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INTEGRATION OF RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTES INTO

PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FOR A


SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

By

ASHISH TRIPATHY ASUTOSH

A MASTER’S RESEARCH PROJECT (MRP) PRESENTED


TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES
WITH A CONCENTRATION IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2016
© 2016 ASHISH TRIPATHY ASUTOSH
To
MOM & DAD
TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................. 5

LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... 8

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………9

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 10

Sustainability and its need in transportation ........................................................... 11

LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................. 15

Pavement and it’s types ......................................................................................... 15


Sustainability concepts and material considerations ............................................. 17
Transportation engineering .............................................................................. 17
Durable and sustainable road construction ............................................................. 18
Pavement design faults and possible solutions ................................................ 18
Recycled asphalt pavement ............................................................................ 18
Use of treated PVC........................................................................................... 19
Industrial waste as virgin material ........................................................................... 20
Fly ash .............................................................................................................. 21
Impact of applying ash in preliminary road design ............................................ 21
Scrap tires ........................................................................................................ 22
WSDOT results on use of recycling of scrap tires ............................................ 23
Potential use of glass ....................................................................................... 24
Strength characteristics of glass in pavement design ....................................... 25
World pollution by plastics ................................................................................ 26
Plastics & Bitumen ........................................................................................... 28
Advantage of bitumen plastic mixtures in road construction ............................ 29
Engineered Cementitious Composition .................................................................. 31
Cement ............................................................................................................ 31
Use of ECC ..................................................................................................... 32
Sustainable rating systems for roadway ................................................................ 34
Green Roads ......................................................................................................... 34
Advantage of Green roads in sustainable road infrastructure ......................... 34
INVEST-(FWA) ...................................................................................................... 35
GREEN LITES........................................................................................................ 36
Others types of rating systems ............................................................................... 36
METHODOLOGY.......................................................................................................... 38

Purpose of Research.............................................................................................. 38
Methodology........................................................................................................... 38

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND


DISCUSSIONS.......................................................................................................... 39
RECYCLED SCRAP TIRES………………………………………………………………….39
Embodied energy and carbon footprint ……………………………………………….39
Recyclability of scrap tires ...................................................................................... 40
Cost analysis .......................................................................................................... 41
RECYCLED GLASS……….…………………………………………………………………. 47
Embodied energy and carbon footprint ................................................................. 47
Recyclability of scrap tires ...................................................................................... 48
Cost analysis .......................................................................................................... 50
RECYCLED PLASTIC.…….………………………………………………………………….53
Embodied energy and carbon footprint ................................................................. 54
Recyclability of scrap tires ...................................................................................... 55
Cost analysis .......................................................................................................... 58
CONCLUSION………..…….………………………………………………………………….60
Current challenges in adopting application of alternate materials in pavement
design and construction .......................................................................................... 61
RESOURCES………...…….………………………………………………………………….66
CITATIONS…………..…….…………………………………………………………………. 72
LIST OF FIGURE
REFFERENCE…….…………..…….………………………………………………………..78
LIST OF FIGURES

Page
Figure.1 –Flexible pavement 15
Figure.2 –Rigid Pavement 16
Figure.3 –Recycling rates of municipal wastes 21
Figure.4– Engineering properties of tire bales 23
Figure.5 – Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes 25
Figure 6 – Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes 25

Figure 7 – Engineering properties of recycled glass 26


Figure 8 – Different routes for plastic waste management 29

Figure 9 – Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE 30

Figure 10 - Comparison of ECC material performance in uniaxial tension 31

Figure 11 – Design Chart for ECC and Concrete overlay thickness 33

Figure 12 – Framework of LCA 35

Figure 13– Difference in carbon dioxide equivalent between asphalt &


recycled tire 41

Figure 14 – Section of pavement using scrap tires 42

Figure 15 – System of recycling tires 46

Figure 16– Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings


compared to landfilling 48

Figure 17– Difference in process energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled 49
materials

Figure 18– Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin &
recycled materials 50

Figure 19– Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi 52


Figure 20– Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand 53

Figure 21– Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of


virgin plastics and recycled plastics 55

Figure 22– Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled


plastics 56

Figure 23– Flow chart of a plastic waste management process 57

Figure 24– Energy Savings per Short Ton of Recycled Material compared to
landfilling 59

Figure 25– Solar roadways 64


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to extend much gratitude to my committee members for their insightful

input and direction for which this thesis would not be possible. Most especially my chair, Dr.

Nawari, and my co-chair Professor Chini, whose expertise and passion for the topic have

been most inspiring. Also, to those who made my time at this pristine university such a

great experience especially Dr. Michael Kung, Professor Ruth Steiner and my fellow

graduates.

Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends who supported me through this entire

journey constantly.
Abstract of the Master’s Research Project Presented to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies with a
Concentration in Sustainable Design

INTEGRATION OF RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTES INTO


PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FOR A
SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

By
Ashish Tripathy Asutosh
July 2016

Chair:- Nawari O. Nawari

Co-chair:- Abdol R Chini

Major: Master of Science in Architectural Studies with a Concentration in Sustainable


Design

Transportation Infrastructure has remained the key element for the economic and social

development of a country. Especially in developing countries, the demand for new roads

and maintenance of existing roads are very high as they depend on the overall

development. This call for transforming the methods the roads are being laid. Recent

studies have shown light in the background of making our transportation system greener

and sustainable, which can be a fast track to achieving the goals of saving the planet from

further critical conditions. One of the effective ways of addressing this issue is by the

substitution or replacement of pavements layers using alternate materials which are not
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extracted from nature. Many experiments have been done in finding various alternate

materials in road construction specifically using recycled wastes. The purpose of this study

is to analyze the environmental significances and prove the use of alternate chosen

materials such as waste plastics in road construction. This is addressed by comparing

various parameters such global warming potential, carbon footprint, cost and other different

environmental impact factors. The results from this comparison can prove the use of these

materials in pavement construction and its respective constraints in using on a large scale.

This will bring in revised pavement design and construction in a more efficient, economical

and sustainable manner.

10
INTRODUCTION

With 7 billion people on the planet and another 1 billion expected, mankind and other living

organisms are suffering from a man-made disaster known as global warming: the need for

taking strong actions has not been more serious and will not be in next century. The health

and wealth of Mother Nature depend on these times where people must change their tracks

and their way of living their lifestyle.

Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without

compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

 The concept of needs, in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which

overriding priority should be given; and

 The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on

the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."(The Brundtland

Commission) report Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

The world is running short of natural resources and over-exploitation of these has created a

manmade disaster which we commonly know as global warming and climate change.

