Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

“The oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table …”

U.S Soldiers and Alcoholic Beverages

John U. Rees

Addendum

1. Alcohol in the Revolutionary Armies


2. 1782: “Productive of very ill consequences.”
3. 1777 to 1782: Sutlers and Liquor
4. 1773-1782: Officers, Alcohol, and Celebrations
5. 1941-1945: Jungle Juice
______________

For decades the military issued liquor as a stimulant for men performing hard labor,
serving in cold or wet weather, or while campaigning. Alcohol was also privately procured,
serving to relieve soldiers’ stress, sometimes to the imbiber’s chagrin.
In 1782 the Comte de Clermont-Crevecoeur observed, "In general the Americans are very
fond of hard liquor. Their grog is always very strong, as is their punch … But they rarely
drink it since the rum or the rye with which they make it is very scarce … it is also made
with brandy, which so many people prefer because it is not so strong." That fondness helped
when recruiting for military service, as evidenced when North Carolina gathered forces to
“March against the Tories” at Moores Creek and other places in 1776. Among the expenses
incurred in readying troops were different amounts for “10 Gallons Rum Expended in giting
Soldiers together” (6 February), “12 Gallons Liquor for Men,” “Liquors given the men
when recruiting,” and “Brandy, Rum, Toddy, Grogg & Cyder expended recruiting 55
soldiers.”1

18th Century American Glassmakers, gin or case bottle,


English or American (University of Toledo)
Liquor also featured in officers’ entertainments, from rustic (July 1779, "We marched to
Shawney flatts (near Wyoming, Pennsylvania), got a little dinner, took a sociable buck
dance ... At 8.P.M. took a bite of beef & bread a drink of grog and retired to rest. Colo.
DeHart, Genl. Hand & myself slept together in the open air, but with a canteen of spirits at
our head."), to the refined (18 June 1778, “whilst the officers of the [Jersey] Brigade &
Gentn. of the Town were feasting on Turtle & Punch &c. &c. … Information was brought
that the Enemy were advancing."), to the ridiculous (2 September 1780, “Cloudy Rany
wether … the oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table … A remarkable site of Black
Birds”). A “remarkable site” indeed.2

Sutler booth with alcohol and produce for sale


(Brandywine battlefield event, September 2017)

Although alcohol was removed from the U.S. Army ration in 1830 it was occasionally
issued in Civil War armies, and soldiers continually sought other sources. Captain Francis
Adams, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, noted his own fondness for drink and a
comrade’s invention. In the village of Upperville, Virginia, 21 June 1863, where “we
made the acquaintance of Col. Taylor of the 1st Penna Cavalry, who accepted our
invitation to supper … [Captain Lemuel] Crocker prepared him a celebrated beverage
which he had discovered and invented shortly after [the battle at] Chancellorsville, which
he named ‘Hooker’s Retreat’ [after Major General Joseph Hooker]. It consisted of
whiskey, water and sugar, liberally coated with nutmeg. Crocker, Thomas and I, on the
marches, always carry these ‘sundries,’ so that in case of separation can still have a
‘Hooker’s Retreat’ at will. This beverage soon became famous in the command, but there
is no one who can give it the exact manipulation that Crocker can. Well, Col. Taylor
declaired it the finest beverage he ever ‘struck’ … it resulted … in Crocker being
constantly engaged in shaking up a ‘Hooker’s Retreat’ for this fiery whiskered Colonel,
who put it away and talked and talked until when he left us, you would have thought he
was a sailor instead of a cavalryman, he pitched and tossed so3

Union soldiers of the 45th Ohio Volunteers Infantry Regiment.

Moving ahead 60 years, while British troops had their rum issue and French rations
included wine, First World War Doughboys had to get theirs on the side. Alan Huber, 138th
Infantry, wrote in September 1918: “Marched to the small town of Corcieux … A French
canteen had some very good champagne and … John Huskey, Tillie Tyra and myself sat
down around the corner of the canteen building and enjoyed some of this said
champagne.” New Yorker Robert Dwight told of being billeted with a French family in “a
small hamlet called Bisseziele … These people made our Christmas as fine as possible us
six living upstairs drinking Cognac and Champagne in the Kitchen while the others had
to put up with Wine and beer …”4
American “Doughboys” in a captured German canteen.

