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History of Architecture


Term coined in the 1880s to denote the last stage of the classical tradition in architecture, sculpture,
painting and the decorative arts. Neo-classicism was the successor to Rococo in the second half of the
18th century and was itself superseded by various historicist styles in the first half of the 19th century. It
formed an integral part of the enlightenment in its radical questioning of received notions of human
endeavour. It was also deeply involved with the emergence of new historical attitudes towards the past
—non-Classical as well as Classical—that were stimulated by an unprecedented range of archaeological
discoveries, extending from southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and the Near East,
during the second half of the 18th century. The new awareness of the plurality of historical styles
prompted the search for consciously new and contemporary forms of expression. This concept of
modernity set Neo-classicism apart from past revivals of antiquity, to which it was, nevertheless, closely
related. Almost paradoxically, the quest for a timeless mode of expression (the ‘true style’, as it was then
called) involved strongly divergent approaches towards design that were strikingly focused on the Greco-
Roman debate.

In architecture, Neoclassicism (or merely classicism) signalled a return to order and rationality after the
flamboyant Baroque, and the decorative frivolity of the Rococo. As a style composed of many elements,
based to a varying extent on the antique forms of Greek architecture and Roman architecture,
neoclassical architecture can be imitated to a greater or lesser extent. For this reason, building designers
have continued to borrow from Greek and Roman models ever since the mid-17th century - one might
even say, since the fall of Rome in the fifth century! - which makes neoclassicism the world's most
popular style of building.

Note: Romanesque architecture (c.800-1200) is probably the earliest example of Neoclassicism, being an
attempt to recreate some of the forms and features of buildings from ancient Rome.

Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural
styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House
of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from
August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial
Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both
it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used
to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to
buildings that are "architectural in intention",[1] and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the
period, though that covers a wide range.
The Georgian style is highly variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical
architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is also normally in
the classical tradition, but typically restrained, and sometimes almost completely absent on the exterior.
The period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than
had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture (or becoming the new vernacular
style) for almost all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.

Georgian architecture is characterized by its proportion and balance; simple mathematical ratios were
used to determine the height of a window in relation to its width or the shape of a room as a double
cube. Regularity, as with ashlar (uniformly cut) stonework, was strongly approved, imbuing symmetry
and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier
structures remaining visible, was deeply felt as a flaw, at least before Nash began to introduce it in a
variety of styles.[2] Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town
planning. Until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs usually lay
within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient
Rome or Greece.

The Georgian style, with its long history in America, is among our country’s most consistently popular
architectural styles. Admired for its symmetrical design, classic proportions and decorative elements,
Georgian architecture is commonly associated with the reigns of England’s King Georges, I through III.
However, in reality, Georgian design is directly tied to the work of English architect Sir Christopher Wren.
Unequivocally the dominant architectural style in the colonies between 1700 and the Revolutionary War,
Georgian architecture’s popularity slowed dramatically as architectural tastes began to change with the
establishment of the United States and the emergence of our American Federal style.

Colonial Gregorian Architecture

If you love symmetry, Georgian Colonial architecture is for you. Rectangular in shape and laid out in
precise symmetry, this architecture style was popular between 1720 and 1850. This design is still in
demand today for many upper-end homes.

The Colonial style of architecture developed in England between 1720 and 1840. English settlers in turn
brought this style to America. During this period, England was ruled by four King Georges of the House of
Hanover. The architectural style that developed during their reigns was known as Georgian.
Sir Christopher Wren, Britain's most famous architect of the time, used Renaissance ideals to simplify the
earlier, more ornate, Baroque style. Most Georgian architecture in the United States is found along the
eastern coast where the English influence was greatest. Georgian buildings in cities that grew rapidly
were often torn down to make way for larger urban areas. Most of the examples that survived are in
Rhode Island and New Hampshire.

Georgian Exteriors

A building in the Georgian architectural style is a two-story, rectangular building built of stone or brick
with a side gabled roof. The floor plan is a four-over-four layout - two rooms on each side of a central
entry and hallway and the same layout on the second floor. Central chimneys are found in houses prior
to 1750, and later designs incorporate paired, end chimneys. The facade, or front, of the building has a
symmetrical arrangement of doors and windows, usually two windows on either side of a central entry.
The entryway often has a pediment, or crown, over the door with side columns. Windows are commonly
multi-paned sash, or movable windows in a six-over-six pane pattern. A molding made of small
projecting rectangular blocks called a dentiled cornice is found at the roof level and decorative quoins, or
cornerstones, embellish the corners. Some Georgian houses had a hooded front door with a shallow roof
that formed a small porch. Smaller homes might be built with the same detailing but only a two-over-
two floor plan. Larger homes would be expanded by adding additions on each side of the main house.

Georgian Interiors

Georgian Colonial homes had no kitchens, bathrooms, or closets. The kitchen would have been housed
in a small building away from the main house to protect against fire. Instead of bathrooms, the
occupants of the house used chamber pots and took baths in tubs that were filled with buckets of water.
Tall pieces of furniture used for storage called armoires were used in the absence of closets. These
missing amenities make the restoration of Georgian Colonials very challenging.

Interior finishes were simple yet elegant. Most rooms had high ceilings, 10 to 12 feet, that were
plastered and decorated with carved or molded ornamentation. Walls relied on paint and texture to add
variety. Paneled walls with a chair rail and wide crown molding were also painted. Door and window trim
was of simple design and painted. All windows were trimmed out with an inside sill, or stool, and apron,
the wooden molding under the sill. Floors would be wide plank oak or pine.

English Neo Palladian Architecture

The Georgian name comes from the time period encompassed by the reigning George I, George II, and
George III from 1714-1820.


Neo-Palladian comes from the Whig party appointing themselves the deciding factor of taste for the
nation. They believed that rational, correct, and polite should define English architecture and therefore
promoted Neo-Palladian as the only proper style.

The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both
Palladian architecture— and its whimsical alternatives, Gothic and Chinoiserie, which were the English-
speaking world’s equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes
were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William
Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane.


Classical architectural details, such as columns, pilasters, balusters, dentil moldings, and quoins, appear
in architecture, interiors, and furniture throughtout the period. In Queen Anne furniture, motifs include
shells and acanthus leave. Early Georgian furniture may feature swags, urns, eagles, cabochons, lion
masks, satyr masks, and/or foliage. Chinoiserie becomes popular and includes faux bamboo, Oriental
figures, and pagodas.

Cabochons- a gem shape or bead cut in convex form and highly polished


Types- Chief building types are country and town houses. Some public structures, such as banks,
hospitals, and churches, adopt Neo-Palladianism.

Site Orientation- Garden of the 18th century continue the formality and geomerty of earlier years.
William Kent introduces less formal designs that lead to pictureque compostions of winding paths,
streams, and irregular planting.
Floor Plans- The typical rectangular block main house still dominates the site. Imiatating the tripartaite
compositions of Palladio, some larger examples may have wings with smaller dependencies. Large and
small houses have either double-pile plans with halls running lengthwise or adapted Palladian plans. The
integration of rectangular, square, oval, elliptical, and hexagonal spaces or rooms with apsial ends

Materials- Structures are of brick, local stone, or stucco. Early in the century, brick usually is red, butas
higher firing temperatures become possible, its color varies from brown to gray, white, or cream. Lighter-
colored bricks resemble stone. Wood and metal portions, including sashes, shas frames, shutters, doors
and door cases, are painted in bold colors whose variety and hue depend on the owner’s wealth.

Facades- They are distinctive, having a temple front or pedimented portico at the center, Venetian or
Palladian windows, and plain walls. Designers generally group windows, elements within porticoes, and
other details in threes. They borrow or adapt facades and features from Vitruvius, Palladio, Inigo Jones,
and Colen Campbell.

Windows- Most windows have uncomplicated surrounds, but some exhibit pediments, quions, or arched
tops. Designers use Venetian or Palladian windows singly on in sequences after 1760. Some are within
relieving arches, arches that are roughly constructed to ease excess weight. Other windows are double-
hung. There are no standard sizes or dimensions for panes, but six-over-six or eight-over-eight panes are
most common.

Doors- Neo-Palladian compositionsof pilasters or columns and round or triangular pediments replace
more massive and ornament Baroque treatments. Doors themselves have raised or recessed panels; six
is a typical number for panels. Door fittings and knobs are of cast iron.

Roofs- Neo- Palladian roofs are low-pitched hipped or flat with balustrades. Centers or ends of
compositions sometimes are domed.

Remember these items below about the architecture:

1. Elements and ornamentation are classical, and compositions are symmetrical, horizontal, and feature
classical repose.
2. The Neo-Palladian style almost exclusively falls domestic, defining numerous country houses and
affecting smaller dwellings and town houses.

