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LWR REVIEWER (MIDTERMS) RIZAL LAW (REPUBLIC ACT NO.

1425)
- An act to include in the curricula of all public and
JOSE RIZAL FILM REVIEW private schools, colleges and universities courses
For the longest time, the intense debate over Jose Rizal’s worth as a on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal,
national hero has divided Filipino scholars, pundits and regular folks. particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El
Director Marilou Diaz-Abaya’s 1998 “Rizal” biopic sought to examine if Jose Filibusterismo, authorizing the printing and
Rizal was indeed a true nationalist deserving of the country’s reverence, or distribution thereof, and for other purposes
was simply the stereotypical “good guy” who fought the Spanish colonizers - Enacted and signed on June 12, 1956
with his mild-mannered, middle-class and moderate ways, which explains
why he supposedly trumped the more militant Andres Bonifacio to become - SPONSOR: Jose P. Laurel
our national hero. - AUTHOR: Claro M. Recto
The film unfolded through a series of flashbacks showing the momentous - GOALS:
events in Rizal’s life. It also showed Rizal and Bonifacio interacting with one a) Rededicate the lives of youth to the ideals
another. Bonifacio as a voracious reader of Rizal’s passionate and of freedom and nationalism.
inflammatory writings against Spain, especially his Noli and Fili novels.
Rizal’s literature inspires the young Bonifacio to become a revolutionary. b) Pay tribute to Jose Rizal.
c) Gain inspiring source of patriotism.
The vision of Diaz-Abaya is that Rizal is, indeed, a hero, but one who is a
ladies’ man, temperamental, prone to self-doubts, and somewhat of a smart
ass growing up. RIZAL’S ESSAYS
He is brilliant, gaining fame as both novelist and ophthalmologist, and the 1. TO THE YOUNG WOMEN OF MALOLOS
primary inspiration for the revolution that finally exploded against the - Originally written in Tagalog
Spanish colonial power in 1896 after his death. He is also a waffler who
adamantly refuses to recognize that the tide of history is drifting toward a - Written in London, in response to the request
revolution. He insists Filipinos are “not yet ready” to revolt against the of Marcelo H. del Pilar
Spaniards.
 RIZAL’S MESSAGE TO FILIPINO WOMEN
That of course is answered by the simple question articulated in the film by
the character of Pio Valenzuela who asks plaintively, “When will we ever be
- He was greatly impressed by the fighting spirit
ready?” Rizal has no ready answer mainly because it would mean the logic of the young women in Malolos.
of his campaign for equality would have to go beyond education and reform. - His ultimate desire was for women to be
The movie seemed to make the case for Rizal as one who is all bark and no
bite.
offered the same opportunities as men in terms
of education (since women are seen to as
Cesar Montano sank his teeth into the role of Rizal losing himself within the mere wives)
duality of the character as man and hero. He brought out the vision of Diaz-
Abaya of an almost reluctant hero who is shoved into the role of an
- He emphasized on the freedom of thought and
overseas freedom fighter because of his love and admiration for older the right to education, which must be granted
brother, Paciano. His brother is a follower of the three Filipino priests – to both boys and girls alike
Gomez, Burgos and Zamora – who were executed for demanding equality
with Spanish friars.
 RESPONSIBILITIES OF FILIPINO MOTHERS
If at all, I only have a few quibbles about the movie. The series of - Whatever a mother shows to her children is
flashbacks between Rizal’s novels and his life can leave one a bit confused.
But Diaz-Abaya made sure to incorporate in the dialogue if the character what the children will become
speaking was Rizal or the protagonist Crisostomo Ibarra in his “Noli me - If the mother is always kissing a friar’s hand,
Tangere” novel. then her children will grow up to be sycophant
On the eve of Rizal’s execution, the pivotal character of the disguised (being submissive to gain advantage) and
Simoun (of “El Filibisterismo”) shows up in a hallucinatory haze in his prison mindless fools who do whatever they are told
cell to confront the hero with the contradictions of his life. Many are prone to
compare this scene to one in “Les Miserables” where the ghost of Fantine
appears as Jean Valjean is near death, forcing him to contemplate his past.  QUALITIES MOTHERS HAVE TO POSSESS
a) Be a noble wife
The only thing distracting about Simoun is that he looked a little like Johnny b) Rear her children in the service of the
Depp in the “Pirates of the Caribbean” with his long, curly locks. Another
questionable but minor observation was how the propagandists, led by state
Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar, who socialize in Madrid are often seen c) Set standards of behavior for men around
toasting and debating in Tagalog. It would be more likely for them to debate her
and argue in Spanish, the language of the colonial master.

