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A. Characteristics

1. Based on oral traditions

2. Crude on ideology and phraseology

B. Literary Forms

1. Oral Literature

a. Riddles (bugtong) – battle of wits among participants

Tigmo –Cebu Paktakon – Ilonggo Patotdon – Bicol

b.Proverbs (salawikain) – wise sayings that contain a metaphor used to teach as a food for

c. Tanaga- a mono-riming heptasyllabic quatrain expressing insights and lessons in life is

"more emotionally charged than the terse proverb and thus has affinities with the folk

2. Folk Songs- It is a form of folk lyric which expresses the hopes and aspirations, the
people's lifestyles as well as their loves. These are often repetitive and sonorous, didactic
and naïve

a. Hele or oyayi – lullaby

b.Ambahan (Mangyan) – 7-syllable per line poem that are about human relationships and
social entertainment

c.Kalusan (Ivatan) - work songs that depict the livelihood of the people

d.Tagay (Cebuano and Waray) – drinking song

e.Kanogan (Cebuano) – song of lamentation for the dead

3. Folk Tales

a. Myths – explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain
characteristics, why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna
b. Legends – explain the origin of things

 Why the Pineapple Has Eyes

 The Legend of Maria Makiling

c. Fables – used animal characters and allegory

d. Fantastic stories – deal with underworld characters such as “tiyanak”,“aswang”, “kapre”

and others

4. Epics-These are “narratives of sustained length based on oral tradition revolving around
supernatural events or heroic deeds” (Arsenio Manuel)

Lam-ang (Ilocano) Hinilawod (Panay) Kudaman (Palawan) Darangen (Maranao)


A. Characteristics

1. It has two distinct classifications: religious and secular

2. It introduced Spanish as the medium of communication

B. Literary Forms

1. Religious Literature - Religious lyrics written by ladino poets or those versed in both
Spanish and Tagalog were included in early catechism and were used to teach Filipinos the
Spanish language.

a. Pasyon – long narrative poem about the passion and death of Christ. The most popular
was “Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Cristong Panignoon Natin” by Aguino de Belen

b. Senakulo – dramatization of the pasyon, it shows the passion and death of Christ

2. Secular (non-religious) Literature

a. Awit - colorful tales of chivalry made for singing and chanting

Example: Ibong Adarna

b. Korido – metrical tale written in octosyllabic quatrains

Example: Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar

c. Prose Narratives – written to prescribe proper decorum

i. Dialogo ii.Manual de Urbanidad iii. Ejemplo iv. Tratado

Examples: Modesto de Castro's "Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini na si Urbana at si


Joaquin Tuason's "Ang Bagong Robinson" (The NewRobinson) in 1879


A. Characteristics

1. Planted seeds of nationalism in Filipinos

2. Language shifted from Spanish to Tagalog
3. Addressed the masses instead of the “intelligentsia”

B. Literary Forms

A. Propaganda Literature - Reformatory in objective

a. Political Essays – satires, editorials and news articles were written to attack and expose the
evils of Spanish rule

i. Diariong Tagalog – founded by Marcelo del Pilar

ii. La Solidaridad – whose editor-in-chief is Graciano Lopez-Jaena

b. Political Novels

i. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo – Jose Rizal’s masterpieces that paved the way to
the revolution

B. Revolutionary Literature – more propagandistic than literary as it is moreviolent in nature

and demanded complete independence for the country

a. Political Essays – helped inflame the spirit of revolution

i. Kalayaan – newspaper of the society, edited by Emilio Jacinto

b. Poetry

i. True Decalogue – Apolinario Mabini

ii.Katapusang Hibik ng Pilipinas – Andres Bonifacio

iii.Liwanag at Dilim – Emilio Jacinto


A. Period of Apprenticeship (1910-1930)

1. Filipino Writers imitated English and American models
2. Poems written were amateurish and mushy, which phrasing and diction is awkward
and artificial

a. Short Stories

i. Dead Stars – Paz Marquez Benitez

ii. The Key – Paz Latorena

iii. Footnote to Youth – Jose Garcia Villa

b. Novels

i. Childe of Sorrow – first novel in English, by Zoilo Galang

B. Period of Emergence (1920-1930)

1. Highly influenced by Western literary trends like Romanticism and Realism.

a. Short Stories – most prevalent literary form

i. Jose Garcia Villa – earned the international title “Poet of the Century”


