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BIOGAS FORUM INDIA

(BigFIN)
E-Newsletter, Volume 10, No. 1
(Jan-June, 2018)

Corresponding Address: Biogas Forum India, Centre for Rural Development and Technology

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 INDIA

Phone: 011-26596351 (O), Fax: 011-26596351, 26591121 Email: bigfin.india@gmail.com

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Sr. No. Contents
1. From the Editor’s desk 1-2
2. President’s Column 3-4
3. Some Initiatives taken in last six month in IIT Delhi 5-15
4. Biogas Related articles 16-19
5. News Highlights- National 20-25
6. News Highlights- International 26-27
7. Upcoming Events 28

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From The Editor’s Desk…

Biogas Forum India‘s (BigFIN) journey entered into 10th year with a lot of new beginnings and exchange of
ideas with promotion of biogas in the country. The motto of publication of this newsletter is to keep the BigFIN
members updated with latest news about different segments of biogas research and development sectors and
new initiative taken in the country. Biogas Forum aims to spread awareness of the values of sustainability as
well as the innovative ways in which India continue to meet the challenges and conquer the inadequate energy
supply situation. In this prospective, it is important to learn from the other parts of the world as well for our
latest edition which discuss the same with various stakeholders throughout the world i.e. about embracing
challenges, customized solutions and a focus on biogas fertilizer project while achieving the aim of
“Swachh Bharat” Mission to clean and green India.

In an effort to make the villagers getting rid of biomass based and convert it for energy and organic fertilizer
production and improving the lives of villages through local Employment generation and spreading
decentralized small and micro bio energy based entrepreneurship development the honourable finance
minister in his latest budget speech announced the launch of Gobar Dhan (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro
Resources) Dhan scheme. The Minister added that this will manage and convert capital and solid waste into
biogas and CBG, it is certainly a welcoming step.

IIT Delhi show cased the term “Compressed Biogas (CBG)” in 2011 and printed a photograph of CBG
technology developed at IIT Delhi in it’s Golden Jubilee Calendar 2011, now planned to roll out by the
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG), GoI in a big way on 1st October, 2018 and proposing to
invest Rs. 1.7 lakh carores on it. The term CBG was first time given by IIT Delhi in the world.

The governing principles behind biogas forum towards energy sustainability include the democratization and
finding a balance of energy mix with the special focus on biogas. Energy autonomy and organic fertilizer for
organic food cultivation for countries and even for individuals should be our fundamental goal. We are of the
opinion by producing as much energy as possible locally, so that we could reduce global dependence of long
distance transmission lines and diffuse the concentration of economic power which resides largely with a very
few companies and institutions. Bio-energy can also take the central role along with other renewable energy.
There is an increasing sense of environmental impact in people they are constantly becoming conscious about
the different kinds of environmental hazards that could affect our future this has led to post savings and shift
towards sustainable living.

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We hope that you find this issue both interesting and inspiring your inputs to grow this sector will always be
welcome.

Thank you for reading.

Virendra Kumar Vijay


General Secretary, Biogas Forum-India (BigFIN)
Professor & Head, CRDT, IIT Delhi

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President’s Column

The year 2018 has become a very productive year in which a basket of Scheme/ Programme/ Policy have been
launched on Biogas-Fertilizer technology sector by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS),
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).

Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation conceived and launched Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro
Resources-Dhan (Gobar-Dhan) under Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) SBM-G on 30th April 2018. The
programme is funded under Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) component of SBM-G following the
suggested guidelines of SBM (G). Funding for SLWM project under SBM (G) is provided by the Central and
State Governments. Under Gobar-Dhan programme, financial support of 50% plant cost or as per SBM (G)
SLWM slab (whichever is less) for projects from Self Help Group (SHG) Federations and Gram Panchayat
(GP) is available. For Bulk Generator/ Entrepreneur the available financial support is 40% plant cost or as per
SBM (G) SLWM slab (whichever is less). Only those Gram Panchayats, which have not availed SLWM funds
under SBM (G), are eligible to receive the financial assistance under GOBAR-DHAN scheme. It is being
implemented through State Mission Directors of SBM(G), State Technical Advisory Committee (STAC),
Technical Agency (TA), District SBM (G) and Gram Panchayat (GP).

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas brought out ‘National Policy on Biofuels – 2018’ on 04.06.2018,
effective from 16.05.2018. It was notified in the June 8, 2018 issue of ‘The Gazette of India’. In the policy
Bio-CNG is kept in the category of ‘Advanced Biofuels’ and providing for a differential pricing to further
incentivize this sector in addition to making available ‘viability gap funding’ (VGF) and other incentives. The
Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL) has started signing MOUs/ agreements with Bio-CNG plant promoters for
purchase and marketing of Bio-CNG through their outlets. We are working with govt. to get better rates for
bio-CNG.

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has launched following two programmes:

‘New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme (NNBOMP)’ dated 30th May 2018 for its
implementation during the period 2017-18 to 2019-20, co-terminating with 14th Finance Commission Period
on 31.03.20120. Under the programme a physical target for installation of 2.55 lakh biogas plants (equivalent
to about 8.40 lakh cubic meter of biogas generation per day) by the end of 2019-20 in the capacity range of 1-
25M3 per day. Available Central financial assistance (CFA) ranges from Rs.7,500 /- to Rs.35,000/-, depending
on the biogas generation capacity and category of state/ region of location of biogas plants to be installed.
Additional CFA of Rs1600/- per plant is available for attaching sanitary toilets and Rs.3000-4000/- per 100%
biogas generator installation in higher capacity plants, covered in the programme. Programme on ‘Energy
from Urban, Industrial and Agricultural Wastes/ Residues’ dated 30th July 2018 for its implementation
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during the years 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20 for biogas, bio-CNG/ enriched biogas, power and biomass
gasifier components. Under the programme a physical target for supporting projects of aggregated capacity of
57.0 MWeq. has been kept for the said period ending 2019-20. Available Central financial assistance (CFA)
of Rs.1.0 crore per12000 M3/ day for biogas generation projects, Rs.4.0 crore per 4800 kgs of bio-CNG/ day
(generated from 120000 M3 biogas/ day) projects and Rs.3.0 crore per MW biogas based power generation
projects. The CFA for these categories of projects is limited to a maximum of Rs.10.0 crore/ project.

