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BIOLOGY II  Tail is flagellum used for locomotion


Anatomy and Physiology of the Male and Female Male Glands
Reproductive System  Prostate - Secretes 30% of milky, slightly acidic
Introduction seminal fluid with an antibiotic to kill bacteria
 Sexual reproduction produces new individual  Seminal Vesicles - Secrete 60% of clear, alkaline
o Gamete (sperm & egg) formed by testes and seminal fluid, with fructose sugar, ATP and
ovaries prostaglandins for normal sperm nutrition &
o Fertilization produces one cell (a zygote) with one function
set of chromosomes from each parent o Chemicals for coagulation of semen
o Creates genetic variation  Cowper’s Glands - Secrete clear, alkaline
 Gonads (general term for sperm and egg) produce o mucus to buffer and lubricate urethra
gametes & secrete sex hormones
 Reproductive systems Semen
o Gonads, ducts, glands & supporting structures  Mixture of sperms and seminal fluid
o Gynecology is study of female reproductive  60% from seminal vesicles, 30% from prostate
system  Slightly alkaline, milky appearance and sticky
o Urology is study of urinary & male reproductive  Contains nutrients, clotting proteins & an antibiotic
system to protect the sperms
o Obgyny (delivery)  Typical ejaculate is 2.5 to 5 ml in volume
 Normal sperm count is 50 to 150 million/mL
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM o Actions of many sperm are needed for one to
Scrotum enter
 Sac of loose skin, fascia & smooth muscle divided o If less than 20 million/mL sterile
into two pouches by a septum
 Temperature regulation of testes Erection
o Sperm survival requires 2-3 degrees lower  Sexual stimulation
temperature than core body temperature  Parasympathetic nervous system reflex
o Muscle in scrotum  Dilation of the arterioles supplying the penis
 Elevates testes on exposure to cold & during  Blood enters the penis compressing the veins so
arousal that the blood is trapped
 Warmth reverses the process
 Blood sinuses of penis engorge with blood
 Erection
 Paired oval glands measuring 2 in. By 1in.
Emission and Ejaculation
 Surrounded by dense white capsule
 Emission
o Septa form 200 - 300 compartments called
o Muscle contractions close sphincter at base of
 Each is filled with 2 or 3 seminiferous tubules where o Fluids propelled through ductus deferens,
sperm are formed seminal vesicles, & ejaculatory ducts into bulb of
Seminiferous Tubules o Prostatic fluid secreted into urethra
 Seminiferous tubules contain  Ejaculation
o Sperm forming cells o Sympathetic nervous system reflex
o Sertoli cells (supporting cells) o Skeletal muscles squeeze semen out through
 Interstitial cells in between tubules secrete urethra
Sertoli Cells and Sperm Cells  Ovaries produce eggs (oöcytes) & hormones
 Sertoli cells -- extend from basement membrane to  Uterine tubes transport the eggs
 Uterus where fetal development occurs
o form blood-testis barrier
 Vagina or birth canal
o support developing sperm cells
 External genitalia constitute the vulva
o produce fluid & control release of sperm into
 Mammary glands produce milk
o secrete inhibin which slows sperm production
The Ovary
Sperm Morphology  Pair of organs, size of unshelled almonds in upper
 Adapted for reaching and fertilizing the egg pelvic region
 Head contains DNA and the acrosome with  Histology
enzymes for penetrating the egg o Capsule of dense CT
 Midpiece contains mitochondria to form ATP for o Cortex just deep to capsule contains follicles with
energy egg cells (oöcytes)
o Medulla is middle region composed of connective  Functions -- events occurring in the uterine tube
tissue, blood vessels & lymphatics o fimbriae sweep oöcyte into tube
o Germinal epithelium is peritoneal membrane o Cilia and peristalsis move it along
covering the ovary o Sperm reaches oöcyte in ampulla
o Fertilization occurs within 24 hours after
Ovarian Follicles ovulation
 Ovarian Follicles o Zygote reaches uterus about 7 days after
o Contain oöcytes (egg cells) in various stages of ovulation
o Secrete estrogens that function for: - Anatomy of the Uterus
 Growth and repair of uterine lining  Site of menstruation & development of fetus
 Regulation of monthly female cycle  Description
 Female sexual characteristics o 3 inches long by 2 in. Wide and 1 in. Thick
 Maintenance of bone and muscle o Subdivided into fundus, body & cervix
o Mature (Graafian) follicle releases an oöcyte each o Interiorly contains uterine cavity accessed by
month during ovulation cervical canal
 Oöcytes (egg cells) develop within follicles
 Stages of follicular development Histology of the Uterus
o Primordial follicle - Single layer of squamous cells  Endometrium
around the oöcyte o Simple columnar epithelium
o Primary follicle - Layers of cuboidal granulosa cells o Stroma of connective tissue and endometrial
around the oöcyte glands
 Granulosa cells secrete estrogens  Functional layer - Shed during menstruation
o Secondary follicle - Antral cavity forms  Basal layer - Replaces functional layer each
o Graafian follicle - Follicle mature ready to ovulate month
oöcyte  Myometrium - 3 layers of smooth muscle
o Ovulation - Follicle ruptures releasing oöcyte  Perimetrium - Visceral peritoneum

