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Gas Turbine

Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute Gas Machinery Conference

API Specification Review


Dr. Klaus Brun - Southwest Research Institute®
Dr. Rainer Kurz – Solar Turbines, Inc.

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Southwest Research Institute O&G Applications
Why Differentiate O&G Gas Turbines from other Applications?

Oil & Gas Requirements:


- Availability / Reliability
- Ruggedness
- High Power/Weight Ratio
- Efficiency not very critical

Industrial Power Generation Requirements:


- Cost of Electricity
- Efficiency
- Cost of O&M

Different Gas Turbine Products for O&G Market

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Southwest Research Institute Outline

• Introduction to Gas Turbine Oil and Gas Applications


a) Oil & Gas Definitions
b) Gas Turbine and Package Components
c) Instrumentation
d) Compression Station Layout
e) Offshore Gas Turbine Issues
f) Fuel Considerations
• Codes and Standards
a) Why Standards
b) Relevant Standards
c) API Philosophy 101
d) API Data Sheets
e) Review of API 616
f) Highlights of API 614 and 670
• Factory Tests
• NFPA 70 Hazardous Area Classifications
• API 616 Data Sheets Review
• API 617 Review
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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions
Upstream – The Oil & Gas Production and Gathering Process

Crude Oil – Unprocessed oil from


well.

Associated Gas – Natural gas that is


recovered from the well
with crude oil (also, gas-
to-oil ratio).

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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Upstream – The Oil & Gas Production and Gathering Process

Self-Generation – Power generation to meet


needs of oil field or
platform.

Enhanced Oil Recovery – Advanced technologies to


(EOR) improve oil recovery.

Gas Lift – Injecting gas into the


production well to help lift
the oil.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Upstream – The Oil & Gas Production and Gathering Process

Waterflood – Injection of water into the


reservoir to increase
reservoir pressure and
improve production.

Gas Re-injection – Re-injection of natural gas


into the reservoir to
increase the reservoir
pressure.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Upstream – The Oil & Gas Production and Gathering Process
Export Compression – Initial boosting of natural
gas pressure from field
into pipeline (a.k.a. header
compression).

Gas Gathering – Collecting natural gas


from multiple wells.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Upstream – The Oil & Gas Production and Gathering Process
Gas Plant and Gas Boost – Processing of gas to
pipeline quality; i.e.,
removal of sulfur, water,
and CO2 components.

Gas Storage/Withdrawal – Injecting of gas into


underground structure for
later use: summer storage,
winter withdrawal.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Midstream – The Oil & Gas Transportation Process
Pipeline Compression – Compression stations on
pipeline to “pump natural
gas; typically 800-1200
psi compression.

Oil Pipeline Pumping – Pumping of crude or


refined oil.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


Gas
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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Midstream – The Oil & Gas Transportation Process
LNG Plant – Liquid natural gas plant.
NG is cooled and
compressed for
transportation in liquid
form.

LNG Terminal – Loading and unloading of


liquid natural gas onto
LNG tanker (vessel).

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


Gas
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Turbine Technology
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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Downstream – the Refining and Distribution of Oil & Gas
Refinery – Processing of crude oil
into its various sellable
components.

Integrated Gasification – Advanced process to


Combined Cycle convert heavy oils and
pet-coke into synthesis gas
and hydrogen.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Downstream – the Refining and Distribution of Oil & Gas
Methanol Plant – Plant that produces methy
alcohol from methane
(natural gas).

Fischer-Tropsch Liquid – Artificial gasoline


produced from coal and/or
other lower cost
hydrocarbons.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Downstream – the Refining and Distribution of Oil & Gas
Fractional Distillation – Distillation tower to
Column separate crude oil into its
gasoline, diesel, heating
oil, naphtha, etc.

Cracking – Breaking large


hydrocarbon chains to
smaller chains (chocker,
visbreaking, thermal,
catalytic).

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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Downstream – the Refining and Distribution of Oil & Gas
Blending – Mixing of hydrocarbons to
obtain sellable refinery
products.

LPG – Liquid petroleum gas


(propane, butane,
pentane).

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Southwest Research Institute O&G Definitions – Cont’d
Downstream – the Refining and Distribution of Oil & Gas
NGL – Natural gas liquids:
liquids that drop out
during gas processing.

Distribution – Delivery of oil and gas


products to end-users.

Red – Processes that involve gas turbines.


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Southwest Research Institute Components & Layout
Inside the Package:

- Fuel System and Spark Igniter


¾ Natural Gas (control valves)
¾ Liquid (pumps, valves)

- Bearing Lube Oil System


¾ Tank
¾ Filter
¾ Pumps (main, pre/post, backup)

- Accessory gear

- Fire/Gas Detection System

- Starter/Helper Drive
(pneumatic, hydraulic, variable speed
AC motor)

- Controls and Instrumentation (on-skid, off-skid)

- Seal Gas/Oil System (compressors) 11/15/2001


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Southwest Research Institute Components & Layout
Outside the Package:
- Enclosure and Fire Protection System
- Inlet System
¾ Air-filter (self-cleaning, barrier,
inertial)
¾ Silencer

- Exhaust System
¾ Silencer
¾ Stack

- Lube Oil Cooler (water, air)


- Fuel Filter/Control Valve Skid
- Motor Control Center
- Switchgear, Neutral Ground
Resistor
- Inlet Fogger/Cooler
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Southwest Research Institute Components & Layout
Steam & Power – Gas Turbine Cogeneration
- Steam to Steam Turbine – Combined Cycle Plant
- Steam to Other Plant Requirements – Co-Generation Plant

Heat Recovery Steam Generator


Use Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat to Generate Steam
(aka HRSG, Waste Heat Recovery Unit, WHRU, Boiler)

By-Pass
Stack Stack

Gas Turbine
Generator Exhaust
Heat Economizer

Supplemental
Duct Firing

Boiler

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Southwest Research Institute
Gas Turbine Package Systems
Control Systems