With BIS Standard for biogas composition: IS 16087: 2016 in place, Ministry of Environment and Forests
order of 2016 for segregating waste at source, Ministry of Agriculture has considered organic fertilizer in its
‘Fertilizer Order’ and Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizer providing subsidy of Rs.1500/- per tonne for city-
compost and advising fertilizer companies to supply certain percentage of organic fertilizers along with
chemical fertilizers and the three Ministries, namely MDWS, MoPNG and MNRE launching together their
four programmes/ schemes/ policy on biogas in 2018 brings out an enormous opportunity to the biogas-
fertilizer sector.

All the stake holders of biogas-fertilizer sector are requested to grab the opportunity to enable this sector to
play its due role in energy, organic fertilizer and employment generation and waste treatment.

Dr. Atma Ram Shukla


President, Biogas Forum-India (BigFIN)

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SOME INITIATIVES/ACTIVITIES HELD AT IIT DELHI DURING LAST

SIX MONTHS

1. National Biogas Day Workshop on Roadmap for Compressed Biogas (CBG) in India Jointly
Organized by IIT Delhi, MNRE, IOCL, Biogas Forum India and SIAM

A one day “National Biogas Day Workshop on Roadmap for Compressed Biogas (CBG) in India” was
organized at IIT Delhi for the use of biogas as CBG for vehicular fuel.

Fig. 1 Professor VK Vijay demonstrating the technology developed by CRDT IIT Delhi for CBG.

The recommendations by the IIT Delhi, MNRE, IOCL, Biogas Forum India and SIAM is given in Table 1
below.

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Table 1 Recommendations by the National Biogas Day Workshop on Roadmap for Compressed Biogas (CBG) in India Jointly Organized by IIT Delhi, MNRE,

IOCL, Biogas Forum India and SIAM.

S. No. Issue Recommendation Justification


1 Pricing: Appropriate rate should be given for
It is recommended that INR 55-60/kg should be Govt. already has policies in place to support
CBG. kept as minimum viable rate for CBG like ethanol LPG/solar/wind/ethanol sectors. This is a
to make it viable industry in India and to attract renewable and local fuel. INR 55-60/kg is
good investments. This should be kept stable at least minimum viable rate for CBG at present costs.
up to March 2022. However, the CBG price Government should support to the tune of INR
upward/revision may be linked in percentage terms 15/kg on same pattern as LPG.
to the routine six monthly revisions of domestic
CNG and Piped Natural Gas (PNG). This may be
named as Biogas (Biomethane) - CBG Jack-up
price.
2 Nomenclature: CBG is named as Bio-CNG/ Nomenclature of biogas should be as per BIS Uniform nomenclature is required for CBG across
CBG/ Biomethane in different policies, nomenclature to avoid multiplicity in nomenclature. standards, policies and government notifications.
standards and government notifications. Bio-CNG (Methane), specification as per IS-16087 Following BIS will also ensure quality control of
(2015) is an alternate to CNG as per GSR 498 dt. gas as per the parameters set in it.
16th June 2015. So all govt. funded CNG vehicle
buying projects (including PSU, local corporations)
tenders should mention fuel as “CNG and CBG
(IS16087) “alternate to each other”.
3 Regulatory:
a. Industrial Classification: The CBG industry should be declared as an This is a renewable industry based on agriculture
agricultural industry and the same and animal feedstocks as substrates producing
conditions/benefits as applicable should entail. biogas and bio-fertilizer.

GST of max 5% can be fixed for biogas system Higher GST Rate in this low profit margin
b. equipment’s as this is renewable fuel and this will making industry is a deterrent for the investors.
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GST Rate: GST rates vary between 5% to 28% help in viability. If GST cannot be fixed at the time
on various biogas plant construction items and of payment then there should be a provision for
upgradation system equipment which are used in reimbursement to be claimed at 5% GST rate. The
a biogas plant making the business unviable. services should include Equipment, Labour
Contract and all civil construction involved.

Industry rate of about INR 8-9/kWh is very high for Being agro-industrial sector the same electricity
Electricity costs for CBG plants this industry. It can’t afford more than INR 4- rates as applicable to agricultural operations
5/kWh rates. should be applicable to CBG as well.
c.
This is a no or low margin business where
Being a green business closely linked to rural areas, approval process comes as a major hindrance.
Change of Land Use (CLU) /Land conversion is animal and agro-wastes it should be treated as agro However, at least half the output of biogas
costly and time consuming. industry where CLU is not required Allowing upgradation system is used in the
d. of CBG plants to be built on agricultural land and agricultural sector.
not only on Industrial land.

Give 80% accelerated depreciation as earlier given


in wind energy sector in 1st year on the purchase This would incentivize hotels/restaurants to buy
Consider bottled CBG in cascades as a costs of CNG cylinders for use with CBG. the cylinders for commercial cooking thus
renewable energy storage device reducing the cost burden of these on the biogas
e. plant improving their economic viability and
sustainability. The costs of cylinders,
cascades are a substantial part of the capital costs
required in building a bottled biogas plant. This
would facilitate the regular off-take of the CBG
cylinders from the CBG plant /dispensing units.