Historian John C. McManus writes that in the Second World War Pacific Theater,
“The most common form of homemade alcohol was referred to as ‘jungle juice.’ …
Charlie Burchett, a nondrinker … had many opportunities to observe his fellow marines
make jungle juice. ‘They would steal a gallon can of fruit cocktail. They’d put coconut
juice and raisins and potato peels and set that stuff out somewhere and it’d ferment in a
week or so.’ [Another soldier] Robert Jackson [related] … ‘It was great with canned
grapefruit juice but we had to ration it because 95 percent alcohol can be deadly. It was a
stupendous reviver after small patrol actions …’”5
Drinking was not universal. Marine Eugene Sledge told of the 1945 Okinawa invasion,
"We each had been issued a small bottle containing a few ounces of brandy to ward off the
chill of D day night. Knowing my limited taste, appreciation, and capacity for booze, my
buddies began trying to talk me out of my brandy ration ... I was cold after sundown, and
thought the brandy might warm me up a bit. I tried a sip, concluding immediately that
Indians must have had brandy in mind when they supposedly spoke of 'firewater.' I traded
my brandy for a can of peaches, then broke out my wool-lined field jacket and put it on. It
felt good."6
An interesting, though regrettably undocumented, account of spirituous liquors and the
U.S. military can be found in N.E. Beveridge’s (historian Harold L. Peterson’s nom de
plume), Cups of Valor (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968). This work discusses
200 years of soldiers and drink, in a manner both informative and entertaining. Included
are a number of humorous drawings and recipes for such military mixes as “Army and
Navy Punch,” “General Harrison’s Eggnog,” “Guam Punch a’ la Bigfoot Brown,” and
“Gin Horror.”

Prosit!
_______________________

Addendum

Alcohol in the Revolutionary Armies


Excerpted from:
"Drew 2 pound of Shugar and 1 pound of Coffee ..."
Extraordinary Foodstuffs Issued the Troops
Food History News, vol. VIII, no. 1 (Summer 1996), 2-3.

Alcohol: Spirits or alcohol, though missing from the original ration list (and playing no part
in cooking) was quite important to the soldiers. Among various spirits added to the ration
during the war, or available from sutlers, were whiskey, peach brandy, apple brandy, and
"West India Spirits" or rum. Although we now know that alcohol is a depressant, during the
Revolution, both officers and common soldiers considered it a moderately useful stimulant.
By the time of the American Civil War (1861-1865) alcohol had been supplanted by coffee,
which Northern soldiers drank in huge quantities, and soldiers from the south sorely missed
and constantly sought.1
While the British army ordered that "two Gils of Rum [are] to be delivered for each Mans
Canteen which must be filled with Water", American soldiers drank it neat, at least early in
the war and periodically afterwards. Writing of the Battle of Harlem Heights in September
1776 a British officer noted that "every one of the Enemy's killed and wounded stunk
infamously of Rum, their canteens still contained the remains of sheer Spirits / even their
Officers were in his manner urged on ..."2 (Gill is pronounced "jill" and contains four fluid
ounces, equivalent to one-half cup, or one quarter of a pint.)
In the Continental Army alcohol was given men on guard duty, to those performing
difficult service, or as a reward. One example is the half pint of rum per day offered on 19
July 1776 to men who could lay turf speedily on the new earthworks in and around New
York City. One series of orders to Pennsylvania troops in 1779 reflects the army's desire to
control the amount of liquor soldiers drank and the conditions under which hard drink was
issued: 5 July 1779, "The Commissary will Issue one Gill of Rum for each man this
afternoon as it will tend Grately to The Good of the men's Health. That it should Be mixed
with water this warm season, officers Commanding Companys are Injoined to see it done.
The Practice of the men swoping their Rum to their Brother Soldiers, or Messmates who are
on Guard or other Duty, Must, in futor, Be Totally abolished." On 1 August 1779, "The
Quarter Master Genl will Give the Necessary fatague Rum at the Rate of a Gill Pr. Day Pr.
man, to be Constantly Issued to the Different Partys on Fatague [i.e., labor detail] ..." And
on 22 August 1779, "For this Day, and During the Present spell of wet wether, the whole
army is to be supplied with full Rations of Rum."3
Although not necessarily issued on a daily basis, the soldiers valued alcohol highly and
missed it when unavailable. In 1782 Washington noted: "The Contractors seem long since to
have dropt the Idea of issuing Rum or any kind of Spirit ... The Army are now going upon a
very heavy fatigue; that of cutting six thousand Cords of Wood for the Winters firing of
West point. The soldiers already complain of the stoppage of their Rum when only upon
common duties. With how much more reason will they do it, when it will become really
essential to carry them thro the hard service upon which they will be put."4
1. Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Journals of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. VIII, 1777
(Washington, D.C., 1907), p. 290. Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union
(Baton Rouge, La., 1988), pp. 240-242. Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the
Confederacy (Baton Rouge, La., 1988), pp. 102-103.
2. Journal of Ensign Thomas Glyn, British officer, Collections of the Princeton University Library, p. 9. Loftus
Cliffe to Bat, 21 September 1776, Letters of Loftus Cliffe, British officer, 46th Regiment, Collections of the
William C. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
3. Herbert T. Wade and Robert A. Lively, "this glorious cause ...": The Adventures of Two Company Officers in
Washington's Army (Princeton, N.J., 1958), p. 72. The Orderly Book of the First Pennsylvania Regiment. Col.
James Chambers. May 23, 1779 - August 25, 1779, John B. Linn and William H. Egle, eds., Pennsylvania
Archives, 2nd series, XI (Harrisburg, Pa., 1880), pp. 464, 482, 499.
4. Washington to the Superintendant of Finance, 4 September 1782, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of
George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 25 (Washington, DC, 1938), pp.
123-124.
___________