3. Private Buildings types include country and town houses.

4. Site Orientation is irregular and gardens are wild in nature.

5. The typical rectangular house is the main building shape.

6. Town houses are normally three stories high, one or more rooms wide, and two rooms deep.

7. Materials for structures are brick, local stone, or stucco.

8. Color is a highlight of the time showing social status and variation.

9. Facades are either a temple front or a pedimented portico at the center.

10. Windows are less complicated and doors now have raised and recessed panels.

11. Roofs are low pitched hipped or flat with balustrades.

12. They are also fond of octagonal domes and entry staircases.

Almost exclusively domestic, the style defines numerous country houses and affects smaller dwellings
and town houses. Symmetrical, geometric, and relatively plain, forms are simple; outlines are
uncomplicated. Rules for proportions are closely observed.

The typical rectangular block main house still dominates the site. Imitating the tripartite compositions of
Palladio, some larger examples may have wings with smaller dependencies. Symmetry, the sequence of
spaces, and the alignment of doors and windows are important planning considerations. Town houses
are typically three stories high, one or more rooms wide, and two rooms deep.

Structures are of brick, local stone, or stucco. Brick color varies from red, to brown and gray, white or
cream. Wood and metal portions, including sashes, sash frames, shutters, doors, and door cases, are
painted in bold colors whose variety and hue depend on the owner’s wealth.

Facades are distinctive, having a temple front or pedimented portico at the center, Venetian or Palladian
windows, and plain walls. Designers usually group windows, elements within porticoes, and other
details in threes. Entry staircases often angle to the side of the portico. String courses mark stories and
quoins delineate corners.
Neo-Palladian interiors are elaborately decorated with classical and Baroque elements. Proportions are
monumental, materials rich and costly, colors bold, and furniture massive. Libraries become more
common and by mid-century, stair halls and staircases are important design elements, and dining rooms
are becoming prevalent. In contrast to plainer exteriors, interiors are sumptuous with particular
attention given to circulation areas, reception rooms, saloons, chimneypieces, ceilings, and furnishing.

A Neo-Palladian ideal is classis simplicity. Inside, this translates into light or stone-colored walls that
clearly reveal proportions and architectural details in the manner of Inigo Jones.

Typical floor materials are wood or masonry. Oak, pine, or fir board floors have random dimensions.
Stone and marble floors are limited to entrances. Paneling remains a favorite wall treatment.

Greek Revival Architecture

The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries,
predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon
as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture. The term was first used by Charles
Robert Cockerell in a lecture he gave as Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy of Arts, London
in 1842.[1]

With a newfound access to Greece, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been
able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders. In each
country it touched, the style was looked on as the expression of local nationalism and civic virtue, and
freedom from the lax detail and frivolity that was thought to characterize the architecture of France and
Italy, two countries where the style never really took hold. This was especially the case in Britain,
Germany and the United States, where the idiom was regarded as being free from ecclesiastical and
aristocratic associations.

The taste for all things Greek in furniture and interior design, sometimes called Neo-Grec, was at its peak
by the beginning of the 19th century, when the designs of Thomas Hope had influenced a number of
decorative styles known variously as Neoclassical, Empire, Russian Empire, and Regency architecture in
Britain. Greek Revival architecture took a different course in a number of countries, lasting until the Civil
War in America (1860s) and even later in Scotland.

Greek Revival, architectural style, based on 5th-century-BC Greek temples, which spread throughout
Europe and the United States during the first half of the 19th century.
The main reasons for the style’s popularity seem to have been the general intellectual preoccupation
with ancient Greek culture at the time, as well as a new awareness of the actual nature of Greek art
brought about through widely circulated illustrations of notable ancient temples and the Elgin Marbles.
The growing recognition of the Parthenon in Athens as a major monument helped secure the dominance
of this Grecian form.

Greek Revival architecture was a building style that emerged in Europe and the United States in the late
eighteen and early nineteenth centuries. It took elements of classical Greek architecture and used them
in a wide variety of buildings. The style became especially popular in the United States around 1820.

But how did an architectural style that was thousands of years old influence builders so many centuries

History of Greek Revival Architecture

The history of Greek Revival architecture starts with archaeology. In the mid-1700s, archaeological
excavations in Athens and other sites uncovered remains of ancient Greece. People had known about
ancient Romans, but they were astounded and inspired by the previously unknown world of classical
Greece. As word of the excavations reached Europe, scholars wrote about ancient temples and marble
sculptures. Illustrations of the finds sparked fascination with the classical past.

Architects in Europe developed a style inspired by Greek architecture. In the United States, people like
Thomas Jefferson used classical architectural elements on new building projects. Jefferson's design for
the Virginia State Capitol building, circa 1785, was one of the first American structures to reflect classical
Greek elements. By the 1820s, Greek Revival was the dominant style in America, remaining that way
through the 1850s.

Greek Revival's popularity wasn't only about architecture. The interest in classical Greece, a place of lofty
philosophies, reflected the goals of the young United States and its untested experiment in democracy.
American architects looked away from British styles to architecture that spoke to founding a new nation.
Across parts of the Northeast United States, places like Ithaca, Cato and Athens (communities founded in
the early 19th century) reflect the connection of ancient Greece with those desires.

Greek Revival was the first truly national style in America. And architectural pattern books, published
guides of architectural elements and buildings, were copied and readily available. It meant that anyone
with building skills could use the images in the books to build in the latest, most popular style. Churches,
libraries, houses, courthouses and many other structures were built in the Greek Revival style.

Greek revival structures reflect the symmetry of ancient Greek structures and often resemble Greek
temples. Common characteristics include columns or pilasters (square columns), often used on a portico,
a covered entrance porch that might be small or run the entire length of a building's front. The columns
could be fluted or smooth. Sometimes they have Doric capitals. A capital is the top decorative end of a
column, and Doric is the simplest of three orders or style categories of Greek architecture.

Another common trait of Greek Revival buildings are gabled roofs, which have two sloping sides that
meet at a ridge line on a roof. Below the roof and above the columns, there's often a wide band of trim.
This area, called the entablature, has three parts:

Projecting border near the roof line called the cornice

Decorative or plain horizontal band called the frieze

Area below the frieze called the architrave

The whole idea of the entablature comes directly from classical Greek architecture.

Key Elements

Tall columns and pediments. The ancient Greek temple model, with its row of tall columns and
pediments, includes two of the most obvious characteristics of this style of historic home design.

Painted plaster exterior. Although the buildings and ruins in Greece were all made of stone, American
homes of this style were not. They were instead crafted in wood and covered in plaster, then painted in
white to create the illusion of stone.

Horizontal transom. It sits over the front door, instead of a fanlight like the earlier Federal period homes.

Moldings. Bold but simple moldings, throughout the interior and exterior of the house, also exemplify
the look of high-style Greek revival.

Embellishment. Expensive homes might add more detail, like framed dormer windows on the second
story, with pilasters and pediments. The less wealthy adopted similar features but with less flash.

Famous Examples

Andalusia. This famous example, designed by Thomas U. Walter, is near Philadelphia. It is one of the
most widely noted Greek revival houses in the country.

Plantation homes along the Gulf Coast. These fine examples of the Greek revival might be made of
flashboards instead of clapboards. Flashboards have a tongue and groove fit, and seams don’t show.
They paint into a nice smooth finish -- again, like stone.

The Adam style (or Adamesque and "Style of the Brothers Adam") is an 18th-century neoclassical style of
interior design and architecture, as practised by three Scottish brothers, of whom Robert Adam (1728–
1792) and James Adam (1732–1794) were the most widely known.

The Adam brothers were the first to advocate an integrated style for architecture and interiors; with
walls, ceilings, fireplaces, furniture, fixtures, fittings and carpets all being designed by the Adams as a
single uniform scheme. Commonly and mistakenly known as "Adams Style," the proper term for this
style of architecture and furniture is the "Style of the Adam Brothers."

The Adam style found its niche from the late 1760s in upper-class and middle-class residences in 18th-
century England, Scotland, Russia (where it was introduced by Scottish architect Charles Cameron), and
post-Revolutionary War United States (where it became known as Federal style and took on a variation
of its own). The style was superseded from around 1795 onwards by the Regency style and the French
Empire style.

The Adamesque style is an 18th-century neoclassical style of interior design and architecture, as
practised by three Scottish brothers, of whom Robert Adam (1728–1792) and James Adam (1732–1794)
were the most widely known.

Basically Neoclassical; it also adapted Gothic, Egyptian. and Etruscan motifs.

His decorative motifs -- medallions, urns, vine scrolls, sphinxes, and tripods -- were taken from Roman art
and, as in Roman stucco work, are arranged sparsely within broad, neutral spaces and slender margins.

Robert Adam's interior/exterior decorative approach also included the following:

Flat grotesque panels


Elaborate color schemes

Delicate painted ornament, including


Adam style or Adamesque. This style was influenced by classical design but did not follow Roman
architectural rules as strictly as Palladianism did.