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Excessive burning of fossil fuel and natural resources has brought us to a position where

the planet is under maximum stress. This is the reason why sustainable development

practices are at the pinnacle of our responsibilities. The topic of sustainable development is

a concept which encompasses many factors like sustaining biodiversity, social

sustainability, controlling climate change, etc. The major contributor to this issue is our built

environment. This is where we spend the maximum amount of resources and fossil fuels

resulting excess carbon emissions and footprint. The built environment consists of all the

structures ranging from buildings, roads, bridges and all other man-made entities which

support the human civilization.

Progress has been made in many sectors to embed sustainability in our daily lives but it has

miles to go down the line into achieving every aspect. These aspects relate to our

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) which have been modified into Millennium

development goals. These goals focus on sustaining health, wealth, economy and living

conditions of every human being on the planet. This study will be an attempt to solve one of

the development goals which consists one of the components of the built environment that

is Transportation Infrastructure.

Transportation Infrastructure has remained the key element for the economic and social

development of a country. It impacts trade, production and consumption, health and other

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factors. It is also a keen element in the job sector. The ways of transportation are land, air

and water out of which the majority is roadways and the other two are dependent on it. In

this time of war against global warming and climate change, we are struggling to alter our

ways of lifestyle in order to bring sustainability. Planning, design, construction and

maintenance of roads have been nascent towards being sustainable whereas efforts are

being made to innovate and build a greener building and greener products. ‖The road

network uses massive amounts of energy to construct and the materials used are highly

unsustainable in nature. Similar to any civil structure, their elements such as asphalt or

bitumen in road construction which is produced through fractional distillation involves

burning of crude oil to which the world is striving to put an end.

This sector produces the highest level of greenhouse gas, directly, through fossil energy

used in mining, transportation, paving works and indirectly through the emissions coming

from vehicles. Indeed, the constant increase in the number of road vehicles and therefore of

the traffic generates a substantial increase in pollution and noise disturbances.‖-World

Highways, 2015.

Transportation systems cause pollution and fragmentation among various habitats.

Besides, huge challenges await the road construction sector such as a cheaper and better

production, construction and of course maintenance, all the more as raw materials are

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becoming scarce and the environmental laws are getting stricter regarding air pollution and

noise disturbances. Like the rest of the sectors, the road construction sector needs to face

the challenge of sustainability.

These calls for transforming the methods the roads are being laid. Recent studies have

shown light in the background of making our transportation system greener and sustainable

which can be a fast track to achieving the goals of saving the planet from further critical

conditions. The good news is many countries have taken initiatives but it has not been

practiced as it should be. Especially in developing countries, the demand for new roads and

maintenance of existing roads very high as they depend on the overall development.

Therefore, we shall look into examining and formulating techniques and strategies to design

and construct sustainable road infrastructures. Let us take a step forward into looking the

alternatives of the process and analyze the reasons what are the factors which play a role in

changing our traditional routines.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

PAVEMENTS AND ITS TYPES

Flexible pavement can be defined as the type of pavement which consists of a mixture of

asphalt or bituminous material, aggregates (coarse and fine) placed on a bed of compacted

granular material of appropriate quality in layers over the subgrade. The course aggregates

can be crushed stone and fine aggregates are generally sand. (Both engineered to required

specification). The Bitumen is the derived from tar which is the final product of fractional

distillation of natural oil. These pavements generally designed for low volume traffic loads as

compared to rigid pavements. The stress distribution in these pavements is such that it

gradually recedes as the load is transmitted downwards from the surface by virtue of

spreading over an increasingly larger area, by carrying it deep enough into the ground

through successive layers.

Figure 1-Road section of a flexible pavement, 2011, Online manuals -Texas Department of
Transportation

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A rigid pavement can be defined as the type of pavement which consists of a plain or

reinforced concrete as the surface course instead of asphalt. It also consists a base course

which requires aggregates(coarse and fine) with binder medium. The design of rigid

pavement is based on providing a concrete slab of strength to resist heavier traffic loads

.The rigid pavement has rigidity and high modulus of elasticity which distributes the load

over a relatively wide area.

Figure 2- Road section of a rigid pavement, 2011 Online manuals -Texas Department of
Transportation

In a rigid pavement, the flexural strength of concrete is the major factor in the overall

performance of the road. Due to this property of pavement, when the subgrade deflects at

the beneath, the concrete slab is able to bridge over the localized failures and areas of

inadequate support from subgrade because of slab action.(theconstructor.org)

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SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS

"This one trend, climate change, affects all trends."(Barack Obama, Paris Climate Change

conference 2015).A report by the US federal highway administration in 2015 unfolded the

requirement of sustainability in road sectors. The two primary goals of any road are to meet

the engineering requirements designed for a long term period on a particular site and to use

smart environmentally safe materials and processes in order to preserve the ecosystem.

Sustainability is a continuous effort where the conventional practices are changed and

refined to meet the current goals. This refers to solving issues as greenhouse gas (GHG)

emissions, energy consumption, impacts on habitat, water quality, changes in the hydrologic

cycle, air quality, mobility, access, freight, community, depletion of non-renewable

resources, and economic development. The motivation for moving towards sustainable

practices has been delivered by the most influence factor that is economics. Along with the

urgent need to fight climate change and global warming, economics has proved to be of

benefit in the long term to any organization which decides to walk on this side of the

business. (World Green Building Trend, 2016).The materials used in the road are basically

extracted from the surrounding and modified to meet the necessary engineering

requirements. For road sustainability, these are keen components. Factors that should be

investigated when designing roads. These include lifecycle cycle analysis, carbon footprint.

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a systematic approach of looking at a product’s complete life

17
cycle, from raw materials to final disposal of the product. It offers a cradle to grave approach

to a product or process considering environmental aspects and potential impacts. (Williams

2009)It is one of the best methods to analyze the amount of energy spent throughout its

lifecycle. Carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gasses produced to directly

and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon

dioxide (CO2) in a given time frame.(timeforchange, 2016)This refers to fossil fuel -

consumption from the point of extraction to the place where the product is at any particular

date. The use of alternate materials and recycled components must be an important

decision to reach the sustainability goals in road infrastructure.

DURABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ROAD CONSTRUCTION

The proposed solutions for the construction of sustainable roads in developing countries are

described by many studies. The major changes needed for sustainability issues are to be

made in the pavement design where the design is more important than other layers or road

construction. The wheel and axial load variations and the interactions with the pavement life

and durability are some of the important factors which affect the roads at extreme

conditions. It is suggested that heavy vehicles such as trucks must be constantly checked

for the inspections of axel and wheels. The quality of construction is also is also analyzed to

and determined to be significant. (Molenaar, 2013)This claims by data analysis of triaxial


18
tests, deformation patterns and resilient modulus results to imply the use of recycling

construction and demolition waste and using RA(Recycled Asphalt) in hot mix asphalt.