1782: “Productive of very ill consequences.”

General orders, Washington’s army, 16 May 1782, "The General is extremely concerned to
learn that an Article so salutary as that of distilled Liquors was expected to be when properly
used, and which was designed for the comfort and refreshment of the troops has been in
many instances productive of very ill consequences. He calls the attention of officers of
every grade to remedy these abuses and to watch over the health of their men, for which
purpose he suggests the expedient of keeping liquor Rolls in every Corps, from which the
Name of every soldier shall be struck off who addicts himself to drunkeness or injures his
Constitution by intemperance; such soldiers as are Struck off are are not to draw liquor on
any occasion, but are to receive other articles in lieu thereof. ... The vile practice of
swallowing the whole ration of liquor at a single draught is also to be prevented by causing
the Serjeants to see it duly distributed daily and mixed with Water at stated times; in which
case instead of being pernicious it will become very refreshing and salutary. An object so
essential to the health of the Men ought not only to be super-intended by the Officer of
Police, as it is worthy to attract the attention of every Officer who is anxious for the
reputation of the Corps to which he belongs, the welfare of individuals and the good of the
service. ... Major General Heath will be pleased to settle with the ... Commanding Officers
of Brigades the quantity of liquor proper to be drawn in kind by the troops, after which he is
authorized to commute by agreement with the Contractors the rations of Whiskey or such
proportions of them as may be Judged Necessary, for Vigitables or other articles ..."
General orders, 16 May 1782, Fitzpatrick, WGW, vol. 24 (1938), pp. 260-261.
___________

1777 to 1782: Sutlers and Liquor

Washington's Army "Head Quarters, Middle-Brook, June 1, 1777 ... The Provost Marshall
to patrole the camp, and its environs frequently - to take up all who cannot give a good
account of themselves, and all disorderly persons - He is to see that the Suttlers do not deal
out liquors &c at an untimely hour, but conform to such rules as have been, or may be
formed, relating to them." (General orders, 1 June 1777, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The
Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 8
(Washington, DC, 1933), pp. 155-156.)

Thomas Wharton to Henry Laurens, 3 November 1777, "... there is too much reason to fear
that the attention of the officers hath not prevented the soldiers from selling their cloathing,
perhaps for the purpose of purchasing whiskey, which at the enormous price it is now sold
by the sutlers at camp, is alone sufficient in a few weeks to strip a soldier to the skin." (The
Papers of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, National Archives Microfilm Publications
M247, (Washington, DC, 1958), reel 83, p. 429.)