The Adam style in America "refined the proportions of the Georgian house and borrowed ornamental
motifs like the urn, garland, and festoon from the recently excavated Roman country houses in

The overall effect of Adam Style buildings, with their balance and symmetry, was much lighter. Details
and decorations were both delicate and beautiful. The use of plaster for ceilings, ornaments such as
cornices, and even fireplaces contributed to the light feel. Pastel colors and white were utilized.
Wallpaper was often applied in lieu of wood paneling. Everything was scaled down in an attempt to
eliminate any feeling of heaviness. "Ironwork becomes a major element in architectural design now that
tasks call for balcony and stair railings so thin as to be impractical in wood."

While there was not a typical Adam, or Federal, floor plan, rooms took on a variety of shapes, with oval
and elliptical forms being typical. Staircases were moved from their normal positions and curved in ways
that form symmetrical ellipses.

The outsides of Adam Style buildings were also transformed. Often the shape was more horizontal.
Hipped roofs were given very low pitches and are concealed behind balustrades. The scale of the
buildings was much less massive; chimneys were not as bold. Doors may have been topped with semi-
elliptical fanlights and flanked by sidelights.

"A hallmark of the Federal Style was an increased emphasis on windows. This shift, partly due to growing
availability of larger panes of glass after the Revolution, translated into exterior facades punctuated by
windows." The windows were taller and the muntins dividing them were thinner, allowing as much light
as possible into the houses. The houses could have been two to four stories high. High style houses of
the period are composed of brick laid in the Flemish bond pattern. To continue the light and airy effect,
exteriors were often coated with stucco.

Frame houses of the period were usually made of overlapping clapboard. Houses ranged from the very
elaborate central blocks with flanking wings to the basic rectangle. The simpler interpretations of these
houses maintained the overall Adam Style but contained much less ornamentation.
Adam Brothers, John (1721-1792); Robert (1728-1792); James (1730-1794); William (1739-1822)

Four Scottish architect-designers who greatly influenced English interiors and furniture design during the
middle and latter half of the 18th century.

Robert and James were the most famous; they designed important buildings and interiors in a
restrained, classic manner, much influenced by the discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum.

These classic motifs appear frequently in their work:




Oval paterae


Wreaths of flowers festooned between rams' heads.

The classic urn appears as a decoration and was also used as a cutlery container and wine cooler.

Amorini, sphinxes, and arabesques were painted on furniture

The Adams also used inserts of Wedgwood medallions, which were frequently designed by John
Flaxman, as well as composition ornaments for bas relief ceilings and friezes.

Federal Architecture

Federal style architecture is the American version of British Adamesque style.

In Britain, in the second half of the 18th Century, Roman architectural precedents, especially in the
contemporary excavations of Pompeii, were popularized by Robert Adam. The style is referred to as
Adamesque, or as "Georgian" in honor of the reigning monarch, George III.

The English style came to America by way of British pattern books and an ever-swelling wave of masons,
carpenters, and joiners who emigrated from England. After the Revolutionary War, in a display of
patriotic zeal, the entire period in America, including Georgian architecture and furniture, became
known as "Federal." The most common symbol used in the Federal style is the American eagle.

Thomas Jefferson modeled his home, Monticello, and the University of Virginia on Roman precedents
popularized by 16th century architect Andrea Palladio. Palladio's designs were also the model for Robert
Adam's country villas (Harewood House). The urban designs by Adam, however, are influenced more by
Roman urban excavations, e.g., in Herculaneum and Pompeii, and Adamesque urban designs are the
major influence of American "Federal" style. Thus, a distinction is made between public buildings in
Jeffersonian Classical Revival / Roman Classicism style and Federal urban dwellings.

The best-known American architects known for their Federalist buildings are Charles Bulfinch, Samuel
McIntyre, Alexander Parris, and William Thorton.

Houses: The Adam house is most commonly a simple rectangular or square box, two or more rooms
deep, with doors and windows arranged in strict symmetry. The box may be modified by projecting
wings or attached dependencies. The stylistic focus is on the main entry -- a paneled door often framed
by half or three-quarter length side lights and thin pilasters or columns. The door is often crowned by a
fanlight, or entablature.

Roofs: Low pitched roofs: side-gabled, hipped, or center-gabled, , often balustraded. Also: raking
parapets extending over the roof and including tall, paired chimneys (chimney stacks connected by a

Windows: Large windows with double-hung sashes, panes separated by thin wooden supports
(muntins), Usually a number of small panes of glass because it was difficult to make large pieces of glass.
There might be 12, 8, or 6 panes in both the top and bottom window sashes, e.g, 12-over-12 or 9-over-6.
Windows aligned horizontally and vertically in symmetrical rows, usually five-ranked on front facade, less
commonly three-ranked or seven-ranked; windows never in adjacent pairs, although three-part
Palladian-style windows are common. Lintels and sills are rectangular or even slanted inward, and
sometimes made of stone.

Paint colors were limited, the most popular being yellow, ochre, or white. Outbuildings and even the
nonpublic side of more important buildings often were painted red, the most economical paint color for
the period.

Entrance: Elliptical or semicircular fanlight over front door (with or without flanking slender side lights).

Interiors: Showcase hexagonal, oval and circular rooms (The most famous federal-style "oval room" is
undoubtedly the Oval Office of the White House.) Decorations, including rosettes, urns, swags, oval
paterae, bulls-eye corner blocks.

5.1.1 Federal Style

(1780-1820; locally to ca. 1840)1

Also known as the Adam Style, the Federal Style succeeded the colonial period following the signing of
the Declaration of Independence. However, the Federal Style perpetuated many of the same ideas and
techniques used during the colonial era including a preference for frame construction with clapboard
sheathing common in examples found in the northern United States. Stucco and stone occur
infrequently throughout the eastern United States.

In general the symmetrical, box-like Georgian style of the late colonial period evolved into the more
ornamented Federal Style, and is typically described as having a lightness and delicacy which was lacking
in earlier Georgian designs.

The most prominent feature of most Federal style buildings is an accented front entry door. Typically this
feature is elaborated with an elliptical or semi-circular fanlight above the primary entry door, with or
without sidelights, and is usually incorporated into a decorative surround which may feature moldings,
pilasters or a crown. Buildings of this style also typically feature a cornice with decorative moldings,
double- hung wood sash windows generally with six lights per sash with thin wood muntins, a five bay
primary facade with symmetrical fenestration.
Commonly, Federal style buildings appear as side-gabled, box-like structures. While some examples are
relatively modest in their decoration, some Federal style buildings feature Palladian windows, oval rooms
and decorative swags and garlands carved in wood or plaster.

Beaux Arts

Beaux-Arts Architecture

A very rich, lavish and heavily ornamented classical style taught at L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris in the
19th century

The term "Beaux Arts" is the approximate English equivalent of "Fine Arts."

The style was popularized during the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. One outgrowth of
the Expo was the reform movement advocated by Daniel Burnham, the City Beautiful Movement.

Very influential in the US in that many of the leading late 19th century architects had been trained at
Ecole des Beaux Arts, e.g., Richard Morris Hunt (the first American to study there) , H. H. Richardson (the
second American to study there, but who chose to develop his own style, "Richardsonian Romanesque")
and Charles McKim,

More than any other style (except perhaps the Chateauesque), the Beaux Arts expressed the taste and
values of America's industrial barons at the turn of the century. In those pre-income tax days, great
fortunes were proudly displayed in increasingly ornate and expensive houses.

Broadly speaking, the term "Beaux Arts" refers to the American Renaissance period from about 1890 to
1920 and encompasses the French Renaissance, Italian Renaissance, and Neoclassical Revivals.

In Buffalo, the movement was featured at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901.

Symmetrical facade

Roofs: flat, low-pitched; mansard if modeled after French Renaissance Revival

Wall surfaces with decorative garlands, floral patterns, or cartouches dripping with sculptural ornament

Facades with quoins, pilasters, or columns (usually paired with Ionic or Corinthian capitals)

Walls of masonry (usually smooth, light-colored stone)

First story may be rusticated

Large and grandiose compositions

Exuberance of detail and variety of stone finishes

Projecting facades or pavilions

Paired colossal columns

Enriched moldings

Free-sanding statuary

Windows: framed by freestanding columns, balustraded sill, and pedimented entablature on top

Pronounced cornices and enriched entablatures are topped with a tall parapet, balustrade, or attic story

The Beaux-Arts style, also called the American Renaissance, is about as formal as architecture can get.
Based on classical European precedents primarily French and Italian palaces and palazzos of the 16th to
the 18th century - this grandly formal style transformed America's major cities between the 1880s and
the 1920s after being introduced at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago to an eager nation
that had begun to tire of Victorian excesses.