Corpus Luteum Vagina

 After ovulation, empty follicle becomes a corpus  Passageway for birth, menstrual flow and
luteum intercourse
 Corpus Luteum secretes: -  Description
o Progesterone – completes the preparation of o 4-inch-long fibromuscular organ ending at cervix
uterine lining o Lies between urinary bladder and rectum
o Estrogens – work with progesterone o Orifice partially closed with membrane (hymen)
o Relaxin – relaxes uterine muscles and pubic
symphysis Mammary Glands
o Inhibin – decreases secretion of FSH and LH  Modified sweat glands that produce milk (lactation)
 Corpus albicans is a white scar tissue left after the o Amount of adipose tissue determines size of
corpus luteum dies. breast
o Milk-secreting mammary glands alveoli open by
Oögenesis – Oögonia to Oöcytes lactiferous ducts at the nipple
 Germ cells from yolk sac migrate to ovary and o Areola is pigmented area around nipple
become potential egg cells called oögonia o Suspensory (Cooper’s) ligaments suspend breast
 In fetus, millions of oögonia produced by mitosis from deep fascia of pectoral muscles
but most of them degenerate (atresia)
 Some develop into immature egg cells called Physiology of the Breast
primary oöcytes during fetal development  Milk production and secretion
o 200,000 to 2 million presents at birth o Estrogens develop the ducts system in the breasts
o 40,000 remain at puberty but only 400 mature o Progestrone develop the milk-secreting glands
during a woman’s reproductive life which are called alveoli
 Each month about 20 primary oöcytes become o Prolactin stimulate milk synthesis in the alveoli
secondary oöcytes but usually only one survives to o Oxytocin stimulate milk ejection from the alveoli
be ovulated from Graffian follicle  Milk ejection (release from glands)
o Nursing stimulates the hypothalamus to produce
Uterine or Fallopian Tubes oxytocin
 Narrow, 4-inch tube that extends from the ovary to o Oxytocin secreted from the posterior pituitary
uterus o Oxytocin causes smooth muscles around alveoli
o Infundibulum is open, funnel-shaped portion to contract and squeeze milk into lactiferous
near the ovary ducts, lactiferous sinuses and into the nipple
o Fimbriae are moving finger-like processes o Operated by positive feedback
o Ampulla is central region of tube
o Isthmus is narrowest portion joins uterus
Menstrual Abnormalities Prostate Cancer
 Amenorrhea = absence of menstruation  Leading male cancer death
o Caused by hormone imbalance, extreme weight o treatment is surgery, radiation, hormonal and
loss or low body fat as with rigorous athletic chemotherapy
training  Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
 Dysmenorrhea = pain associated with o enzyme of epithelial cells
menstruation o amount increases with enlargement (indication of
o Severe enough to prevent normal functioning infection, benign enlargement or cancer)
o Caused by uterine tumors, ovarian cysts,  Over 40 yearly rectal exams of prostate gland
endometriosis or intrauterine devices o acute or chronic prostatitis is an infection of
 Abnormal uterine bleeding = excessive amount or prostate causing swelling, tenderness & blockage
duration of menstrual bleeding of urine flow
o Caused by fibroid tumors or hormonal imbalance o treatment with antibiotics

Hysterectomy Endometriosis
 Surgical removal of the uterus  Growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus
 Indications for surgery o tissue discharged from open-end of uterine tubes
o endometriosis, ovarian cysts, excessive bleeding, during menstruation
cancer of cervix, uterus or ovaries o can cover ovaries, outer surface of uterus, colon,
 Complete hysterectomy removes uterus and cervix kidneys and bladder
 Radical hysterectomy removes uterus, cervix, tubes,  Problem is tissue responds to hormonal changes by
ovaries, part of vagina, pelvic lymph nodes and proliferating then breaking down & bleeding
supporting ligaments o causes pain, scarring & infertility

