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NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF SOFT SOIL FOUNDATIONS IMPROVED BY PVDS AND

VACUUM PRELOADING
Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics, 20 August 2015, Hanoi, Vietnam

Dr William Cheang, Plaxis Asiapac, Singapore


Dr Lee Siew Wei, Golder Associates, Hong Kong
Dr Nallathamby Sivasithamparam, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

• Introduction

• Section 1: Modelling of Soft Clays

• Section 2: Modelling of Embankment Construction Process

• Section 3: Modelling of Prefabricated Vertical Drains

• Section 4: Modelling of Vacuum Preloading

• Section 5: Case Histories

• Conclusions

• References

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 2


INTRODUCTION
Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading

Introduction

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SECTION 1: MODELLING OF SOFT SOILS
Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading

Modelling of Soft Soils

A. Predictive techniques for estimate of soil displacements require good soil


models.

B. Critical to adopt soil model that simulate the correct soil response.

C. Herein, we describe a few soil models that have be used successfully.


1. Soft Soil (Soft Soil Creep) Model

2. Sekiguchi Ohta Class of Soil Models ( SO-viscid, SO-inviscid, SO-EC)

3. S-Clay Class of Soil Models

4. Anistropc Creep Model

D. Examples analyses are also presented to illustrate the importance of


checking the simulated Su profile.
Soft Soil Model
Characteristics:
1. Based on Cam-Clay theory

2. Logarithmic stress-strain relationship


(stiffness linearly dependent on p’)

3. Plastic strain in primary compression


(cap hardening)

4. Elastic unloading / reloading

5. M based on K0nc in 1D compression


instead of on ’

6. Failure behaviour according to the


Mohr-Coulomb criterion

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 7

Parameters for Soft Soils

Parameters;

• * Modified compression index


• * Modified swelling index
• ur Poisson’s ratio for unloading / reloading
• c’ Cohesion
• ’ Friction angle
•  Dilatancy angle
• K0nc Horiz./vertical stress ratio in normally consolidated 1D compression(determines M)

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 8


Sekiguchi-Ohta Class of Soil Models

Characteristics:

1. Developed in Japan
2. Based on original Cam-Clay model
3. Anisotropic yield contour based on K0nc
4. Creep behaviour (viscid SO model)

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 9

Parameters for SO Ohta & Iizuka (1987)

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 10


S-Clay1S Class of Soil Models

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 11

Parameters for S-Clay1 (s)

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 12


Modelling of Undrained Shear Strength
Determine design undrained strength Su profile based on ground
investigation information;
1. Use field Vane shear
2. Cone Penetration Test (Piezocone)
3. Triaxial consolidated undrained tests on high quality samples
4. Ensure whatever soil model selected for analysis will predict the
correct design Su profile

Undrained Shear Strength

Field Vane Shear vs. Triaxial Compression &


Su for Marine Clays from Field Vane Shear
Extension
tests (Yeung and So, 2001)
• Undrained strength cu
•Su/s′v0 ≈ 0.3 (from FV tests)
• Different field and lab results on cu for an
• Su of TC ≈ 1.1 × Su of FV
Italian soft clay
• Su/s′v0 ≈ 0.33 (inferred for TC)
• cu of TC ≈ 1.1 × cu of FV
• Su of TE ≈ 0.7 × Su of FV
• cu of TE ≈ 0.7 × cu of FV
• Su/s′v0 ≈ 0.21 (inferred for TE)
• Data by Ghionna, Jamiolkoeski, Lacasse,
Ladd, Lancellotta and Lunne (1983) • PLAXIS triaxial modelling to check cu in
triaxial comp. and ext.
1. Triaxial modelling using Mohr Coulomb (MC), Modified Cam Clay
(MCC) & Soft Soil (SS) models.
2. Three soil models use effective shear strength parameters c′ and f′ in
undrained shearing
3. Compare predicted cu with the measured cu by FV
4. Investigate the effect of initial effective horizontal stress (s′h0) of soft
clay
• s′h0 = 1-sin(f′) × s′v0 [K0-consolidated]
• s′h0= 1 × s′v0 [Isotropically-consolidated]
5. Select a particular s′v0, say 100 kPa