MoPNG should take this up with the concerned


ministries to create a single nodal window at Centre
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and State approval process for setting up a biogas A single window approval process would enable
Single Window Clearance: Biggest problem waste to energy plant. Proper safety guidelines be plants to be built faster accelerating the time to
faced is absence of single window clearance for issued for CBG handling, storage, transport etc. value.
f. approvals in short span. Several agency’s PESO clearances be fast tracked and may set short
approvals are needed to establish a biogas plant, time frame for approval, renewal etc. be fixed and
PESO, MNRE, PCB, Fire Department and in when time line exceed the application may
some cases local panchayat. This is very time considered to be in "deemed as approved".
consuming. MoEF&CC will be approached for declaring the
Biogas plants as green industry for environment
clearance under the Environment Protection act,
1986 as well as granting consent under the Water
Act, 1974 and the Air act, 1981.

MNRE should offer Generation Based Incentives


(GBI) to Biogas Developers/ Entrepreneurs setting
up CBG Plants.

Subsidy/Incentives Plants once set up should not stop functioning at


early stages. This will ensure investors continued
interest in running the plant.
g.

4 Financing: It is very difficult to secure loans for Lower lending rates up to 6-7% is needed for this This will help entrepreneurs and industries to
this sector. Currently IREDA or other financing sector. CSR funding’s and Venture Capitalists enter CBG market.
agencies are giving loans at 10-11 % which is should be roped in for financing these projects.
very high.

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5 Supply Chain: Availability of feedstock is a big All states should create organic waste data centre This will help in enhancing feedstock availability
issue. Even confirmed agreed quantities are not under state renewable energy departments with which is critical to the running of CBG systems.
honoured as biogas plants go on stream. rules to promote mandatory anaerobic digestion in
place of burning so that biogas feedstock, size and
locations can be pre-identified. Further MNREGA
funds could be utilized for collecting and bringing
raw material to biogas plants nearby by the
unemployed youth. Option of digital network on
feedstock aggregation should be available.
6 Skill Development and R&D: There is no Special HRD and research programs should be This will increase skilled manpower availability
specially trained manpower available in this organized in this sector and should be promoted as in this sector.
sector. Make in India program. Entrepreneurs should be Indigenous technologies will be cost effective and
supported to make CBG a profitable model. A more suited to Indian conditions.
Centre of Excellence should be set up by MoPNG
to promote R&D in indigenous technology
development. Poly-technique, Diploma and ITI
should cater for the courses related to skill
development for biogas production. Research
should be carried out on composite cylinders for
CBG storage.
7 a Sale of CBG/Biogas CBG/Biogas producer must have the option to sell This will facilitate fast development of CBG
directly to customer or through a retail outlet of his market and infrastructure.
own as substitute for both LPG and CNG. In case of
CBG the BIS standard IS 16087 for biomethane to
be followed by seller for quality assurance. All
Petroleum PSU’s should retail CBG. They also
should have the option to sell to OMC's or any other
retailer who has necessary license to retail CBG

CBG should be allowed to be injected in CNG/PMG


pipeline or grid infrastructure. Also decentralized
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b Injection of CBG in CNG Grid grid should be created for CBG wherever applicable
by Petroleum PSU’s.
8 Use of BioCO2 a major component of Biogas BioCO2 is the majority weight component in biogas BioCO2 is nearly 65% component of biogas (on
- to be incorporated along with methane and it can be captured and used weight basis) and its utilization for commercial
for several applications. It is not necessary to purposes will open a subsector for this industry.
liquefy BioCO2 to find proper commercial use. Pre- This will also help in GHG mitigation.
liquefaction CO2 gas finds its most important
applications in modern agricultural techniques.
9 Biogas Plant Slurry/Bio-fertilizer: Organic Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) should develop a Bio-fertilizer is a crucial product from biogas
manure/ Bio-fertilizer/ Bio slurry made from protocol (standard) for bio-fertilizer/organic plant with high nutrient value and its sale will
biogas plant effluent slurry neither has market manure obtained from all kinds of biogas plants, in help the plants to become economically viable.
nor get the right prices despite having high line of city compost, vermi-compost and PROM. This would provide farmers the confidence and an
nutrient content. The same should be included in its order. organized market for Biogas Plants produced
There are different names used for Organic Government should provide INR1500/tonne Organic Manure will get developed that not only
manure/ Bio-fertilizer/ Bio slurry. A common financial support for biogas plants produced organic solves the problems of wastes but also derive a
name should be used. manure and value added organic biogas slurry revenue stream source from MSW and reducing
(vermicomposting, Phosphate Rich Organic the load on landfill sites. The same will replace
Manure and other slurry organic enrichment the demand of chemical fertilizer required in
processes) on the same pattern as the support being agricultural production system, and promote
given to city compost and a mandate similar to city organic farming in India.
compost usage should also be provided for these.
The responsibility of developing marketing
linkages downstream may be assigned with the
annual target of selling by all fertilizer companies
IFFCO, KRIBCO, NFL, NVFL etc. A uniform
nomenclature should be used for Bio-fertilizer from
biogas plants.
10 Recommendations for Carbon Market Development:
 Devise a carbon market mechanism for India that looks at biogas plants on a sectorial, geographical basis rather than on a project by project basis
(as per current Kyoto CDM)