These are some of the effective measures in reducing the use of virgin materials.

Reclaimed asphalt pavements have been very popular where the old sections of the road

need to be re-recycled for the construction and rehabilitation of other roads. In India, for

example, researchers have concluded the benefit of high-quality RA in design mixes.

Experiments were carried out in making mixes proportion of RAP: VA aggregates: fly ash

and finding a better mix for using on road construction. Tests of different proportions of

these ingredients were conducted like Optimum Moisture Content, gradation curves,

Unconfined Compressive Test and California Bearing Ratio which were found to be

satisfactory. (Saride, 2015). RAP and fly ash must be frequently used in large quantities for

a sustainable approach to road construction. Application of waste PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride),

recycled PVC (2-4mm) in size in the bitumen mix for the base course of the pavement can

be a technique to reduce the use of natural materials. The treated PVC can be used to

prepare two blends of bitumen mixes 3% and 5% by weight. Extensive experiments such as

penetration tests, rheology, retained stability, indirect tensile strength, rut depth studies and

beam fatigue tests it is inferred that use of PVC (treated) was found effective in approaching

sustainable road construction. (Behl, 2014).

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INDUSTRIAL WASTE AS VIRGIN MATERIAL

In the case of road construction and rehabilitation, the majority of the problems we face are

due to the materials. The conventional material system needs to be changed and new

innovations must be made to make our roads greener and safer. Studies show potential

alternate materials which have been identified and experimented to be beneficial for roads

to make resilient to the environment. These alternate materials are basically industrial waste

which is toxic to the surrounding environment and has potential in serving similar purposes

as virgin materials in other industries.

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Figure 3- Recycling rate of municipal wastes, 2015, Wall Street Journal

ASH

Common Industrial wastes such as Ash (Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, Pond Ash, Magnetherm Slag

) are being used in road and building construction and have gained popularity since many

years.

When coal is burnt in the furnace of the power stations, it results in around 80% of ash. This

part gets carried along with flue gasses and is collected by using either electrostatic or

cyclone precipitator which is called fly ash. The remaining ash sinters and falls down at the

bottom of the furnace, known as bottom ash. Fly ash may be disposed of in dry form or

through water slurry in a pond. When fly ash and bottom ash are mixed and disposed of in

the form of water slurry to ash ponds, it is called pond ash. Fly ash can cause environmental

degradation creating health hazards and requires large areas of landfill. Countries such as

India have already formulated guidelines to use ash in road construction. It can be used in

the lightweight embankment to reduce settlement. Also, ferry bumpers, composting and

safety barriers have been used as additive to the pavement to increase strength and

improve drainage characteristics. (IRC SP-58, 2001)

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TIRES

The use of scrap tires is proven efficient in building and rehabilitating roads. (David,1992)

Typical uses are wet and dry processes where the scrap tires are used as a binder in the

asphalt mixture or used with aggregate mixtures respectively. Experiments were carried by

Washington State Department Of Transportation such as SAM(stress absorbing

membrane), SAMI(stress absorbing membrane interlayer) and other types which also

proved beneficial to the concept of recycled use of scrap tires but not cost effective in that

period of time. The rubber-asphalt paving material has still a potential space for

improvement to use on a massive scale. (WSDOT, 1992).In addition, a distinct

experimentally study verified the use of tires in taking various pavements design layers.

The design sections consisted of different proportions of soil, scrap tires chips, and

geotextiles which were constructed and tested in real time. It was successful in getting the

desired parameters with minor challenges. (Neil, 1992)

Chip size Friction Cohesion Lateral Poisson’s Elastic

(inches) angle (psi) earth ratio Modulus

(degrees) pressure at (Psi)

rest(K 0)

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2 21 1.12 .41 .28 164

3 19 1.67 .26 .20 163

2 25 1.25 .47 .32 112

Figure 4 , Engineering properties of tire bales, Encore Systems Inc-(Texas Department of

Transportation)

GLASS

Use of domestic waste glass also was studied for road construction for the US

environmental Protection Agency. It was found that asphalt does not adhere to glass

surfaces as it does with aggregate. It could only be used 15% of the total aggregate volume

using glass finer than 3/8 inch sieve. To reduce the adhesion problem, few additives like

hydrated lime was introduced and the results seemed promising. Many other anti-stripping

agents were discovered to solve the adhesion for the glass and asphalt. This result in the

use of waste glass on low volume roads with the help of binders. The alkali-silica reaction

between glass and concrete is a widespread problem. The reaction causes a gel-like

product formation that absorbs moisture, expands and finally leads to the disintegration of

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the concrete. (University Of Missouri, 1975). Glass can be a very efficient substitute in rigid

pavements where concrete is the main element of the roadway. According to an experiment

at University If Baghdad, the 28-day compressive strength value of 45.9 MPa was obtained

from the concrete mix made of 20% waste glass fine aggregate, which represents an

increase in the compressive strength of up to 4.23% as compared to the control mix.

Figure 5-Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes (Ismail,2008).

The pozzolanic effect of waste glass in concrete is more obvious at the later age of 28

days. The optimum percentage of waste glass that gives the maximum values of

compressive and flexural strengths is 20%. And Using finely ground waste glass in

preference to fine aggregate could produce promising results, assuming that the geometry

will be less heterogeneous.(Ismail,2008)

% waste glass 0 10 15 20
Fresh Density 2467.90 2445.70 2428.30 2420.90
24
Figure 6-Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes (Ismail,2008)

Recycled glass is a very good source for using in road construction .It has shown specific

gravity values were found to be approximately 10% lower than the values to natural

aggregate reported by (Das, 2007). A study at the Swinburne University of Technology

experimented samples of recycled glass for their strength and geotechnical characteristics

which delivered satisfactory results compared to being treated as materials for pavement

design. Three recycled glass sample were taken and named Fine Recycled Glass (FRG)

,Medium Recycled Glass (MRG) and Coarse Recycled Glass (CRG). The maximum particle

size of these samples was 4.75 mm, 9.5mm and19 mm respectively. The main difference

between these samples was their gradation curve which influenced the geotechnical

Properties . The FRG and MRG samples were found more suitable for replacement. (

Disfani, 2011).