Soon, Beaux-Arts architecture was swept along by the turn-of-the-20th-century City Beautiful
Movement, which left in its wake a sea of magnificent public buildings of polished stone, from state
capitols courthouses, and city halls to train stations, libraries, and museums.

Beaux Arts also produced some of the most costly and beautiful private homes ever seen in the United
States - not only in cities, but also in resort towns and on country estates....

Since wooden buildings lack the gravitas the style required, Beaux-Arts structures were invariably
constructed of masonry, usually a light-colored, smooth-surfaced, ashlar-cut stone... But the term
"stone" needs o be qualified. Decorative exterior elements on these stone buildings weren't necessarily
carved out of solid limestone or marble. They might very well have been made from cast stone (a
composite of ground stone and cement, much like some of today's engineered stone countertops), or
from molded terra cotta, or even from pressed tin painted to look like stone.

Ecole des Beaux-Arts Neo-Classicism

Foremost among the buildings from this time are those in the Neo-Classical style and identified with the
Ecole de Beaux-Arts, the Parisian architectural school where many Americans of the day went to study

Imbued with the principles of monumental Classicism - students learned as much about Roman and
Renaissance buildings as they did about principals of construction and the properties of materials --
returning architects sought to dignify life in our fledgling cities with columned and vaulted edifices.
Indeed, it was in housing the functions of modern urban life were designers like McKim, Mead & White,
Carrere and Hastings, and Richard Morris Hunt.

The style received an enormous boost in the professional and public imagination with the staging at
Chicago of the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893. The Chicago exposition created a fictive metropolis
of Neo-Classical buildings, fountains, and statuary that was so compelling that it aroused a desire to
make real American cities look more and more like the world of the fair. The resulting “City Beautiful
Movement” lasted through the 1930s when the Great Depression ended the optimism and prosperity
that had sustained it.

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, American neoclassicism embraced the architecture of
Rome and the Renaissance together with that of Greece. How to adapt and combine elements of this
broad classical heritage to meet present demands was the aim of a new class of professional architects .

The Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris epitomized this methodology. Many Americans trained in Paris.
Locally, the Atelier Rectagon, formed in the 1920s under the auspices of the Buffalo Chapter of the
American Institute of Architects (organized in 1892) served as an informal school of Ecole des Beaux-Arts
architectural design methods.

The term Beaux-Arts style or Beaux-Arts Classicism became part of the lexicon of American architecture
during the period. Truly, the past was prologue for many of the men and the few women who shaped
the great urban expansion that began after the Civil War.

The first person from Buffalo reputed to have studied in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts was George
Cary (1859-1945).

Beaux-Arts architecture (/ˌboʊˈzɑːr/; French: [bozaʁ]) was the academic architectural style taught at the
École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon
the principles of French neoclassicism, but also incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, and used
modern materials, such as iron and glass. It was an important style in France until the end of the 19th
century. It also had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many
prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John
Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, and Louis Sullivan.[1]

Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing
French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In
the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts
integration of sculpture with architecture.

Slightly overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices, swags and sculptural
enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of
architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate
idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first truly modern architectural offices.

Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included:

Flat roof[3]

Rusticated and raised first story[3]

Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones
Arched windows[3]

Arched and pedimented doors[3]

Classical details:[3] references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism; fluently in
a number of "manners"


Statuary,[3] sculpture (bas-relief panels, figural sculptures, sculptural groups), murals, mosaics, and other
artwork, all coordinated in theme to assert the identity of the building

Classical architectural details:[3] balustrades, pilasters, garlands, cartouches, acroteria, with a prominent
display of richly detailed clasps (agrafes), brackets and supporting consoles

Subtle polychromy

The Regency style

The Georgian architectural legacy stretches far beyond grand houses and public buildings. Numerous
towns and cities enjoy elegant rows of terraced houses built in what is now called the Regency Style.

Much of Bath, large swathes of London including Regent Street, the Esplanade in Weymouth - all these
are surviving examples of the Regency Style. It began in Bath, where John Wood the Elder (1704-1754)
combined the Palladian style with his own ideas on town planning.

The world-renowned Royal Crescent, probably the most photographed example of Georgian
architecture, was built in 1767-1775 by John Wood the Younger, who continued the architectural vision
of his father.

Royal Crescent, Bath

Royal Crescent, Bath

John Nash (1752-1835) took Wood’s ideas and applied them in his work for the Prince Regent, which
began in earnest in 1810. His major project was the route linking Regent’s Park to Carlton House, a major
exercise in town planning.q

Cheltenham is best known for its Regency architecture, meaning that it was built primarily during the
regency and reign of King George IV. In other words, between about 1811 when King George III became
too doolally to function as monarch and 1830, when his son popped his foppish clogs. In practice the
‘Regency’ period in architecture started a bit earlier than that, evolving throughout the late 18th century
(pioneered by the great Scottish architect Robert Adam) and of course it didn’t stop overnight when the
Prince Regent ceased to be … there were Regency-style designs still being built in Cheltenham well into
the 1840s. The style which was fashionable at that time was neoclassicism, which took various bits and
bobs of inspiration from the classical orders devised by the Ancient Greeks and Romans.

So to get your head round the subtlety of Regency Cheltenham, you have to have a basic understanding
of the classical orders. Though having said that, the Regency style is not about adhering strictly to the
rules … it merely provides a design template for the architect to play about with. In Cheltenham, the
principles of classicism are more often than not interpreted quite loosely.

There are also a lot of Regency buildings which don’t have obvious classical features but follow the more
simple Georgian style – elegant, uncluttered and beautifully proportioned.

The period of architecture we can loosely term Regency spans the first thirty years of the 19th century.
In many respects it is a natural continuation of the Georgian style which preceeded it, with several
important differences which we will get to in a moment.

Although it is, of course, impossible to generalize about popular styles, we'll do it anyway. There were
two major streams of architectural styles popular in the Regency period. The first, which lived on far into
the Victorian period, was one of medieval revival. This is often termed Victorian Gothic, or more
accurately,Gothic Revival.

Regency doors

Regency doors

This style was based on medieval architecture, in particular the Gothic churches of the late 13th and
early 14th century. Architects like James Watt, emulated the Gothic tracery and other decorative
elements of the Gothic period, but used more modern methods of construction and substituted cheaper
materials. Thus, many Gothic Revival buildings used stucco in place of medieval stone, and braced
fanciful Gothic curves with hidden iron struts.
Later in the Victorian period a purist school of design gained popularity, based on writings by AW Pugin,
John Ruskin, and William Morris. These "philosophers of design" viewed the work of men like Watt with
horror, and called for a more rigid adherence to medieval materials, structure, and craftsmanship.

The second, and more popular style of Regency architecture, was classical in nature. That is, it used the
philosophy and traditional designs of Greek and Roman architecture. The typical Regency upper or
middle-class house was built in brick and covered in stucco or painted plaster. Fluted Greek columns,
painted and carefully moulded cornices and other decorative touches, were all reproduced in cheap
stucco. The key words to describe the overall effect are "refined elegance".

The Regency period saw a great surge of interest in classical Greece, popularized by men like Lord Byron
and his outspoken advocacy of greek nationalism. A whole generation of aristocratic amateur
archaeologists from Britain scoured the Greek world - and occassionally absconded with classical Greek
remains. The resulting popularity of Greek style reached beyond architecture to include painting,
furniture, interior decoration, and even dress design.

Regency Terraces

First a mundane definition: a terrace is a fanciful term for row housing, that is, a string of houses, each
sharing a wall with the house beside it. The most characteristic Regency designs survive today in terrace

Many of the more upper class terraces, such as those designed by John Nash surrounding Regents Park
in London, are entered through triumphal arches reminiscent of ancient Rome, These arches, generally
in stucco, lead to grand rows of houses, with carefully balanced pediments fronted by massive pilaster
columns. The best remaining terraces built in this grand style are in London, Cheltenham, and Brighton.


Windows are tall and thin, with very small glazing bars separating the panes of glass. Balconies are of
extremely fine ironwork, made of such delicate curves as to seem almost too frail to support the
structure. Proportions are kept simple, relying on clean, classical lines for effect rather than decorative

Windows and doors, particularly those on the ground floors, are often round-headed. Curved bow
windows are popular, and detached villas often featured garden windows extending right down to the
Regency Period

Inspiration From Many Sources

Sources from around the world influenced Regency Period architecture, including Egypt, the Near East,
Middle East and Asia. The greatest influence was ancient classical Greek and Roman architecture. It was
a classical revival, but more archaeologically correct than the earlier 18th-century English Neoclassical
style. Aiding the focus on authenticity were recently-published, lavishly illustrated books with images of
Greek art and architecture. Anyone who wanted to use the style had ready inspiration drawn straight
from the source.