¾ Human Machine Interface


¾ Machinery Monitoring and Protection
– Equipment Startup, Shutdown and Protective
Sequencing
– Alarm, Shutdown Logic
– Backup (Relay) Shutdown
¾ Driven Load Regulation
– Fuel / Speed Control
– Process Control
¾ Communication (SCADA) Interface
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Southwest Research Institute
Gas Turbine Instrumentation

¾ Temperature Sensors (RTDs and Thermocouples)


– Lube Oil Drains
– Fuel Gas
– Bearing Metal
– Gas Path (T1, T2, T4, T5)
– Driven Compressor (Ts, Td)
– Driven Generator Stator Coils

¾ Pressure Sensors
– Gas Path (P1, P2)
– Fuel Gas
– Air Inlet Filter Delta P
– Lube Oil Pump Delta P
– Lube Oil Filter Delta P
– Driven Compressor (Ps, Pd)

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Southwest Research Institute
Gas Turbine Instrumentation

¾ Position Sensors (Proximity Probes)


Measures Relative Movement Between Housing and Shaft
– GT Bearings X, Y, Z
– Gearbox Bearings X, Y, Z
– Driven Equipment X, Y , Z

¾ Velocity Pick-ups
¾ or Accelerometers
Measures Absolute Motion
– Gas Turbine Case
– Main Gearbox Case
– Auxiliary Gearbox Case
– Driven Equipment Case

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Southwest Research Institute
Gas Turbine Instrumentation

Critical Alarm and Shutdown Switches


– Lube Oil Level, Temperature, and Pressure
– Lube/Seal Oil Filter Delta P
– High Casing Vibration
– Proximity Probe Clearance (Large Orbit)
– Fuel Gas Temperature and Pressure
– Gas and Fire Detectors
– Inlet Filter Delta P
– Key Phasor (Shaft Speed)
– Exhaust Temperature Spread
– Flame-Out (Flame Detector)
– Bearing Metal Temperatures
– Seal Gas or Oil Pressure and Temperature (Driven Compressor)
– Synchronization / Grid Frequency (Driven Generator)
– Manual Emergency Shutdown Button

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Southwest Research Institute Compressor Station Layout
Major Equipment:
Turbo-Compressor In Buildings
- Turbo-Compressors and Ancillaries/Auxiliaries
- Surge Recycle Loop with Surge Control Valves
- Gas Coolers (Intermediate, Discharge)
- Suction Scrubbers, Discharge Scrubbers
- Station Isolation and By-Pass Valves
- Suction and Discharge Valves
- Compressor Loading and Bypass Valves
- Unit and Station Control Room
- Fuel Gas Heaters
- Fuel Gas Filter and Control Skid
- SCADA System
- Fire Fighting Water System
- Fire Fighting CO2 System
- Emergency Power Supply (Diesel Generators, Tanks)
- Instrument and Seal Gas Air Compressor
- Slug catcher, Scrubbers, Filters
- Flare and/or Blow-Down Discharge Coolers
- Station and Unit Flow Meters
- Pig Launcher
- Gas Treatment Plant (De-Hydration, CO2 Removal,
Sour Gas Treatment) 11/15/2001
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Southwest Research Institute Compressor Station Layout

TURBINE
COMPRESSOR

Compressor
Gas Turbine S D

FLOW ORIFICE
SURGE CONTROLLER

GAS COOLER

DP
LOADING DISCHARGE VALVE
SWITCH LOADING
VALVE SURGECONTROL VALVE
SUCTION
VALVE
Isolation Valves CHECK VALVE

Pipeline

Station By-Pass Valve 11/15/2001


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Southwest Research Institute Offshore Platform (Marine)
Land Based Fixed Leg Jack-Up Semi-Sub FPSO Tension Leg

Technical Requirements Features


¾ Low weight and dimensions ¾ Compact design, reduced lube oil tank, single lift modules
¾ Low Vibrations ¾ Vibration isolators, special grouting
¾ Resistance to Saltwater ¾ Stainless steel (enclosure and inlet/exhaust system)
¾ List, trim, pitch, roll operation ¾ Baffles/Scavenging pump in LO tank, inclinometers
¾ Marine codes ¾ Lloyds, DNV, ABS, Coast Guard Certification
¾ Foundation twisting ¾ Sub base, three point mount, gimbles, vibration mounts

Operational Requirements
¾ Highest availability as platform often depends on GT, but
• No direct access to technicians and repair facilities
• Limited spare parts storage capabilities
?
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Southwest Research Institute Offshore Features
Gas Turbine

Compressor

Inclinometer

Mount
Sub Base

Lube Oil Tank Baffles Scavenging Pump for


Pressurized Bearings

Single Lift
Inclinometer - Alarm and Shutdown at High List, Trim, Pitch, Roll Angles Module
Sub Base - Added Stiffness for Gas Turbine and Compressor Skids
Baffles - Continued Supply of Lube Oil at Inclined Operation
Scavenging Pump - Forced Supply of Lube Oil at Inclined Operation
Mounts - Isolation from Twisting and Vibration
Single Lift Module - Simplified Installation and Transportation to Platform

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Gas Fuels - Dew Point
¾ Heavy Hydrocarbons Increase
Dew Point
- Liquid Dropout Must Be
Prevented
¾ May Require Fuel Heating/Fuel
Treatment
¾ May Require Heat Tracing of Fuel
System
¾ Accurate Fuel Analysis Necessary
- ASTM D1945 only Reports C6+
- C14 Down to ppmv Level Liquid Liquid and Gas
phase gas phase phase
Desirable
- Measured Dew Point
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Dew Point and Fuel System
Pressure Drop

Liquid Drop Out


Fuel Supply
Pressure
K (Skid Edge)
PRESSURE

Saturated
Vapor

Saturated
Liquid Lowest
Combustor
Pressure

ENTHALPY
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Southwest Research Institute Codes & Standards

Review of Codes and Standards

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Southwest Research Institute Codes & Standards

Why Codes:
• Codes provide design guidelines and definitions:
– Example: Vibrations, Materials, Service Connections,
Package Design
• Intent to Facilitate, Manufacture, and Procurement
• No Code “Designs” a Gas Turbine
• Codes are by nature rather general. Any particular
application may require modifications.