Test Fine recycled Medium

glass recycled

glass

Specific Gravity 2.48 2.5

Flakiness Index -- 85.4

Organic content(%) 1.3 0.5

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pH Value 9.9 10.1

Standard Proctor(kN/m3 ) 16.7 18.0

Modified proctor(kN/m3) 17.5 19.5

LA Abrasion Value 24.8 25.4

Figure 7- Engineering properties of recycled glass, ( Disfani, 2011)

Glass can not only be used in flexible pavements but also in rigid pavements. There is great

potential for the utilization of waste glass in concrete in several forms, including fine

aggregate, coarse aggregate.(Ahmed ,2011). Use of fine waste glass can also act as an

additive to fine aggregate which could produce promising results.(Ismail, 2008)

PLASTICS

Polyethylene is one of a kind of polymers which was investigated for the potential to

enhance asphalt mixture properties. Two types of polyethylene were added to coat the

aggregate High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE). The

results indicated that ground HDPE polyethylene modifier provides better engineering

properties. The recommended proportion of the modifier is 12% by the weight of bitumen

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content. It was found to increase the stability, reduce the density and slightly increase the

air voids and the voids of mineral aggregate. (Mohammad, 2007)

―Researchers have estimated eight million tons of plastic being dumped into the oceans by

192 coastal countries in 2010.It may appear staggeringly high, in reality, the quantity would

be many times more than that amount. Besides estimating the total quantity, a paper

published recently in the journal of Science has identified the top 20 countries that have

dumped the most plastic waste into the oceans. At the twelfth position, India is one of the

worst performers. It has dumped up to 0.24 million tons of plastic into the ocean every year;

the amount of mismanaged plastic waste per year is 0.6 million tons.‖(The Hindu,2015).This

is a report showing the urgency to find solutions to fight against this hazardous waste being

responsible in polluting water, land, and air at an exponential rate. One of the best remedies

is to direct these waste plastics into using for several purposes, for example, construction of

roads. This demands to understand the feasibility of usage of this category of wastes into

the construction of roads.

It has been also discovered that recycled plastics can be used in the construction of

bituminous or asphalt roads. The polymer in plastics and the bitumen mixture can withstand

high temperatures and can resist the action of water. The sound proofing properties of

plastics cause the roads to reduce noise pollution and no toxic gasses are produced.(

27
Swami, 2012). This has been practically implemented in the roads of Himachal Pradesh,

India and proved to be very efficient (DNA India, 2010).But there are many steps involved

from the collection of waste plastics to finally using in the construction. The plastics should

be recycled and prepared for usage in the mix designs. This consists of several economic

and technological constraints such as the requirement of chemical modification to recover

the base chemical constituents.( Rebeiz, 1995). There is a need for proper regulations and

resources to use these wastes into the construction process.

There are many properties of bitumen which is unsuitable for pavements and can cause

distress to the traffic. First, bitumen is the result of the burning of fossil fuels which is an

environmental disaster. At high temperature, bleeding of road prevails reducing the

performance of surface courses. Due to the chemical reactions for instance oxidation,

bitumen may crack. Bitumen strips off from the aggregate forming pothole on roads as

being water repellent material in action with water which reduces the life of roads. Plastic

due to its chemical composition it acts a good binder to bitumen. It Softens at around 260

degrees Fahrenheit and there is no effervesces of any gasses in the temperature range of

260-350 degree Fahrenheit .Have a binding property to enhance their binding

28
property.(Gawande,2012).

Figure 8- Different routes for plastic waste management,(Panda,2009)

Another study from Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology experimentally proved

that using wastes plastics can improve the design quality of the pavement as well as reduce

the use of bitumen. The experiment consisted of designing a Semi Dense Bituminous

Concrete (SDBC) mix which was prepared using Marshall Method of bituminous mix design.

This SDBC was prepared with conventional 60/70 grade bitumen, 60/70 grade bitumen

added with varying percentages of LDPE and were studied for various parameters .From

the table below it can be observed that the Marshall Stability Values and Bulk Density

increased with the percentage increase in the modifier (LDPE).

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MARSHAL FLOW BULK AIR VOIDS IN % VOIDS FILLED

Sl No LDPE BITUMEN STABILITY VALUE DENSITY VOIDS% MINERAL WITH BITUMEN

(%) (%) (Kg) (mm) (GM/CC) Vv AGGREG (VFB)

ATE(VMA

1 3 5 1050 3.10 2.24 3.86 15.04 74.12

2 6 5 1120 3.88 2.25 3.43 14.66 76.23

3 9 5 1185 3.91 2.25 3.21 14.48 77.18

Figure 9-Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE (Rokade,2012)

ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITION

Cement is the mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials with at a given proportion.

Cement industry alone contributes 5% of the global carbon dioxide production -----

Cement acts as a binder substance used in construction that can bind other materials

together. The most important types of cement are used as a component in the production

of mortar in masonry and concrete .Cement Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine

aggregate, coarse aggregate and water in a specific proportion to form a strong building

material. Cement production is growing by 2.5% annually and is expected to rise up to

30
4.4 billion tons by 2050(Madeleine, 2012).Due to the rising traffic in the world, the demand

for concrete pavement roads has also magnified. This causes the use of more cement

which is a danger to the natural ecosystem.

Figure 10- Comparison on ECC material performance in uniaxial tension (Lepech,2010)

Use of ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composition) has been a good effort to reduce the

cement content in the construction of rigid pavement. ECC is a modified high-performance

fiber reinforced cementitious compositions which have similar ductility as metals and has

tight crack width. It has a strain capacity more than 300 times than ordinary concrete.

Several tests, for example, mechanical loading, performance, shrinkage,

permeability,abrasion,freeze-thaw,strength,environmental tests, etc has proved that ECC is

31
a better than conventional cement compositions to use in highways. 14 mixes were

designed in which the ingredients of the ECC were from various industrial wastes such as

fly ash thermoelectric industries, residue wastes from a metal casting, post-consumer carpet

fibers, cement kiln dust and expanded polystyrene beads from lost foam foundry operations.

Use of ECC potentially can reduce about 70% use of virgin materials used for rigid

pavements. (Michael , 2010)

Figure 11-Design Chart for ECC and Concrete overlay thickness (Lepech,2010)

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SUSTAINABLE RATING SYSTEMS FOR ROADWAYS

GREEN ROADS

(GRI) Green roads International is a nonprofit organization which has taken initiatives in

devising suitable guidelines for making roads greener. A "Green road" is a transportation

project that is designed and constructed to a level of sustainability substantially higher than

current common practice. Green roads provide environmental, economic and social

benefits. The GRI provided focuses on projects efficiently use resources and renewable

materials; help reduces emissions, manage waste, enable multimodal transport. The

organization has formulated guidelines for accessing the sustainability criteria of the road

construction through studying life cycle analysis. This includes setting up indicators for

materials used in construction. Some of the indicators are global warming potential,

acidification, human health, resource depletion, etc. (Greenroads,2016)


33
Not only these indicators are most useful in identifying better materials for the construction

and rehabilitation of transportation systems but also to justify the use of these alternate

sources to save the environment.