"Head Quarters Whitemarsh November 24th. 1777. ... Information Having been given that
Divers[e] of the Late Sutlers and some of the Inhabitants have opened Tiplinghouses within
and adjacent to the Encampment of the army, by which the Design of Banishing the Sutlers
from the army is in a Great Measure frustrated the deputy Quartermaster Genl. is Required
forthwith to make Diligent Enquiry and Examination for Discovering such Houses and
supressing them and to assure all who are Driving this Pernissous trade that if Continued
any Longer their Liquors Shall be siezd. and they expelld from the Neighbourhood of the
Army on Pain of the Severest Punishment if they Return." ("'A Whitemarsh Orderly Book,'
1777," Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography, vol. 45, no. 3 (1921), pp. 211-212.)

Brigade Orders, 1st Pennsylvania Brigade, 10 March 1779. "The Sutler of the first P.B. is
ordered imediately to depart from Camp, & all other persons selling Liquors is immediately
to quit selling Liquors." (Orderly Book of the Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, 2 February
1779 to 15 1779, John B. Linn and William H. Egle, eds., Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd
series, vol. XI (Harrisburg, Pa., 1880), p. 414.)

1782

"To whom it may concern


Camp at Verplanks point Septr 8th 1782
Mr. Joel Abbot being duly recommended, is hereby licensed as a sutler with the main army; he
conforming to the regulations which shall be made for their government.
Timothy Pickering QMG"

(Timothy Pickering, "To whom it may concern," 8 September 1782, Numbered Record Books
Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement of Accounts, and Supplies in the
War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records, Record Group 93, National Archives
Microfilm Publication M853, vol. 84, reel 27, p. 96.)

"Regulations for the Government of Sutlers


1st All the liquors and provisions which a sutler shall expose
to Sale shall be of good & wholesome quality & for this
reason subjected to the Inspection of the quarter master
general, or such officer as he shall appoint for the
purpose.

2d The prices of the articles shall be reasonable, and to


prevent imposition, a list of the prices shall be posted up
at his quarters.

3d For Liquors or other articles sold to non commissioned


officers & soldiers, artificers and waggoners, nothing shall
be taken in payment but money.

4. No soldier or others described in the 3d Article are to be


suffered to remain Tipling about a sutler's quarters.

5th. At the beating of the tattoo, each sutler is to shut up his


stores, and sell nothing more until after Reveillee the next
morning.

6. Each sutler is without delay to report to the quarter master


general the place where he fixes his quarters.

7. These regulations are to be posted up by each sutler in a


conspicuous place at his quarters

Camp Sept 8. 1782 Tim. Pickering


QMG

(Timothy Pickering, "Regulations for the Government of Sutlers," 8 September 1782,


National Archives, Numbered Record Books, vol. 84, reel 27, pp. 96-97.)

p. 68. Gates (NYHS) m.r. 13. "On December 17 [1782], a sutler named Lusk petitioned
General [Horatio] Gates to build a hut near the New Jersey Brigade from which he would
sell 'Butter, Cheese and good Liquors ... [also] a large Quantity of Vegetables...'"
Janet Dempsey, Washington's Last Cantonment (Monroe, N.Y., 1990)
___________

1773-1782: Officers, Alcohol, and Celebrations

Liquor featured heavily in officers’ lives, as Lt. Samuel Shute noted in July 1779, "We
marched to Shawney flatts (near Wyoming, Pennsylvania), got a little dinner, took a
sociable buck dance ... At 8.P.M. took a bite of beef & bread a drink of grog and retired to
rest. Colo. DeHart, Genl. Hand & myself slept together in the open air, but with a canteen of
spirits at our head." Toasts, usually thirteen in number, were common at more formal
entertainments. On September 25th 1779, to commemorate “Spain Declaring war against
Great Britain and … the late generous Resolution of Congress of raising the Subsistence of
Officers & soldiers of the Army," Maj. Gen. John Sullivan “ordered a Feu De Joy to be fired
by the army this afternoon at 5 oClock and likewise ordered to be delivered to the officers of
each Brigade one of the best oxen there was & 5 Gallons of Spirits …”26 Following the
salute,
the officers of each Brigade assembled and Supped together (excepting Gen. Poors) on their
ox and five gallons of spirits and spent the evening very agreeable. The officers of our
brigade assembled at a large bower made for that purpose Iluminated with 13 pine [k]not
fires round and each officer atended with his bread knife and plate and set on the ground
Genl. Hand at the head & Col. Proctor at the foot as his officers suped with us in this manner
we suped very hearty and then went to drinking our spirits, and the following toasts were
given by Genl. Hand [beginning with] - The 13 Sisters and their sponsors ... [and ending
with the sentiment] May the Enemies of America be Metamorphised in Pack horses and sent
on a Western Expedition - afterwards there was two or three Indian Dances led down by
Genl. Hand and performed by the rest midling well then each officer returned to their Qrs.
...1

