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PRAGYA GIRLS SCHOOL

PHYSICS PROJECT
CLASS - XII ‘A’
SESSION – 2019-2020

TOPIC – DC MOTAR

SUBMITTED BY SUBMITTED TO
RITIKA SINGH Mr. SANJAY SARAF
SIR
INTRODUCTION
A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that
converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical
energy. The most common types relay on the forces produced
by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motor have some
internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to
periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the
motor.
DC motor were the first type widely used, since they could be
powered from existing direct current lighting power
distribution systems. A DC motor’s speed can be controlled
over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by
changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC
motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances.
The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a
lightweight brushed motor used for portable power tools and
appliances. Large DC motors are used propulsion of electric
vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills.
The advent of power electronics has made replacement of DC
motors with AC motors possible in many applications.
DC MOTOR COMPONENETS
 STATOR
The stator consists of either a permanent magnet or
electromagnet occupies the central part of the motor.
 ROTOR ( armature)
The rotor is made up of one or more electric winding
around armature arms. These electric winding generate a
magnetic field when energized by the external current.
The magnetic poles thus generated by these rotor field are
attracted to the opposite poles generated by the stator
field and repelled by the similar poles which causes the
rotor to rotate.
 COMMUTATOR
The DC motor does not use an external current switching
device, instead it uses a mechanical connector called the
commutator, which is a segmented sleeve usually made of
copper, mounted on the rotating shaft. The current +/- is
supplied to this commutator segments with the help of
brushes.
 BRUSHES
As the motor turns the brushes slide over
the commutator segments hence creating the variable
magnetic field in different arms through the commutator
segments attached to the winding. Hence a dynamic
magnetic field is generated in the motor when a voltage
id applied across the brushes.
WORKING OF DC MOTOR
A magnetic field is produced as the current passes through the
wire, or coil of wires. This magnetic field opposes against the
permanent magnet set the right beside the coil. Thus resulting
in force going up or down depends on right hands rule.

When the motor rotates the direction of the current will


change to the other direction. Consequently, keeping the
polarity of electromagnetic force always opposing the
permanent magnet. Therefore, the motor keep rotating as long
as electrical power in constantly supplied.
PROPERTIES OF DC MOTOR
DIRECTION : DC motors have mostly 2 terminals, across the
voltage is applied. When the voltage is applied across these
terminals, the motor start to spin in one direction, and when
the polarity of applied voltage is reversed the direction of the
voltage is also reversed. Thus the polarity of applied voltage
determines the motor direction while the amplitude of voltage
determines the speed of motor
SPEED: the speed of a motor, measured in rotation per
minute , depends on the applied voltage and load.
VOLTAGE : each DC motor has a specified voltage that
indicates the nominal voltage or the applied voltage that makes
the motor run in its normal condition. It indicates the maximum
recommended voltage.
CURRENT : When a motor is powered at the nominal voltage,
the current depends on the load, and increases with load.
Therefore, it is important not to allow the motor to run with
excessive loads that can stall it.
POWER : A motors power is the product of its voltage and
current.
TORQUE: Torque is defined as the product of the force times
the distance from the center of the shaft of a motor.
TYPES OF DC MOTOR
SEPERATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR :
As the name suggests, in case of a separately excited DC motor
the supply is given separately to the field and armature
windings. The main distinguishing fact in these types of DC
motor is that, the armature current does not flow through the
field windings, as the field windings is energized from a
separate external source of DC current.

PERMANENT MAGNET DC MOTOR :


The permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC motor) consist of an
armature winding as in case of an usual motor, but does not
necessarily contain the field windings. The construction of
these types of DC motor are such that, radially magnetized
permanent magnets are mounted on the inner periphery of the
stator core to produce the field flux.
SELF EXCITED DC MOTOR :
In case of self excited DC motor, the field winding is connected
either in series or in parallel or partly in series, partly in parallel
to the armature winding. Based on this, self excited DC motor
can be classified as :
 Shunt wound DC motor – In case of shunt wound self
excited DC motor, the windings are exposed to the entire
terminal voltage as they are connected in parallel to the
armature winding.
 Series wound DC motor – In case of a series wound self
excited DC motor the entire armature current flows
through the field winding as it’s connected in series to the
armature winding.

 Compound wound DC motor – The compound excitation


characteristic of both the shunt and series excited DC
motor. The compound wound self excited DC motor or
simply compound wound DC motor essentially contains
the field winding connected both in series and in parallel
to the armature winding.

COMULATIVE COMPOUND DC MOTOR :


When the shunt field flux assists the main field flux, produced
by the main field connected in series to the armature winding
then it is called cumulative compound DC motor.
DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUND DC MOTOR :
In case of differentially compounded self excited DC motor i.e.
differential compound DC motor, the arrangements of shunt
and series winding is such that the field flux produced by the
shunt field winding diminishes the effect of flux by the main
series field winding.

SHORT SHUNT DC MOTOR :


If the shunt field winding is only parallel to the armature
winding and not the series field winding then it’s known short
shunt DC motor.

LONG SHUNT DC MOTOR :


If the shunt field winding is parallel to both the armature
winding and the series field winding then it’s known as long
shunt type compounded wound DC motor.
Application of dc motors

 The series DC motors are used where high starting torque


is required, and variations in speed are possible. For
example – the series motors are used in traction system,
cranes, air compressors, vaccum cleaner, sewing
machine, etc
 The shunt motors are used where constant speed is
required and starting conditions are not severe. The
various applications of DC shunt motor aere in Lathe
Machines, centrifugal pumps, fans, blowers, conveyors,
lifts, weaving machine, spinning machines, etc.
 The compound motors used where higher starting
torque and fairely constant speed is required. The
examples of usage of compound motors are in presses,
shears, conveyors, elevators, rolling mills, heavy
planners, etc.
ADVANTAGES

 Speed control over a wide range both above and below


the rated speed.
 High starting torque.
 Accurate steep less speed with constant torque.
 Quick starting, stopping reversing and acceleration.
 Free from harmonics, reactive power consumption and
many factors which makes DC motors more advantageous
compared to as induction motors.

DISADVANTAGES

 High initial cost.


 Increased operation and maintenance cost due to
presence of commutator and brush gear.
 Cannot operate in explosive and hazard conditions due to
sparking occur at brush.