Figure.12 –Framework of LCA (Greenroads manual V1.5-(consoli,1993)

INVEST-(FWA)

INVEST (Infrastructure Voluntary Evaluation Sustainability Tool) is a web-based self-

evaluation tool comprised of voluntary sustainability best practices, called criteria, which

cover the full lifecycle of transportation services, including system planning, project

planning, design, and construction, and continuing through operations and maintenance.

Federal Highway Administration’s under US Department of Transportation developed this


34
program for voluntary use by transportation agencies to analyze and elevate the

sustainability of the projects.

INVEST criteria are basically divided into four modules:

(1)System Planning for States

(2) System Planning for Regions

(3) Project Development

(4) Operations and Maintenance

Each module is independent and is evaluated separately. The Project Development module

consists of multiple scorecards designed to recognize the varying scope, scale, and context

of projects across the country.(Sustainablehighways,2012)

GREEN LITES

Green LITES is a certification program developed by NYSDOT(New York State Department

Of Transportation) in 2008. It is a self-certification program that distinguishes transportation

projects and operations based on the extent to which they incorporate sustainable
35
choices. This is basically an internal management program for NYSDOT to measure

performance, recognize suitable practices, and identify zones for improvement. NYSDOT

project designs and operations are evaluated for sustainable practices and based on the

total credits achieved. The rating system recognizes varying certification levels, with the

highest level going to designs and operational groups that clearly advance the state of

sustainable transportation solutions. The certification system has various programs

depending on the type of project. They are Project Design Certification Program, Operations

Certification Program , Green LITES Regions, Local Projects Certification Program and

Green LITES Planning. There are 4 levels of awards (certifications) in this rating system.

They are Green LITES certified, Green LITES Silver, Green LITES Gold and Green LITES

Evergreen.(New York State Department Of Transportation,2008)

There are other types of rating systems such as

 I-LAST:(Infrastructure Voluntary Evaluation Sustainability Tool) by Illinois

Department of Transportation ,2011

 Green Guide for Roads: Alberta

 Green Pave: Ontario Ministry of Transportation

 Green Guide for Roads: Transportation Association of Canada

 Envision , ISI(Institute of sustainable infrastructure)(Asmar,2013)


36
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The study design was cross-sectional in nature and a non-experimental research .After

studying the feasibility of the applications of alternate materials in road construction, data

was collected about the properties of these materials. These

The data was collected from secondary resources which included journals and company

reviews. This included data about the carbon footprint, embodied energy, recyclability,

present tradition, and cost.

The research used these data to compare the environmental properties and their impacts.

The results would give a basic framework to analyze the differences in using virgin materials

over recycled industrial wastes in pavement design & construction. The industrial wastes

such as scrap tires, glass and plastics were chosen. Furthermore, this research aims at

analyzing these results and making an effort to claim the use of these materials over virgin

materials in road design and construction. This study also seeks to be a stepping stone into

37
postulating new materials for the substitution of traditional pavement design which will

require less use of natural resources and will be more sustainable.

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

RECYCLE SCRAP TIRES

EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT

Several millions of tires roll around the earth and huge amount of natural resources are

used to produce these .This creates tons of waste or scrap tires which are either discarded

or incarnated once the life cycle is achieved. To find out the embodied energy in a tire, the

energy spent on the process of raw material acquisition to transportation to the market is to

be examined. Tire constitutes of rubber or elastomers, metals, textiles, additives, carbon-

based materials and chemicals such as sulfur and zinc oxides. Steel cords run through the

tire and other chemicals to make it more durable. The primary energy used is the burning of

fossil fuels. Each year 6162 trillion Btu of energy is spent in processing steel and other

alloys (Design lifecycle).After the acquisition of raw materials, they are shipped to the

38
factories where the final product is created. A case study conducted by Conservation

Technology Inc examined a factory that produced 33,000 metric tons of tires per year and

found that it used 22,474,000kWh of energy per year. The factory used 7540 tons of liquid

petroleum used to generate 103,140 tons of steam using boilers. Millions of tires are

discarded every year which is toxic in nature. Although there are environmental laws, most

of these tires end up in a landfill or are incinerated which is a hazard to the ecology.

This is an opportunity of recycling the tires to its maximum potential .In today’s date it can

be used in various industries especially in the construction environment the use is promising

and saves natural resources such as trees and asphalt. A study done at the University of

Wisconsin proved that mechanical scrap tires can be used in the construction of pavements

using various techniques. The experiment used testing different pavements using various

composition of scrap tires and soil and concluded to be feasible using tires in road

construction with general maintenance. There are other experiments carried out in other

organizations which prove that it is a potential alternative to constructing roads.

Considering recycling of these tires, it cannot be directly used. This requires proper

recycling and converts them to final product for the road industry. ISRI (Institute of Scrap

recycling Industries INC) experimented the carbon footprint of recycling tires. The study was

successful and it concluded that energy from recycled rubber has a lower carbon footprint

than coal which is the main ingredient of energy production. The upstream carbon footprint

39
for the production of asphalt is 840kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per metric ton whereas it

Is 124 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent to recycle tires per metric ton. When used in

pavements, recycled rubber had between 3 and 7 times lower carbon footprint than asphalt.

Electricity is the largest source of the carbon footprint.

Kg of CO2 equivalent

1000
800
600
Kg of CO2 equivalent
400
200
0
ASPHALT RECYCLED TIRE

Figure 13-Difference in carbon dioxide equivalent between asphalt & recycled tire, ISRI

2009

COST ANALYSIS

If we take an example of using tires in the pavement we can derive various forms of layer

thickness. Taking into consideration a section from the study done at University of and W

Wisconsin Department of transportation, we can get an approximate volume of tires used in

0one mile of road. From the figure, if we estimate for 1 mile of road,

40
Approximate Volume of tires = [3’x {16.5’+17’}/2] x 5280’ (1 mile) which will be equal to

265,320 cubic feet of scrap tires.

Figure 14 -Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992)

Tire recycling is not a new business. Several firms focus on recycling tires into making the

various products but it has not been on a massive scale. Starting from crumb rubber to TDF

(tire derived fuel), it has many uses. But the scrap tires are still being stacked up in millions.

It is estimated more than 50 million tires and discarded in the United States each

year,(Guidelines ,1987). This reflects for technological advancement in the recycling of

these tires and diverting them into the construction industry. The cost of recycling will

decrease when their new plants are installed which would cater to the demands.

Assuming a road being constructed in Gainesville, Florida let us take a step in analyzing the

approximate costs which are incurred in using traditional material over industrial wastes.