There were the usual consequences, as Pennsylvania Lt. Erkuries Beatty attested the day
after, “Sunday 26th. Did not feel very well this morning after my frolick … was ordered on
detachment but it rained a little which prevented our going.”2

1. Journals of Lt. Erkuries Beatty, 4th Pennsylvania Regt., 25 September 1779, Journals of the Military
Expedition of Major General John Sullivan, 34. The full series of toasts was thus:
“… the following toasts were given by Genl. Hand [beginning with] - The 13 Sisters and their sponsors – the
honorable the American Congress – Genl. Washington & the American Army – The comander in chief of the
Western expedition – The Allies of America & the United House of Bourbon – The memory of Lt. Boyd and
the Brave soldiers under his command who was unhumanly massacred on the 13th Instant – May the American
Congress and the Legislatives of America be endowed with wisdom and be as firm as the Pillars of time – May
the Citizens & soldiers of America be Unanimous in support of American Liberty – May Discord & Fraud be
banished from the shores of America – May the Kingdom of Ireland merit a Stripe on our Standard – An
honorable peace or persistant war to the Enemies of America - May the Enemies of America be Metamorphised
in Pack horses and sent on a Western Expedition …”
2. Ibid.

Alcoholic Ephemera:
British Forces. (Courtesy of Jay Callaham) Alcohol carried by British Lt. Frederick
Mackenzie, 23rd Regiment Welsh Fusiliers, for himself and four other officers and their
families on their voyage to North America in 1773:

12 Gallons of Rum 4:4:0


12 of Brandy 3:9:0
20 Dozen of Bottled Porter 7:4:6
9 Doz of Port Wine @ 17/6
4 " of Mountain
2 " of Lisbon
2 Gallons of Shrub (all of the above @ 17/6)

"All the liquors were drank; (I believe I did not drink 6 bottles of Port the whole time)."

They departed from England in mid-April, 1773 and arrived June 10 in New York. On
arrival Mackenzie discovered that,
"Rum is so cheap (the New England rum being only 1s/9d a Gallon) that at present we find the utmost
difficulty in keeping them (the men) from drinking to excess; which I fear will be fatal to many of them; for
the spirit is very bad. The best Jamaica Rum is sold for 3/6 a Gallon; and french brandy for 5s/6d ---- The
price of Wines I don't know; But at the Tavern we paid 2s/11d a bottle for Madeira and 3s/6d for Claret.
Hardly any Port to be met with ---- I buy 16 Gallons of very good small beer for 2s/11d & Spruce beer,
which I am determined to drink, and like, for ½ a bottle. --- Porter is 7d a bottle."
Frederick Mackenzie, A British Fusilier in Revolutionary Boston, Allen French, ed.
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1926)

American Officers and Alcohol (Miscellaneous).


Sutlers and Liquor at the Valley Forge Camp, 1778:
Head Quarters, V. Forge, Thursday, April 16, 1778.
Parole Friburgh. Countersigns Fitzwilliam, Fitzgerald.
The Commander in Chief directs that only one Sutler be allowed to each Brigade, who shall have one
Sutling Booth within the limits of the Brigade (and shall sell liquor at no other) where he shall sell his
liquor at the following prices to the officers and men of the Brigade to which he belongs and on no
Pretence to any other under penalty of having his whole stock seized and being rendered incapable of ever
serving as sutler in the Army again. Whiskey, Peach Brandy, Apple-Brandy, Cordials of all kinds and any
other home-made spirits at 15/pr. gallon, pr. quart 4/, pr. pint 2/, pr. half pint 1/3. West-India spirit pr. quart
full proof 15/, a bowl of toddy containing half a pint of spirit 7/6; no persons whatever besides such
licensed sutlers or Commissaries sent by particular States shall sell liquors of any kind in Camp or within
seven miles of Camp under penalty of having their whole stock seized without payment for the use of the
Army, except that the Quarter Master General is authorized to allow one or more houses of Entertainment
to accommodate Travelers and Strangers who must necessarily be in the Vicinity of the Camp. The persons
receiving their license for that purpose, giving sufficient security not to vend their liquors to any person
belonging to the Army. The Brigadiers and Officers commanding Brigades are to report to the Adjutant
General the names of the sutlers of their respective Brigades and when any change happens they are to
report it accordingly.
General orders, 16 April 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 11 (1934),
264-265.

