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2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems

Android Controlled Lawn Mower Using Bluetooth and WIFI Connection

Noli Mark A. Paala Nikko Marc M. Garcia

John Paul College,Philippines John Paul College,Philippines
e-mail: e-mail:

Rojimar A. Supetran Ma. Erica Lyn B. Fontamillas

John Paul College,Philippines John Paul College,Philippines
e-mail: e-mail:

Abstract— This study was designed to clean the school field in (2014) [1] was considered in controlling the electric motors
an easier, faster, safer and more cost-effective way. The device of the project. The project used Arduino Uno microcontroller,
has the following hardware such as Arduino Uno electric motors, batteries, driver motor, WIFI module and
microcontroller, HC-05 Bluetooth module, WIFI module, two Bluetooth module.
12 volt wiper motors as wheels, 24 volt E- Bike blade motor, The project has three categories namely electrical,
motor driver, two caster wheels, switch and two 12 volt 7 software and mechanical. Electrical sections contain
Ampere rechargeable lead acid battery that are connected in electrical components, batteries and motor. The two 12-volt
series. The device can be used using Android phone with 7 Ampere batteries are connected in series circuit. It results
installed ENIRO App. The ENIRO App was constructed using
to 24volts 7 Ampere to supply the motor in grass cutter. The
MIT App Inventor. In controlling the lawn mower, Bluetooth
and WIFI connection can be used. The maximum distance of
two wiper motor or wheels are directly connected to the 12
Bluetooth is up to 58 meters or 190 feet. The maximum volts battery. The driver motor controls the speed and
distance of WIFI connection is up to 152 meters or 500 feet. In direction of the lawn mower. The software sections deals
continuous usage of the device up to two hours, the area of with development of the Android Application for wireless
mowed grass is 30 meters by 20 meters. The project passed the transmission and building program for the Arduino Uno
project evaluation and determined the quality of the project. It microcontroller. They used MIT App Inventory for
was evaluated by 20 evaluators using the criteria: functionality, developing an application to control the lawn mower. The
reliability, usability, efficiency, portability and maintainability. project can be controlled by using Bluetooth and WIFI
Keywords- Arduino, Android, WIFI, Lawn mower connection. Arduino IDE is used to upload the code to the
Arduino Uno microcontroller. Mechanical section deals with
constructing the case and installing the wheels, blade and
I. INTRODUCTION caster wheels of the lawn mower. The blade is responsible
In present, the school John Paul College is still using for mowing the weeds. Blades are dangerous to people
manual grass cutter. They notice the hardship of the utilities especially those people who always used this kind of tool. In
as they use the tool for maintaining the cleanliness of the terms of danger, the researchers provide housing that safely
school. They are working for a long time under the heat of covers all the moving lawn mower parts especially the speed
the sun. The researchers conducted an interview regarding cutting blades and somewhere allow for the discharge of
the maintenance operation in our school. According to them, grass clippings. The wheels are specifically designed to roll
it took two days to finish cleaning our school field; they also the lawn mower over the grass easily. The tires cut may
spent ten liters of gasoline for the whole school field. In appear even on flat areas in the field, but could cut too low
addition with that, one liter of gasoline can clean eight by on a turn, especially on a slight bump in the field. The caster
four meters of the field. They told us that they are doing this wheel is typically mounted to a large object that enables
twice a month during rainy season and once a month during relatively easy rolling movement of the lawn mower.
summer. The researchers also asked them about the problems
encountered when using manual grass cutter. So, they learn II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
that the sparkplug and nylon are the problems with manual The software used were the following: Arduino
grass cutter. Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Google Sketch
After knowing the problem, the researchers came up with Up and MIT App Inventor. Arduino IDE was used to
a project named, “Android Controlled Lawn Mower Using program the hardware. Google Sketch Up is a software used
Bluetooth and WIFI Connection”. This project is most to design the physical or perspective view of the project.
beneficial to the utilities because it will help them to lessen MIT App Inventor used to create an Android App. Hardware
their time in mowing the school field and to make it easier, used were the following: Arduino Uno microcontroller, two
faster and safe cost effective way. The study of Wasif, M. pieces 12 volt 7 Ampere lead acid battery connected in series,