41
According to the department of Florida transportation, construction of a 2 lane asphalt

roadway of one center mile will cost $7,321,444 by LRE. Some of the costs defined by

Florida Department Of Transportation(FDOT) as per 2013 were

Asphalt is projected around 100$ per 1 ton,

Earthwork for $0.3 per cubic feet and

Structural concrete (rigid pavements) to be $29.63 per cubic feet.

Figure 14-Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992)

Using the above pavement section using soil and scrap tires, it is estimated to have 265,320

ft3 of tires which can be used as a replacement for 1mile of road subgrade. Now the cost of

the road section can be computed as

Compacted density of tires =40 lb/ft3

For 1mile of road =40lb/ft3 x 265,320 ft3

=10612800lbs

42
=5306.4 tons (1 ton=2000 lbs)

Comparing with the price of sub base and subgrade which mainly consists of aggregates

and binder material,

Density of coarse aggregate (crushed stone) and sand =100lb/ft3 (rfcafe ,2016)

Cost of aggregates =$30/ton (Gravelshop,2016)

For 265,320 ft3= [{(265,320 x 100) / 2000)} x 30 ]

= $ 397,980

The hidden costs would be transporting the tires from the scrap tire factory to the recycling

plant. In this case, it can be made sure the vehicles can be chosen which would run on

sustainable fuels such as biodiesel and the recycling plant running on renewable energies.

By spending $5000 for a mile of road by replacing scrap tires, an amount of approximately

$ 390,000 can be saved.

1 tire barrel =1 ton which contains 100 tires wrapped together in a pile of 2.5x4.5x5 feet.

5306.4 tons=530640 tires which can be purchased from Tallahassee for $0.7 per barrel

from a scrap tire company which equated to $3714.48(USA scrap tire network, 2016). This

is the amount of money a recycling plant can purchase for shredding and organizing. Then

with a certain percentage of profit the company can sell the contractor for around $5000.The

hidden costs would be transporting the tires from the scrap tire factory to the recycling plant.

43
In this case, it can be made sure the vehicles can be chosen which would run on

sustainable fuels such as biodiesel and the recycling plant running on renewable energies.

By spending $5000 for a mile of road, equivalent amount of asphalt, fine aggregate and

coarse aggregates.

From the above breakdown of preliminary prices, we can observe that it is economically

profitable to use scrap tires in pavements and is sustainable in nature. This also reduces the

maintenance costs(pavement maintenance, roadside maintenance ,drainage ,vegetation,

aesthetics, traffic services ,bridge, routine maintenance, miscellaneous routine maintenance

and other maintenance functions)which traditionally costs more than 200 million dollars per

annum.(DOT, Florida cost report,2014).

44
Figure 15- System of recycling tires, derived from ( IERE, Nov 2009)

The use of tires in road construction is promising. It will require a series of enhancements.

First, there is a need to formulate basic design guidelines. This innovation and technology

have to be promoted all around the world. There must a clear economic chart which should

be developed in order to convince the industries to use the maximum amount of tires as it

would be beneficial to them.

45
RECYCLED INDUSTRIAL WASTE GLASS

The glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is produced by supercooling of a mixture

consisting silica sand (SiO2) and soda ash (sodium carbonate) to a rigid state. This

supercooled material does not crystallize and retains the internal structure. The other

constituents of the material consist of sodium oxide (Na2O), lime (CaO), and several minor

additives. These are used in the forms of bulbs, cathode ray tubes, bottles, glasses and for

packaging.

EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT

Silica sand which is the main ingredient is mixed with lime and soda and is heated at around

1500 °C using fossil fuels. The molten glass is passed over molten tin at 1000ºC and then

cooled in a controlled manner to form a continuous sheet. This produces a substance

known as Float glass whose thickness can range from 2 – 25 mm. Several other additives

are added like (Mg and Al2O3) to help the melting process, and other oxides are added for

color. The mining of silica sand which causes immense stress on the ecosystem. Fossil fuel

is also used to excavate and transport the materials .The embodied energy of glass is

approximately 15.9 MJ/Kg. (Andrew,2010)

46
Although the recycling of glass is not new to many industries, still a large pile of the

these end up in a landfill. In many cases, certain recycled glass are not recyclable in the

manufacturing of new glass bottles and jars or to make fiberglass. This may be because

there is too much contaminates or they do not possess the required properties. The

major difficulty could be the unavailability of recycling plant at a reasonable distance.

Glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without any loss in purity or

quality. Over a ton of natural resources are saved for every ton of glass recycled. The

Energy costs drop about 2-3% for every 10% cullet used in the manufacturing process.

Figure 16- Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings compared to

landfilling (WARM-13)
47
The recycling of glass can be aggressively developed by using this in construction

industries. The use of recycled glass in the pavement construction can drastically save

energy as well as natural resources. When the waste glass is crushed to sand like particle

sizes, similar to those of natural sand, it exhibits properties of an aggregate material. Glass

has been proven as an effective fine aggregate and as an additive in the concrete. It can be

applied in both flexible and rigid pavements. Materials such as glass have more than 100

years durability and remain unaffected by moisture content which is a required characteristic

of good pavement. Studies have shown that use of recycled glass surges sound insulation.

Process Energy in Mil(Btu)

8
6
4 Process Energy in Mil(Btu)
2
0
Virgin Materials Recycled
Materials

Figure 17- Difference in process energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA

2011

A study showed the amount of energy spent in recycling glass. A waste TV is collected in

New York and taken to a local dismantling center. The Cathode ray tube is removed and

was sent to Mexicali where it was split and had the coatings removed. The glass is then

48
shipped to India for use in factory manufacturing the same tubes. The total distance in miles

from New York to India was 13,770 miles. It consists of 2,770 miles of road, 11,000 miles by

ship. The CO2 emissions were calculated to be 2,004 pounds per ton. This number is not

even close to justifying the recycling of glass. This should be an eye opener to promote

local plants of recycling where it can be sent as raw materials to various factories and

construction sites spending minimum amount of energy.

Transportation Process Energy Mil(Btu)

0.6
0.4
Transportation Process
0.2 Energy Mil(Btu)

0
Virgin Materials Recycled
Materials

Figure 18-- Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled

materials, EPA 2011

COST ANALYSIS

Recycled waste glasses can be applied in both rigid and flexible pavements as

replacements for aggregate. Assuming a rigid pavement, we can calculate the expenditure

49
to replace the waste glass with concrete. Waste glass can be procured for $10 a

ton.(kdhnews,2013). According to a study at the University of Baghdad(2008), it is possible

to replace 20% of the pavement with recycled glass without any changes of the strength

and performance of the rigid pavement. Let us assume a rigid pavement using US

standards in the southeast region of 8000psi which is M55.15806~M 55.16 grade concrete.