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Southwest Research Institute Relevant Codes
Specification number Description

API 616 4th edition Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services
API 613 4th edition Special Purpose Gear Units For Petroleum, Chemical, And GasIndustry Services
API 614 3rd edition Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control - Oil Systems for Special - Purpose Applications
API 614 4th edition Combustion Gas Turbine for General Refinery Service
API 661 5th edition Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
API 670 4th edition Vibration, Axial Position and Bearing Temperature Monitoring System
API 677 2nd edition General Purpose Gear Units
API 671 3rd edition Special Purpose Couplings for Refinery Services
API 678 Accelerometer-Based Vibration Monitoring System
API 500 2nd edition Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities
Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2
API RP 550 Manual on Installation of Refinery Instruments and Control System
ASME VIII Div 1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
ASME B 31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
ASME B 16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code for Steel
IEEE 112A Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators
PTC 22-1977 Performance Test Code on Gas turbine
PTC 1 General Instructions
ANSI C50.14-1997 Requirements for combustion gas turbine driven cylindrical rotor synchronous generators
ANCI B133.4 Gas turbine Control and Protection System
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEMA MG1 Motors and Generators
NFPA 12 1989 edition Carbone Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 69 1997 edition Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems
NFPA 70 2002 edition National Electric Code
NFPA 70E National Fire Code Errata
NFPA 72 2002 edition National Fire Alarm Code
NFPA 85 2001 edition (extract) Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
OSHA Noise Procedure Specification
ISO 2314 1989 Gas turbines - Acceptance tests
API RP 11PGT Recommended Prcatice for Packaged Combustion Gas Turbines
UL 1604 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmosphere
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Southwest Research Institute Codes & Standards
Most Common Codes for US Oil & Gas Applications:
¾ API 616 - Gas Turbines
¾ API 617 – Compressors
¾ API 614 – Lube Oil System
¾ API 670 – Machinery Protection Mostly Affects
¾ API 613 – Load and Accessory Gear Packaging
¾ API 677 – Accessory Drive Gear
¾ API 671 – Flexible Couplings
¾ NFPA 70 Electric Code
¾ ASME PTC-22 Gas Turbine Testing
¾ ASME PTC-10 Compressor Testing
¾ ASME B133 - Gas Turbines

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Southwest Research Institute Other International Codes

¾ ISO Codes (ISO 3977 - Gas Turbines)


¾ IEC/CENELEC (Electrical and Fire Systems)
¾ Local Government Codes
¾ EU Environmental and Health Compliance
¾ User Specific Specifications:
– Upstream: Mostly API/firm
– Midstream: Some API/flexible
– Downstream: Mostly API/very firm

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Southwest Research Institute What is API?

• American Petroleum Institute (API):


– US Petroleum Industry Primary Trade Association
– 400 Member Companies
– Covers all Aspects of Oil & Gas Industry
– Accredited by ANSI (American National Standards
Organization)
– Started Developing Standards in 1924
– Maintains about 500 Standards
– API Codes are Widely Referenced by EPA, OSHA,
OPS, MMS, BLM, and Many Local Codes
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Southwest Research Institute What is API? – Cont’d

• Philosophy:
– Improve Safety
– Improve Environmental Performance
– Reduce Engineering Costs
– Improve Equipment Interchangeability
– Improve Product Quality
– Lower Equipment Cost
– Allows for Exceptions for Reason

API Specifications Typically Lag


Technology Developments! 11/15/2001 - #35
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Gas Turbine
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Southwest Research Institute What is API? – Cont’d
API Standards as Purchasing Specifications:

• Provide the means for a customer to normalize the


quotations by forcing all vendors to quote similar scopes.
• Provides a common language and set of rules between
vendor and customer to limit misunderstandings; e.g.,
definitions of efficiencies, test procedures, vendor data,
data sheets.
• Clearly states in the Foreword that Exceptions are
allowed if they lead to improved or safer technical offer.

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Southwest Research Institute What is API? – Cont’d
• For gas turbine applications in the oil & gas
sector, API 616 is the foundation for almost all
purchase specifications.
• API 617 is used for critical centrifugal compressor
applications (high pressure, high energy)
• NFPA 70 electric code for hazardous locations is a
fundamental requirement within API. Gas turbine
electrical wiring must at least meet Class 1,
Division 2 (Zone 2), Group D. Some Applications
require Division 1 (Zone 1). 11/15/2001
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API
Southwest Research Institute

Standard Topics
¾ Definitions:
– ISO Rating, Normal Operating Point, Maximum
Continuous Speed, Trip Speed, etc.
¾ Mechanical Integrity:
– Blade Natural Frequencies, Vibration Levels,
Balancing Requirements, Alarms and Shutdowns

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API
Southwest Research Institute

Standard Topics
¾ Design Requirements and Features:
– Materials, Welding, Accessories, Controls,
Instrumentation, Inlet/Exhaust Systems, Fuel
Systems
¾ Inspection, Testing, and Preparation for Shipment
– Minimum Testing, Inspection and Certification
¾ Documentation Requirements
¾ Does not cover government codes & regulations

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Southwest Research Institute API

API Data Sheets

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Southwest Research Institute API Data Sheets
API Data Sheets:
• Forms technical basis of proposal
• Define Customer Site, Operating, and
Equipment Minimum Requirements
• Most important technical contractual
document
• Must always be filled out:
• API 616 Appendix A & B (Gas Turbine)
• API 614 Appendix D (Lube Oil System)
• API 670 Appendix A (Machinery Protection) 11/15/2001
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Southwest Research Institute API Data Sheets

When filling out the API Data Sheets

• Cross-out requirements you do not comply


with.