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 Bio waste treatment to produce CBG, this process can be considered for getting the carbon credits, this may attract some benefits to the farmers
and local Bio-CNG producer
 Utilize India's expertise in IT to Leverage blockchain technology to reduce the costs of compliance and MVR (measurement , verification and
reporting Rationale
o The Paris Climate Accord provides a framework for establishing local carbon markets where carbon credits generated can be used either
used internally to meet Paris climate goals or traded internationally
Carbon emission reduction potential of biogas plant is substantial and could attract both foreign direct investment and local investment behind the
building of biogas plants as the carbon credit revenue and costs per ton of carbon abated will be very attractive.
10 Comprehensive Roadmap for CBG:
1. Roadmap and Reach of CBG: The roadmap for setting up plants in different parts of the country should be finalized for short term, medium term
and long term period. The fuel availability scenario and dispensing stations infrastructure setup needs to be put in the form of a detailed Roadmap,
visible to all stake holders to plan their part of the work. Strengthening of CNG infrastructure integrated with CBG plants should be set up wherever
feasible.
2. Quality Control: Fuel for automobiles needs to have a proper quality control mechanism.
a. CBG fuel as per the laid down BIS standard should be made available. Measures should be put in place to ensure quality of fuel as per BIS to avoid
any mis-fueling and have quality control.
3. Promote Manufacturing of CBG/Bio-Methane Vehicles:
a. In order to promote manufacturers to develop new models which can run on this fuel, Incentives by way of volume derogation credits in schemes
like fuel efficiency standard. It may be noted that to promote CNG in USA, each vehicle sold was counted as 10 vehicles in calculations to support the
development of vehicles. Similar scheme is available for hybrids and EVs in Indian regulation. It should be extended to CBG vehicles as well. CBG
can become a major fuel for rural areas and supportive schemes for CBG run tractors should be brought out as this will greatly help the farmers.
b. Light weighting of CBG Cylinders: CBG cylinders made of steel although economical have the disadvantage of very high weight. Technology of
Type 4 resin cylinders is being explored in India. However due to prohibitive costs it will not have a business case for Indian market. However with
lower weight of cylinders, fuel efficiency of vehicle will increase and will support India’s goals. Government of India should incentivize the use of
such light weight cylinders by way of tax concessions etc.

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2. TEQIP/CEP Short Term Programme on Biogas Production, Power Generation and Purification for
Bio-CNG Application
The lack of awareness and know how about the biogas technology is still a major hurdle for the successful
implementatioin of biogas scheme’s in India. There is a need for creating awareness, information
dissemination and technical assistance for setting up and there after successful operation of biogas plants.

Biogas Development and Training Centres (BDTC) are the core drivers and boosters for the development,
deployment and successful implementation of biogas schemes at field level.

In context to the TEQIP/CEP Short Term programme on “Biogas Production, Power Generation and
Purification for Bio-CNG Applications” was organized on the behalf of Biogas Development and Training
Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi during 22-24 March, 2018 at IIT Delhi.

Fig. 2 TEQIP/CEP Short Term programme on “Biogas Production, Power Generation and Purification for
Bio-CNG Applications” organized by Biogas Development & Training Centre, CRDT, IIT Delhi.

The aim of this programme was mainly to impart training to budding entrepreneurs, supervisors, government
functionaries, and consultants who are working on various aspects of biogas technology to familiarize them
with the importance of biogas as a fuel and present status of biogas programme, inter-alia details about the
biogas technology and its aspects. The programme was also intended for field supervisory functionaries
involved in the implementation of biogas programmes in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand
and Delhi.

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3. Joint Secretary, MHRD and Nodal Officer, UBA Visits to CRDT Labs
Mr N Sarvana Kumar, IAS (Joint Secretary, MHRD and Nodal Officer, UBA) visited IIT Delhi On 12th March
2018. He interacted with Unnat Bharat Abhiyan team and the Faculty & Students of Centre for Rural
Development and Technology at IIT Delhi.

Fig. 3 Mr. N Sarvana Kumar interacting with the faculty and students of Centre for Rural Development and
Technology at IIT Delhi

4. Launch of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 on 25.4.2018 in New Delhi


Launch of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 on 25.4.2018 in New Delhi in the presence of Dr Satyapal Singh, MOS
HRD, video address by Shri Prakash Javdekarji Minister HRD, Dr Vijay Bhatkar Chairman UBA, Director
IIT Delhi, Secretary HRD, Secretary MDWS, Secretary Youth Affaires, Jt Secy and Sr EA HRD Chairman
AICTE and Prof. V K Vijay, National Coordinator, UBA. More than 500 Participating Institutions in Unnat
Bharat Abhiyan which have selected a cluster of five villages for development had participated in the
orientation workshop and launch covering IITs, NITs, IIMs, IISERs, central universities, Agricultural
Universities, AICTE and UGC Institutions (hardly all these come together) but for this work all joined hands
together.

The second stage of the Unnat Bharat Abhiyan - a scheme of the Centre aimed at making higher education
institutions provide solutions for problems of villages - is set to take off with a much wider spread than its
first stage. While just 143 premier institutions like IITs and NITs took part in the first stage, UBA 2.0 will see
open and much wider participation from many higher educational institutions.

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Fig. 4 Launch of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan 2.0

It is an open call for participation. Thousands of institutions have applied and 750 institutions have been
selected, higher education secretary R. Subrahmanyam said at the launch of UBA 2.0. He added that both
technical and non-technical institutions have been invited to build systems in villages as per their strengths.

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5. Lok Sabha TV covering the research work of biogas bottling laboratory in CRDT, IIT Delhi
Lok Sabha TV covers the ongoing research work in biogas bottling laboratory in CRDT, IIT Delhi. They
interviewed Prof. Vijay and his scholars to make a special documentary on the topic of “Biogas to clean
energy”. In the video the importance of biogas production, which is a clean low carbon technology for efficient
management and conversion of organic wastes into clean renewable biogas and organic fertilizer source. It
has the potential for leveraging sustainable livelihood development as well as tackling local (land, air and
water) and global pollution. Biogas obtained by anaerobic digestion of cattle dung and other loose and leafy
organic matters/ wastes can be used as energy source for cooking, lighting and other applications like
refrigeration, electricity generation and transport applications. (Youtube link)

Fig. 5 Lok Sabha TV covering the research work of biogas bottling laboratory in CRDT, IIT Delhi.

