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Question 1. What Is Structural Steel Design?

Answer :
structural steel design, is an area of knowledge of structural engineering used to design steel
structures. The structures can range from schools to homes to bridges. ... The second is the
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method.

Question 2. What Are The Mechanical Properties Of Structural Steel?

Answer :
Resistence to deformation based upon:
o Material.
o Length.
o X-section.

Question 3. Explain The Design Process Of Structural Steel?

Answer :
Design process :
o Preliminary member sizing of beams
o Structural analysis - modeling, analysis
o Design review - member modifications
o Cost of estimation
o Preparation of structural drawings and specifications
o Loads for structural analysis and design
o Dead load
o Live load
o Mean return period OR
o Recurrence interval OR
o Live loads for various occupencies
o Reduction in basic design live load
o Impact Load
o Wind load

Question 4. Describe The Steps Used For Erection Of Structural Steel?

Answer :
o Material received at site.
o Concrete bases and anchor bolts.
o Shims.
o Pre assembly at ground level.
o Main construction steel erection (dimension bolt)
o Tightening for anchor bolt.
o Alignment for structural steel.
o Tightening for steel.
o Tightening for anchor bolts.
o Grouting.
o Complete structural steel erection (secondary beams, bracing).
o Calibration of whrench and device.
o Modification during and after erection includes cutting, welding, NDT,….etc).
o Painting inspection.

Question 5. What Are The Defects You Can Except During Inspection Of Material Receiving
At The Site?
Answer :
o Lamination.
o distortion.
o pitting.

Question 6. Mention The Steps To Check Material Received At The Site?

Answer :
o Visual inspection.
o Dimension inspection.
o Verification of heat no and mill certificate information’s.

Question 7. How Can You Check The Support Foundation ?

Answer :
o Location.
o Orientation.
o Elevation.

Question 8. What Is The Minimum Top Elevation Of Leveling Shims?

Answer :
Minimum 25mm.

Question 9. What Is The Acceptable Variation In Dimensions Between The Centres Of Two
Anchor Bolts (within An Anchor Bolt Group)?
Answer :
Maximum 3 mm.

Question 10. Which Code You Can Use For Check Bolts Used For Primary Structural
Answer :
ASTM A325 N.

Question 11. What Is The Minimum Size Of Bolt Used At Astm A32 N ?
Answer :
Minimum size 20mm.

Question 12. How Much Variation In Elevation Of The Top Of Anchor Rods?
Answer :
Max 13 mm.

Question 13. How Many Days Minimum Required To Archive 70% Concrete Strength (curing
Answer :
7 days minimum.

Question 14. How Many Bolts Minimum Required Per Connection?

Answer :
2 bolt minimum required.

Question 15. How Much Variation In Dimension From Centre Of Any Anchor Bolts Group To
Be Establish Column Line Through The Group?
Answer :
Equal to or less than 6mm

Question 16. Which Code You Can Use For Welding Of Structural Steel?
Answer :

Question 17. What Are The Types Of Joints You Can Use For Erection Of Structural Steel?
Answer :
Snugtightened joint. Pretension join or slip critical joint.

Question 18. What Is Minimum Thickness Of Any Part Of Structural Steel Shape?
Answer :
Minimum 5 mm.

Question 19. What Is The Vertical Tolerance (alignment) For Straight Compression
Structural Member?
Answer :
1 mm per 1m accepted.

Question 20. What Are The Types Of Methods Of Bolt Tightening?

Answer :
Snug tightening, turn of nutpreten sioning calibrated wrench pretensioning or directtension
indicator pretensioning
Question 21. Complete, All Bolts, Nuts And Washers Shall Be Properly Identified And
Marked With ?
Answer :
o Material grade.
o manufacture’s logo.
Question 22. .all Nuts For High Strength Bolts Shall Be …………. To Reduce To Torque
Installation .
Answer :
Wax – dipped.

Question 23. All Gusset And Stiffener Plates Shall Be ………… Minimum Thickness
Answer :
10 mm minimum.

Question 24. What Is The Minimum Height Of Handrails Provided On Walkways And
Platforms ?
Answer :
Over 1 meter heigh.