General Washington thanks Robert Morris for a shipment of wine:


Morris-Town, February 4, 1780.
Dear Sir: I have received, and I thank you, for your favor of the 1st. Instr. Almost at the same instant of
its arrival a letter from Messrs. Hewes Smith and Allan was put into my hands giving an acct. of the safe
arrival of the Wine [originating in Teneriffe] (mentioned by you) at Edenton; and of their having confided
it to the care of Mr. Turnbull (at his own earnest request) to be conveyed to me.
Should it arrive in good order I shall be able to give my friends a glass of such as I cd. wish and if you
will do me the favor to partake of it at Morris town, I shall be happy. It is upon these occasions only I wish
for, and feel the want of it; having, so far as my own gratifications are interested, resolved to be equally
contented with grog should it even be made of N. E. Rum, and drank out of a wooden Bowl, as the case has
been.
Mrs. Washington very cordially joins me in a testification of gratitude for the kind assurances given by
Mrs. Morris and yourself of making Philadelphia agreeable to us, if we should incline to visit it in the
course of this long and severe winter. If other matters were in as favourable a train for relaxation of this
kind as my own inclination, I should need no importunity; but public duty, and Social enjoyments, are so
much at varience that I have little expectation of endulging in the latter while I am under ties of the former.
Perhaps when the one ceases, 1 may be incapable of the other.
My respectful complimts., in which Mrs. Washington joins, is offered to your Lady and with sincere
esteem etc.
Washington to Robert Morris, 4 February 1780, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George
Washington, vol. 18 (1937), 486-487.
Maj. Joseph Bloomfield, 3rd New Jersey Regiment, describes a celebration cut short by a
British advance:
[18 June 1778] whilst the officers of the [Jersey] Brigade & Gentn. of the Town were feasting on Turtle &
Punch &c. &c. … Information was brought that the Enemy were advancing.
Mark E. Lender and James Kirby Martin, eds., Citizen Soldier; The Revolutionary Journal
of Joseph Bloomfield (Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1982), 135.

Lieutenant Samuel Shute, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 23 July 1779, Sullivan's Campaign,
"We marched to Shawney flatts (near Wyoming, Pennsylvania), got a little dinner, took a sociable buck dance,
then proceeded to the falls ... At 8.P.M. took a bite of beef & bread a drink of grog and retired to rest. Colo.
DeHart, Genl. Hand & myself slept together in the open air, but with a canteen of spirits at our head."
Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779
(Glendale, N.Y., 1970), 268-269.

Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar dines at a private home:


“June 22nd [1780] Pleasant Day – March’d at Day break, and halted near Rockaway Bridge – Dind with Mr.
Bernhout, the Bottle briskly circulated.”
"Lieut. Colonel Josiah Harmar's Journal. No: 1. Commencing November 11th: 1778.", 11
November 1778 to 2 September 1780, p. 107, Josiah Harmar Papers, William C. Clements
Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Massachusetts Private Nahum Parker’s officers’ celebration:
Saterday 2 [September 1780] Cloudy Rany wether / the sargeants Drawd swords / [Luke?] set of[f] for home /
the oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table / an unsutibell Life in deed for poor I for I had Rather be at
Home / No Salt nor Flour / we have orders to be Redy to March to Morough Morning / September storm / A
remarkable site of Black Birds
Nahum Parker pension file ( ), journal for six months service in the 15th Massachusetts
Regiment, July-December 1780, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty - Land - Warrant
Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 1874.

Celebrations and Toasts.