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BIOGAS RELATED ARTICLES

1. Characterization of leaf waste based biochar for cost effective hydrogen sulphide removal from
biogas

Installation of decentralized units for biogas production along with indigenous upgradation systems can be an

effective approach to meet growing energy demands of the rural population. Therefore, readily available leaf

waste was used to prepare biochar at different temperatures and employed for H2S removal from biogas

produced via anaerobic digestion plant. It is found that biochar prepared via carbonization of leaf waste at

400 °C effectively removes 84.2% H2S (from 1254 ppm to 201 ppm) from raw biogas for 25 min in a

continuous adsorption tower. Subsequently, leaf waste biochar compositional, textural and morphological

properties before and after H2S adsorption have been analyzed using proximate analysis, CHNS, BET surface

area, FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. It is found that BET surface area, pore size, and textural properties of leaf

waste biochar plays a crucial role in H2S removal from the biogas. Read more...

(Shivali et al., 2018, Bioresource Technology)

2. Review of trends in biogas upgradation technologies and future perspectives

Biogas is a futuristic renewable energy with high market potential due to wide scale availability of organic

biomass, and for facilitating countries in meeting sustainable development goals related with creating and

providing access to renewable energy. It has potential of being developed as a vehicular fuel or for generating

electricity that can be injected into power grids. Despite its prospect, it faces criticism, such as limited

contributions in reducing carbon emissions as compared to solar and wind. Consequentially, for higher

efficiency and for better commercialization, it is impending not only to upgrade raw biogas but also utilize the

energy value of off-gas. Currently available methods have high operating costs and are energy intensive,

limiting the commercial applications of biogas. This review is aimed at presenting the state-of-art upgradation

technologies currently available and the ones which are promising. It also discusses the future perspectives

for overcoming the challenges associated with upgradation. Read more...

(Shivali et al., 2018, Bioresource Technology)

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3. Barriers to biogas dissemination in India: A review

Biogas has emerged as a promising renewable technology to convert agricultural, animal, industrial and

municipal wastes into energy. Biogas development can be integrated with strategies to improve sanitation as

well as reduce indoor air pollution and greenhouse gases. Currently, the total biogas production in India is

2.07 billion m3/year. This is quite low compared to its potential, which is estimated to be in the range of 29–

48 billion m3/year. Hence, this study aims to identify both technical and non-technological barriers impending

biogas dissemination in India. Biogas dissemination is affected by various waste, renewable energy, and urban

policies. Barriers were therefore identified individually for rural and urban biogas systems existing in India

using decomposition analysis. The results show that type and importance of barriers vary strongly between

biogas systems due to the difference in technology maturity, feedstock availability and quality, supply chain,

awareness level and policy support. Read more...

(Shivika et al., 2018, Energy Policy)

4. Who Adopts Biogas in Rural India? Evidence from a Nationwide Survey

Biogas is a viable alternative for supplying clean and sustainable energy. Despite all manner of policy

measures introduced by the Government of India, biogas is not widely used in India. This article tries to

identify factors that influence the decision to adopt biogas at household level. We examine a conceptual

framework empirically in which a household wants to maximize utility from biogas by using the India Human

Development Survey (IHDS) I, which is a nationally representative, multi-topic survey. By applying both

maximum likelihood and penalized likelihood methods (Firthlogit) of logistic regression on a sample size of

almost 10,384 households, it has been found that wealthy people are more likely to adopt biogas compared to

the marginalized section of the society. We recommend more inclusive policy measures for the weaker section

of the society to create an enabling environment to make it a self-promoting technology. Read more...

(Daisy et al., 2018, International Journal of Rural Management)

5. Production of biogas from cassava wastewater using a three-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

(UASB) reactor

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In this study, a three-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system was developed and tested for

hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production from cassava wastewater with an emphasis on CH4 production.

The experiment was carried out at mesophilic temperature (37 °C) at different chemical oxygen demand

(COD) loading rates from 5 to 18 kg/m3d (based on total liquid holding volume) with a recycle ratio of the

final effluent to both the first and second bioreactors at a constant 1: 1 flow rate ratio of feed: final effluent.

The first bioreactor was maintained pH at 5.5 while those of the other two bioreactors were not controlled. At

an optimum COD loading rate of 15 kg/m3d, the system provided the highest COD removal level (92.5%)

and the highest H2 and CH4 yields of 0.43 mL H2/g COD applied, and 328 mL CH4/g COD applied,

respectively. The very high productivity of CH4 with the very low H2 productivity resulted from the recycled

methanogen sludge from the third bioreactor to the first and second bioreactors. The process performance of

the three-stage UASB system in terms of optimum COD loading rate and total energy yield was much higher

than those of single and two-stage anaerobic processes. Read more...

(Achiraya et al., 2018, Renewable Energy)

6. Thermodynamic modelling and optimization of a combined biogas steam reforming system and
organic Rankine cycle for coproduction of power and hydrogen

This paper aims to use waste heat of the biogas steam reforming (BSR) system for organic Rankine cycle

(ORC) for simultaneous power and hydrogen production. A comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of the

proposed combined system is carried out. In addition, optimization of the proposed system is conducted, using

genetic algorithm (GA). Four different working fluids of R600, R245fa, R123, and R113 are used in ORC,

where among all of them R600 is recommended due to its high performance and environment benefits. Using

R600 as working fluid in ORC, results of the optimization demonstrated that the proposed system performs

in an optimum state based on the selected objective functions when steam to carbon molar ratio, carbon

dioxide to methane molar ratio, reaction pressure, reactor temperature, pump pressure ratio and pinch point

temperature difference of the internal heat exchanger (IHE) are set in 2.99, 0.502, 1.004 bar, 998.85 K, 7.21 K,

and 5.44 K, respectively. In this case, the optimum net output power, hydrogen production rate, energy

efficiency and exergy efficiency are obtained 15.9 kW, 0.02529 kg s−1, 45.63%, and 74.89%, respectively.