Circumcision Breast Cancer

 Removal of prepuce  Second-leading cause of cancer death in the U.S.
 3 - 4 days after birth o 1 in 8 women affected
 Possibly lowers UTIs, cancer & sexually transmitted o rarely before 30, but more common after
disease menopause
 5% of cases are younger women (genetic
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) mutation)
 Consistent inability of adult male to hold an  Detection by self-examination & mammography
erection long enough for sexual intercourse o ultrasound determines if lump is benign, fluid-
 Causes filled cyst or solid & possibly malignant
o psychological or emotional factors  Risk factors
o physical factors o family history, no children, radiation, alcohol &
 diabetes mellitus, vascular disturbances, smoking
neurological disturbances, testosterone  Treatment
deficiency, drugs (alcohol, nicotine, o lumpectomy, radical mastectomy, radiation
antidepressants, tranquilizers, etc) therapy or chemotherapy
 Viagra causes vasodilation of penile arteries and
brings on an erection
Ovarian Cancer
Testicular Cancer  Most common cause of gynecological deaths
 Most common cancer in age group 20-35 excluding breast cancer
o one of the most curable o difficult to detect before metastasis
 Begins as problem with spermatogenic cells within  Risk factors
the seminiferous tubules o over 50, white, family history, nulliparity, first
 Sign is mass within the testis pregnancy after 30, diet (high fat, low fiber and
 Regular self-examination is important lack of vitamin A), asbestos & talc
 Early symptoms unremarkable -- heartburn, nausea,
Inguinal Canal & Inguinal Hernias bloating, loss of appetite, etc
 Inguinal canal is 2-inch-long tunnel passing through
the Cervical Cancer
3 muscles of the anterior abdominal wall  Starts as cervical dysplasia (change in shape,
 Indirect hernia -- loop of intestine protruding growth & number of cells)
through deep ring  May progress to cervical cancer
 Direct hernia -- loop of intestine pushes through  Detected in Pap smear
posterior wall of inguinal canal  Linked to genital warts and large number of sexual
 More common in males partners at an early age
Sexually Transmitted Disease
 Chlamydia -- bacteria; asymptomatic, leads to
sterility from scar tissue formation What’s inside a cigarette?
o Causative agent: Chlamydia trachomatis  Hydrogen cyanide
 Gonorrhea -- bacteria, discharge common,  Carbon monoxide
blindness if newborn is infected during delivery  Nicotine
o Causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae  Tar
 Syphilis -- bacteria, painless sores (chancre), 2nd  Carcinogens
stage all organs involved, 3rd stage organ
degeneration is apparent (neurosyphilis) Cigarette smoke contains many toxic compounds
o Causative agent: Treponema pallidum
 Genital Herpes -- virus, incurable, painful blisters
o Causative agent: Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
 Hepatitis B - Formerly known as serum hepatitis, is
the hepatitis B virus, which is a Hepadnavirus that
attacks the liver causing inflammation of the liver
 HPV - human papillomavirus, HPV is usually
harmless and goes away by itself, but some types
can lead to cancer or genital warts.

Yeast Infection
 Candida albicans is yeast like fungus that grows on
mucous membranes
 Causes vulvovaginal candidiasis or vaginitis
o inflammation of the vagina
o severe itching and pain
o yellow discharge with odor
 More likely after antibiotic therapy for some other
disease Tar
 Signs and Symptoms  This black sticky substance contains thousands of
o Creamy white lesions on your tongue, inner chemicals, some of which are cancer causing
cheeks and on the roof of your mouth, gums and (carcinogenic).
o Lesions with a cottage cheese-like appearance Carbon monoxide
o Slight bleeding  The haemoglobin in your red blood cells will pick up
o Cracking and redness at the corners of your carbon monoxide rather than oxygen. This reduces
mouth the amount of oxygen carried to the cells in your
o A cottony feeling in your mouth body. It certainly causes many problems –
o Loss of taste especially for a developing baby if the mother
 Can cause babies to have a low birth weight if
-SMOKING- mother smokes during pregnancy
Basic lung structure, Tobacco smoke, Diseases, Ways to  Due to less oxygen reaching the growing foetus
Lung Structure  Nicotine is an addictive drug that acts directly on
Functions of lung components the brain. It is the reason smokers find it difficult to
 Trachea - takes air from nose and mouth down to give up.
bronchi  It raises the heart rate and blood pressure which
 Bronchi – Take air to smaller bronchioles can lead to other health problems. It also make
 Bronchioles – smaller tubes that branch more and blood cells sticky and can lead to blood clots that
more to take air to alveoli can cause strokes and heart attacks
 Alveoli – air sacs with thin walls made of single cells,
allows diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide to Hydrogen cyanide
happen quickly  This is a poisonous gas that is often used to execute
prisoners in the USA! And smokers breathe it in
Function of ciliated epithelium in trachea and bronchi with every drag on a cigarette. It damages cells in
Cilia move mucus and trapped dirt and bacteria out of the lungs.
tubes up towards throat