• Read all the notes: Some critical requirements


are often hidden here.

• Fill out as much info as is available: Even


partially filled out sheet is better than no sheet.

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Southwest Research Institute API Data Sheets

By Purchaser

By Manufacturer

By Manufacturer
if not by Purchaser

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Southwest Research Institute

API 616
Gas Turbine

Note: API 616 does not apply to Aero-Derivative


Gas Turbines – Only Industrial!

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Southwest Research Institute API 616 Intro & Definitions
1.0 Alternative Designs
1.1 Alternative designs allowed. Emphasized in API Foreword.

2.0 References
2.1 All reference standards are automatically included. All
manufacturers take exception to this.

3.0 Definitions
3.17 ISO defined as T=15C, P=1.0133 bar, RH=60%

3.19 Maximum allowable speed. Speed at which unit can safely


operate continuously per manufacturer.

3.22 Maximum continuous speed: 105% highest design speed.


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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Definitions
3.26 Normal Operating Point: Usually the performance guarantee
(heat rate, power) point for gas turbine. Defined by speed, fuel,
and site conditions.

3.38 Rated speed: Power turbine speed at which site rated power is
achieved.

3.42 Site rated conditions: Worst site condition at which still site
rated power can be achieved. Provided by User.

3.45 Site rated power: The maximum power achievable at site rated
conditions. Provided by Manufacturer. Note: Unless
specifically stated by purchaser this is not a guarantee point.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Engine
3.50 Turbine trip speed: Speed where controls shut unit down.

3.51 Unit responsibility: Prime package contractor to user. Either


GT or compressor manufacturer.

4.0 Basic Design


4.1.1 Equipment designed for 20 years and 3 years of uninterrupted
service. Hot section inspection every 8000 hours.

4.1.2 Gas turbine vendor has unit responsibility unless otherwise


specified.

4.1.5 Speed ranges: Two-shaft 50-105% rated speed, Single-shaft


80-105% rated speed.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Engine
4.1.14 On-skid electric shall meet NFPA 70.

4.1.16 Most gas turbine internals shall be exchangeable at site.


Disqualifies most aeroderivate gas turbines.

4.1.17 Unit shall meet performance acceptance criteria both in the


factory and at site. Most manufacturers take exception to site
performance guarantee unless field test is performed.

4.1.18 Vendor shall review customers installation drawings.

4.1.21 Gas turbine must meet site rated power with no negative
tolerances.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Engine
4.2.1 Casing hoop stresses must meet ASME Section VIII.

4.2.7 Openings for borescope inspection must be provided for entire


rotor without disassembly.

4.2.9 Field balancing (if required) without removal of casing is OK.

4.3.1 Combustors must have two igniters or igniter and cross-tubes.

4.3.2 Requires temperature sensors in each combustor. Not feasible


in most gas turbine designs. T5 (2-shaft) or T6 (1-shaft)
normal.

4.3.7 Fuel Wobbe index range must be indicated in proposal.


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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Engine
4.4 Casing Connections: Section outlines good design practices.
Most manufacturers are OK.

4.5.1.2 Shafts shall be single piece heat treated steel. Stacked rotors
with a tie-bolt are not allowed. Difficult to meet for most
manufacturers and not critical if rotor has been operationally
proven.

4.5.2.1 Rotor shall be designed for overspeed up to 110% of trip speed.

4.5.2.2 All rotor components must withstand instantaneous loss of 100%


shaft load (e.g. coupling failure).

4.6 Seals: Renewable seals at all close clearance points.


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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Engine
4.7 Rotordynamics: Follow good design practices for progressive
balancing with residual unbalance check. High speed balancing
is discouraged.

4.8.1.1 Hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings are preferred. Thrust-


Tilt pad, Radial Tilt pad or sleeve.

4.8.2.5 If rolling element bearings are used they must meet 50,000
hours of continuous operation.

4.8.5.2 Bearings: Labyrinth type seal required. Lip seal not acceptable.

4.8.5.3 Two radial proximity probes in radial bearings and two axial
proximity probes in thrust bearings.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Engine
4.9.2 Synthetic lube oil is OK.

4.9.5 Integrated or separate lube GT / Compressor oil system OK.

4.9.7 Lube oil system must meet API 614. Note: Lube oil tank
typically integrated into skid.

4.10 Materials: Follow good design rules. Purchaser may require


100% radiography magnetic particle inspection, or liquid
penetrant inspection on all welds.

4.11.3 A SS nameplate to include rated performance and conditions,


critical speeds, maximum continuous speed, overspeed trip,
and fuel type.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Accessories
5.0 Accessories
5.1.1.1 Electric, pneumatic, electro-hydraulic, gas engine, steam
turbine all acceptable starter/helper motors. Starter drivers
are uncoupled after startup, helper drivers remain coupled.

5.1.1.7 Starter motors must be supplied with all necessary gears,


couplings, and clutches.

5.1.2.1 Starters shall be rated 110% of starting torque required.


Vendor to supply torque curves.

5.1.3 Turning gear: Device to periodically rotate to avoid shaft


deformation. Generally not required on smaller turbines.
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Southwest Research Institute API 616- Accessories
5.2.1 Vendor to supply accessory gear for starting, auxiliary equipment
(LO pump). Vendor to also supply separate load gear if required.
All gears shall meet API 613. Accessory gears shall be rated for
110% of required load.

5.2.2 Vendor to supply all couplings and guards for load and accessory
shafts. Couplings to be sized for maximum continuous torque and
meet API 671.

5.3 Gas turbine to be supplied on single mounting plate (baseplate).


Typically interpreted to allow for skid mounting. Skid to be
designed to limit worst case shaft alignment change to 50
micrometers.

5.3.2 Single piece baseplate preferred. Baseplate shall extend under


driven equipment. 11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #54
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Accessories/Controls
5.3.2.4 Skid to permit field leveling.