Regency architecture also used elements of ancient Egyptian art and design, which came to public
attention at the end of the 18th century when Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt were accompanied by
archaeological surveys. Information and images related to the finds made their way back to England and
caught the imagination of architects and designers.

Regency Classical Style

Reflecting classical Greek architecture, many regent structures were symmetrical, built of brick and
covered in stucco or painted plaster to resemble marble. Things like friezes, decorative horizontal
architectural bands near a ceiling or roof line, and fluted Greek columns, were popular architectural
elements. Some Regency structures also had elements like balconies and bay windows, that projected
beyond the surface of a first floor wall.

Among the important Regency architects was John Nash (1752-1835), who served as court architect for
Prince Regent and later King George IV. For the regent, Nash created a fanciful, Indian-inspired structure,
called the Royal Pavilion Brighton, built between 1815 and 1822. But Nash also designed many
classically-influenced structures, including the terrace houses at Regent's Park. Terrace houses were row
homes, with each dwelling sharing one or two walls with those next to it. The structures had clean,
classical lines with unadorned arches and other understated elements.


Directoire style describes a period in the decorative arts, fashion, and especially furniture design,
concurrent with the post-Revolution French Directory (November 2, 1795 through November 10, 1799).
The style is distinct for use of neoclassical architectural forms, minimal carving, planar expanses of highly
grained veneers, and applied decorative painting.The Directoire style was primarily established by the
architects and designers Charles Percier (1764–1838) and Pier François Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853).
In its use of Neoclassical architectural form and decorative motifs the style anticipates the slightly later
Empire style.References

Victorian Architecture
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian
refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the
styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically
termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign. The styles often
included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and
French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and
classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and later Regency architecture, and was
succeeded by Edwardian architecture.

Victorian architecture, building style of the Gothic Revival that marks the movement from a sentimental
phase to one of greater exactitude. Its principles, especially honesty of expression, were first laid down
in The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) by Augustus Pugin (1812–52). Much
Victorian design consisted of adapting the decorative details and rich colour combinations of Italian, and
especially Venetian, Gothic. Though ornamentation could be elaborate, it was usually not superficially
applied but grew rationally out of the form and material used.

Victorian Architecture

Victorian architecture refers to buildings constructed during the reign of England's Queen Victoria.
Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901. She was the longest reigning queen of England until her
great-great granddaughter Elizabeth surpassed her in September of 2015.

Victorian architecture isn't limited to one specific style. Instead, it's a broad term that describes the
many different styles that emerged during Victoria's 63 years as queen. As there was no standard style,
architects and builders created buildings that suited their patron's wants and wishes. However, the
Industrial Revolution prompted societal changes which influenced the design of Victorian buildings.
Additionally, the expansion of the railroads allowed for prefabricated items such as window glass, tiles,
and granite to be more easily shipped and obtainable.

Several different styles emerged during this period. Some prominent ones were Queen Anne, Classical,
Gothic Revival, Arts and Crafts, Italianate, and Romanesque Revival. However, Victorian buildings share
several identifying characteristics. Generally, most Victorian architecture can be described as dollhouse-
like, with curlicue trims, bright colors, and asymmetrical designs. Most Victorian buildings were brick
with large interior staircases and windows, balconies, fireplaces in every room, and porches. Urban areas
saw the construction of what we would call townhouses in the United States: rows of houses built

The Queen Anne style was popular from the 1870s to the early 1900s and featured asymmetrical fronts
and towers. One of the primary architects associated with this style was Richard Norman Shaw, who also
utilized the Arts and Crafts style of Victorian architecture. Queen Anne style houses tend to be manor-
like and slightly medieval with fancy ornamentation. One example of Queen Anne architecture, and a
little bit of Arts and Crafts, is the Old Swan House built by Richard Norman Shaw in 1876 and located in

The Classical or Neoclassical style of Victorian architecture, reflected the influences of ancient Greek and
Roman architecture. These buildings were usually symmetrical with columns. One example of
neoclassical Victorian architecture is Witley Court in Worcestershire, England. The neoclassical elements
were added during its remodeling in the 1850s.

The Gothic Revival style of Victorian architecture had been used before Victoria's reign, but was very
popular from the 1850s to the 1880s in England. John Ruskin was a prominent architect associated with
this style. Influenced by the cathedrals of European countries such as France, Gothic Revival was mostly
used for churches and some public government buildings, such as the new Houses of Parliament. The
new Houses of Parliament were built in London from the 1840s to the 1870s.

Another example of Victorian architec

Updated October 15, 2018

Victorian architecture in America is not just one style, but a collective of many designs, each with its own
unique array of features. The Victorian era is a time period, marking the reign of England's Queen
Victoria from 1837 to 1901. It is an era that became a style, and here are a few of the most popular
house styles — known collectively as Victorian architecture.

The amazing builders of Victorian homes were born during the Industrial Revolution. These designers
embraced new materials and technologies to create houses like no one had ever seen before. Mass-
production and mass-transit (the railroad system) made ornamental architectural details and metal parts
affordable. Victorian architects and builders applied decoration liberally, combining features borrowed
from many different eras with flourishes from their own imaginations.

When you look at a house built during the Victorian era, you might see pediments characteristics of
Greek Revival or balustrades moved from a Beaux Arts style. You may see dormers and other Colonial
Revival details. You may also see medieval ideas such as Gothic windows and exposed trusses. And, of
course, you'll find lots of brackets, spindles, scrollwork and other machine-made building parts.
Victorian-era architecture was emblematic of the new American ingenuity and prosperity.


Eclecticism is a nineteenth and twentieth-century architectural style in which a single piece of work
incorporates a mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and
original. In architecture and interior design, these elements may include structural features, furniture,
decorative motives, distinct historical ornament, traditional cultural motifs or styles from other
countries, with the mixture usually chosen based on its suitability to the project and overall aesthetic

The term is also used of the many architects of the 19th and early 20th centuries who designed buildings
in a variety of styles according to the wishes of their clients, or their own. The styles were typically
revivalist, and each building might be mostly or entirely consistent within the style selected, or itself an
eclectic mixture. Gothic Revival architecture, especially in churches, was most likely to strive for a
relatively "pure" revival style from a particular medieval period and region, while other revived styles
such as Neoclassical, Baroque, Palazzo style, Jacobethan, Romanesque and many others were likely to be
treated more freely.

Eclecticism came into practice during the late 19th century, as architects sought after a style that would
allow them to retain previous historic precedent, but create unseen designs. From a complete catalogue
of past styles, the ability to mix and combine styles allowed for more expressive freedom and provided
an endless source of inspiration. Whilst other design professionals (referred to as 'revivalists') aimed to
meticulously imitate past styles, Eclecticism differed, as the main driving force was creation, not
nostalgia[2] and there was a desire for the designs to be original.



Eclectic architecture first appeared across continental Europe in various countries such as France (Beaux-
Arts architecture), England (Victorian architecture) and Germany (Gründerzeit),[2] in response to the
growing push amongst architects to have more expressive freedom over their work.

The École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, considered to be one of the first professional architectural schools,
trained students in a rigorous and academic manner, equipping them with skills and professional
prestige. Teachers at the École were some of the leading architects in France, and this new method of
teaching was so successful, that it attracted students from across the globe.[3] Many of the graduates
went on to become pioneers of the movement, and used their beaux-arts training as a foundation for
new eclectic designs.

Whilst the practise of this style of architecture was widespread (and could be seen in many of the town
halls constructed at the time),[1] eclecticism in Europe did not achieve the same level of enthusiasm that
was seen in America—as it was assumed that the presence of old, authentic architecture, reduced the
appeal of historical imitation in new buildings.[3]

North America


The end of the 19th century saw a profound shift in American Architecture. Architects educated at the
École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, such as Richard Morris Hunt and Charles Follen McKim were responsible
for bringing the beaux-arts approach back from Europe, which was said to be the cornerstone of eclectic
architecture in America.[3] At a time of increasing prosperity and commercial pride, many eclectic
buildings were commissioned in large cities around the country. The style thrived, as it introduced
historical features, previously only seen in the aristocratic architecture of European countries such as
Britain and France, contributing to a richer sense of culture and history within America. In the case of
Hunt and many other eclectic architects, his 'typically eclectic viewpoint' enabled him to make stylistic
choices based on whatever suited the particular project or the client. This flexibility to adapt, and to
blend freely between styles gave eclectic designers more appeal to clients.[3]

The creation of skyscrapers and other large public spaces such as churches, courthouses, city halls, public
libraries and movie theatres, meant that eclectic design was no longer only for members of high-society,
but was also accessible to the general public.[3] While some of these buildings have since been
demolished (including the original Pennsylvania station and the first Madison Square garden—both in
New York City), projects that remain from this era are still valued as some of the most important
structures in America.



