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本英文版为内部资料,仅供参考,以中文 版为准。 The Chinese version of standards has precedence to their English translations which are only for internal reference.

JB 4726 –2000

压力容器用碳素钢和低合金钢锻件

Carbon and Low-alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessels

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Preface

This standard is the revised version of JB 4726 –1994. This standard has made following changes based on the comments obtained since the

implementation of JB 4726 –1994, the domestic development of new steel grade and reference of the recent international similar standards:

1 15MnV, currently not used, has been canceled;

2 Moderate temperate hydrogen resistant steel 14CrlMo has been added;

3 Phosphorus and sulfur contents have been decreased widely based on the domestic advanced smelting level so as to reach the international advanced level;

4 0impact test shall be used for 16Mn, 20MnMo, 20MnMoNb forgings instead of 20

impact test, so as to meet the requirement of pressure vessel product standard;

5 Considering the safety of pressure vessels stipulations in appendix B have been added for

each steel grade in this standard, JB 4726 –1994 shall be null since the implementation date of this standard. Appendix A and Appendix B of this standard are the standard appendixes. This standard is put forth by The National Pressure Vessels Standardization and Technical Committee. This standard belongs by right to the Manufacturing Sub-committee of the National Pressure Vessel Standardization and Technical Committee. Responsible drafting unit of this standard: Hefei General Machinery Research Institute, China General Machinery and Engineering Company, Wuhan Heavy-duty Casting and Forging Works. Main drafters of this standard: Zhang Yong, Qin Xiaozhong, Xu Jie, Teng Mingde, Yan Mingxin, Li Rongrong. This standard has been first issued in January 1994.

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中华人民共和国行业标准 Industrial Standard of the People’s Republic of China

压力容器用碳素钢和低合金钢锻件

JB 4726 –2000

In substitution of JB 4726 –1994

Carbon and Low-alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessels

1.

Scope

This standard has specified the technical requirements, test methods and inspection rules, etc. for carbon and low-alloy steel forgings for pressure vessels. This standard is applicable to carbon and low-alloy steel forgings for pressure vessels with a design temperature above –20, design pressure below 35Mpa.

2 Reference standards

The articles contained in the standards below shall become part of this standard by reference hereof. The indicated versions are effective at the time of issuance of this standard. All standards

are subject to revision. Therefore, the possibility of using the latest version of the standards below shall be discussed by the users of this standard.

GB/T 222 –1984

Method of sampling steel for determination of chemical composition and permissible variations for product analysis Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The reduced molybdosilicate spectro-photometric method for the determination of acid-soluble silicon content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The ammonium persulphate oxidation volumetric method for the determination of chromium content

GB/T 223.5 –1997

GB/T 223.11 –1991

国家机械工业局 Approved by The State Machinery Industrial Bureau

2000-04-24 批准

2000-09-30 实施

国家石油和化学工业局 The National Petrochemical Industrial Bureau

on 24-04-2000

Implemented from 30-09-2000

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GB/T 223.14 –1989

GB/T 223.26 –1989

GB/T 223.39 –1994

GB/T 223.59 –1987

GB/T 223.60 –1997

GB/T 223.62 –1988

GB/T 223. 63 –1988

GB/T 223. 68 –1997

GB/T 223.69 –1997

GB/T 223.71 –1997

GB/T 228 –1987 GB/T 229 –1994 GB/T 231 –1984 GB/T 4338 –1995 GB/T 6397 –1986 GB/T 10561 –1989

Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine extract photometric method for the determination of vanadium content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The thiocyanate direct photometric method for the determination of molybdenum content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The sulphochlorophenol S photometric method for the determination of niobium content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The sodium arsenite-sodium nitrite titrimetric method for the determination of phosphorus content

Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The perchloric acid dehydration gravimetric method for the determination of silicon content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The butyl acetate extraction photometric method for the determination of phosphorus content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The sodium (potassium) periodate photometric method for the determination of manganese content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The potassium iodate titration method after combustion in the pipe furnace for the determination of sulfur content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The gas-volumetric method after combustion in the pipe furnace for the determination of sulfur content Methods for chemical analysis of iron, steel and alloy –The gravimetric method after combustion in the pipe furnace for the determination of carbon content Metallic materials –method for tensile testing Metallic materials –method for Charpy notch impact test Metallic materials –Brinell hard ness test Metallic materials –Tensile testing at elevated temperature

Metallic materials –Test

Steel –Determination of content of non-metallic inclusion – Micrographic method using standard diagrams

piece for tensile testing

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JB 4708 –2000 JB 4730 –1994 YB/T 5148 –1993

Welding process evaluation for steel pressure vessels Non-distractive examination of pressure vessels Metallic materials - Methods for determination of average grain size

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Terminologies

This standard uses the following definitions.

