: is K
continue chromatically. it must include tb.e$e in~ervai ~.. T he following example containmg ihe b9rn mrervai i:;
supported by a hybrid chord.

19S
l) (Asterisk denotes octave doubling)
Gmaj9 E7#5(b9) A13(b5) D7Calt5) B7Calt5) *E7 A7(alt5) D7(#11) G(#ll/9)

~ $? ~E w~i
I
ire-

~§ ~ew
0

=-~r §#i ~:i ~~ II


2) (Asterisk denotes ~9th interval)
Cmaj7 A7(b9J Dm(ll ) G7#5(~9 ) Cmaj7 A7(b9) FIG~ *BIF C(add9)
.a. 0.0..
§,:
~q ~ ~a g !~~ ~ ~~ ~s! ~~!
I
II
The following exnmple uses both parallel and contrary motion while also ascending and descending in one chromatic
voice:
G(add9 ) F~9( 13 ) Fmaj9 Bb9 E-9 E7(#9J A6(b5 J Dn5(~9 ) G6
-e-

ir-~
f

~ ~~ ~!
~

~ i
et..' ~2 ~#§ fS??l
Three and four chromatic guide-lines in a chord progression
Three and four chromatic guide-lines have a total of fortv-ei£ht different string and motion combinations . Three
chromatic lines have ei£ht parallel and twenrv-fou r contrarv combinations while four chromatic lines ha\'e rwo
parallel and fourteen contrarv combinations.

As mentioned earlier. applying only one of the thirty-e ight possible contrary combinations over more than cwo
chords can be extremely difficult and in some cases impractical. For.this reason , a three and a four contrary chromatic
line combination will be combined into one II V I chord cadence: II - (three chromatic lines 1 - V - (four chromatic
ii nc:-. 1 - l. or 11- (four chromatic line:;' - V - t three chromatic lines) - I. Some examples ';viii contain four chromatic
lines between all three cadence chord~.. Of course. e~ich four-chromatic line exa mple contains at ienst one tbret.:-
chro matic line t:xample within it. Applying a ' 'arier_\' of the thirty-e ight possible contrary chromatic com bina1iom
\\'Ould be possih lc O\ er an extended \.'11orLi pro;:e<;s ion. and some exam91es v;ill be orcsentl.'.d Jarer rn thb section
The e ighr oarallel examples for three chrom..ur voice<; will be exammcd ove.r me entire ~T V I cadence . Th~
descending paralkl example for four chromatic voices will be included in the contrarv motion example:-. The
ascending parallel exam olc for.f'our chromatic ,·oicc:• will nor be incl uded. bm can easi!v be ex amin~d b~· fmd111 ~
one chord th:.it v;hcn mowd chrom::nicaily funcuo ns tor eac h chord of the TI VI cadence;
I1 ') \

TI v
D7su:-...! £., 7su~~ E7su~-t C6(9 D~6(9 l D6(91
[D-70 1)) [G7(alt9/alt:' )] [Cmaj7(9/6)] [D-9) [G7(#91alt5)] [Cm:ij7(# 1119))

Some of these examples will produce physically mvbvard fingerings. an<l should be relocateci to tile top four strings
ii phys ically more a·•aiJable ther(:

196
Descending parallel chromatic motion in three voices on a four-note structure;

1) B-9 E7(b 9/alt5)


..
A6(9) 2 ) Gm(ll/9) C7(b9/alt5) FCUl/9)

't' #~
I

~
b.£!_
~:
1~;~ !I
'
~
~ b'.9in ~~ II

3)

-~
..Gm(9) C7(b 9/alt5)
' t>*-
~w§
F(#ll/9)

b~
4)
D-9

~u
G7(b9/alt5 )
I

;l~:a
Cmaj9

~~ II
~- II
'
-9 I
~ 0
'"""
Ascending parallel chromatic motion in three voices on a four-note structure;