Palácio das Indústrias, São Paulo, Brazil

Phát Diệm Cathedral in Vietnam blends Vietnamese and European architectural styles

Some of the most extreme examples of eclectic design could be seen onboard ocean liners (which at the
time were the primary form of overseas transport). The lavish interiors were crafted with a mix of
traditional styles—in an attempt to ease the discomfort of months abroad and to create the illusion of
established grandeur.[3]

At a similar time, such vessels were being used to transport colonists to undeveloped areas of the world.
The colonisation of such areas, further spread the Eclectic architecture of the western world, as newly
settled colonists built structures commonly featuring Roman classicism and gothic motifs.

To a lesser extent Eclecticism appeared across Asia, as Japanese and Chinese architects who had trained
at American Beaux-Arts influenced schools, returned to produce eclectic designs across Asia such as the
Bank of Japan (1895) by Kingo Tatsuno.[3] The so-called Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, which
added details from traditional Indian architecture, mostly Mughal architecture, to essentially Western
forms of public buildings and palaces, was an inherently eclectic style. Most of the architects were

Critical reception


The Carson Mansion, Eureka, California in the American style called Queen Anne Revival architecture.

As a style that offered so much creative freedom, and no guiding rules, the risk of creating an
unsuccessful design was apparent to all. Projects that failed to harmoniously blend the different styles
were subject to criticism from professionals (particularly those who were against the movement).[1]



Enthusiasm for historical imitation began to decline in the 1930s and eclecticism was phased out in the
curriculums of design schools, in favour of a new style. The shift towards Modernism was significant as it
was seen by many as avant-garde and the new technology and materials being produced at the time
allowed for greater innovation.[4] Despite the move away from eclecticism, the era still remains
historically significant as it "re-opened the doors to innovation and new forms" for architecture in the
following years.[5]

Eclectic Architecture

Throughout 19th century, Europe and the United States went through some major industrial revolutions,
which introduced new materials into architecture. Cast iron, wrought iron, steel, and plate glass all
emerged as practical building materials in this time. However, without much precedent to dictate how
these materials were used, architects often looked back to the deep past for architectural guidance. The
19th century is characterized by a series of revival movements, in which styles of the past re-emerged as
symbols of modern power. Many Europeans, and Americans, dedicated themselves to the styles of
ancient Rome and Greece, which we call Neoclassicism. The English also revitalized Gothic styles, a nod
to their powerful medieval heritage, called the Neo-Gothic.

Revival styles were common across the Western world, and architects were faced with a serious
academic question: are we creating original works or just copying other masters? The consensus was
that revivalism was not plagiarism. Why? Because only certain elements of ancient styles were actually
used. Architects weren't truly copying the ancient styles, they were selecting the best traits and
incorporating them into new structures, with new purposes. Think of it this way: A Roman temple was
made of solid stone and used to worship the gods. The neoclassical U.S. Capitol Building is directly
modeled on Greek and Roman temples, but only the façade is stone. The interior includes modern
plumbing and wiring, carpets, and other amenities. Plus, no one uses it to worship Jupiter. The architects
chose the best parts of classical architecture, but gave it new purpose.

The U.S. Capitol Building

US Capitol

Thus, eclecticism was introduced to architecture. As architects became more comfortable with the
concept of selecting certain elements over others and the concept of breaking from strict rules of
tradition, eclecticism became more common. In fact, there was an entire movement of eclectic
architecture that wasn't directly connected to revivalism. It was an aesthetic of experimentation.

Early Victorian

In the forty-five years from 1850 to 1895, architecture in Georgia advanced from simple Greek revival
forms to the massive steel-frame skyscraper. In between, architects and builders used a myriad of styles
as the state endured a disastrous war, Reconstruction, and economic depressions. Nevertheless, the
entire postwar period was generally marked by increasing wealth due to urbanization, industrialization,
expanding cotton production, and the rapid expansion of rail service into almost all areas of Georgia.
From the 1850s to the 1870s, Italianate and Second Empire buildings were erected around the state, but
most church buildings were in the less popular Gothic revival. From the late 1870s to 1895, Romanesque
Revival and Queen Anne styles predominated. Both were soon replaced, however, by Neoclassical design
work as the new century approached.

Greek Revival

In 1850 the most significant architectural style in the United States and Georgia was Greek revival.
Important commissions like that for the Governor's Mansion in Milledgeville (1838) by Charles B. Cluskey
helped to create a demand for Greek revival throughout the state that lasted well into the 1850s.
Characterized by grand columned porticos, low-pitched roofs often with triangular pediments,
entablatures, and rectangular/symmetrical construction, Greek revival became common throughout

Savannah was the architectural center of the state, and the city's rich merchants and businessmen
invested their cotton wealth in new residences and commercial buildings of a slightly altered Greek
revival style changed to suit narrow city lots. With low or flat roofs, symmetrical window placement,
raised entrances, and one-story, square-columned porticos, the new buildings were often designed by
recently arrived architects such as New York's John Norris. Greek revival buildings included the U.S.
Custom House, commercial buildings along Bay Street, and row houses like the Gordon Block and Mary
Marshall Row.

Greek revival, however, was not confined to Savannah in the 1850s. In 1856 Charles Sholl and Calvin Fay
partnered to design the state mental hospital (Powell Building) in Milledgeville with a soaring three-story
portico of the Greek Ionic order. Local builders were also active in the popular style. In the distant
southwest corner of the state, designer/builder John Wind built the impressive Greek revival structures
of Cedar Grove Plantation and the Thomas County Courthouse. The rich Cotton Belt region of central
Georgia was soon dotted with massively colonnaded homes like those of John Thomas Grant in Athens,
which is now the President's House at the University of Georgia, and of Austin Leyden in the burgeoning
rail center of Atlanta.

Despite the predominance of Greek revival, more romantic or picturesque buildings in Gothic revival and
Italianate styles began to appear in this prosperous decade. Decorative Gothic motifs had been added to
the state capitol in Milledgeville during the late 1820s, but that did not reflect any widespread use of the
pointed arches, asymmetrical ground plans, crenelations, buttresses, steeply pitched roofs and gables,
and trellised verandas that were the main characteristics of the style in the 1850s. The most outstanding
example of the Gothic style is the 1853 Green-Meldrim House in Savannah by John Norris.

Gothic revival

Gothic Revival

Not well suited to the harsh southern climate, however, Gothic revival was used mainly in church
architecture both during and after the Victorian era. This was due in part to a general belief that the
fervent Christianity of the Middle Ages, which gave birth to the Gothic style, should be emulated. One of
the first Gothic revival churches in the state was St. John's Episcopal in Savannah, designed in 1850 by
New York architect Calvin Otis. More like a simple English country church than a grand cathedral, St.
John's has distinctive pointed arches, buttresses, and great hammerbeam trusses on its interior. After the
Civil War (1861-65), virtually all religious sects hired an ever-increasing number of major architects to
design Gothic revival churches. Atlanta is particularly illustrative of the continuing popularity of the style
during the late Victorian era. William H. Parkins designed the Roman Catholic Church (later Shrine) of the
Immaculate Conception in a simplified Gothic revival style in 1869, and Edmund G. Lind created Central
Presbyterian Church in 1885.

Queen Anne

In general, architects prospered during this period. Their most popular style was Queen Anne, and
striking examples can still be found in almost every part of the state. It featured open floor plans around
a large central space, extensive porches, and an exterior reflecting the irregularly sized and arranged
interior rooms. Imminently suitable to the southern climate, Queen Anne residences tended to have
extremely varied building materials in an often complex arrangement of spindle work, shingles, brick and
masonry combinations, and terra-cotta highlighting. The more elaborate homes might have towers,
turrets, belvederes (open observation areas on a tower), porte cocheres, gazebos at porch corners, and a
variety of bay windows and ornamental chimney stacks.

In 1883 G. L. Norrman designed a masterpiece in Queen Anne style for Atlanta businessman Edward C.
Peters. The central mass of the house is topped by a hipped roof with extensions containing high, peaked
gables and adorned with cut-away bay windows, half timbering, carved panels, brackets, turned posts,
and foliate capitals. Reflecting its interior arrangement, the dramatic irregularity of the exterior is further
emphasized by huge porches, balconies, a shingled skirt roof, and a massive Romanesque-arched porte
cochere. The interior rooms encircle a gently rising staircase ascending from a large central hall, and
there is an open flow of rooms incorporating the great porches with both the interior and the grounds.
The Peters House is the finest example of Queen Anne residential design in the state.

The asymmetry and picturesque characteristics of High Victorian or Queen Anne architecture also found
expression in urban commercial buildings. Constrained by rectilinear building sites that had favored the
block-like forms of the Italianate and Second Empire styles, architects solved the problem by using
elaborate wall treatments with balconies, projecting bays, recessed porches, and terra-cotta, patterned
brickwork, or stone on wall surfaces. Meanwhile, the roof itself might have alternating gables of varied
shapes, corner turrets, towers, mansard roof sections, dormers, and a multiplicity of chimneys. The most
outstanding example of this style still remaining is the 1892 Windsor Hotel in Americus by G. L. Norrman.