5.4.1.2 Controls and instrumentation shall be suitable for outdoor


installation. Usually not necessary or practical.

5.4.1.3 GT instruments and controls shall meet API 670.

5.4.1.4 GT control system must provide for safe startup, operation,


and shutdown of gas turbine.

5.4.1.6 Unit shall continue to operate for specified time after AC


failure. To overcome delay of emergency power startup.

5.4.2.1 Automatic start to require only single operator action. 11/15/2001


Gas Turbine Technology - #55
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Controls
5.4.2.2 Control system to completely purge unit prior to startup.

5.4.3.4 Load control to limit driven equipment speed to 105%


rated speed.

5.4.4.1 Alarm/shutdown system to be provided to protect unit


and operator. Both Normal and Emergency (Fast)
shutdown (i.e., cut of of fuel supply) must be available.

5.4.4.3 Fuel control must include separate shutoff and vent


valves, separate from fuel control valve, with local and
remote trip.

5.4.4.8.1 Alarm and shutdown switches shall be separate. Often


not practical (e.g., flame detector, axial thrust position). 11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #56
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Alarms

Minimal Requirements

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #57
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Sensors
5.4.4.8.3 Alarm and trip settings not adjustable from outside
housing. Not relevant with modern control systems.

5.4.4.9 All instruments (other than shutdown switches) shall be


replaceable without shutting unit down. Not practical on
many switches.

5.4.5.1.1 Off-skid or on-skid control system to be supplied with unit.

5.4.5.1.1 Any on-skid control system must meet hazardous area


requirements (NFPA70).

5.4.6.2 On-skid electric systems must meet NFPA 70.


11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #58
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Inlet/Exhaust
5.4.7 Instrumentation: The API 616 Data Sheets Must be Filled Out
by Purchaser to Indicate the Required Instrumentation.
Manufacturer will often cross out line to indicate non-
compliance. Vendor must include in proposal full list of
instrumentation. API 670 governs basic requirements for
temperature and vibration sensors.

5.5.3.1 Air inlet and exhaust system including inlet filter, inlet/exhaust
silencers, ducting, and joints to be provided by vendor.

5.5.3.3 Inlet system shall be designed for maximum 4 in H2O pressure


drop at site rated power.

5.5.3.4 Inlet/exhaust system design life is 20 years.


11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #59
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Anciliaries
5.4.2.2 Bolts, rivets or fasteners are not permitted in inlet system.

5.5.3.9 A gas turbine compressor cleaning system must be provided.

5.5.4.4 Inlet Filter System requires walkways and handrails. Not


necessary for very small units.

5.5.5 Inlet/Exhaust Silencer: Internals to be Stainless Steel.


External Carbon Steel.

5.7.3 Unit must be supplied with gas detection system, fire


detection system, and fire suppression system to meet
NFPA. Fire suppression shall be automatic based on
thermal detection. Typical: Thermal, thermal gradient,
LEL, and flash detector. CO2 for suppression. 11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #60
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Enclosure/Fuels
5.7.5 When enclosure is supplied it must be weatherproof
and include fire detection/suppression,
ventilation/purging, lights, and doors, and windows.

5.8.1.2 Gas fuel system: Must include strainer,


instrumentation, manifolds, nozzles, control valve,
shutoff valve, pressure regulator, and vent valve.

5.8.1.3 Fuel gas piping must be stainless steel.

5.8.1.4 Liquid fuel system: Must include pump, atomizing air,


two shutoff valves, instrumentation, control valves,
flow dividers, nozzles, and manifolds. Newer systems
employ variable speed pumps instead of control valves. 11/15/2001 - #61
Gas Turbine Technology Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Fuels
5.81.5.2 If dual fuel system is provided it must allow bumpless
bidirectional transfer.

5.8.2.2.2 Vendor must review customer’s fuel supply system.

5.8.2.4 Heating value of fuel cannot vary by more than ±10%.

5.8.4.2 Purchaser must specify required site emissions levels


for NOx, CO, UHC, et al.

6.0 Inspection, Testing, and Preparation for Shipment


Inspections: Standard machinery type includes,
materials, mechanical, Radiographic, ultrasonic,
magnetic particle, dye penetrant, etc.
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #62
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Testing
6.3.2.3 Hydrostatic tests: Vessels and piping per ASME Section VIII
(1.5 times rated pressure).

6.3.3 Mechanical Running Test: 4 hour no load full speed


(maximum continuous speed) test to verify that the complete
gas turbine package (including all auxiliaries except for
inlet/exhaust system) operates within vibration and
operational control limits. Contract coupling should be used.
Rotordynamic signature and vibrations must be recorded.
Compliance with these requirements is critical.

6.3.4 Optional Tests (These tests are not optional if purchaser


marks them in the API 616 data sheets)
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #63
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 - Testing
6.3.4.1 Optional Performance Test: Unit full load tested to PTC 22.

6.3.4.2 Optional Complete Unit Test: Similar to Mechanical run test


but to include driven equipment.

6.3.4.3 Gear must be tested with unit during mechanical run test.

Other optional test: Sound level, Auxiliary Equipment, Fire


Protection, Control response, Spare Parts.

6.3.4.6 If unit fail mechanical run test, complete disassembly is


required.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #64
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Vendor Data
6.4 Preparation for Shipment: Short term – plastic wrapping. Long
Term – crating, surface anti-corrosion treatment, nitrogen fill of
all vessels.