p′=0.5*(′1+ ′3), q′=0.5*(′1- ′3)

c′=0 kPa, ′=30°

• Triaxial Consolidated Undrained tests with pwp measurement


• Hong Kong Marine Clays offshore Lamma Island
• Data by Yeung and So (2001)
• Oedometer tests for compression
index Cc of Marine Clays (Yeung
and So, 2001)
• Average Cc = 0.6
•  = Cc/2.3 = 0.26 [MCC input]
Ave. Cc=0.6
•  = /5 (assumed) = 0.052 [MCC
input]
• e0 = 2.0 (assumed)
• * = /(1+e0) [SS input]
• * = /(1+e0) [SS input]
•  &  (or * & *) affect effective
stress path in undrained shearing

• PLAXIS triaxial
a modelling
• Axisymmetry analysis
• Consolidated Undrained
test
• Compression shearing
r (a ↑, r ~constant) –
beneath surcharge
• Extension shearing (a
~constant, r ↑) – near
the edge of surcharge
Modelling of Undrained Shear Strength

′h0 = 1-sin() × ′v0 [K0-consolidated]


140
120 q=2cu M=6sin()/3-sin()
100
80 Measured q SS
q (kPa) =(1-3)

ult MCC MC
60
40
20 K0 Compression
0
-20 Extension
Measured qult
-40
M=6sin()/3+sin()
-60
-80
MC
-100
MCC M=6sin()/3-sin()
-120 Soft Soil
-140
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
p' (kPa) =1/3×(′1+′2+′3)

Comparison of cu (kPa) bet. measurements & predictions


′h0 = 1-sin() × ′v0 , ′v0=100 kPa [K0-consolidated]

Measurement* Mohr Coulomb Modified Cam Clay Soft Soil

Tx. Comp. 33 40 30 33

Tx. Ext. 21 28 30 24

* For tx. compression cu/′v0 ≈ 0.33, for tx. extension cu/′v0 ≈ 0.21
′h0 = 1 × ′v0 [Isotropically-consolidated]
140
q=2cu M=6sin()/3-sin()
120
100 Compression
80 Measured q MC
ult SS
q (kPa) =(1-3)

60
MCC
40
20
K0
0
-20 M=6sin()/3+sin()
Measured qult
-40
-60
-80
MC
-100
MCC
-120 Soft Soil Extension M=6sin()/3-sin()
-140
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
p' (kPa) =1/3×(′1+′2+′3)

Modelling cu of Soft Clay


Comparison of cu (kPa) bet. measurements & predictions
′h0 = 1 × ′v0 , ′v0=100 kPa [Isotropically-consolidated]

Modified Cam
Measurement* Mohr Coulomb Soft Soil
Clay

Tx. Comp. 33 61 35 42

Tx. Ext. 21 43 35 30

* For tx. compression cu/′v0 ≈ 0.33, for tx. extension cu/′v0 ≈ 0.21
• For isotropically-consolidated soft clay (′h0=′v0), MC, MCC &
SS all over-predict cu in both tx. compression and tx. extension
• For K0-consolidated soft clay ′h0=1-sin()×′v0,
• in tx. compression MCC and SS predict cu close to
measurement, whereas MC over-predicts cu
• in tx. extension MC, MCC and SS all over-predict cu
• For tx. compression the failure line in q-p′ space is
• M=6sin()/3-sin() for MC, MCC and SS
• For tx. extension the failure line in q-p′ space is
• M=6sin()/3+sin() for MC and SS
• M=6sin()/3-sin() for MCC (single M value is input)

• Mohr Coulomb model with effective friction angle ′ overestimates


undrained strength cu
• Modified Cam Clay & Soft Soil models better predict cu in triaxial
compression. But they show deficiencies in
1. over-prediction of cu in triaxial extension
2. over-prediction of cu for highly anisotropic clays in triaxial
compression (results not presented herein)
• If difficult to understand advanced soil models, consider specify
the measured cu value directly to the Mohr Coulomb model, i.e.
c′=cu, ′=0°.
SECTION 2: MODELLING OF EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading

Modelling of Embankment Construction Process

A. In real world, embankments (reclamation) or surcharge loads are


constructed in stages.