Question 25. Complete, Standard Bolt Holes Shall Not Be Enlarge By More Than …………….
Mm To Make Connection Resulting From Minor Mislit
Answer :

Question 26. What Are The Properties Of A Steel?

Answer :
The important characteristics of steel for design purposes are:
o yield stress (Fy).
o ultimate stress (Fu).
o modulus of elasticity (E).
o percent elongation (ε).
o coefficient of thermal expansion (α).
Question 27. What Are The Types Of Structural Steel?
Answer :
Types of structural steel : Various types of structural steel sections and their technical
specifications are as follows:
o Beams.
o Channels.
o Angles.
o Flats
Question 28. What Are Steel Beams?
Answer :
Steel Beams : Steel Beams is considered to be a structural element which mainly carries
load in flexure meaning bending. Usually beams carry vertical gravitational force but are also
capable of carrying horizontal loads generally in the case of an earthquake.
The mechanism of carrying load in a beam is very unique, like; the load carried by a beam is
transferred to walls, columns or girders which in turn transfer the force to the adjacent
structural compression members. The joists rest on the beam in light frame constructions.

Question 29. Explain About Steel Channels?

Answer :
Steel channels : Steel channels are used ideally as supports and guide rails. These are roll-
formed products. The main metal used for making channels is steel along with aluminum.
There are certain variations that are available in the channels category, the categorization is
mainly on the shape of the channel, the varieties are mentioned below:
o J channels: This kind of channel has two legs and a web. One leg is longer. This
channel resembles the letter-J.
o Hat channels: This channel has legs that are folded in the outward direction
resembling an old fashioned man's hat.
o U channels: This most common and basic channel variety. It has a base known
as a web and two equal length legs.
o C channels: In this channel the legs are folded back in the channel and
resemble the letter-C. C channels are known as rests.
o Hemmed channels: In this kind of channel the top of the leg is folded hence
forming double thickness.
Question 30. What Are The Applications Of Steel Channels?
Answer :
Application : Steel channels are subjected to a wide array of applications. The application
fields are:
o Construction.
o Appliances.
o Transportation.
o Used in making Signposts.
o Used in wood flooring for athletic purposes.
o Used in installing and making windows and doors.


Steel Structure – The Future of Structure

If you’re looking for the most cost-effective building type, it’s important to consider your potential
long-term savings along with your initial investment in any shape of structures, let’s think about
steel structure.

What is steel structure?

Steel structure is a metal structure which is made of structural steel* components connect with
each other to carry loads and provide full rigidity. Because of the high strength grade of steel,
this structure is reliable and requires less raw materials than other types of structure like
concrete structure and timber structure.
In modern construction, steel structures is used for almost every type of structure including
heavy industrial building, high-rise building, equipment support system, infrastructure, bridge,
tower, airport terminal, heavy industrial plant, pipe rack, etc.
Structural steel is steel construction material which fabricated with a specific shape and
chemical composition to suit a project’s applicable specifications.
Depending on each project’s applicable specifications, the steel sections might have various
shapes, sizes and gauges made by hot or cold rolling, others are made by welding together flat
or bent plates. Common shapes include the I-beam, HSS, Channels, Angles and Plate.

Main structural types

 Frame structures: Beams and columns

 Grids structures: latticed structure or dome
 Prestressed structures
 Truss structures: Bar or truss members
 Arch structure
 Arch bridge
 Beam bridge
 Cable-stayed bridge
 Suspension bridge
 Truss bridge: truss members

5 reasons why steel structure is the best choice?

1. Cost savings

Steel structure is the cost leader for most projects in materials and design. It is inexpensive to
manufacture and erection, requires less maintenance than other traditional building methods.

2. Creativity

Steel has a natural beauty that most architects can’t wait to take advantage of. Steel allows for
long column-free spans and you can have a lot of natural light if you want it in any shape of

3. Control and Management

Steel structures is fabricated at factory and rapidly erected at construction site by skilled
personnel that makes safe construction process. Industry surveys consistently demonstrate that
steel structures is the optimal solution in management.

4. Durability

It can withstand extreme forces or harsh weather conditions, such as strong winds,
earthquakes, hurricanes and heavy snow. They are also unreceptive to rust and, unlike wood
frames, they are not affected by termites, bugs, mildew, mold and fungi.