A. War Years (1942-1944)

1. Tagalog poets broke away from the Balagtas tradition and instead wrote in simple
language and free verse

2. Fiction prevailed over poetry

A. 25 Pinakamabuting Maikling Kathang Pilipino (1943) – compilation of the short story by

the military government
i. Suyuan sa Tubigan – Macario Pineda

ii. Lupang Tinubuan – Narciso Reyes

iii. Uhaw ang Tigang na Lupa – Liwayway Arceo

B. Period of Maturity and Originality (1945-1960)

1. Bountiful harvest in poetry, fiction, drama and essay

2. Filipino writers mastered English and familiarized themselves with diverse techniques

3. Literary “giants” appeared

a. Palanca Awards for Literature

i. Jose Garcia Villa
ii. Nick Joaquin
iii. NVM Gonzales
iv. Bienvenido Santos
v. Gregorio Brillantes
vi. Gilda Cordero Fernando
b. National Artist Awards
i. Jose Garcia Villa
ii. Nick Joaquin


A. Characteristics
1. Martial Law repressed and curtailed human rights, including freedom of the press
2. Writers used symbolisms and allegories to drive home their message, at the face of heavy
3. Theatre was used as a vehicle for protest, such as the PETA (Phil. Educational Theatre
Association) and UP Theatre.
4. From the eighties onwards, writers continue to show dynamism and innovation
The Literary Forms in Philippine Literature by: Christine F. Godinez-Ortega

1. Pre-Colonial Times

 bugtong in Tagalog
 tulang pambata (Tagalog)
 Ili-ili (Ilongo)
 harana or serenade (Cebuano)
 ambahan of the Mangyan
 soliranin (Tagalog rowing song)
 mambayu, a Kalinga rice-pounding song
 tagay (Cebuano and Waray)

2. The Spanish Colonial Tradition

 Fernando Bagonbanta's "Salamat nangwalang hanga/gracias de sin sempiternas"
(Unending thanks)
 Gaspar Aquino de Belen's "Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Christong Panginoon natin na
tola" (Holy Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Verse)
 Modesto de Castro's "Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini na si Urbana at si
Feliza"(Correspondence between the Two Maidens Urbana and Feliza)
 Joaquin Tuason's " Ang Bagong Robinson" (The New Robinson)
 Gonzalo de Cordoba (Gonzalo of Cordoba)
 Ibong Adarna (Adarna Bird)

3. The American Colonial Period

 Paz Marquez Benitez's "Dead Stars"
 Dali or pasingaw (sketch)
 Ang Palad ni Pepe by F. P. Boquecos

(The significance of literature to Philippines and the Philippine History)

Studying literature from any country is important because it gives readers inspiration for
better life and also provides historical knowledge to help people understand the world
outside their immediate setting. Philippine literature gives readers knowledge of the
country and its culture and traditions, allowing natives and foreigners the ability to
understand Philippine history. We need to study the Philippine literature because by this,
we can help preserve the literature we have today. This is one of the country’s treasures,
pride and glory. The least we could do is take care of it and be proud of what we have.
(Famous Authors from CALABARZON)

1) Cavite
Efren R. Abueg
 Dilim sa Umaga ("Darkness in the Morning")
 Habagat sa Lupa ("Monsoon on Land")
 Dugo sa Kayumangging Lupa ("Blood on Brown Land")
2) Laguna
Gregorio F. Zaide

 The Pageant of Philippine History.

 Philippine Political and Cultural History

3) Batangas

Bienvenido Lumbera

 Hibik at Himagsik Nina Victoria Laktaw

 Sa Sariling Bayan: Apat na Dulang May Musika
4) Quezon
Orlando Nadres
 Paraisong Parisukat
 Imortal