3.1 Cylindrical forging

Axisymmetrical hollow forging, whose axial length L is greater than its outer diameter D, as

shown in Fig. 1a). t shall be the nominal thickness.

3.2 Ring forging

Axisymmetrical hollow forging, whose axial length L is less than or equal to its outer diameter

D, as shown in Fig. 1b). The smaller one of L and t shall be the nominal thickness.

3.3 Pancake forging

Axisymmetrical solid forging, whose axial length t is less than or equal to its outer diameter D,

as shown in Fig. 1c). t shall be the nominal thickness.

3.4 Bowel forging

Axisymmetrical forging with concave section, whose length H is less than or equal to its outer diameter D, as shown in Fig. 1d). The greater one of t 1 and t 2 shall be the nominal thickness.

3.5 Hubbed flange forging

Hubbed flange is as shown in Fig. 1e). The greater one of t 1 and t 2 shall be the nominal

thickness.

3.6 Strip forging

Solid forging with circle section, whose axial length L is greater than its outer diameter D, as shown in fig. 1f). D shall be the nominal thickness. Forging with rectangular section, whose length L is greater than its side lengths a, b, as shown in Fig. 1g). The smaller one of a and b shall be the nominal thickness.

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Fig. 1 — 6 —

Fig. 1

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4. Ordering information

4.1 Buyer shall indicate the standard number, steel grade, forging class, supply status and

quantity, etc. in the order contract.

4.2 Buyer shall provide order drawing, and indicate the important area of forgings when

necessary.

4.3 When the additional requirements in Appendix A (Standard appendix) of this standard and

other requirements, which exceed or are higher than this standard are used, they shall be indicated in the order contract by buyer.

5. Technical requirements

5.1 Smelting Process Steel for forging shall be the killed steel smelted by electric furnace, oxygen converter or Martin furnace. Smelting methods, such as electroslag remelting, external furnace refining may be used through mutual consultation.

Table 1

such as electroslag remelting, external furnace refining may be used through mutual consultation. Table 1 —

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5.2

Chemical composition

5.2.1 The chemical composition (heat analysis) of steel for forging shall comply with the

stipulations in Table 1.

5.2.2 Residual contents of chrome, nickel, copper (those, only element upper limits are

specified in Table 1) of each steel grade may not be analyzed if the supplier can make the guarantee.

5.2.3 The buyer may carry out product analysis, the permissible deviation between the analysis

results and the specified values in Table 1 shall comply with the stipulations in Table 2 of GB/T

222.

5.3

Forging

5.3.1

Steel ingot, billet steel, rolled metal used for forging shall be accompanied with the

quality certificate of the smelter.

5.3.2 There must be sufficient truncation margin at the head and end of the steel ingot used for

forging so as to ensure no defects, such as pipe and severe segregation, on the forging.

5.3.3 Forging ratio of main section of the forging shall not be less than 3 (not less than 2 for

electroslag remelting steel) when steel ingot or billet steel is used for forging. And the forging ratio of main section of the forging shall not be less than 1.6 when rolled metal is used for forging.

5.3.4 The forging shall be formed through hot working by press, forging hammer or rolling

mills, the metal on the whole section shall be forged thoroughly and close to the shape and size of the finished parts as far as possible.

5.4 Forging classes

Forgings are divided into four classes of I, II, III and IV. The inspection item of each class shall

follow the stipulations in Table 2.

Table 2

Forging class

Inspection item

Inspection quantity

I

Hardness (HB)

Inspected piece by piece

II

Tension and impact (σ b , σ s ,δ 5 , A KV )

Forgings smelted in the same heat number and heat treated in the same furnace shall compose a batch and one piece shall be inspected at random for one batch.