Moreover, the results of exergy analysis indicated that among all components, recuperator and reactor are

accountable for the highest exergy destruction through the system. To better understand the effect of various
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parameters on performance of the system, a comprehensive parametric study of some key thermodynamic

parameters on the main performance criteria is performed. It is concluded that the energy and exergy

efficiencies of the combined BSR-ORC system can be increased by increasing steam to carbon molar ratio

and pump pressure ratio or decreasing reaction pressure, carbon dioxide to methane molar ratio and pinch

point temperature difference of the IHE. Read more...

(Ghaebi et al., 2018, Renewable Energy)

7. Biogas upgrading and utilization: Current status and perspectives

Biogas production is an established sustainable process for simultaneous generation of renewable energy and

treatment of organic wastes. The increasing interest of utilizing biogas as substitute to natural gas or its

exploitation as transport fuel opened new avenues in the development of biogas upgrading techniques. The

present work is a critical review that summarizes state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading and

enhancement with particular attention to the emerging biological methanation processes. The review includes

comprehensive description of the main principles of various biogas upgrading methodologies, scientific and

technical outcomes related to their biomethanation efficiency, challenges that have to be addressed for further

development and incentives and feasibility of the upgrading concepts. Read more...

(Irini et al., 2018, Biotechnology Advances)

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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS – NATIONAL

1. Petroleum Minister to launch SATAT initiative to promote Compressed Bio-Gas as an alternative,


green transport fuel

Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Skill Development and

Entrepreneurship will kick off an innovative initiative in New Delhi on 1stOctober, 2018, with PSU Oil

Marketing Companies (OMCs ,i.e. IOC, BPCL and HPCL) inviting Expression of Interest (EoI) from potential

entrepreneurs to set up Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) production plants and make available CBG in the market

for use in automotive fuels. This significant move has the potential to boost availability of more affordable

transport fuels, better use of agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal solid waste, as well as to provide

an additional revenue source to farmers.

Titled SATAT, the initiative is aimed at providing a Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable

Transportation (SATAT) as a developmental effort that would benefit both vehicle-users as well as farmers

and entrepreneurs.

To be launched on the penultimate day of the ongoing Swachhta Hi Seva fortnight, a mass movement to fulfil

Mahatma Gandhi's vision of a Clean India, this initiative holds great promise for efficient municipal solid

waste management and in tackling the problem of polluted urban air due to farm stubble-burning and carbon

emissions. Use of CBG will also help bring down dependency on crude oil imports and in realising the Prime

Minister’s vision of enhancing farmers’ income, rural employment and entrepreneurship.

The potential for Compressed Bio-Gas production from various sources in India is estimated at about 62

million tonnes per annum. Compressed Bio-Gas plants are proposed to be set up mainly through independent

entrepreneurs. CBG produced at these plants will be transported through cascades of cylinders to the fuel

station networks of OMCs for marketing as a green transport fuel alternative. The 1,500-strong CNG stations

network in the country currently serves about 32 lakh gas-based vehicles. The Working Group on Biofuels,

set up under the National Policy on Biofuels 2018, is in the process of finalising a pan-India pricing model for

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Compressed Bio-Gas. The entrepreneurs would be able to separately market the other by-products from these

plants, including bio-manure, carbon-dioxide, etc., to enhance returns on investment.

It is planned to roll out 5,000 Compressed Bio-Gas plants across India in a phased manner, with 250 plants by

the year 2020, 1,000 plants by 2022 and 5,000 plants by 2025. These plants are expected to produce 15 million

tonnes of CBG per annum, which is about 40% of current CNG consumption of 44 million tonnes per annum

in the country. At an investment of approx. Rs. 1.7 lakh crore, this initiative is expected to generate direct

employment for 75,000 people and produce 50 million tonnes of bio-manure for crops.

The National Policy on Biofuels 2018 emphasises active promotion of advanced bio-fuels, including CBG.

The Government of India had launched the GOBAR-DHAN (Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources)

scheme earlier this year to convert cattle dung and solid waste in farms to CBG and compost. The scheme

proposes to cover 700 projects across the country in 2018-19. The programme will be funded under Solid and

Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) component of Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin(SBM-G) to benefit

households in identified villages through Gram Panchayats. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has

notified Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of Rs. 4 crore per 4,800 kg of CBG per day generated from 12,000

cubic metres of biogas per day, with a maximum of Rs.10 crore per project.

Going forward, Compressed Bio-Gas networks can be integrated with city gas distribution (CGD) networks

to boost supplies to domestic and retail users in existing and upcoming markets. Besides retailing from OMC

fuel stations, Compressed Bio-Gas can at a later date be injected into CGD pipelines too for efficient

distribution and optimised access of a cleaner and more affordable fuel.

2. Poo to power: Rural entrepreneurs power Centre's 'gobar-dhan' scheme

"Poo to Power" may sound awkward and impractical, but Aditya Aggarwal and his brother Amit have done it

in Karnal, Haryana. Two industries, one producing wire nails and another tinner rivets, owned by the family

run on 100% electricity produced from cattle dung they get from nearby 'gaushalas' or cow sheds. The cattle

dung-based power plant started in 2014 and that too without government support. The bio-gas plant generates

close to two megawatts of power daily.

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Sukhbir Singh of Silani village in Jhajjar stumbled on the idea to produce electricity from chicken faeces at

his poultry farm to escape the clutches of corrupt electricity department officials in 2010. Singh, his father

Subedar (retired) Ram Mehar and brother Ranbir had several cases against the local electricity department.

Today, their bio-gas plants generate enough power to meet most of the electricity needs of four poultry farms.

Read more...