B. In numerical analyses, this process can be simulated by;


1. Distributed Load approach (i.e. Asaoka et al.,1992)

2. Gravitational Loading approach

3. Sequential placement of soil layers/elements (Britto and Gunn, 1987)

C. Which method is the best?


Modelling of Embankment Construction Process

Distributed Load Approach

A. Possibilities
1. Simple and easy to setup

2. Suitable for small loads and pure “elastic soil” conditions

B. Limitations
1. Foundation soil not restraint as physical presence of embankment not simulated.

2. Lateral spreading, especially in elastoplastic soil, not correctly modelled

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 27

Modelling of Embankment Construction Process

Gravitational Load Approach

A. Possibilities
1. Applying incremental load by increasing the gravitational force for the entire embankment
or surcharge fill (more realistic than surcharge loading approach).

2. Easy set-up with a single stage input

3. For elastic soil behaviour

B. Limitations
1. Embankment or surcharge fill load not closely simulated (Remember: Physically it is
constructed a layer at time.)

2. Soil is Elasto-plastic (can be Elasto-visco-plastic) so ground response is dependent on


sequence of build-up and load increase.

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 28


Modelling of Embankment Construction Process

Sequential placement of soil layers/elements (Britto and Gunn, 1987)


Sequence of construction is properly simulated by adding the layers from one
phase to another. This is currently the most popular method (Chai and Carter,
2011)
A. Possibilities
1. Best suited for advanced analysis. Sequence of construction is adequetly captured
2. Sequence and time-dependent nature of construction is simulated
3. Geometric, physical and mechanical influence of embankment is explicitly incorporated
4. Sequential build-up of soil layers will influence strength and stiffness change in foundation
soil

B. Limitations
1. Longer setup of phased calculations
2. Requires advanced modelling techniques (i.e. “Update Mesh” )

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 29

SECTION 3: MODELLING OF PREFABRICATED VERTICAL DRAINS


Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading
Consolidation Settlement with Vertical Drains

• PVD spacing = 1m
c/c in triangle

• PVD installed from 1st layer of Filling to the bottom of soft clay

Vertical Drains

• With vertical drains, horizontal consolidation is predominant


• Hansbo’s (1979) equation for average degree of horizontal
consolidation (Ūh) accelerated by vertical drains

  8Th 
U h  1  exp 
  

 kh 
n
  ln   0.75    
 ln s    2lz  z 2 h
k
s  k h  qw

Drain Smear Well


spacing effect resistance
Vertical Drains

Th = cht/D2 b = width of band drain = 100 mm


t = time s = rs/rw
ch = coefficient of horizontal rs = radius of smear zone
consolidation ≈ 1 m2/year
kh = horizontal permeability outside
D = drain spacing = 1 m smear zone
De = equivalent diameter of soil k′h = horizontal permeability inside
cylinder = 1.05×D for triangular grid = smear zone
1.05 m
l = length of drain
n = R/rw = 16
z = depth of drain under
R = De/2 = 0.53 m consideration
rw = radius of drain = (a+b)/=0.033m qw = discharge capacity of drain
a = thickness of band drain = 3 mm Note: numbers quoted are for the
Tanjung Bin case