7.0 Vendor’s Data: Strictly follows Data Sheet requirements.


Manufacturers must cross out line if they do not meet API.
Minimum must contain performance maps, performance
calculations, mechanical, hydraulic, layout, and electrical
drawings, P&IDs, test and inspection results, as-built, parts lists,
operation and maintenance manuals, installation manual, and
technical data.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #65
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 616 – Vendor Data

Purchaser and
Vendor
To Fill in Delivery
Dates
Or Cross Out if Not
Applicable.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #66
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 614 – Highlights
Lubricating Systems:
• 20 years service life
• Single full capacity pump with backup
• Duplex oil filters with smooth transfer
• All wetted surfaces to be stainless steel
• Lube oil tank minimum time 8 minutes
• All pumps, valves, switches, and sensors to have block
and bleed valves
• Lube oil piping downstream of filter is stainless steel
• Sight indicators and levels sensors for tank
• Skid integrated lube oil tank OK
• Tank has vent with flame trap
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #67
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API 670 – Highlights
Machinery Protection:
• Provides minimum design, installation, and accuracy
standards for package alarms/shutdown switches and
sensors.
• Must meet NFPA 70 hazardous area classifications.
• Signal and power wiring must be segregated.
• Alarms and shutdown switches must be separate.
• Lube oil piping downstream of filter is stainless steel.
• Bearings must have metal temperature sensors.
• Axial thrust bearings must have two proximity probes.
• Covers all instruments specified in API 616 data
sheets.
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #68
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API GT – Instruments

Purchaser must
Specify on API 616
Data Sheets

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #69
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API GT – Alarms/Shutdowns
Purchaser must
Specify on API 616
Data Sheets.

Note: Should be
Separate from
Instruments but not
Always Feasible.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #70
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute Factory Performance Tests

ASME PTC-22
Gas Turbine Performance

ASME PTC-10
Compressor Performance

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #71
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute Factory Tests
PTC-10 Compressor
• Closed loop test to determine performance of compressor
• Type I: Actual Gas, Type II: Simulated Gas
• Typically used for high pressure / high energy applications
• Reduces risk of startup delays due to vibrations or lack of
performance.

PTC-22 Gas Turbine


• Full Speed, Full Load Test.
• Typically against a water break or generator/load cells.
• Determines maximum output power and efficiency.
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #72
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute
Detailed Performance Tests
Flare
E E
Fuel Gas Process Gas/Liquid
E Electric System Heater Station Outflow
Seal Gas/Oil
Process
Lube Oil
P P E P T

Ambient (P,T) T Exhaust P


P P P P
Relative Humidity
F T T T T T

Air Process
Inlet Compressor Compressor
Burner Turbine

P P P

T P
T T P P P P
T
F T T T T
F
E Lube Oil Process Gas/Liquid
Process
Station Inflow
05/16/05
PTC-22 (Gas Turbine) PTC-10 (Compressor)
11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #73
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
National Electric Code (NEC)
Southwest Research Institute

NFPA 70

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #74
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
National Fire Protection Association
Southwest Research Institute
NFPA 70
Hazardous Location Summary Electrical Requirements:
Class 1: Flammable Gases, Vapors, or Liquids
Class 2: Dust and combustible dust that can form explosive mixtures.
Class 3: Fibers or flyings suspended in air that are easily ignitable.

Divisions Within Class 1:


Class 1, Division 1
(Zone 0 & Zone 1): Ignitable concentration of flammable mixtures exist
most of the time.
Class 1, Division 2
(Zone 2): Ignitable concentrations of flammable mixtures are
not likely to exist under normal conditions.

MOST OIL & GAS APPLICATIONS ARE CLASS 1, DIVISION 2. SOME


OFFSHORE AND REFINERY APPLICATIONS REQUIRE CLASS 1, DIVISION 1.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #75
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70
What Does NFPA 70 Apply To:
- On-Skid Electrical
- Wiring and Cables
- Electric Motors (Pumps, Fans, Starter)
- Instruments and Alarms
- Junction Boxes
- Lights and Heaters (if applicable)

- On-Skid Fire Systems


- UV/IR Flash Sensors
- Flammable Mixture Detectors
- Temperature, Temperature Rise Detectors
- Smoke Detectors (if used)
- CO2 (or other) Fighting System

- Air Inlet and Lube Oil Electrical Elements

Does Not Apply To Non-Electrical Components


11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #76
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70
Exception To NFPA 70 Can Often Be Taken For:

- Off-Skid Control System

- Battery Charger and Batteries Located in


Control
- Starter Motor Variable Frequency Drive Room

- Synchronization Panel

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #77
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70
Basic Requirements for Class 1, Divisions 1 & 2
(Details in NFPA 70 Sections 500 and 501):
– Grounded Explosion Proof Conduit for all Wiring
– Conduit and Conduit Connections are Copper Free
– Gas Sealed Conduit Connections
– Instruments, Connectors, Terminals in Explosion Proof Boxes
– Motors Rated Explosion Proof
– Fire Detection System (UV/IR, Thermal Gradient Detectors
– Gas (Flammable Mixture) Detectors
– Fire Fighting System (Inert Gas or Water Mist)

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #78
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70

On-Skid
Explosion
Proof Boxes

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #79
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70
On-Skid
Explosion
Proof Boxes

Conduit
Sealing

Copper
Free
Conduit

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #80
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70

Explosion
Proof
Flexible
Conduit

Explosion
Proof
Instruments

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #81
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute NFPA 70

Explosion
Proof
Conduit

Non-
Explosion
Proof
Conduit

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #82
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API Review

API 616 Data Sheet


Review

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #83
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #84
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #85
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #86
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #87
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #88
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #89
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #90
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #91
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #92
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #93
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #94
Center
Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #95
Center
API 617
Axial and Centrifugal
Compressors and Expander-
compressors for Petroleum,
Chemical and Gas Industry
Services
Seventh Edition, July 2002

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #96
Center
Codes and Standards

¾ Codes provide design guidelines and definitions


– Example: Vibrations, materials, service connections,
package design
¾ Intent to Facilitate Manufacture and Procurement
– Information Exchange between User and Manufacturer
¾ No code ‘designs’ a gas compressor
¾ Codes are by nature rather general. Any particular
application may require modifications
¾ Codes React Slow to Technical Changes

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #97
Center
Observation

¾ API 617 very prevalent in Off-Shore, and


Refineries
¾ Usually less prevalent in Pipeline
Applications
¾ Often referenced within user-company
specific Specifications
¾ All manufacturers have various amounts of
comments and exceptions.