Here is a sampling of toasts given at meals and celebrations:
“3d. [July 1779] – In the afternoon most of the Subalterns met at ye Colo[nel’s]. Marque[e] [tent] to take a
drink. After several toasts had gone round being: Saturday night they agreed to drink [to] Sweethearts & wives
on Honor. The following Ladies were toasted
Miss H. Burnet by Lieu Jno. Peck
“ S. Burnet by Lt. Danl Lane
“ Abby Wheeler by Mr. Wm Shute
“ Minney Baldwin by Lt. Osman
“ P. Weaver by Lt. Weyman
“ Phebe Atwood by Lt. S. Shute
“ N. Shreeve by Lt. Shreve
“ P. Johnson by Lt. Appleton
“ N. McWhorter by Dr. M. Elmer
Mrs. Jelph by Dr. E. Elmer
“ Foster by Lt. Halsey”
“17th. [July 1779] – Dined with Genl. Sullivan, a very considerable number of Gen[tleme]n. were present & we
were entertained with a great plenty of good punch.”
Journal of Dr. Ebenezer Elmer, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 29 June 1779, Journals of the
Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in
1779 (Glendale, N.Y., 1970), 82, 83.
[5 July 1779] This day General Poor makes an elegant entertainment for all the officers of his brigade, with a
number of gentlemen from other brigades, and from the town. Gen. Hand and his retinue were present. The
dining room was a large booth, about eighty feet in length, with a marquee pitched at each end. The day was
spent in mirth and jollity. The company consisted of upwards of one hundred who graced the feast with a
number of good songs. After the dinner the following toasts were drank, to wit:

1st. The United States.


2nd. The Fourth of July, '76: The memorable era of American
Independence.
3rd. The Grand Council of America.
4th. Gen. Washington and the army.
5th. The King and Queen of France.
6th. Genl. Sullivan and the Western Expedition.
7th. May the Counsellors of America be wise, and her Soldiers
invincible.
8th. A successful and decisive campaign.
9th. Civilization, or death to all Savages.
10th. To the immortal memory of those heroes who have fallen
in defence of American Liberty.
11th. May the husbandman's cottage be blessed with peace,
and his fields with plenty.
12th. Vigor and Virtue to the sons and daughters of America.
13th. May the new world be the last asylum of freedom and
the arts.

Journals of Lt. Erkuries Beatty, 4th Pennsylvania Regt., 25 September 1779, Journals of the
Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan, 34. The full series of toasts was thus:
“… the following toasts were given by Genl. Hand [beginning with] - The 13 Sisters and their sponsors – the
honorable the American Congress – Genl. Washington & the American Army – The comander in chief of the
Western expedition – The Allies of America & the United House of Bourbon – The memory of Lt. Boyd and
the Brave soldiers under his command who was unhumanly massacred on the 13th Instant – May the American
Congress and the Legislatives of America be endowed with wisdom and be as firm as the Pillars of time – May
the Citizens & soldiers of America be Unanimous in support of American Liberty – May Discord & Fraud be
banished from the shores of America – May the Kingdom of Ireland merit a Stripe on our Standard – An
honorable peace or persistant war to the Enemies of America - May the Enemies of America be Metamorphised
in Pack horses and sent on a Western Expedition …”

A year later, in northern New Jersey, a similar affair was described by a surgeon in
Jackson's Additional Regiment:
10th. [July 1780] - The officers of our regiment and those of Colonel Webb's united in providing an
entertainment, and invited a respectable number of gentlemen of our brigade to dine; Dr. West and myself were
appointed caterers and superintendents. We erected a large arbor, with the boughs of trees, under which we
enjoyed an elegant dinner, and spent the afternoon in social glee, with some of the wine which was taken from
the enemy when they retreated from Elizabethtown.
Journal of Captain Daniel Livermore, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment, 5 July 1779, Journals
of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of
Indians in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y., 1970), 182. James Thacher, Military Journal of the
American Revolution (Hartford, Ct. 1862), 204.
While stationed in Philadelphia in May 1782, Lt. Jeremiah Greenman, Rhode Island
Regiment, received a ticket to dine with the “Govener & Counsell of this State." He
"went to the City Tavern where was an Elegant Dinner prepared for all the Officers of the Continental Army
which was in Town ... after Dinner drank the 13 following Tosts (viz) United States, 2 King of France, 3d the
Dauphin, 4th Queen of France & the Royal Family 5th King of Spain, & all Friendly Powers 6th Genl.
Washington & the Army 7th Count Rochambeau & the French Army 8th Genl Green & the Southern Army
9th Count De Grasse & the allied Fleet 10th Perpetual alliance between France & America 11th May the Year
82 be annimated with the zeal of 76. & obtain the Successes of 81, 12th Dependence to all wether Princss or
Private Men who wish the Dependency of America 13th A peace astablished our Independency, Liberty,
Safety Honour or no Peace ..."
Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American
Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb:
Northern Illinois University Press., 1978), 249.
___________