III

Tension and impact (σ b , σ s ,δ 5 , A KV )

Ultrasonic inspection

Inspected piece by piece

 

Tension and impact (σ b , σ s ,δ 5 , A KV )

Inspected piece by piece

IV

Ultrasonic inspection

Inspected piece by piece

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5.5

Heat treatment

Forgings shall be delivered at the heat treatment status specified in Table 3. If the supplier needs changing the heat treatment status, approval shall be obtained from the buyer. The code for heat treatment status are: N –normalizing, Q –quenching, T –tempering.

5.6 Mechanical property

The normal mechanical property (hardness of class 1 forging, tension and impact property of classes II, III and IV) of products after heat treatment shall comply with the stipulations in Table 3. The ballistic work in the Table is the arithmetical mean of the test results of three specimens. The ballistic work of one specimen lower than the specified value is acceptable, however, not lower than 70% of the specified value. The hardness values in the table are the qualified range of the arithmetical mean of three test results, their single mean values shall not exceed 10HB of the specified range in the Table.

Table 3

test results, their single mean values shall not exceed 10HB of the specified range in the

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5.7

Visual quality

5.7.1 Forgings shall not have any detrimental defect, such as cracks, sandwiches, creases, slag,

which can be seen by naked eyes through visual inspection. If there is any defect, remove it, but

the coping part must be rounding off and the depth of removal shall comply with the stipulations

below:

a) The depth of removal shall not exceed the lower deviation of the nominal dimension of the

position when the defect exists on the non-machining surface.

b) The depth of removal shall not exceed 75% of the allowance of this position when the

defect exists on the machining surface.

5.7.2 Shape, dimension, and surface quality of forgings shall meet the requirement in order

drawings.

5.8

Internal defects

5.8.1

No white flake is allowed on the forgings.

5.8.2

Internal defects of forgings shall be inspected by ultrasonic, the surface roughness of the

inspected surface shall not be greater than Ra 6.3. The acceptance standard of ultrasonic

inspection of forgings shall follow the stipulations in Table 4.

Table 4

 

Class qualified by utrasonic inspection

Forging type

Single defect

Reducing of

Compact area

bottom wave

defect

 

For shell section

II

I

II

Cylindrical

For cylindrical

     

forgings

forging end

III

III

II

flange

Ring forgings

II

II

II

 

Nominal

     

thickness

III

III

III

200mm

Pancake forgings

Nominal

     

thickness

IV

IV

IV

>200mm

Bowel forgings

III

III

II

Neck flange forgings

III

III

II

Strip forgings

III

II

II

Note: The qualification rating may be uprated for the important area of forgings according to the buyer’s request.

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5.9

Repair welding

5.9.1 Repair welding shall be allowed with the matched welding material on forgings. The

position, depth, and area allowed to have repair welding shall be determined through mutual consultation. However, the repair welding of steel 35 and steel 35CrMo shall be agreed by the buyer.

5.9.2 Repair welding shall be carried out with the qualified welding process, which is

evaluated by JB 4708. Welders shall hold qualification certificate.

5.9.3 Defects shall be removed and bevel shall be provided prior to repair welding. Bevel

bottom must be rounding off.

5.9.4 The surface after defects removed shall be examined with magnetic particle or penetrating, rate I shall be qualified.

5.9.5 Measures, such as weld preheating, postweld slow cooling or stress relieving heat

treatment shall be taken accordingly according to different steel grade, size of repair welding area, depth and repair welding environment, etc.

5.9.6 Repair welding shall normally be carried out prior to forging final heat treatment. If

repair welding is required after forging final heat treatment, it has to be agreed upon by both parties.

5.9.7 The position after repair welding has to be examined by magnetic particle or penetrating

and must be qualified. Ultrasonic inspection shall also be carried out when depth of repair welding is greater than or equal to 6mm and must be qualified.

5.9.8 The supplier shall provide the buyer the repair welding position, depth, area sketch,

welding material, welding process parameter and non destructive test report of the forgings.

6. Test methods

6.1 Chemical analysis

Chemical analysis shall be carried out as per GB/T 223.

6.2 Hardness test

Hardness test shall be carried out as per GB/T 231. Other method may also be used when

necessary.