1) 2)
D-7(11) G7b5(alt9) Cmaj7(9/6) E-7(11) A7(#9/alt5) Dmaj9
. -e-

~~i
-6- ~ -&

~~
I
~ II !~ #:: ~~ I~

3)
D-7(11) G7(b9/alt5)
..!
Cmaj7(9/6)
4)
C-.7(11) F7(b9/alt5)
..
Bb6(9)

~ ~~ II '~; ~r: ~ 23
'
The following is an example of parallel "indirect" chromatic mmion using three voices. (Note the doubling);

D-7(11) (E-7(1.1)) G7~5(#9 ) G7Cb 9/alt5 1 C6(9)

4! s ~'! 4. IS i
Contrarv chromatic motion in three and four voices
The following examples will include three and four chromatic guide-lines, but will be organized in accordance with
three chromatic hnes. since they comain nvemy-four different combinations while four chromatic lines conrnin oni:··
fourteen combinations. Reference lO individual fouI-line con1oinations will oe organized and presented immediately
following these exam.pies.

197
TWO CHROMATIC LINES DESCEND WHILE ONE ASCENDS, (TWELVE COMBINATIONS)
1) 2nd, 3rd, and 4th strings;
a) II - (2d)(3d)(4a) - V - (2a)(3d)(4d)(5a) - I b) II - (2a)(3d)(4d) - V - (2d)(3d)(4a)(Sa) - I
D-9 G7(b 9/alt5 ) C(13/Ul/9) D-9 G7(#9/~5 ) C(13/ #1119)
1
*~ ·~
~

'TI
j±.e-

II Ii* ;; II
c) II - (2d)(3a)(4d) - V - (2d)(3d)(4a)(5d) - I
D-7 G7(b 9/#5) Cladd9J
I
1P-&

II
2) 3rd, 4th, and 5th strings;
a) II - (3d)(4d)(5a) - V - (2d)(3a)(4d)(5a) - I b) II - (2d)(3a)(4d)(5d) - v - (3a)(4d)(5d) - I
E-7 A7#5(b9) D(#ll) D-9 Db7 Cmaj7rn11)

._, i
& &#o:! IR
.. II =w~ 9!!~ b.o.
~,;3
1-"-
2 II
c) II - (2a)(3d)(4a)(5d) - v - (3d)( 4a)(5d) - I
D9sus4 Db7 C7(13/9)

3) 2nd, 3rd, and 5th strings;


a) II - (2d)(3d)(5a) - V - (2d)(3a)(4a)(5d) - I b) II - (2a)(3d)(Sd) - V - (2d)(3d)(4d)(5a) - I
G-9 C7(b9/alt5) F (13/Ul/9) G-7 C7(b13/b9) F(add9)

'~i ~~ i~§ Ii
c) TI - (2d)(3a)(5d) - V - (2a)(3d)(4d)(5a) - I
G-7 C7b5(#9) F6(9)

&~1 :1~! lg ::
4) 2nd, 4th, and Sth strings;
a) II - (2d)(4d)(5a) - V - (3d)(4d)(5d) - I b) H - (2a)( 4d)(Sd) - V - (2a)( 4a)(5a) - I
C-7(11) F7b5(b9) Btimaj7 C-7( 11/91 F7(b9/alt5 l Bb6(9 J
b..a.. 1-e- A b..a.. ~ be-
@Ii!! l Q)

c) II-((2d)(4a)(5d)J(3d) - V - (2a)(3d)(4a)(52) - I
G-9 C7b5(b 9J F (!: ll/91

~ ~~! .:~"-..---;·-=--==11

198
TWO CHROMATIC LINES ASCEND \VHILE ONE DESCENDS, (T\VELVE COMBINATIONS)
1) 2nd, 3rd, and 4th strings;
a) II - (2a)(3d)(4a) - V - (2a)(3d)(4d)(5d) - i b) H - (2d)(3a)(4a) - V - (2d)(3d)(4d)(5d) - I
D-7(11/9) G7(~9/alt5 ) C6(9) D-? G7 (b9/alt5!
1