Consolidation Settlement with Vertical Drains

 kh 
n
  ln   0.75    
 ln s    2lz  z 2 h
k
s  k h  qw

Drain Smear Well


spacing effect resistance

• Well resistance can be ignored if discharge capacity of drain qw >


150 m3/year and clay horizontal permeability kh < 1×10-9 m/sec
• Parameters to determine are
s (=rs/rw, radius of smear zone/radius of drain)
kh/k′h (clay horizontal permeability/smear zone permeability)
• s and kh/k′h obtained from curve fitting of the Hansbo’s equation to
initial settlement data
Consolidation Settlement with Vertical Drains

00
Measured
Best-fit line
0.2
0.2 s=3, kh/k'h = 2

S = Ūh × Sult
0.4
0.4
(m)
S (m)
Settlement magnitude

0.6
0.6
Settlement,

0.8
0.8

Hansbo’s Ūh; s=3, kh/k′h=2


1.0
1

  8Th 
U h  1  exp 
1.2
1.2
  

1.4
1.4
00 10
10
20
20
30
30
40
40 50
50
60
60
70
70

Time Timelag after


Lag After first
First Lift lift(Days)
+ PVD + PVD (Days)

Conversion of 3D Radial Flow into 2D Plane Strain

3D axisymmetry 2D plane strain

Real situation PLAXIS 2D modelling

Plan view

Indraratna & Chu (2005)


Conversion of 3D Radial Flow into 2D Plane Strain

• Objective: achieve an equivalence between 3D axisymmetric


and 2D plane strain flow in terms of consolidation settlement
• Different methods available:
1. Shinsha et al. (1982) – permeability transformation
2. Hird et al. (1992) – geometry and permeability matching
3. Bergado and Long (1994) – equal discharge concept
4. Chai et al. (1995) – extension of Hird et al. by incorporating
well resistance and clogging
5. Kim and Lee (1997) – time factor analysis
6. Indraratna and Redana (1997) – rigorous solution for parallel
drain wall

Conversion of 3D Radial Flow into 2D Plane Strain

• Bergado and Long’s (1994) equal discharge concept

D(1  as )k h
k hps 
  D  k h 
2S ln   ln(s )
  d s  k 
h 

• khps = converted horizontal permeability in plane strain, i.e. the


kx value input into PLAXIS 2D modelling
• At Tanjung Bin kh ≈ 2.5×10-10 m/s, khps ≈ 1×10-10 m/s

as = drain thickness/drain spacing ≈ 0


S = 0.866D for drains installed in triangular pattern = 0.866 m
 = 1.13 for triangular pattern
ds = diameter of smear zone = 0.2 m
Conversion of 3D Radial Flow into 2D Plane Strain

Time (day)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0
Drain
10
Ave. degree of horizontal consol. (%)_

Hansbo’s (1979)
20
  8Th 
30 U h  1  exp 
  
40

50 2D mesh models plane


strain flow of an equivalent
60
soil cylinder towards an
70 equivalent band drain at
PLAXIS 2D
80 centre
kx=khps
90
ky=ky (unchanged)
100

Comparison between Hansbo’s solution and PLAXIS 2D modelling

SECTION 4: MODELLING OF VACUUM PRELOADING


Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading
SECTION 5: CASE HISTORIES
Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading

TANJUNG BIN LAND RECLAMATION (MALAYSIA)

Case 1

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 42


Tanjung Bin Reclamation
1. Southern Malaysia
2. 2100 MW power plant
3. 70 ha reclamation
4. 20 - 25 m very soft to soft
Marine Clay
5. cu = 5 to 40 kPa
6. 7-15m high hydraulic Fill
7. Prefabricated vertical drains
(PVD) to accelerate settlement

Description and Aims

1. PLAXIS used in Detailed Engineering Design of staged


reclamation construction
2. PLAXIS predictions on
• consolidation settlement of Marine Clay accelerated
by PVD
• stability of reclamation slope
3. Key modelling issues are
• advanced constitutive model (Soft Soil Model) for soft
clay
• conversion of 3D PVD radial flow to 2D plane strain
flow
4. FOS of reclamation slope calculated by phi-c′ reduction
Soil Condition

mbgl 0 0
Very soft to soft (firm) clay
cu peak: 7 to 42 kPa
cu remoulded: 3 to 15 kPa
5 5