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #98
Center
Convergence

¾ Experience vs. API


– In particular an issue for standardized designs
¾ Seems to Converge
– I.e API adopts modifications if they prove to be
successful
– Slow Process

11/15/2001
Gas Turbine Technology - #99
Center
What Does Adherence to
Codes Buy?
¾ A better design?
¾ More security?
– Downtime
– Commissioning Time
– Decommissioning Time
– Performance
– Safety Requirements
¾ Cost ?

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #100
Codes Critical
Technical Requirements
¾ Definitions
ISO rating, normal operating point, maximum continuous speed etc.

¾ Mechanical Integrity
Blade Natural Frequencies, Vibration Levels, Balancing Requirements, Alarms and Shutdowns

¾ Design Requirements and Features


Materials, Welding, Accessories, Controls, Instrumentation, Inlet/Exhaust systems, Fuel Systems

¾ Inspection, Testing and Preparation for Shipment


¾ Documentation Requirements
¾ Does not cover government codes & regulations

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #101
What’s in it?

¾ General Requirements
¾ Centrifugal and Axial Compressors
¾ Integrally Geared Compressors
¾ Expander Compressors

PRIMARY FOCUS

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #102
SCOPE
¾ API 617 covers the minimum requirements for axial
compressors, single-shaft and integrally geared process
centrifugal compressors and expander-compressor for
use in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries
services that handle air or gas.
¾ This standard does not apply to fans (covered by API Std
673) or blowers that develop less than 34 kPa (5 psi)
pressure rise above atmospheric pressure.
¾ This standard also does not apply to packaged,
integrally-geared centrifugal plant and instrument air
compressors, which are covered by API Std 672.
¾ Hot gas expanders over 300°C (570°F) are not covered
in this standard. 11/15/2001Center
- #103
Gas Turbine Technology
SECTION 1—GENERAL

¾ 1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


¾ 1.2 Alternative Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
¾ 1.3 Conflicting Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
¾ 1.4 Dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
¾ 1.5 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
¾ 1.6 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
¾ 1.7 Statutory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
¾ 1.8 Unit Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #104
Benchmark

¾ The vendor may offer alternative designs.


¾ All designs should comply with this
standard.
¾ Any exceptions to the standard including,
alternate design differences from this
standard, shall be clearly stated in the
proposal.

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #105
Definitions

1.5.3 Compressor Rated Point


¾ The intersection on the 100% speed curve
corresponding to the highest capacity of any
specified operating point. Note: This is generally a
derived point rather than an actual operating point
(see Figure 2.1-1a for a graphical representation).
Problem: Imposes requirements that are
potentially not useful for the actual operation
105% speed definition is not very practical

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #106
Annex 2C-Cross
Section/Nomenclature

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #107
Section 2 – Basic Design

¾ 2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4


¾ 2.2 Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
¾ 2.3 Casings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
¾ 2.4 Guide Vanes, Stators, and Stationary Internals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
¾ 2.5 Rotating Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
¾ 2.6 Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
¾ 2.7 Bearings and Bearing Housings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
¾ 2.8 Shaft End Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
¾ 2.9 Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
¾ 2.10 Lubrication and Sealing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
¾ 2.11 Nameplates and Rotation Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
¾ 2.12 Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #108
11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #109
2.3.1 Pressure-Containing
Casings
2.3.1.1 The purchaser will specify the relief valve
setting. The maximum allowable working
pressure of the casing shall be at least equal to the
specified relief valve setting.
2.3.1.1.1 When a relief valve setting is not
specified, the maximum allowable working
pressure shall be at least 1.25 times the maximum
specified discharge pressure (gauge). System
protection shall be furnished by the purchaser.

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #110
2.5.3 Shafts

2.5.3.1 Shafts for non through-bolt rotors shall be made of one-piece,


heat treated steel that is suitably machined. Shafts that have a
finished diameter larger than 200 mm (8 in.) shall be forged steel.
Shafts that have a finished diameter of 200 mm (8 in.) or less shall
be forged steel or hot rolled barstock, providing such barstock meets
all quality and heat treatment criteria established for shaft forgings.
2.5.3.2 When modular (through bolt) rotors are provided, the stub-
shafts shall meet all quality and heat treatment criteria for shaft
forgings. Refer to Annex 2C for rotor arrangements and
nomenclature.

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #111
Dynamics
2.6.1.1 In the design of rotor-bearing systems, consideration shall be given to
all potential sources of periodic forcing phenomena (excitation) which
shall include, but are not limited to, the following sources:
a Unbalance in the rotor system.
b. Oil-film instabilities (whirl).
c. Internal rubs.
d. Blade, vane, nozzle, and diffuser passing frequencies.
e. Gear-tooth meshing and side bands.
f. Coupling misalignment.
g. Loose rotor-system components.
h. Hysteretic and friction whirl.
i. Boundary-layer flow separation.
j. Acoustic and aerodynamic cross-coupling forces.
k. Asynchronous whirl.
l. Ball and race frequencies of rolling element bearings.
m. Electrical line frequency.

2.6.1.2 For the purposes of this standard, a resonant condition of concern,


such as lateral and torsional critical speeds, are those with an
amplification factor (AF) equal to or greater than 2.5. 11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #112
Rotor Response and
Critical Speed
2.6.2 Lateral Analysis
¾ 2.6.2.1 Critical speeds and
their associated AFs shall be
determined by means of a
damped unbalanced rotor
response analysis.
¾ 2.6.2.2 The location of all
critical speeds below the trip
speed shall be confirmed on
the test stand during the
mechanical running test (see
2.6.3.1). The accuracy of the
analytical model shall be
demonstrated (see 2.6.3).
11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #113
Stability Analysis
2.6.5 Level I Stability Analysis
¾ 2.6.5.1 A stability analysis shall be performed on all centrifugal or
axial compressors and/or radial flow rotors except those rotors whose
maximum continuous speed is below the first critical speed in
accordance with 2.6.2.3, as calculated on rigid supports. For this
analysis, the machine inlet and discharge conditions shall be at either
the rated condition or another operating point unless the vendor and
purchaser agree upon another operating point. Note: Level I analysis
was developed to fulfill two purposes: first, it provides an initial
screening to identify rotors that do not require a more detailed study.
The approach as developed is conservative and not intended as an
indication of an unstable rotor. Second, the Level I analysis specifies a
standardized procedure applied to all manufacturers similar to that
found in 2.6.2. (Refer to API Publ 684, 1.6 for a detailed explanation.)