Using this standard for 1 cubic yard of road, the materials are as follows,

Compressive strength psi 8000

Portland cement lbs 900

fly ash lbs 255

Slag Cement lbs 44

Mixing Water lbs 350

Crushed Coarse Aggregate lbs 1133

Natural Coarse Aggregate lbs 231

Crushed Fine Aggregate lbs 226

Natural Fine Aggregate lbs 890

Air % oz 2%

Air Entraining Admixture oz 0

Water Reducer oz 3

High Range Water Reducer oz 4

50
accelerator oz 10

total weight lbs 4027

Figure 19- Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi, 2014, Athena Sustainable Materials

Institute.

Total amount of fine aggregates =890+226 lbs

=1116 lbs

20% of this amount =223.2 lbs

For constructing in Gainesville, fine aggregate (sand) can be purchased at Alachua County

for $30/ton. (Gravelshop,2016).

For 2000 lbs the price of sand is $30.(1 ton= 2000lbs)

For 223.3 lbs =(30/2000)x223.2 =$3.35

When we replace this amount by waste glass the prices are as follows,

1 ton= $10

223.2 lbs = (10/2000)x223.2=$1.12

From above calculations, we can observe that the price of waste glass is $1.12 for 223.2 lbs

where the price of sand for the same amount is $3.35.

51
Price

Waste Glass

Price

Sand

$0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00

Figure 20- Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand, 2016.

INDUSTRIAL RECYCLED PLASTICS

A plastic is a type of synthetic or man-made polymer; similar in many ways to natural resins

found in trees and other plants. Webster's Dictionary defines polymers as any of various

complex organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded,

extruded, cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments and then used as

textile fibers.This is one of the most important pollutants in the world contributing to climate

change.

Oil and natural gas are the major raw materials used to manufacture plastics. The plastics

production process often begins by treating components of crude oil or natural gas in a
52
"cracking process." This process results in the conversion of these components into

hydrocarbon monomers such as ethylene and propylene. Further processing leads to a

wider range of monomers such as styrene, vinyl chloride, ethylene glycol, terephthalic acid

and many others. These monomers are then chemically bonded into chains called

polymers.

For more than 50 years, global production and consumption of plastics have continued to

rise. An estimated 299 million tons of plastics were produced in 2013, representing a 4

percent increase over 2012, and confirming and upward trend over the past

years.( Worldwatch Institute – January 2015). In 2008, our global plastic consumption

worldwide has been estimated at 260 million tons and, according to a 2012 report by Global

Industry Analysts, plastic consumption is to reach 297.5 million tons by the end of 2015.

EMBODIED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT

The average embodied the energy of generating plastics is estimated at 90MJ/Kg.2. The

carbon footprint of plastic (LDPE or PET, polyethylene) is about 6 kg CO2 per kg of plastic.

The production of 1 kg of polyethylene (PET or LDPE) requires the equivalent of 2 kg of oil

for energy and raw material. Polyethylene PE is the most commonly used plastic for plastic

53
bags. Another study showed that burning 1 kg of oil creates about 3 kg of carbon dioxide).

In other words: Per kg of plastic, about 6 kg carbon dioxide is created during production and

incineration. The plastic bag has a weight in the range of about 8 g to 60 g depending on

size and thickness. For the further calculation, it depends on the weight of a plastic bag to

be used. The main factors are the weight of the plastic bag and whether the gray energy

(energy used for production and disposal) is taken into account.

Process Energy GHG Emissions

3
2 Process Energy GHG
Emissions
1
0
HDPE LDPE PET RECYCLED PLASTICS

Figure 21- Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of virgin plastics and

recycled plastics(MTCO2E/Ton), EPA 2009

Recycling of plastic saves on average about 2.5 kg CO2 per kg of plastic. Thus recycled

plastic produces about 3.5 kg CO2 compared to 6 kg of CO2 for new plastic (production and

incineration).About 6% of the worldwide oil consumption is used for the production of plastic

(with increasing tendency). The use of waste plastics in road construction has been

54
experimentally proved to be suitable in road industry and promises to the reduced use of

bitumen or asphalt(Jafar,2015). The availability of waste plastics is abundant in the world

but needs more technical plants to able to recycle for various applications.

Process Energy(Mil Btu)

40
30
20 Process Energy(Mil Btu)

10
0
HDPE LDPE PET RECYCLED PLASTICS

Figure 22- Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled plastics, EPA 2009

55
Figure 23- Flow chart of a plastic waste management process,(Rebeiz, 1995)

56
With a well-designed program and the right technology, recycling can be more efficient in

terms of energy, money, and natural resources when compared to a system that

manufactures everything from virgin materials and sends it all to landfills when consumers

discard it. Reuse, recycling, and even landfills have materials for which they are the least

wasteful disposal method, but as technology finds new ways to sort and recycle waste, the

fraction of waste going to landfills can certainly be reduced. Rapid utilization of these

engineered wastes plastics can be a step closer to sustainable development.

COST ANALYSIS

In the case of plastics, it can be used in two processes which are dry and wet processes.

According to the study in CET(2012), it is possible to use around 15% of recycled plastic in

a dry process and 8% in the wet process without any changes of the strength and

performance of the bitumen.

Taking 1 mile of two-lane roadway, the amount of bitumen used is approximately 150 Metric

Tons.

15% of this amount =22.5 Metric Tons of recycled plastics

=49604 lbs(1 MT=1000kg, 1kg=2.2lbs)

57
The total amount of recycled plastics can be purchased in the state of Florida for around

$0.3 per pound which equated to $14,881 or the equivalent of $15,000. By traditional

means, the 22.5 Metric tons of pure bitumen costs approximately $3 per gallon which

results in a total amount of $19,677.312.It proves that it is economically viable to use

recycled plastics over pure nonrenewable fossil fuels.

Price
25,000

20,000

15,000

Price
10,000

5,000

0
Bitumen plastic

Figure 24- Energy Savings per Short Ton of Recycled Material compared to landfilling,

(WARM-13)

58
CONCLUSION

The manufacturing and production of various products in our day to day lives cannot be put

to an end rather we can revise the process of doing so. There are several ways to build our

built environment causing minimum damage to the environment. Sustainable transportation

is a step not only for the environmental safety but also for human well-being and better

economic stability.

From this study, it can be concluded that there are strong possibilities of achieving required

standards for pavement construction using specific recycled industrial wastes such as glass,

tires, plastics, asphalt, and ash. The major amount of materials for pavement design is

extracted from nonrenewable resources and replacing them with materials which are

available in plethora will definitely be a big step in sustainable infrastructure. Furthermore,

the amount of energy in (extraction, processing and transporting) application of traditional

materials which is commonly known as embodied energy is significantly lower than

suggested alternate materials. In terms of economics, there can be significant profits in

adopting sustainable pavement design and construction process than in traditional methods.