(April 13, 2018, Times of India)

3. Biogas buses to replace ethanol ones on Goan roads?

The state government of Maharashtra may soon float a request for proposal (RFP) for over 50 biogas buses,

as ethanol-based buses may not be sustainable for the state. A senior official with the state government told

TOI that biogas and electric buses are more apt for Goa.

The move comes close on the heels of reports that Scania, the Swedish bus maker with whom the state-run

Kadamba Transport Corporation Limited (KTC) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) last year, is

wrapping up its ethanol and premium bus manufacturing facility, existing operations, and proposed projects

in India. Read more...

(June 6, 2018, Times of India)

4. BMCC gets biogas plant in a bid to achieve ‘eco-friendly’ tag

As a part of an initiative to turn the campus green, the alumni of Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce
(BMCC) have installed a biogas plant on the premises. This coincides with the World Environment Day,
which will be celebrated on Tuesday.

The plant - named ‘Vayu’ and bearing the motto, ‘air, and not waste’ — was set up by BMCC alumni and
industrialist Nitin Deshpande in collaboration with organizations like Triocane, Gangotri, Vayu and G R
Green Life. It was inaugurated by the Vijay Narkherde, joint director of Pune higher education, and Sharad
Kunte, chairman of the Deccan Education Society Regulatory Board.

Apart from the biogas plant, other measures have been planned to go green. Deshpande explained that the

college is situated in the foothills and so, rainwater flows down in large quantities. The focus will be on storing

that water on the college premises through rainwater harvesting, eventually recharging the borewells and

increasing the groundwater table. Read more...

(June 5, 2018, Times of India)


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5. Biogas plant set up at DC residence Jalasannidhi

To tackle the problem of paddy straw burning, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed on Friday

for setting up of biogas and bio-CNG plants in the state. The daily capacity of each plant will be around 100

MT of paddy straw.

The MoU has been signed with Rika Biofuels Development Limited, UK, by the Punjab Bureau of Industrial

Promotion (PBIP) and the Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA). The Punjab Infrastructure

Development Board (PIDB) will facilitate regulatory clearances and incentives by the state government.

The state government will facilitate identification of land parcels in various locations of the state for setting

up the plants, and also ensure incentives and benefits as applicable for such plants under the State Industrial

and Business Development Policy-2017 and the State NRSE Policy-2012.Read more...

(May 12, 2018, The Times of India)

5. Residents, NGO work to make Mumbai’s Bandra Reclamation a zero-garbage zone

Bandra Reclamation is about to become a zero-garbage locality soon. After a year of work, citizens and
activists have installed waste management amenities in more than 30 housing societies and establishments in
the area to process about 1,800kg of waste.

With assistance from the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) and the NGO Stree Mukti

Sanghatana, the residents of Bandra Reclamation have installed compost pits and tumblers of, with capacities

between 30kg and 60kg, in housing societies and establishments like the fire brigade station, MTNL, MSRDC

and Ali Yavar Jung Institute for the hearing-impaired. In the first phase, waste from almost 2,800 houses, a

hospital, hotel, two educational institutions, numerous eateries and a shrine is being processed at the premises

instead of being sent to the dumping ground. Read more...

(June 4, 2018, Hindustan Times)

6. Ex-Navy man develops portable biogas plant in Vasai

A retired Navy man has developed a portable biogas plant that can be used for domestic and commercial

purposes. The plant generates around two hours of cooking gas and 4kg of liquid manure daily after it is filled

with organic waste including wet garbage generated from households, its developer said.

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Rajagopalan Nair, 68, retired from the Indian Navy in 1974 after serving the institution for nearly a decade.

After retirement, he became a civil engineer. Nair then started his own civil construction firm in Vasai and

still lives there.

Nair tested the plant in 2008 in Thrissur, his home town, in Kerala. The plant received ISO certification on

May 22, 2018. Nair said he decided to introduce the plant in Vasai after getting the certification.

The Vasai Virar Municipal Corporation (VVMC) already gives a 5 percent subsidy in house tax to residents

of Vasai and Virar who install biogas plants in their homes, besides the subsidy that exists for the installation

of rainwater harvesting system. Read more...

Fig. 5 Ex-Navy man develops portable biogas plant in Vasai


(June 14, 2018, Hindustan Times)

7. Pune’s Brihan Maharashtra college of commerce goes green with new biogas plant

The Brihan Maharashtra college of commerce (BMCC) on Monday inaugurated a biogas plant in the college

premises as part of the college’s golden jubilee celebrations.The occasion saw BMCC Alumni come together

to kick start a series of projects to make the college eco-friendly.

“As a part of this resolve, a biogas plant has been installed, coinciding with the World Environment Day,”

said Chandrakant Rawal, principal, BMCC. He also appealed to the alumni of the college from various walks

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of life to lend a hand to the eco-friendly lifestyle through corporate social responsibility projects related to the

BMCC.

The biogas plant is a result of an initiative of BMCC alumni and Nitin Deshpande, a renowned industrialist,

in collaboration with organisations like Triocane, Gangotri, Vayu and GR Green Life. The plant was

inaugurated by Vijay Narkherde, joint director, Pune higher education department; Sharad Kunte, chairman,

Deccan education society regulatory board; Kiran Shaligram, member, Deccan education society regulatory

board; and Ravi Pandit, chief executive officer, KPIT. Read More

(June 5, 2018, Hindustan Times)

8. Paddy straw: Punjab engages UK firm to set up biogas plants

To tackle the problem of paddy straw burning, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed on Friday

for setting up of biogas and bio-CNG plants in the state. The daily capacity of each plant will be around 100

MT of paddy straw.

The MoU has been signed with Rika Biofuels Development Limited, UK, by the Punjab Bureau of Industrial

Promotion (PBIP) and the Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA). The Punjab Infrastructure

Development Board (PIDB) will facilitate regulatory clearances and incentives by the state government.