Goblet cells make mucus which traps dirt and bacteria. Smoking related diseases
Mucus and cilia help to keep the airways clear of dirt  Cancers caused by the carcinogens in cigarette
and bacteria preventing infections smoke
 Emphysema- when the alveoli walls break down  Makes platelets stickier,
and gas exchange is reduced increases chance of clots
 Bronchitis – inflammation and infections that occur forming
when mucus accumulates because the cilia stop  Makes small arteries constrict


 destruction of the air sacs (alveoli) for gas exchange Transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones
leads to extreme shortage of breath on exercising Features and Functions
 Features
Bronchitis o Fluid (blood or hemolymph) that transports
 Inflammation of the bronchi – heavy coughing, materials
thick mucus, difficulty breathing. o System of blood vessels
o A heart to pump the fluid through the vessels
Methods to quit Types of circulatory systems
 Hypnotherapy  Animals that have a circulatory system have one of
 Acupuncture two kinds:
 Nicotine patches o Open: fluid is circulated through an open body
 Habit change chamber.
 Will power o Closed: fluid is circulated through blood vessels.

What are you giving up if you carry on smoking? Open system

 The opportunity to spend all that money on  Arthropods and most mollusks have an open
something else. circulatory system.
 Music, i-pod, i-phone, sports equipment  Hemolymph is contained in a body cavity, the
Clothes hemocoel. A series of hearts circulates the fluid
 Holidays
 Car Closed system
 Or anything else you might set your heart on!  Vertebrates, annelid worms, and a few mollusks
have a closed circulatory system.
And something you’ll never get from smoking  Blood is moved through blood vessels by the
 Only five a day from age 14 to age 30 or Rp heart’s action. It does not come in direct contact
124.100.000 with body organs.
 Ten years smoking 25 a day or Rp 391.000.000, -
 Smoke 15 a day for 20 years or Rp 595.000.000 Why does an open circulatory system limit body size?
 50 a day for 35 years or Rp 2.720.000.000 1. Hearts are too small for growth.
 (but you probably won’t survive long enough 2. Too little blood to support a larger animal.
anyway if you smoke that many!) 3. Less efficient in moving oxygen to body tissues.
4. Hemocoel must be shed for growth.
Effects of cigarette smoke components on the body
Substance Effect on the body
Tar  Accumulates in airways DOES
 Components
NOT go into bloodstream
o Plasma: the liquid portion.
 Paralyses cilia
o Red blood cells
 Stimulates goblet cells to
o White cells.
make more mucus
o Platelets.
 Causes chronic bronchitis and
emphysema Red Blood Cells
Carcinogens Cause mutations to cells in bronchi  RBCs lose their nucleus at maturity.
walls leading to formation of
 Make up about 99% of the blood’s cellular
Carbon  Absorbed into the blood  Red color is due to hemoglobin.
monoxide stream
 Combines with haemoglobin Hemoglobin
to form carboxyhaemoglobin  Hemoglobin is a complex protein made up of four
 Reduces oxygen carried by the protein strands, plus iron-rich heme groups.
red blood cells  Each hemoglobin molecule can carry four oxygen
Nicotine  Absorbed into the blood atoms. The presence of oxygen turns hemoglobin
stream bright red.
 Increases heart rate
RBC lifespan  Your health care provider will recommend a blood
 RBCs live about 4 months. Iron from hemoglobin is type and Rh factor screening test during your first
recycled in the liver and spleen. prenatal visit. This will identify whether your blood
 The hormone erythropoeitin, made by the kidneys, cells carry the Rh factor protein.
stimulates the production of RBCs in red bone o During pregnancy, problems can occur if you're
marrow. Rh negative and the baby you're carrying is Rh
positive. Usually, your blood doesn't mix with
If your diet is poor in iron, what will happen to your your baby's blood during pregnancy. However, a
RBCs? small amount of your baby's blood could come in
1. You will make fewer because there is less iron to contact with your blood during delivery or if you
make hemoglobin. experience bleeding or abdominal trauma during
2. You will make more to make up for the lack of iron pregnancy. If you're Rh negative and your baby is
in hemoglobin. Rh positive, your body might produce proteins
3. You will make just as many. called Rh antibodies after exposure to the baby's