59
When taken a case of pavement constructed over 1 mile in Gainesville, Florida using of

recycled scrap tires can save thousands of dollars which include the price of fine and coarse

aggregates, a binder material, machinery and equipment, etc. Secondly in using recycled

plastics in flexible pavements over $4600 can be saved .And finally, in using recycled glass

over a rigid pavement about $2.2 can be saved for every cubic yard. Overall, there is the

fulfillment of a social responsibility in maintaining healthy surrounding by reducing, reuse

and recycle in the built environment.

CURRENT CHALLENGES IN ADOPTING APPLICATION OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS

IN PAVEMENT DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

 Abundant and readily availability of traditional materials in the vicinity of any project

site.

 The matter of revising the alternate materials are not sensitized in the local and

regional scale that the availability of these traditional materials will be reduced with

increase in price in the due course of time.

 The alternate materials such as recycled industrial waste are not available at

convenient distances which make it difficult for the application.

60
 Imposition of stringent rules and regulations for introducing sustainability are not

encouraged by the governing bodies.

 No compulsory guidelines on adopting any of green rating systems in all the projects

(new construction, operation, maintenance and renovation).

 Very Limited research and development in innovation and experimentation of

alternate materials on proving better pavement performance.

 Lack of sufficient data on the engineering and strength parameters of the recycled

industrial wastes in pavement applications.

 Lack of data on the feasibility of application of each and every alternate replacement

of traditional sources according to country wise location.

 Under development in efficient and greener off site (ex-Ready mix plants) and on site

(ex-rollers and excavators ) construction machinery.

Without transportation, a modern society cannot function on its own. A product or service

will come across transportation before it comes to the consumer. Since many decades the

way of building our transportation infrastructure in the world has swayed through a small

degree for which we are facing, transportation represents one of the major challenges on

the planet. Although it is not the sole reason for global warming and climate change but

transportation infrastructure it is one of the chief pieces in the built environment. If we make

61
strategic sustainable changes to our current or future infrastructures and systems we can

achieve the desired beneficial environment goals.

Roads are constructed by using cement, bitumen, aggregates, soil, water and other

engineered additives. These ingredients take an enormous amount of energies and use of

natural resources. From the above study, we can observe that It is experimentally proven

that materials such as industrial wastes do have similar engineering properties as the

traditional road building materials. This study aims to investigate alternate sustainable

materials for road construction and determine factors that depict environmental advantages

of using these alternate materials. When we compare parameters such as embodied

energy, it can be observed that using a material which satisfies the purpose (transportation)

can have less expenditure in energy and environmentally safe would beat the idea of using

traditional materials which contribute to ecological imbalance. Secondly, discoveries and

inventions come into action when there is a desperate need to achieve any goals.

For example, recently in 2014 the market came across a startup company by Scott and

Julie Brusaw which focused on solar roadways was an amazing invention to generate

electricity as well as solve the transportation The idea was to collect the maximum solar

energy which would hit the surface and serve dual purpose: modern infrastructure + smart

power grid. Here the pavement sections were made by hexagonal panels with specific

wattage and LED integrated into it.

62
Figure 25, Solar roadways, Resources. Gale, 2010

It is true that there are many challenges to shift the processes of design and construction.

But is the only way where our built environment can remain independent of nature. One of

the biggest challenges is the awareness of why there is a need for a shift in design and

construction of our transportation systems. We need new guidelines which have to be

compatible and consistent with the alternative sustainable materials and methods of

construction.

63
When people who are in this particular industries demand these changes, the market will

start responding these demands in creating better technologies and deliver their needs

which in this case are recycled engineered industrial wastes. Finally, this study will also

open doors to encourage respective authorities to build roadways using industrial wastes in

third world countries especially in India, China, and Africa where there would be a great

chance of promoting jobs as well as contributing to growing economy.

64
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69
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70
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LIST OF FIGURE REFFRENCE

Figure 1-Road section of a flexible pavement, , 2011, retrieved from


http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/pdm/pavement_types.htm

Figure 2- Road section of a rigid pavement, 2011, retrieved from


http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/pdm/pavement_types.htm

Figure 3- Recycling rate of municipal wastes, 2015, Wall Street Journal retrieved from

http://www.wsj.com/articles/high-costs-put-cracks-in-glass-recycling-programs-1429695003

Figure 4 , Engineering properties of tire bales, Encore Systems Inc. retrieved from

ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/gsd/pdf/stbguide.pdf

Figure 5-Compressive strength of waste glass concrete mixes(Ismail,2008).

Figure 6-Fresh densities of waste glass concrete mixes (Ismail,2008)

Figure 7- Engineering properties of recycled glass, ( Disfani, 2011)

Figure 8- Different routes for plastic waste management,(Panda,2009)

Figure 9-Results of SDBC Mix for Varying Percentages of LDPE (Rokade,2012)

Figure 10- Comparison on ECC material performance in uniaxial tension (Lepech,2010)

Figure 11-Design Chart for ECC and Concrete overlay thickness (Lepech,2010)

Figure.12 –Framework of LCA (Greenroads manual V1.5-(consoli,1993)

77
Figure 13-Difference in carbon dioxide equivalent between asphalt & recycled tire, ISRI

2009

Figure 14-Section of pavement using scrap tires (Eldin, ASCE 1992)

Figure 15- System of recycling tires, derived from ( IERE, Nov 2009)

Figure 16- Recycling GHG Benefits Attributable to Energy Savings compared to

landfilling (WARM-13)

Figure 17- Difference in process energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled materials, EPA

2011

Figure 19- Mix design of rigid pavement for 8000 psi, 2014, Athena Sustainable Materials

Institute.

Figure 18-- Difference in transportation energy (Mil Btu) between virgin & recycled

materials, EPA 2011

Figure 20- Price Difference in using replacing waste glass with sand, 2016.

Figure 21- Difference in process energy in greenhouse gas emissions of virgin plastics and
recycled plastics, EPA 2009

Figure 22- Difference in process energy of virgin plastics and recycled plastics, EPA 2009
Figure 23- Flow chart of a plastic waste management process,(Rebeiz, 1995)Figure 24-

Energy Savings per Short Ton of Recycled Material compared to landfilling,(WARM-1

78
Figure 25, Solar roadways, 2010 retrieved from

http://resources.gale.com/gettingtogreenr/current-issues/solar-roadways-wave-of-the-future-

or-money-sucking-vortex/

79