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Math 124 – Assignment 2

a)

1. Prove that for

1, 0:

=

=1

+1 1 1

b)

Assuming 0 < 1, explain why as → ∞ we get:

=0

1

c)

for which the sum is always less than for any .

1

Show that the following sum is “bounded above”. That is, show that there is some integer

!

<

=0

d) Since this sum gets larger as we choose larger values for and it is also bounded above, a

result from calculus tells us that the infinite sum must be equal to some real number . Prove

that is irrational.

=

=0

1

!

2. Prove that there are no positive integers which satisfy the equation 2 + 2 = 3 2 .

3. Prove the correctness of the following algorithm.

[Pre-condition: ∈ ℕ, = , = , = 0]

while 0

r := b mod 2

if r = 0 then

a

:= 2a

b

:= b div 2

else

c

:= c+a

b

:= b-1

end if

end while

[Post-condition: = ]

4. Determine how many numbers there are between 1 and 1000000 (inclusive) which are not divisible by 3, 4 or 5.

5. Prove that there is a natural number whose digits are all 0s or 1s which is divisible by 2019.

6. Prove the following result using a combinatorial argument.

+

= �� � � −

=0