red blood cells.
White cells o The antibodies produced aren't a problem during
 White blood cells defend against disease by the first pregnancy. The concern is with your next
recognizing proteins that do not belong to the body. pregnancy. If your next baby is Rh positive, these
 White cells are able to ooze through the walls of Rh antibodies can cross the placenta and damage
capillaries to patrol the tissues and reach the lymph the baby's red blood cells. This could lead to life-
system. threatening anemia, a condition in which red
blood cells are destroyed faster than the baby's
Platelets body can replace them. Red blood cells are
 Platelets are cell fragments used in blood clotting. needed to carry oxygen throughout the body.
 Platelets are derived from megakaryocites. o If you're Rh negative, you might need to have
Because they lack a nucleus, platelets have a short another blood test — an antibody screen —
lifespan, usually about 10 days. during your first trimester, during week 28 of
pregnancy and at delivery. The antibody screen is
Blood clotting used to detect antibodies to Rh positive blood. If
 Platelets aggregate at the site of a wound. you haven't started to produce Rh antibodies,
 Broken cells and platelets release chemicals to you'll likely need an injection of a blood product
stimulate thrombin production. called Rh immune globulin. The immune globulin
 Thrombin converts the protein fibrinogen into prevents your body from producing Rh antibodies
sticky fibrin, which binds the clot. during your pregnancy.
o If your baby is born Rh negative, no additional
Which blood cells transport oxygen? treatment is needed. If your baby is born Rh
1. White cells positive, you'll need another injection shortly
2. Red cells after delivery.
3. Platelets o If you're Rh negative and your baby might be or is
4. All blood cells Rh positive, your health care provider might
recommend a Rh immune globulin injection after
situations in which your blood could come into
contact with the baby's blood, including:
 Miscarriage
 Abortion
 Ectopic pregnancy — when a fertilized egg
implants somewhere outside the uterus, usually
in a fallopian tube
 Removal of a molar pregnancy — a
noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in
the uterus
Rhesus (Rh) factor  Amniocentesis — a prenatal test in which a
 Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on sample of the fluid that surrounds and protects
the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the a baby in the uterus (amniotic fluid) is removed
protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the for testing or treatment
protein, you're Rh negative.  Chorionic villus sampling — a prenatal test in
 Rh positive is the most common blood type. Having which a sample of the wispy projections that
an Rh negative blood type is not an illness and make up most of the placenta (chorionic villi) is
usually does not affect your health. However, it can removed for testing
affect your pregnancy. Your pregnancy needs  Cordocentesis — a diagnostic prenatal test in
special care if you're Rh negative and your baby is which a sample of the baby's blood is removed
Rh positive (Rh incompatibility). A baby can inherit from the umbilical cord for testing
the Rh factor from either parent.  Bleeding during pregnancy
 Abdominal trauma during pregnancy
 The external manual rotation of a baby in a What is always true of arteries?
breech position — such as buttocks first — 1. Always carry oxygenated blood.
before labor 2. Always carry deoxygenated blood.
 Delivery 3. Always carry blood to the heart.
4. Always carry blood away from the heart.
Blood Vessels
 Classes of blood vessels: Besides having to constrict to move blood, why are
o Arteries and arterioles carry blood away from the artery walls so thick and strong?
heart. 1. Arteries must move oxygenated blood.
o Veins and venules carry blood to the heart. 2. Arteries must withstand very high blood pressure
o Capillaries allow exchange of nutrients, wastes when the heart contracts.
and gases. 3. Arteries must move blood out to all parts of the
 Arteries are thick-walled, and lined with smooth Why are capillary walls so thin?
muscle. 1. Because capillaries are thin and narrow
 How does the structure of an artery help with its 2. To allow exchange of gases and nutrients.
function? 3. To force RBCs to move through in single file.