The state government will facilitate identification of land parcels in various locations of the state for setting

up the plants, and also ensure incentives and benefits as applicable for such plants under the State Industrial

and Business Development Policy-2017 and the State NRSE Policy-2012. Read more...

(May 12, 2018, Times of India)

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NEWS HIGHLIGHTS - INTERNATIONAL

1. Scotland and green gas: towards the achievement of the energy goals

The Scottish Government’s Energy Strategy requires that at least 50% of all Scotland's heat, transport, and
electricity consumption have to be supplied from renewable sources by 2030.

According to ADBA - Anaerobic Digestion & Bioresources Association - an important contribution for the
achievement of these "ambitious but necessary" targets can be given by the green gas. Charlotte Morton, Chief
Executive of the ADBA, said: “There are now over 50 operational AD plants spread across Scotland, recycling
a range of wastes including animal slurries and manures, food waste, grass silage, sugar beet, and various
grains and wheats from Scotland’s famous distilleries. With more than half of these plants commissioned
within the last four years, farmers, businesses and government are increasingly seeing first-hand the multiple
benefits that green gas delivers.”

In Scotland AD is currently delivering 45 MWe of power and 11,000 m3/hr of heat and existing biomethane
sites produce enough gas to supply the equivalent of 85,000 homes.

This is why biogas and biomethane produced through AD will have a role to play in helping to decarbonise
Scotland’s energy system. Read more...

(January 8, 2018, ADBA)

2. Anaerobic digestion industry welcomes laying of RHI

The UK’s anaerobic digestion (AD) industry has today welcomed the laying of legislation to reform the
Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), which it says will ‘give a vital boost’ to the production of green gas in the
UK. The proposed reforms to the RHI, a government scheme designed to incentivize the generation of
renewable heat, would restore tariffs for heat generation to levels that would stimulate deployment and provide
tariff guarantees to give long-term certainty to investors and those generating renewable heat. Biomethane (or
green gas), produced through recycling organic wastes and treating purpose-grown energy crops in AD plants,
is one such source of renewable heat that is eligible for support under the RHI. Having now been laid before
Parliament, the RHI reforms will face six to eight weeks of Parliamentary scrutiny before approval. The
regulations will then become law the day following approval, when the Minister responsible signs the statutory
instrument. The reforms were originally proposed by the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial
Strategy in December 2016 but were delayed by last year’s snap general election and Brexit-related legislation
dominating the legislative timetable throughout 2017. Read more...

(February 13, 2018, Bioenergy insight)

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3. Map of over 500 European biomethane facilities released

The European Biogas Association and Gas Infrastructure Europe (GIE) have collaborated on a comprehensive
map of all known biomethane installations currently running in Europe. “European Biomethane Map 2018”
lists over 500 units on the continent, and according to its creators is the first of its kind. It’s been produced
with information taken from biogas associations, energy agencies and companies. “The number of biomethane
plants in Europe has been considerably increasing in recent years, reaching over 500 units today,” said Jan
Stambasky, president of the European Biogas Association (EBA). “EBA and GIE have decided to illustrate
this positive trend with this map, which provides a high-quality overview of the main technical features,
current status and location of existing installations. With the huge development of the biomethane sector
expected in the coming years, this pioneering map might be the first in a long series.”

According to an EBA statement, the map provides specific details about each biomethane plant, including
connections to the gas grid, feed-in capacity, main substrate used, upgrading process and date of start of
operation. Cross-border interconnection points and pipelines are also indicated. Read more...

(February 21, 2018, Bio-energy Insight)

4. Italy: biomethane decree signed


After receiving the go-ahead from the European Commission, the “biomethane decree” was immediately
signed by the Minister for Economic Development on Friday 2 March. The provision, which Consorzio
Italiano Biogas president Piero Gattoni regards as well-balanced, particularly encourages the use of
biomethane and other advanced biofuels in the transport sector.

The big novelty – comments Gattoni - is the introduction of a support system that involves the withdrawal of
certificates by the GSE for ten years at a defined price, a sufficient period of time to allow producers greater
leeway with regard to revenues. Another novelty is that this decree concentrates solely on the transport sector,
unlike the previous text that also regulated inputs to the grid and inputs for cogeneration. This was a deliberate
choice by the Government to tackle the shortfall in production of advanced biofuels, a critical issue that
emerged during the development of the National Energy Strategy. It acknowledges the fact that any other type
of biofuel has to be imported, whereas biomethane produced from agricultural or refuse matrices enables the
creation of a sustainable agricultural supply chain on the ground that creates value and respects the
environment. This applies precisely to biomethane produced in-line with our “biogas done properly” model,
which is based on the use of fewer fertilisers and fewer fossil fuels and ensures that farms are more competitive
with less environmental impact. Agriculture is a highly energy-intensive sector in terms of fuel use, and
biomethane can also be used for agricultural transport and heavy transport. Read more...

(7 March, 2018, Italian News)

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UPCPMING EVENT

Sr. No. National International


1. 4th Envirotech Asia US Biogas 2018
November, 2018 5-6 November, 2018
Gujarat, India Hilton San Diego Mission Valley, San Diego, US

2. International Convention on “Current International Biomass Congress and Expo


and Emerging trends in Biogas, 10th-11th October, 2018
Biomethane (Bio-CNG) and Bio- Berlin
fertilizer Development, “CETBBD-
2018”
20-22 December, 2018
IIT Delhi, New Delhi
3. Future of Biogas Europe 2018
7-8th November, 2018
London, UK

4. Europe’s Leading Event for the Bio-based


Economy
16-18th October, 2018
Toulouse, France
Prepared & Compiled by: Himanshu Kumar and Priyanka Singh, Ph.D. Research Scholar

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