10 10

Very soft to soft clay


15 cu peak: 11 to 26 kPa 15
cu remoulded: 2 to 8 kPa

20 20

Ground Conditions
25 25

30 30

Soil Condition (Undrained Strength)

• Tanjung Bin soft clay


undrained strength (cu)
• cu measured from field
Soft Soil model Vane shear/lab UU tests
c′=2kPa, =23°
• cu predicted by PLAXIS Soft
*=0.14, *=0.04 Soil model in undrained
triaxial compression
• PLAXIS cu are moderately
conservative compared with
field Vane shear peak cu
Undrained Shear Strength

1. Equation for undrained strength cu given by Mohr Coulomb, Modified Cam Clay &
Soft Soil models
2. Under conditions of
• undrained triaxial compression (q-p′ space)
• input of effective friction angle f′
3. Mohr Coulomb (overestimates cu of n.c./lightly overconsolidated clays)
1 6 sin  
cu   
 pini
2 3  sin  
p′ini = initial mean effective stress

Modified Cam Clay


• M = (6 sin′)/(3 - sin′); M is input directly in PLAXIS
• p′0 ini = initial pre-consolidation pressure
• q2 = M2p′(p′0 – p′); yield locus of Modified Cam-Clay model
• q = deviatoric stress
 
  p0 ini 
M pini 
cu   
2 2 
 ini 
p
Soft Soil
 * *
  M p0 ini 
2 *
M pini
cu   2 
px

2  M  M 2
px p 
ini 

• M = (6 sin′)/(3 - sin′); ′ is input in PLAXIS


• Mpx ≈ 3 - 2.8(K0), where K0 = 1 - sin′
• q2 = Mpx2p′(p′0 – p′); yield locus of Soft Soil model

2D Modelling of Staged Reclamation Construction

Reclamation by hydraulic filling


Activity (B1 area) Time (day)
1st Filling 3.25m 5
Install PVDs 14
1st Rest period 23
2nd Filling 2.25m 7
2nd Rest period 23
3rd Filling 2m 7
3rd Rest period 23
4th Filling 2m 7
4th Rest period 23
5th Filling 1.25m 7
Staged reclamation construction 5th Rest period 139
(existing ground level ≈ 0.75 MLSD) Trim to +4MLSD 7
2D Modelling of Staged Reclamation Construction

Deformed mesh at completion of staged reclamation


(exaggerated scale)

Sandfill
W.T.

PVD Soft CLAY


Sandy SILT

• Mohr Coulomb model for Sandfill and Sandy SILT


• Soft Soil model for soft CLAY
• “Drain” elements model individual PVDs at 1m c/c
• Model five stages of filling & rest periods and trimming of fill to +4 MLSD

2D Modelling of Staged Reclamation Construction

• Activate “Updated mesh” and “Updated water pressures” for


large deformation analysis (e.g. settlement > 1m)
• For reduction of permeability with time (effective stress),
consider activate ck in material properties window of SS model

• Large deformation analysis • log(k/k0) = e/ck


• ck is only relevant for Soft Soil (Creep)
• ck ≈ Cc (compression index)
Settlement Comparison between Predictions & Measurements

ASG10 ASG15
Time (Day) Time (Day)

100

150

200

250

300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300

50
0
0.0 0.0
Measurement Measurement
-0.2 -0.2
-0.4 PLAXIS: ch=1 m^2/yr PLAXIS: ch=1 m^2/yr
-0.4
-0.6 PLAXIS: ch=3 m^2/yr PLAXIS: ch=3 m^2/yr
-0.6
-0.8 -0.8
-1.0 -1.0

Settlement (m)
Settlement (m)