Early Victorian architecture: This style is pared back in comparison to its later counterparts. These
houses are made of brick, exposed or rendered, with pitched roofs made from corrugated iron, tiles or
slate. They often feature picket fences with a small garden at the entrance. A typical workers’cottage is a
good example. Internally, the ceilings are generally unadorned, but moulded skirting (the wooden frame
along the base of a wall) and architraves (the moulded frame around a window or door) are common.
Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement
popular in the Western World that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the
early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive
medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival
draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood
moulds and label stops.

The Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England, gaining ground in the 19th. Its roots
were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening
of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately,
the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal
in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied considerably in its faithfulness
to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes
amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a
building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction

In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread rapidly to the
continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas; the 19th and early 20th
centuries saw the construction of very large numbers of Gothic Revival and Carpenter Gothic structures
worldwide. The influence of the Revival had nevertheless peaked by the 1870s. New architectural
movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, and sometimes in outright
opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, and by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era
was generally condemned or ignored. The later 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the
United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958.

Gothic Revival, architectural style that drew its inspiration from medieval architecture and competed
with the Neoclassical revivals in the United States and Great Britain. Only isolated examples of the style
are to be found on the Continent.

The Gothic Revival style is part of the mid-19th century picturesque and romantic movement in
architecture, reflecting the public's taste for buildings inspired by medieval design. This was a real
departure from the previously popular styles that drew inspiration from the classical forms of ancient
Greece and Rome. While distinctly different, both the Gothic Revival style and the Greek Revival style
looked to the past, and both remained popular throughout the mid 19th century. The Gothic Revival
style in America was advanced by architects Alexander Jackson Davis and especially Andrew Jackson
Downing, authors of influential house plan books, Rural Residences (1837), Cottage Residences (1842),
and The Architecture of Country Houses (1850). This style was promoted as an appropriate design for
rural settings, with its complex and irregular shapes and forms fitting well into the natural landscape.
Thus, the Gothic Revival style was often chosen for country homes and houses in rural or small town

The Gothic Revival style was also popular for churches, where high style elements such as castle-like
towers, parapets, and tracery windows were common, as well as the pointed Gothic arched windows
and entries. The Carpenter Gothic style is a distinctive variation of the Gothic Revival style featuring
vertical board and batten wooden siding, pointed arches and incised wooden trim. The name comes
from the extensive use of decorative wood elements on the exterior. While some examples remain, the
pure Carpenter Gothic style is not well represented in Pennsylvania.

The most commonly identifiable feature of the Gothic Revival style is the pointed arch, used for
windows, doors, and decorative elements like porches, dormers, or roof gables. Other characteristic
details include steeply pitched roofs and front facing gables with delicate wooden trim called
vergeboards or bargeboards. This distinctive incised wooden trim is often referred to as "gingerbread"
and is the feature most associated with this style. Gothic Revival style buildings often have porches with
decorative turned posts or slender columns, with flattened arches or side brackets connecting the posts.
Gothic Revival style churches may have not just pointed arch windows and porticos, but often feature a
Norman castle-like tower with a crenellated parapet or a high spire.

Many examples of Gothic Revival buildings of both high style and more vernacular character can be
found across the state. The high style buildings, mansions, churches, prisons and schools sometimes
offer ornate architectural details. The more common vernacular buildings may have only a few Gothic
details, usually pointed arch windows and a front facing gable with wooden trim. Gothic Revival details
may also be found in urban settings on rowhouses or duplexes. Later in the 19th century, Gothic Revival
details were mixed with elements of other Victorian era styles to become a style known as the Victorian
Gothic. In the early 20th century, a distinct variation of the Gothic Revival style, known as the Collegiate
Gothic style, developed primarily for educational buildings. These derivative forms of the Gothic Revival
style are more fully discussed elsewhere in this field guide.

The term "Gothic Revival" (sometimes called Victorian Gothic) usually refers to the period of mock-
Gothic architecture practised in the second half of the 19th century. That time frame can be a little
deceiving, however, for the Gothic style never really died in England after the end of the medieval
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, when classical themes ruled the fashion-conscious world of
architecture, Gothic style can be seen, if intermittently. This is because many architects were asked to
remodel medieval buildings in a way that blended in with the older styles.

Christopher Wren, the master of classical style, for example, added Gothic elements to several of his
London churches (St. Michael, Cornhill, and St. Dunstan-in-the-East). William Kent's gatehouse at
Hampton Court Palace (1723) fit in flawlessly with Cardinal Wolsey's original Tudor Gothic. When
Nicholas Hawksmoor remodelled the west towers at Westminster Abbey (from 1723) he did so in a
sympathetic Gothic style.

In the late 18th century, running in parallel, as it were, with raging classicism, was a school of
romanticized Gothic architecture, popularized by Batty Langley's pattern books of medieval details. This
medieval style was most common in domestic building, where the classical style overwhelmingly
prevailed in public buildings.

One of the prime movers of a new interest in Gothic style was Horace Walpole. Walpole's country house
at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham (1750), was a fancifully romantic Gothic cottage. The style adopted by
Walpole (termed, not surprisingly, "Strawberry Hill Gothic"), took many of the decorative elements of
exterior medieval Gothic and moved them to the interior of the house. Thus, Walpole's rooms are
adorned - some might say over-adorned - with touches like cusped ceilings and crocketed arches.

Little of Walpole's style is what you could call "authentic"; he merely took decorative touches and
strewed them about with abandon. The controversial result is very much open to criticism; you either
love it or hate it, but few people are ambivalent about it.

Other architects tried their hand at Gothic style. Even Robert Adam, the master of neo-classical country
house architecture, used Gothic elements, for example at Culzean Castle, where the exterior crenellation
recalls a medieval fortress.

James Wyatt was the most prominent 18th-century architect employing Gothic style in many of his
buildings. His Ashridge Park (Hertfordshire), begun in 1806, is the best surviving example of his work. At
Ashridge, Wyatt employed a huge central hall, open to the roof, in conscious imitation of a medieval
great hall.
Into the early years of the 19th century many architects dabbled in Gothic style, but as with Walpole, it
was more the decorative touches that appealed to them; little bits of carving here, a dab of pointed arch

Keble College, Oxford

Keble College, Oxford

Most paid scant heed to authentic proportion, which is one of the most powerful moving forces of "real"
Gothic style. Even when the shapes used by builders were Gothic, the structure was not. Columns and
piers were made with iron cores covered over with plaster.

In the early 19th century Gothic was considered more suitable for church and university buildings, where
classical style was thought more appropriate for public and commercial buildings. Good examples of
university Gothic can be seen at Cambridge, for example, the Bridge of Sighs at St. John's College (1826)
and the gateway at King's College (1822-24).

It is really only after 1840 the Gothic Revival began to gather steam, and when it did the prime movers
were not architects at all, but philosophers and social critics. This is the really curious aspect of the
Victorian Gothic revival; it intertwined with deep moral and philosophical ideals in a way that may seem
hard to comprehend in today's world.

Men like A.W. Pugin and writer John Ruskin (The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849) sincerely believed
that the Middle Ages was a watershed in human achievement and that Gothic architecture represented
the perfect marriage of spiritual and artistic values.

Ruskin allied himself with the Pre-Raphaelites and vocally advocated a return to the values of
craftsmanship, artistic, and spiritual beauty in architecture and the arts in general. Ruskin and his
brethren declared that only those materials which had been available for use in the Middle Ages should
be employed in Gothic Revival buildings.
Even more narrow-minded than Ruskin were followers of the "ecclesiological movement", which began
in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Adherents of the ecclesiological movement believed that
only the Gothic style was suitable for church architecture, but not just any Gothic style!

To them, the "Middle Pointed" or Decorated style prevalent in the late 13th to mid 14th century was the
only true Gothic. The bible of the movement was the monthly publication, The Ecclesiologist, which was
published from 1841-1868. The publication was in essence a style-guide to proper Gothic architecture
and design.

Westminster Palace

Westminster Palace

But all this theory needed some practical buildings to illustrate the ideals. The greatest example of
authentic Gothic Revival is the Palace of Westminster (The Houses of Parliament). The Palace of
Westminster was rebuilt by Sir Charles Barry and A.W. Pugin after a disastrous fire destroyed the old
buildings in 1834. While Barry oversaw the construction, much of the design is Pugin's, a design he
carried out in exacting Perpendicular Gothic style inside and out.