978-1-7281-1322-7/19/$31.00 ©2019 IEEE 702

two caster wheels, two pieces 8 inches diameter wheels, one Driver is attached between the two batteries The researchers
motor driver with maximum input voltage 35 volts and put it in the back of the lawn mower because it is a simple
maximum output current 15 Ampere, HC-05 Bluetooth way when we connect the wirings of the motor to the motor
Module, WIFI module, two pieces 12 volt wiper motor for driver and also to minimize the use of wires.
wheels, 24 volt E-Bike motor for blade, steel plate for the The design of this project is based on the design that the
casing of the lawn mower and blade were used and researchers saw in common electronic lawn mowers as
implemented as shown in Figure 1. Arduino Uno shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4. The design was revised
microcontroller is a programmable chip that controls the from the study of Polytechnic, L. S. (2014) [4]. Also the
hardware. The two 12 volt battery with 7 Ampere connected researchers decided to choose this design casing because all
to series have 24 volts in total. It supplied the blade motor. perceptive and main materials of the lawn mower are
HC- 05 Bluetooth module was used to connect the Android covered such as: the motors, motor driver, batteries,
phone to the Arduino Uno. It has unique Bluetooth address WIFI/Bluetooth Module, Arduino and Blades. The circuit
that was paired to Android phone in order to operate the diagram was shown in Figure 3.
ENIRO app. The name ENIRO was derived from the names After the installation of all hardware, the following tests
of the author. The application was protected by a password. below were done:
It has two options in using either Bluetooth or WIFI
connection. In WIFI connection, the SSID name and IP A. Bluetooth Test
address should be determined for connecting to the lawn The researchers test the maximum range of Bluetooth
mower. It was not necessary to spend internet load to connection as shown in Table 1. By using measuring
connect the device because without internet load it can be instrument, the researchers marked the ground up to 200 feet.
operated by using the SSID name and IP address The study of T. Salonidis et al [5] was considered in testing
programmed in the Arduino IDE. This process of WIFI the Bluetooth. The ENIRO was placed at the starting mark
connection in Arduino was observed in the study of Ramlee and the researchers controlled the project every 10 feet. If the
et. al. (2017) [2] and Elshafee, A., & Hamed, K. A. (2012) ENIRO responded to the command from Android phone, the
[3]. The methods applied in the study were project planning, researchers will add 10 feet away again. If the project and the
project design, project construction and prototyping and ENIRO App are disconnected, the project will not respond. It
project testing and evaluation. Project planning covers the means that it reaches the maximum range of Bluetooth
interview to the utility personnel of the school and surveying Connection.
the area of school field. School field was 140 meters long
B. Battery and Motor Test
and 50 meters wide. In project design, Google Sketch Up
software was used to design the perspective view of the The researchers test the power supply of the project as
project. The design was very important to choose the shown in Table 3 and Table 4 by using two 12 volt lead acid
materials to be used. In project construction, the circuit rechargeable batteries that are connected in series. The
diagram was applied, casing was made and materials were motors on wheels are also tested. Before testing, the battery
installed in the casing. In this stage also, prototyping was should be fully charged. The ENIRO will be used
considered. The Bluetooth Module of ENIRO is attached at continuously for one hour. After one hour, the capacity or
the top of the lawn mower to easily modify or to know if is voltage reduction of the battery was tested using the multi-
functioning. If the android phone is detached/disconnected to tester. If ENIRO malfunctions, it means that it reaches the
the lawn mower the researchers easily observe when critical level of the battery or the battery is already low. The
Bluetooth is blinking or working. researchers will test again the charge of battery to determine
the critical level of it.
The researchers will test first the voltage of the battery
before charging it. After one hour, the battery will be tested
again and will record the voltage increased every one hour
until it become fully charge.In motor rotation test, the
researchers used the ENIRO App by pressing the directions
Forward, Reverse, Left, Right and Stop button, the motors
are synchronize and accurately rotate depends upon the
pressed button.