6.3 Tensile test

Tensile test shall be carried out as per GB/T 228.

6.4 Impact test

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Impact test shall be carried out as per GB/T 229.

6.5 Ultrasonic inspection

Ultrasonic inspection shall be carried out as per JB 4730.

6.6 Magnetic particle examination

Magnetic particle examination shall be carried out as per JB 4730.

6.7 Penetrating examination

Penetrating examination shall be carried out as per JB 4730.

7. Inspection rules

7.1 Forgings shall be inspected by the supplier inspection department based on the order

contract.

7.2

Specimen for chemical analysis shall be prepared according to GB/T 222.

7.3

Sampling rules for tension and impact test

7.3.1

Sampling quantity

7.3.1.1 One group of specimens (one for tension, three for impact) shall be taken for forgings with single weight for heat treatment less than or equal to 3500kg.

7.3.1.2 Two groups of specimens (one for tension, three for impact for each group) shall be taken for forgings with single weight for heat treatment greater than 3500kg with a space of 180 o between the two groups. If the forging length is 1.5 times greater than the diameter, then take one group of samples at both ends of the forging respectively.

7.3.2 Sampling direction

Normally, tangential specimen shall be taken for forging (excluding strip forging). When it is impossible to take tangential specimen, take longitudinal or radial specimen. Normally, longitudinal specimen shall be taken for strip forgings and tangential or transversal specimen may be taken for strip forgings with larger section and shorter length.

7.3.3

Sampling position

7.3.3.1

Specimen for cylindrical forgings and ring forgings shall be taken from the end of the

forgings at a position of half of the thickness, see Fig. 2 a) and Fig. 2 b).

7.3.3.2 Specimen for pancake forgings shall be taken from the end of the forgings, and cut at

the outer margin when the pancake forgings’diameter is less than or equal to 350mm, and be taken inwards at the position of equal to or greater than 20mm from the margin when its diameter

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is greater than 350mm, see Fig. 2 c).

7.3.3.3 Specimen for bowel forgings shall be taken from the open end of the forgings at a

position of half of the thickness, see Fig. 2 d).

7.3.3.4 Specimen for hubbed flange forgings shall be taken inwards at a position of equal to

or greater than 20mm from the nominal thickness of forgings (or from inner surface of the rest piece to outside), see Fig. 2 e).

7.3.3.5 Specimen for strip forging shall be taken from end of the forgings. When the section

of strip forging is circular, take specimen at a position of one-third radius from the surface, see Fig. 2 f). When the forging section is rectangular, take the specimen at the rectangular circle formed by dash line of rectangular section figure shown in Fig. 2 g).

7.3.3.6 Specimen for mechanical property test of the forgings may also be taken from the

inspection forging stock of the same batch, but separately forged, except for class IV forgings. Inspection forging stock must have the same forging process, forging ratio as that of forging, its nominal thickness shall be equal to or greater than that of forging and shall be heat treated in the same furnace.

7.3.4

Specimens

7.3.4.1

Tensile specimen shall use No. R4 (d o =10mm, l o =50mm) in GB/T 6397. If limited by

the specimen dimension, other short specimens in GB/T 6397 may also be used based on the agreement reached between both parties.

7.3.4.2 Impact specimen shall use the standard specimen in GB/T 229.

7.4 Class I forgings to be accepted on the basis of hardness shall be tested on the surface of

the forgings.

7.5

Re-inspection

7.5.1

When the buyer asks for re-inspection, the supplier shall provide the buyer the specimen

for re-inspection. The effective re-inspection period shall be 6 months from the date the buyer receives the forging.

7.5.2 When tensile test proves unqualified, take additional two tensile specimens at the position near by the original sampling position of the inspected forging to re-inspect. If all the data of the re-inspection results comply with the stipulations in Table 3, then it is qualified.

When the distance between broken area of tensile specimen and closer mark end point is less than l o /3, while the elongation rate does not meet the standard requirement, the test shall be invalid. It is allowed to carry out the test again with the same number of specimens.