The period from 1855-1885 is known as High Victorian Gothic. In this period architects like William
Butterfield (Keble College Chapel, Oxford) and Sir George Gilbert Scott (The Albert Memorial, London)
created a profusion of buildings in varying degrees of adherence to strict Gothic style. High Victorian
Gothic was applied to a dizzying variety of architectural projects, from hotels to railroad stations, schools
to civic centres. Despite the strident voice of the Ecclesiological Society, buildings were not limited to the
Decorated period style but embraced Early English, Perpendicular, and even Romanesque styles.

Were the Gothic Revivalists successful? Certainly the Victorian Gothic style is easy to pick out from the
original medieval. One of the reasons for this was a lack of trained craftsmen to carry out the necessary
work. Original medieval building was time-consuming and labour-intensive. Yet there was a large pool of
labourer's skilled in the necessary techniques; techniques which were handed down through the
generations that it might take to finish a large architectural project.

Victorian Gothic builders lacked that pool of skilled labourers to draw upon, so they were eventually
forced to evolve methods of mass-producing decorative elements. These mass-produced touches, no
matter how well made, were too polished, too perfect, and lacked the organic roughness of original
medieval work.
Major Gothic Revival buildings to see in England:

Strawberry Hill, Twickenham

Exeter College Chapel, Oxford

Scarisbrick Hall, Lancashire

Keble College, Oxford

Palace of Westminster, London

Albert Memorial, London


AW Pugin

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,High Victorian

High Victorian Gothic was an eclectic architectural style and movement during the mid-late 19th century.
[1] It is seen by architectural historians as either a sub-style of the broader Gothic Revival style, or a
separate style in its own right.[2]

Promoted and derived from the works of the architect and theorist John Ruskin, though it eventually
diverged, it is sometimes referred to as Ruskinian Gothic.[3] It is characterised by the use of polychrome
(multi-colour) decoration, "use of varying texture", and Gothic details.[4] The architectural scholar James
Stevens Curl describes it thus: "Style of the somewhat harsh polychrome structures of the Gothic Revival
in the 1850s and 1860s when Ruskin held sway as the arbiter of taste. Like High Gothic, it is an
unsatisfactory term, as it poses the question as to what is 'Low Victorian'. 'Mid-Victorian' would,
perhaps, be more useful, but precise dates and description of styles would be more so."[5]

Among the best-known practitioners of the style were William Butterfield,[6] Sir Gilbert Scott,[7] G. E.
Street,[8] and Alfred Waterhouse. Waterhouse's Victoria Building at Liverpool University, described by Sir
Charles Reilly as "the colour of mud and blood",[9] was the inspiration for the term "red brick university"
(as opposed to Oxbridge and the other ancient universities).[10]

In the 1870s, the style became popular for civic, commercial, and religious architecture in the United
States, though was uncommon for residential structures.[11] It was frequently used for what became the
"Old Main" of various schools and universities in the late 19th century United States.[4] The Stick Style is
sometimes considered the wooden manifestation of the High Victorian Gothic style.[12]

High Victorian Gothic style developed in England in around the mid point of the 19 th century. English
architect John Ruskin, author of "The Seven Lamps of Architecture" (1849) was a major proponent of the
style, finding "constructural coloration" superior to superficially applied color. Initially, this style was
inspired by English medieval architecture, but later it drew from medieval French and German building
traditions as well. The High Victorian Gothic style did not fully emerge in the United States until after the
Civil War. Since this style was most often employed for high-style public buildings or mansions, it was
essentially an urban building type. It was often used for the design of schools and libraries. One of
Pennsylvania's best examples of this style is the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia ,
designed by Frank Furness in 1876.

The High Victorian Gothic style is similar to the earlier Gothic Revival style, but is a more heavier, more
substantial version of the style. The High Victorian Gothic style was used mostly for large scale public
buildings like schools, churches, or government offices, but was sometimes chosen for mansions or
homes of substantial size. Always executed in brick or stone, High Victorian Gothic buildings are
distinguished by the use of polychrome bands of decorative masonry. Stone quoins, pressed brick, and
terra cotta panels were commonly used. Windows and doors were accented with brick or stone trim,
often in contrasting colors. The Gothic pointed arch may be present at windows, entrances, and
decorative dormers and cross gables. Round turrets with corbelled brickwork and conical roofs are
common to this style as well.

Identifiable Features

Linear decorative polychrome bands of brick or stone

Masonry construction

Stone quoins

Pointed arch (Gothic) windows and doorways

Steeply gabled roofs, often with cross gables

Ornamental pressed brick and terra cotta tiles

Patterned brick chimneys

Corbelled brickwork

Turret with conical roof

The Queen Anne style in Britain refers to either the English Baroque architectural style approximately of
the reign of Queen Anne (reigned 1702–1714), or a revived form that was popular in the last quarter of
the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century (when it is also known as Queen Anne
revival).[1] In British architecture the term is mostly used of domestic buildings up to the size of a manor
house, and usually designed elegantly but simply by local builders or architects, rather than the grand
palaces of noble magnates. Contrary to the American usage of the term, it is characterised by strongly
bilateral symmetry with a Italianate or Palladian-derived pediment on the front formal elevation.
The architectural historian Marcus Binney, writing in The Times in 2006, describes Poulton House built in
1706, during the reign of Queen Anne, as "...Queen Anne at its most delightful". Binney lists what he
describes as the typical features of the style:[2]

a sweep of steps leading to a carved stone door-case

rows of painted sash windows in boxes set flush with the brickwork

stone quoins emphasizing corners

a central triangular pediment set against a hipped roof with dormers

typically box-like "double pile" plans, two rooms deep

When used of revived "Queen Anne style" of the 19th and 20th century the historic reference in the
name should not be taken too literally, as buildings in the Queen Anne style often bear as little
resemblance to English buildings of the 18th century as those of any revival style to the original.
Furthermore, the Queen Anne style in other parts of the English-speaking world, particularly in the
United States and Australia, is significantly different from that in the United Kingdom, and may hardly
include any elements typical of the actual architecture of Anne's reign.

In the United States, Queen Anne-style architecture was popular from roughly 1880 to 1910.[1] "Queen
Anne" was one of a number of popular architectural styles to emerge during the Victorian era. Within
the Victorian era timeline, Queen Anne style followed the Stick style and preceded the Richardsonian
Romanesque and Shingle styles.

The style bears almost no relationship to the English Baroque architecture produced in the actual reign
of Queen Anne from 1702 to 1714. It describes a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free
Renaissance" (non-Gothic Revival) details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right.
"Queen Anne", as an alternative both to the French-derived Second Empire and the less "domestic"
Beaux-Arts architecture, is broadly applied to architecture, furniture and decorative arts of the period
1880 to 1910; some "Queen Anne" architectural elements, such as the wraparound front porch,
continued to be found into the 1920s.

Queen Anne architecture was a style found from around 1880 to 1900. It began in England and then
became very popular in the United States, lasting in the western states until around 1910. When you
hear someone talking about Victorian architecture, chances are this is the style that comes to mind.
The style was christened 'Queen Anne' by several English architects. But the name's a bit of a misnomer,
because it was based on several medieval and early Renaissance architectural styles from the late 1500s
and early 1600s. In reality, the actual Queen Anne didn't rule until at least one hundred years later, in the
early 1700s. Nevertheless, the name Queen Anne stuck.

Example of Queen Anne architecture from England

English Queen Anne structure

In England, Queen Anne architecture is often seen in brick structures. As the style moved to the United
States, it became even more eclectic, picking up other decorative flourishes and adding a little bit of
everything. Printed pattern books--publications full of illustrations--helped spread its popularity and
show builders, carpenters, and craftspeople how to add elements of the style to various structures.

So, what does Queen Anne architecture look like?

Characteristics of Queen Anne Architecture

Queen Anne structures vary greatly, but several key characteristics make the style easy to identify.
Buildings are often asymmetrical with more than one story, and they usually feature a large wrap-around
porch. External surfaces often use multiple materials like stone, brick, or wood. On some buildings, you
might see more than one material used, one right next to the other.

Queen Anne building with large wrap-around porch and wood shingles

Queen Anne architecture example

And those external surfaces are full of contrasting textures, like patterned stone and brick. Sometimes
the brick might be colored or custom-molded. Especially in the United States, Queen Anne buildings
often have lots of wood decoration, like wood shingles with curving edges that resemble fish scales. You
might also see sections of half-timbering and of clapboard paneling, long thin wood strips that overlap
slightly. Porches and railings might include lots of fancy woodwork.

Queen Anne architecture often features towers and turrets, usually found on a building's front corner.
Towers might be round or polygonal. A polygonal shape is one that has three or more sides. The towers
might be topped by roofs with a conical or bell shape. A turret is a small tower that thrusts upward from
a building's roof or upper story.
Queen Anne building with tower and front-facing gable

Queen Anne architecture example

Queen Anne buildings have deeply-pitched roofs with irregular shapes, often