1941-1945: Jungle Juice

Harold Schultz thought this might stir a memory:


JUNGLE JUICE
If ever you see a joker
With his eyesballs starin' wild,
An's he's foaming' and a'droolin,
By cripes you'd better hide
Don't try to stop and help him,
For it isn't any use,
The flamin' coot willl shoot him,
'Cos he's full of Jungle Juice.
If he's a'swearin' and a'cursin'
And a'moanin' fit to die,
Don't offer him an Aspro,
Quickly hurry by.
He'll cut his throat 'ere morning,
Or be as sick as blazed,
Thru swilling potent Jungle Juice,
Just see the hell it raises.
I've seen 'em fight like tigers,
I've heard 'em cry like babies,
Takes six M.P.'s to hold 'em--
It's a sight far worse than rabies.
You're got to knock 'em rotten
To stop their wild abuse--
Just belt 'em with a rifle
When they're on the Jungle Juice.
It turns weak men to Samsons,
Do feats of wond'rous daring;
They strip off service clothing,
Their manly torso baring.
It makes a strong man fearful,
And a playboy a recluse,
I'd rather take on metho.
Than that flamin' Jungle Juice.

A note to the uninitiated--Jungle Juice is made by sundry bright lads on the Island as a
means of obtaining filthy lucre. It is consumed by other lads (not so bright) who pay as
much as #10 (pounds) for a bottle of this deadly potion. It is made by tossing any dried
fruit available, along with anything else that will ferment, into a tin of water, and bottling
the resulting brew after a few days have elapsed. It is a slow and painful death.
(From "Memories of Moresby")
54TH Troop Carrier Wing
NEWSLETTER
May, 1998

http://www.gregssandbox.com/54th/newsletter/may98.htm
______________________________

Endnotes

1. Journal of Jean-Francois-Louis, Comte de Clermont-Crevecoeur (sublieutenant,


Soissonnais Regiment), Howard C. Rice and Anne S.K. Brown, eds. and trans., The
American Campaigns of Rochambeau's Army 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, vol. I (Princeton,
N.J. and Providence, R.I., 1972), 75. North Carolina Revolutionary Army Accounts,
Secretary of State, Treasurer’s & Comptroller’s Papers, Journal “A” (Public Accounts)
1775-1776, Weynette Parks Haun, ed., 1989 (self-published, copy in North Carolina State
Archives, Raleigh), 25, 77, 136.
2. Journal of Lieutenant Samuel Shute, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 23 July 1779, Journals of
the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians
in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y., 1970), p. 268-269. Major Joseph Bloomfield, 3rd New Jersey
Regiment, Mark E. Lender and James Kirby Martin, eds., Citizen Soldier; The
Revolutionary Journal of Joseph Bloomfield (Newark, N.J., 1982), 135. Journal of Nahum
Parker for six months service, 15th Massachusetts Regiment, July-December 1780,
Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National
Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 1874.
3. J. Gregory Acken, Inside the Army of the Potomac: The Civil War Experience of
Captain Francis Adams Donaldson (Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1998), 286-287.
4. 2 September 1918 entry, Allen C. Huber, diary, Co. K, 138th Infantry, 35th Division
(transcribed by Robert Huskey), World Wide Web:
www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/missourians/john-huskey.htm
Robert L. Dwight, diary (pages 31-33), 148th Infantry, 37th Division (transcribed by
William McPherson), World Wide Web:
http://home.stny.rr.com/wmcpherson/rldwight.html
5. John C. McManus, The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World
War II (Novato, Ca.: Presidio Press, 1998), 97.
6. Eugene B. Sledge, With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa (New York and Oxford,
1981), 191.