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #114
Decision Criteria

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #115
Radial Bearings

¾ 2.7.2.4 The bearing design shall suppress


hydrodynamic instabilities and provide sufficient
damping over the entire range of allowable
bearing clearances to limit rotor vibration to the
maximum specified amplitudes while the
equipment is operating loaded or unloaded,
operation at any critical frequency within the
specified operating speed range.

11/15/2001Center
Gas Turbine Technology - #116
Bearing Temperature
¾ 2.7.1.3 As a design criteria, bearing metal temperatures
shall not exceed 100°C (212°F) at specified operating
conditions with a maximum inlet oil temperature of 50°C
(120°F). Vendors shall provide bearing temperature alarm
and shutdown limits on the datasheets.
¾ 2.7.1.3.1 In the event that the above design criteria cannot
be met, purchaser and vendor shall mutually agree on
acceptable bearing metal temperatures.

Many applications use air-to-oil coolers,


that produce oil temperatures in excess of 120°F, and
bearing metal temperatures above 212°F. This should be
acceptable, as long as the compressor is designed for these
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Vibrations
¾ 2.6.8.8 During the mechanical running test of the machine,assembled with the
balanced rotor, operating at its maximum continuous speed or at any other speed within
the specified operating speed range, the peak-to-peak amplitude of unfiltered vibration
in any plane, measured on the shaft adjacent and relative to each radial bearing, shall not
exceed the following value or 25 μm (1 mil), whichever is less:
¾ In SI units:

¾ In U.S. Customary units:

where
A = amplitude of unfiltered vibration, in μm (mil) true peak-to-peak,
N = maximum continuous speed, in rpm.
At any speed greater than the maximum continuous speed, up to and including the trip
speed of the driver, the vibration level shall not increase more than 12.7 μm (0.5 mil)
above the maximum value recorded at the maximum continuous speed.
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Section 3 – Accessories

¾ 3.1 Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28


¾ 3.2 Couplings and Guards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28
¾ 3.3 Mounting Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29
¾ 3.4 Controls and Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
¾ 3.5 Piping and Appurtenances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
¾ 3.6 Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36

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Section 4 – Inspection, Testing,
and Preparation for Shipment
¾ 4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¾ 4.2 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¾ 4.3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
¾ 4.4 Preparation for Shipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Some of the testing and inspection requirements are


very much geared towards one-off designs.
They usually add to the manufacturing time
(especially if hold points are defined)

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Section 5 – Vendor’s Data

¾ 5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40


¾ 5.2 Proposals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40
¾ 5.3 Contract Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-42

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Testing

¾ 4.3.6.2.1 All hydrodynamic bearings shall be


removed, inspected, and reassembled after the
mechanical running test is completed.

One of the purposes of this test is to protect against assembly errors.


It is good engineering practice to not disassemble the compressor
after a successful test.
Some test procedures would require a re-test after re-assembly.

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4.3.3.1 Performance Test

¾ 4.3.3.1.1 The compressor shall be performance tested in


accordance with ASME PTC 10-1997, ISO 5389 or other
approved national standard. A minimum of five points,
including surge and overload, shall be taken at normal
speed. For variable-speed machines, additional points may
be specified. Note: Refer to the applicable test code for
general instructions. ASME PTC 10-1997 may not apply
to some low pressure ratio compressors. Refer to the
scope, 1.2.2, of PTC 10-1997 for the selection of the
appropriate test code to be used.

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4.3.3.1 Performance Test

¾ 4.3.3.1.2 For variable speed machines, head and capacity shall have
zero negative tolerance at the normal operating point (or other point as
specified), and the power at this point shall not exceed 104% of the
vendor predicted shaft power value. This tolerance shall be inclusive of
all test tolerances. Surge shall comply with provisions of 2.1.1.1.

Note: Both of the performance test codes referred to have provision for
calculating inaccuracy based on instrumentation and procedures. These
test inaccuracies are already included in the above tolerance and,
therefore, are not to be further additive.

¾ 4.3.3.1.3 For variable-speed compressors, a speed other than the


normal speed may be used, if necessary, to achieve the specified
performance and performance tolerances, provided that this adjusted
speed meets the criteria specified in Chapter 1, 2.6.
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Performance Test

¾ 4.3.3.1.4 For constant-speed compressors, the capacity


shall be as specified in 4.3.3.1.2. The head shall be within
the range of 100% – 105% of the normal head. The
horsepower, based on measured head at normal capacity,
shall not exceed 107% of the value at the specified normal
operating point. If the power required at this point exceeds
107%, excess head may be removed by trimming impellers
at the purchaser’s option.

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Datasheets

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¾ ANNEX 1A REFERENCE LIST OF U.S., ISO, AND INTERNATIONAL
¾ STANDARDS (NORMATIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45
¾ ANNEX 1B PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL
¾ UNBALANCE (NORMATIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49
¾ ANNEX 1C TYPICAL SHAFT END SEAL CROSS-SECTIONAL
¾ DRAWINGS (INFORMATIVE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-59
¾ ANNEX 1D TESTING OF GAS SEALS IN SEAL VENDOR’S SHOP
¾ (NORMATIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-67
¾ ANNEX 1E TYPICAL MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
¾ (INFORMATIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Gas Turbine
Technology Center
Southwest Research Institute API Review

Thank You Very Much!

Questions, Please?

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