Arterioles HEART
 Arterioles branch off of arteries. The Vertebrate Heart
 Arterioles can constrict to direct and control blood  Vertebrate hearts are separated into two types of
flow. They may, for example, increase or decrease chambers
blood supply to the skin. o Atria (singular: atrium): receive blood from body
 How might arterioles be involved when: or lungs. Contractions of the atria send blood
o Your skin turns red when you are hot. through a valve to the ventricles.
o A person’s face turns pale with fright. o Ventricles: receive blood from atria, contract to
send blood to body or lungs.
 Body tissues contain a vast network of thin Two-chambered heart
capillaries.  The simplest vertebrate heart is the two-
 Capillary walls are only one cell thick, allowing chambered heart, seen in fishes.
exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes.  A single atrium receives blood from the body cells.
 Capillaries are so fine that RBCs must line up single- A ventricle sends blood to the gills to collect oxygen.
file to go through them.
Three-chambered heart
Venules  Separate atria allow some separation of
 Venules are thin-walled collectors of blood. oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, which was an
 Low pressure in the venules allows the capillary advantage for land organisms (reptiles,
beds to drain into them. amphibians).
 Though blood can mix in the ventricle, mixing is
Veins minimal. Some reptiles have partial separation of
 Veins have thinner walls than arteries. the ventricle.
 Veins have fewer smooth muscle cells, but do have
valves. How do valves and the skeletal muscles help Four-chambered heart
veins function?  The four-chambered heart, seen in birds and
Atherosclerosis mammals, allows complete separation of
 LDL cholesterol forms plaques in arteries, triggering oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
inflammation.  Complete separation is necessary to support a fast
 The immune system forms a hard cap over the metabolism found in homeotherms.
plaque, partially blocking the artery. Caps can
rupture, creating clots that can close off an artery. “Dual pump” operation
The four-chambered heart acts as two pumps.
Preventing heart attacks
 Both genetic and environmental factors contribute Keeping Time
to atherosclerosis.  The sinoatrial (SA) node is nervous tissue that times
 Blood LDL cholesterol can be reduced by a low-fat heart beats.
diet that emphasizes high-fiber foods, antioxidants,  The SA node causes atria to contract, and sends the
and “good” fats (monounsaturated fats, omega-3 signal to the atrioventricular (AV) node to signal the
oils), and reduce trans-fats. ventricles to contract.
 Regular exercise also contributes significantly to
LDL cholesterol reduction.
Blood pressure  Purpose of thick walls was for the arteries to not
 Systolic pressure = pressure when the heart break down under pressure
 Diastolic pressure = pressure between heart beats. Veins
 body to heart
 Valves - one way, stopper because no pressure is
present in veins
 The valve in the heart backflows

How the Circulatory System Works

 Hormones from glands help regulate cell activity.
o Brains will release hormones and blood will give it
to organs
 Oxygen from the lungs combines with nutrients to
provide energy.
o Small intestines - 20 ft., nutrients are absorbed
o Large intestines – 4-5 ft., water absorption
o LBM – feces dries up because water is already
absorbed in the LI
 Nutrients from the digestive system provide food
for the cells.
 Germ fighters (antibodies) from different parts of
the body help to fight infection and disease.
Which set of heart vessels moves deoxygenated blood  Wastes are carried to the liver and kidneys for
from the body to the lungs? removal from the body.
1. Right atrium, right ventricle  Carbon Dioxide, a waste gas, is carried away and
2. Right atrium, left atrium delivered to the lungs, which remove it from the
3. Left atrium, left ventricle body.
4. Right ventricle, left ventricle

If your blood pressure is 90/70, the 70 represents:

1. Systolic pressure – heart contracts
2. Systolic pressure – heart is relaxed Parts of the Circulatory System
3. Diastolic pressure – heart contracts  Heart: your heart pumps blood through two major
4. Diastolic pressure – heart is relaxed pathways.
 Blood Vessels
An electric pacemaker can be connected to the heart to
 Blood
replace a faulty:
 Pulmonary Circulation: the flow blood from the
1. AV node
heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
2. Bicuspid valve
 Systemic Circulation: is the flow of blood to all the
3. SA node
body tissues except the lungs.
4. Tricuspid valve
The Heart
Consists of four chambers in which blood flows.
The Body’s Transport System  Blood enters the R atrium and passes through the
right ventricle.
 Consists of organs and tissues that transport
essential materials to body cells and remove their  The R ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs where
waste products it becomes oxygenated.
 This body system is also known as the  The oxygenated blood is brought back to the heart
cardiovascular system by the pulmonary veins which enter the L atrium.
 From the L atrium blood flows to the L ventricle.
The Circulatory System  The L ventricle pumps blood to the aorta which
 Consists of organs and tissues that transport distributes the oxygenated blood throughout the
essential materials to body cells and remove their rest of the body.
waste products.
 This body system is also known as the From right ventricle, blood will go directly to the lungs
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. through the pulmonary vein
 heart to body
Cardiac Conduction System
3 nodes Pulmonary circulation – oxygen or blood from right
 Battery ventricle to lungs
 Give electricity/ pressure needed for atrium to Aorta- biggest artery
 Nodes – natural battery Systemic Circulation
 Pacemaker – artificial battery, when our natural  Systemic circulation provides a functional blood
battery doesn’t work, pacemaker is installed for the supply to all body tissue.
heart to function  It carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
 Heart bypass – if artery doesn’t function, it is cut  It picks up carbon dioxide and waste products.
and connected again.