7.5.3 When the impact test proves unqualified, take three impact specimens at the position near

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by the original sampling position of the inspected forging to re-inspect. The re-inspection will be qualified when the arithmetic mean of test data of two groups totally 6 specimens is not lower than the stipulations in Table 3, two test data lower than the specified value will be permissible, of which, only one of them lower than 70% of the specified value is permissible.

7.5.4 When the mechanical property test or re-test prove the forgings not qualified, it is permissible to carry out the inspection again after re-heat treatment of this batch of forgings, however, the number of re-heat treatment shall not exceed two times (tempering times not counted in).

shall not exceed two times (tempering times not counted in). 1. - Sampling position of one

1.-Sampling position of one group of specimens; 12.-Sampling position of two groups of specimens

Fig. 2

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8. Marking and quality certificate

8.1 Marks shall be stamped at apparent position of forgings or at the position designated by

the buyer. The location of the stamped marks and the way to stamp shall not impact the final use of the forgings. For small sized forgings, marks may be stuck on the packing box.

8.2 The delivered forgings, which are inspected and passed as per this standard shall include

the following marks:

a) Manufacturer (or code);

b) Standard number;

c) Steel grade;

d) Forging class;

e) Batch number.

8.3 Forgings shall be accompanied with quality certificate when delivering, including:

a) Manufacturer;

b) Order contract number;

c) Drawing number;

d) Standard number, steel grade, forging class, batch number, forging quantity;

e) Inspection results, inspection unit and inspectors’seals;

f) Heat treatment parameters: temperature and insulation time of normalizing, quenching and

tempering;

g) Inspection results of special requirement stipulated in drawing or contract;

h) Buyer purchasing manual number.

Appendix A

(The Standard’s appendix)

Additional requirements

This requirement will only be implemented when specified in order contract by buyer. One or some of the items may be employed, and the details of additional requirements shall be determined by consultation between the supplier and the buyer.

A1 Simulating postweld heat treatment of mechanical property specimen stock All the specimen stocks shall be heat treated for one or several times under the temperature

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below critical temperature prior to test for the purpose of simulating the postweld heat treatment or other types of heat treatment the vessel will experience during manufacture. The buyer shall provide the supplier the detailed requirements for heat treatment, including temperature, insulation time, cooling speed, etc.

A2 Heat treatment by using heat buffering ring or ring section Weld the edge of heat buffering ring with a minimum section of t X t (t is the nominal thickness of forging) or ring section with a minimum section of t X t, and minimum arc length of 3t to the sampling end of forging prior to heat treatment so as to seal the surface to be heat buffered. The heat buffering ring or ring section shall be made of carbon or low alloy steel with good weldability. Cut off heat buffering ring or ring section after forging heat treatment, specimen shall be taken from the forging area where is heat buffered by the ring or ring section. When ring section is used, the specimen shall be taken from the area below 1/3 arc length, in middle of heat buffering ring section of the forging. The specimen position shall be at least 13mm away from forging heat buffering area, and at least t/4 away from forging heat treatment surface.

A3

High temperature tensile test

Additional high temperature tensile test may be carried out for Class III or IV forgings of steel

grade listed in Table A1. The test temperature shall be indicated in contract and the high temperature yield strength of forging shall comply with the values in Table A1. High temperature tensile test method shall follow GB/T 4338.

Table A1

shall comply with the values in Table A1. High temperature tensile test method shall follow GB/T

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A4 Magnetic particle or penetrating examination Magnetic particle or penetrating examination method shall follow JB 4730, rate I will be qualified.

A5

The class of grain size of forgings shall be consulted and decided by both the supplier and the

Determination of grain size

buyer. The determination method of grain size shall follow YB/T 5148.

A6 Inspection of non-metallic inclusions The class of non-metallic inclusions of forgings shall be consulted and decided by both the supplier and the buyer. The inspection method shall follow GB/T 10561.

Appendix B

(The Standard’s appendix)

Stipulations for safety registration of carbon and low-alloy steel

forgings for pressure vessels

To ensure the safety of pressure vessels, the steel forgings discussed in this standard shall be registered for their safety. The safety registration work shall be organized and implemented by the National Pressure Vessel Standardization Committee. And only with the approval from the Boiler Pressure Vessels Safety Observation Bureau of the State Quality and Technology Supervision Bureau, the forging works can produce the forgings of relative steel grade.

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