Rizal’s execution, which is the film’s high point, would further inflame the  ADVICE TO UNMARRIED MEN AND WOMEN
revolution and cause Spain to weaken its hold over the Philippines. By the - Women should not be easily taken by looks
time the Americans arrived in 1898, the Spaniards would control only
Manila and the outpost of Baler. (can be deceiving); instead, take heed of men’s
firmness of character and lofty ideas
Rizal has sown the seeds of the uprising through his writings. He endears - Husband should have:
himself to young Filipinos like Bonifacio and incurs the anger of the Spanish
officials. Although he appears to have laid the groundwork, he continues to a) A noble and honored name
downplay the use of arms. Such a contradiction was, to me, the film’s b) A manly heart
poignant message. c) A high spirit incapable of being satisfied
What Rizal said in the 19th century is just as true today. What is the value with engendering slaves
of good leadership, he tells a group of students who are urging him to be
their leader, if the people are not united.
2. THE PHILIPPINES A CENTURY HENCE 3. THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS
- Written to forecast the future of the PH within a - He pointed out that Filipinos were hardworking
hundred years and industrious before the colonization of
- Time to remind Spain that the circumstances Spain
that ushered in the French Revolution could - Filipinos were wise enough to adjust
have a telling effect for her in the Philippines themselves to the warm and tropical climate
- Published in La Solidaridad - Indolence of the Filipinos was a chronic
disease, but not hereditary
 ANALYZATION OF VARIOUS CAUSES OF - “An hour’s work under that burning sun, in the
MISERIES OF FILIPINOS midst of pernicious influences springing from
nature in activity, is equal to a day’s work in a
a) Implementation of military policies
temperate climate.”
- population decreased dramatically
- poverty became more rampant
 CAUSES OF ECONOMIC DECLINE BROUGHT
- farmlands withered
ABOUT BY THE SPANISH REGIME
- family as a unit of society was neglected
b) Deterioration and disappearance of Filipino a) Establishment of Galleon Trade
indigenous culture - This cut off all Philippines’ business with
o Due to the religion and armor brought by other countries in Asia
Spain, Filipinos: - Successful pre-colonial small businesses
- Started losing confidence in their and handicraft industries gradually
past and heritage disappeared
- Became doubtful of their present b) Implementation of forced labor
lifestyle - This destroyed Filipinos’ will to work
- Lost hope in the future and - They were forced to work in public works,
preservation of their race abandon agriculture and commerce
c) Passivity and submissiveness to colonizers industry
- One of the most powerful forces that c) Lack of protection against invaders
silenced natives - Filipinos became nomads, eventually
- Due to the use of force, Filipinos learned losing interest in cultivating their lands and
to submit themselves to the will of the rebuilding industries that were shut down
foreigners d) Crooked system of education
- There were no courses in agriculture and
 CAN SPAIN PREVENT THE PROGRESS OF industries appropriate to the needs of the
THE PHILIPPINES? Philippines during those times.
e) Attitude of Spanish officials towards work
- Based on the reasons below, Spain had no
- These officials were reported to be tardy
means to stop the progress of the country
and lazy, seen by Filipinos who ought to
- Instead, Spain needs to reevaluate her
do the same
policies to be updated on the needs of
f) Gambling
Filipinos
- This served as a distraction to workers as
- “History does not record in its annals any
there were cockfights almost everyday
lasting domination by one people over
g) Crooked system of religion
another, of different races, of diverse usages
- The friars taught naïve Filipinos that it was
and customs, of opposite and divergent
easier to enter heaven as a poor man, so
ideas. One of the two had to yield and
they did not work and remained poor
succumb.”
h) Overly expensive taxes
a) Keeping the people uneducated and ignorant - Huge portions of what Filipinos earn goes
had failed to the government, this made them lose
- National consciousness had still interest in working as they were not
awakened, and great Filipino minds still getting what they deserve
emerged
b) Keeping the people impoverished also came QUALITIES THAT MAKE RIZAL HUMAN
to no avail
- This lifestyle allowed the Filipinos to act 1. He was a bit of a grammar Nazi
on the desire to change in their way of life 2. He was stingy yet spent regularly on
c) Exterminating the people as an alternative to photographs
hindering progress did not work either 3. He was too proud to ask for help
- The Filipino race was able to survive wars 4. He experimented with drugs
and famine 5. He suffered from bouts of depression
- To wipe out the nation altogether would 6. He also had an inferiority complex
require the lives of Spanish soldiers, 7. He frequently got into fights
which Spain would not risk 8. He was torpe