AV node
 will open up the valve. Blood Pressure
As blood is moved through your body, it exerts pressure
Bundle of His against the walls of blood vessels.
 are the fibers  Systolic Pressure: as your heart contracts to push
blood into your arteries, your blood pressure is at
Purkinje fibers its highest point.
 Endpoint of bundle of His.  Diastolic Pressure: As your heart relaxes to refill,
 In order to contract the ventricle for the blood to blood pressure is at its lowest point.
Superior Vena cava - Carries blood from the head to the
Blood Vessels Anterior vena cava – lower extremities to the heart
Over 80,000 miles of blood vessels transport your blood
throughout your body. There are 3 types of blood vessels.
 Capillaries: Tiny tubes that carry blood from the
arteries to the body’s cells, and then back to the Problems of the Circulatory System
veins.  Hypertension: is a condition in which blood
 Arteries: Blood vessels that carry blood away from pressure is consistently higher than normal, which
the heart to other parts of the body. can lead to heart attack, stroke, or kidney failure.
 Veins: Blood vessels that carry blood from the body  Stroke usually results from blood clots that block
back to the heart. vessels in the brain, or from the rupture of a blood
Arteries – doesn’t carry blood that is filled with oxygen  Heart Attack is a blockage of the flow of blood to
Oxygen poor blood – in to the body the heart.
Oxygen rich blood – out of the body  Anemia is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin,
Capillaries – microscopic blood vessels a protein that binds to oxygen in red blood cells.
RBC – arethrocytes  Leukemia is a disease in which extra white blood
WBC- leucocytes cells are produced.
Hemoglobin – carry iron  Hemophilia is a disease in which the blood plasma
does not contain substances that help the blood to
Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries clot.