-1.2 -1.2
-1.4 -1.4
-1.6 -1.6
-1.8 -1.8
-2.0 -2.0
-2.2 -2.2
-2.4 -2.4
-2.6 -2.6
-2.8 -2.8

Comparison of settlement for Area A


(Fill thickness = 7.5m)

Settlement Comparison between Predictions & Measurements

ASG10 ASG15
9 9

8 8

7 7
Sand Fill Level (+MLSD)

Sand Fill Level (+MLSD)

6 6

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 Measurement 2 Measurement
PLAXIS: ch=1 m^2/yr PLAXIS: ch=1 m^2/yr
1 1
PLAXIS: ch=3 m^2/yr PLAXIS: ch=3 m^2/yr
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Time (Day) Time (Day)

Comparison of sandfill level for Area A


(Fill thickness = 7.5 m)
Settlement Comparison between Predictions & Measurements
Time (Day) Time (Day)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0.0 0.0
PLAXIS PLAXIS
-0.5 BSG02 -0.5 BSG12
BSG14
-1.0 -1.0

-1.5 -1.5

Settlement (m)
-2.0
Settlement (m)

-2.0

-2.5 -2.5

-3.0 -3.0

-3.5 -3.5

-4.0 -4.0

-4.5 -4.5

-5.0 -5.0

Comparison of settlement for Area B


(Fill thickness 15 m)

Settlement Comparison between Predictions & Measurements

6.0

5.5
Measurement (m)

5.0
+10%

4.5
-10%

4.0
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
Prediction (m)

Comparison of final primary settlement for Area B


(Fill thickness 11-15 m)
Predictions on Excess Pore Water Pressure

Time (Day)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700
160

140 5 lifts & rest periods rest period


120

100
Excess PWP (kPa)

80

60
40
Compression
20
0

-20 surcharge
removal swelling Suction
-40

-60

Unfortunately no reliable measurement on pore water pressure is


available for comparison

Comparison of Slope FOS between PLAXIS & SLOPE/W

Area C, 1st + 2nd Fill thickness = 5.5 m

PLAXIS phi-c′ reduction (FOS = 1.09)

1
2

5 3
4

SLOPE/W M&P limit equilibrium (FOS = 1.13)

• For SLOPE/W the increase of cu in clay is calculated from cu/′v=0.28


• ′v is calculated from standard consolidation theory incorporating drains
Comparison of Slope FOS between PLAXIS & SLOPE/W

Area C, 1st + 2nd + 3rd Fill thickness = 7.5 m

PLAXIS phi-c′ reduction (FOS = 1.12)

1
2

6 3
5 4

SLOPE/W M&P limit equilibrium (FOS = 1.11)

• For SLOPE/W the increase of cu in clay is calculated from cu/′v=0.28


• ′v is calculated from standard consolidation theory incorporating drains

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF VACUUM CONSOLIDATION


Dr Richard Witasse et al.
Case 3

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 60


Layout and 2-D Model

Soil Properties

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 62


Comparison of axisymmetric unit cell radial flow into
plane strain flow

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 63

Results

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 64


Results

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 65

MURRO TEST EMBANKMENT


Dr Nallathamby Sivasithamparam et al.
Case 3

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam 66


Murro Test Embankment

A. Finnish Road Administration

B. Constructed on 1993

C. Monitored for 14 years

D. Western Finland

Typical Characteristics of Murro Deposit


Undrained shear strength profile

A. Field vane test

Instrumentation of Murro Test Embankment


Model Parameters

Time Settlement Curves


Surface Settlement

Horizontal Displacement
Time Settlement Curves

STABILITY OF MUAR TEST EMBANKMENT

Case 4

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Muar Test Embankment

CONCLUSIONS & REFRENCES


Numerical Modelling of Soft Soil Foundations Improved by PVDs and Vacuum Preloading
References
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THANK YOU
FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION!

Numerical Analysis in Geotechnics 2015 | 20 August 2015 | Hanoi, Vietnam