Blood Care of the Circulatory System

 A mixture of solids in a large amount of liquid called  Limit fat in your foods.
plasma.  Get regular physical activity.
 Plasma: is about 92% water. It transports blood  Avoid tobacco.
solids, nutrients, hormones, and other materials.  Manage stress.
 Red Blood Cells: carry oxygen to cells and carbon
dioxide away from them.
 White Blood Cells: help fight disease and infection -THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS-
by attacking germs that enter the body. Objectives:
 Platelets: help blood form a clot at the site of a  Name the parts of the lymphatic and immune
wound. A clot seals a cut and prevents excessive systems and discuss the function of each part
blood loss.  Define combining forms used in building words that
relate to the lymphatic and immune system
Pulmonary Circulation  Identify the meaning of related abbreviations
 Pulmonary circulation transports oxygen-poor  Name the common diagnoses, clinical procedures,
blood from the right ventricle to the lungs where and laboratory tests used in treating the lymphatic
blood picks up a new oxygen supply. Then it and immune systems
returns oxygen rich blood to the left atrium.
 List and define the major pathological conditions of Organs of the Lymphatic System
the lymphatic and immune systems  Spleen
 List common pharmacological agents used in o largest lymphatic organ
treating disorders of the lymphatic and immune o located in upper left portion of the abdominal
systems. cavity
o filters foreign material from the blood
Structure and Function o destroys old red blood cells
Lymphatic Organs and Structures o activates lymphocytes
Lymph o destroys old RBC
 A fluid containing water, sugars, WBC, proteins,  Thymus Gland
salts, waste o soft gland with two lobes
o larger during infancy and childhood
Lymph Vessels o contains important cells called thymocytes (ex. T
 Carry lymph within the lymphatic system cells)
 Lymph capillaries are the smallest of the lymph o T cells (T lymphocytes provide immunity)
vessels o thymosin aids with T cell movement
 T cells will not react without thymosin
Lymph capillaries- where cardia or circulatory capillaries
are connected Immune System
 Consists of a series of defenses against intruders,
Capillaries have thin walls which allow fluid in body such as microorganisms
tissues to flow between the capillaries and tissues.  Mechanical Defenses
 Fluid in the spaces between tissues is called o Skin
interstitial fluid (acts like lubricant for tissues) o Nasal cilia
 Once the interstitial fluid flows into the lymph o Mucuous membranes
capillaries it is called lymph  Chemical defences
o Stomach gastric juices
Lymph Nodes  Other Barriers
 Specialized organs that produce lymphocytes o Phagocytosis – cell eating, the ingesting of foreign
 Filter harmful substances from the tissues substances by specialized cells like macrophages
 Contain macrophages that devour foreign
substances Major Immunoglobulins
 Capillaries of lymph nodes interact with capillaries  Immunogobulin G (IgG) - effective against bacteria,
of circulatory system viruses and toxins
 Lymphocytes produce specialized proteins called  Immunoglobulin A (IgA) - common in exocrine
antibodies that fight disease gland secretions such as breast milk and tears
 Antigens (like a hormone, it produces antibodies  Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - first antigen to be
and antibodies kill bacteria) also fight disease by produced after an infection
stimulating an immune response in other cells  Immunoglobulin D (IgD) - important in B-cell
o All of us have antigen, but not all have antibodies activation
that’s why others are more prone o Hand in hand with the T cells
 Immunoglobulin E (IgE) - appears in glandular
Lymph secretions and is associated with allergic reactions
 Travels in only one direction This type of immunity is provided by plasma cells and is
 Empties into the right thoracic duct and the called humoral immunity
lymphatic duct
 Lipids are transported from the small intestines to Cell-mediated immunity
the blood stream by the lymph vessels  This type of immunity is provided by the action of
o Doesn’t go directly to the blood the T-cells which multiply rapidly and produce
o If lipids go directly to the blood, circulatory certain proteins in response to antigens.
vessels might clog since lipids are hard to  Body will rapidly produce certain proteins
metabolize Three Types of Specialized T-Cells
 Helper cells or CD4 cells that stimulate the immune
Location of major groups of lymph nodes:  Cytotoxic cells or CD8 cells that help in the
 Tonsils, adenoids, neck, armpit, groin, mediastinum destruction of infected cells
(back of your nose)  Suppressor cells or T cells that suppress B-cells and
other immune cells
pus – na’na, aftermath of fight between antibodies and o Neutralize the body during allergy reaction.
bacteria o Allergy reactions – body will react to food,
Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms  Allergies are due to the production of the IgE
 CAT Scans are used frequently to diagnose antibodies against an allergen (pollen, chalk,
abnormalities of the lymph organs dust)
 Blood tests that indicate the number and condition  Hypersensitivity increases as exposure
of the white blood cells are used in diagnosing increases
lymph and immune system diseases  Anaphylaxis may occur which is life-threatening
if the allergy is severe
Pathological Terms
 Diseases of the lymph and immune system that Autoimmune Diseases
flourish are those diseases which suppress the  Conditions in which the body’s immune system
immune response. turns against its own healthy tissue
o Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is  An autoimmune response is the result of the T cells
the most widespread immunosuppresive disease. attacking their own healthy cells
o Opportunistic malignancies and Infections  Examples: lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid
Associated with AIDS arthritis
 Candidiasis – Example is when you eat bread
with yeast and your immune system is low then Surgical Terms
you might acquire candidiasis  Cancer of the lymph system may require a lymph-
 Cytomegalovirus node dissection.
 Kaposi’s sarcoma  Other Procedures
 Mycobacterium aviumintracellulare (MAI) o Lymphadenectomy - removal of a lymph node
 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia o Lymphadenotomy - incision into a lymph node
o Splenectomy - removal of the spleen
How is HIV transmitted? o Thymectomy - removal of the thymus gland
 Sexual contact *Ectomy – removal
 Contaminated needles *Notomy – incision
 During birth if the mother is infected
 Receiving infected blood or other tissue Pharmacological Terms
 Diseases of the lymph and immune systems often
How is HIV not transmitted? require high doses of chemotherapy and/or
 Mosquitoes radiation for treatment.
 Casual contact like hugging and kissing  Other Medications
 Swimming in the same water as infected persons o Antivirals - used to treat AIDS by blocking viral
 Objects like toilet seats, doorknobs, etc. growth
 Sharing food o Anti Microrganism agent - used to prevent PCP in
AIDS patients
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma o Antihistamine – prevent or lessen allergic
 A type of lymph cancer that appears in early reactions
adulthood and the cause or origin is uncertain
 Involves the lymph nodes and spleen Apply Your Knowledge
1. Which of the following statements explains a major
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma difference between lymph and blood? Lymph
 A type of cancer of the lymph nodes in which some contains only WBC
of the cells resemble healthy cells 2. Sharon, age 5 is taken to the doctors for her
 Usually appears during mid-life complaint of a sore throat. Her pediatrician might
find which of the following signs during his
 Malignant cells resemble large lymphocytes
assessment of the lymphatic system? swollen
Note: Depending on how far the disease has spread, both
lymph nodes
types can be arrested with chemotherapy and radiation.
T cells – stop activity of B cells
Non-malignant Diseases
B cells – microorganism
 Sarcoidosis - Inflammatory condition that can
affect lung functioning
 Infectious Mononucleosis 😊
o Also called the kissing disease
o An acute infectious disease caused by the Study well!
Epstein-Barr virus
o Swollen lymph nodes are a common symptom LESSONS: HIGHLIGHTED STUDIED REVIEWED
 Allergies
o Allergies are a problem of the immune system
that affect millions of people Circulatory
o Allergy Facts