Figure 1. Block Diagram.

The WIFI Module is to be found also at the top of the

lawn mower jointly with Bluetooth Module and the Arduino
Uno Microcontroller. Like the reason of the Bluetooth
Module the researchers put it at the top of the ENIRO to easy
distinguish the connection of the WIFI Module.The Motor Figure 2. Design of the Project

C. WIFI Module Distance Test X’= weighted mean and verbal description
The researchers test the maximum range of WIFI
connection as shown in Table 2. By using measuring
instrument, the researchers marked the ground up to 500ft.
The ENIRO was placed at the starting mark and the
researchers controlled the project every 20 feet. If the
ENIRO responded to the command from Android phone, the
researchers added again at 20 feet. If the project and the
ENIRO App are disconnected, the project will not respond.
The procedures in testing were derived from the study of
Elshafee, A., & Hamed, K. A. (2012) [4]. It means that it
reaches the maximum range of WIFI Connection.
The project evaluation was conducted using the Likert’s
Scale. There are 20 evaluators- five janitors, five teachers,
five students and five Admin employees of the school. Using
the criteria namely: Functionality, Reliability, Usability,
Efficiency, Portability and Maintainability, the evaluators
evaluated the project as shown in Table 5.

Figure 5. Process Flow Chart

Figure 3. Circuit Diagram

Figure 6. ENIRO App Interface

Figure 4. Hardware Installation
The following tables show the test results.

The description of each criterion is composed of 5 Highly TABLE I. BLUETOOTH DISTANCE TEST RESULT
Acceptable, 4-Moderately Acceptable, 3-Acceptable, 2- Attempts Distance Remarks
Slightly Acceptable and 1-Not Acceptable. The formula used
in the project evaluation was 1 Functional
(1) X’ = ∑fx/N
where N = total numbers of evaluators 2 Functional
∑fx= sum of product of evaluators (f) and 20m/64ft
nominal scale (x) 3 Functional

4 Functional
Attempts Procedures Remarks
5 Functional
1.Plug the battery to the main source.
40m/128ft 2.Measure the voltage of the battery. 5V
6 Functional
3.After 1hour of charging.
50m/140ft 1.Plug the battery to the main source.
7 Functional 2
2.Measure the voltage of the battery. 15V
58m/190ft 3.After 3hours of charging.
8 Functional 1.Plug the battery to the main source.
2.Measure the voltage of the battery. 20V
3.After 5hours of charging.
TABLE II. WIFI DISTANCE TEST RESULT 1.Plug the battery to the main source.
4 Full Charged
2.Measure the voltage of the battery.
Attempts Distance Remarks (24V)
3.After 6hours of charging.
1 Functional
3 Functional
4 Functional
5 Functional
6 Functional
7 Functional
8 Functional
9 Functional
10 Not
11 Not
Based on the results, the Bluetooth connection or
TABLE III. DISCHARGING BATTERY TEST RESULT detection range was up to 58m/190ft as shown in Table 1.
Charge While the WIFI connection or detection range was up to
Attempts Procedures Area Remarks 160m/512ft as shown in Table 2. The project can mow the
Battery field with 30 meters long and 20 meters wide in two hours as
1.Turn on the shown in Table 3. After three hours of continuous using, the
device. battery was discharged. The total school field size was 140
20V Functional
2.Measure the
voltage of the
30x10 meters long and 50 meters wide. The 5 volt battery was
battery. charged and became full within 6 hours of charging as
3.After 1hour shown in Table 4.As shown in Figure 5, the user can select
of using. either Bluetooth or WIFI in controlling the project. The
1.Turn on the controls in Bluetooth and WIFI are attach in the ENIRO App
10V Functional (Figure. 6). In project evaluation, the users perceived that the
2.Measure the
voltage of the
30x20 project was functional, reliable, usable, efficient, portable
2 and maintainable as evidenced by the overall mean 4.26
3.After 2hours described as Moderately Acceptable.
of using.
1.Turn on the
5V Based on the summary of findings and objectives of the
2.Measure the
30X20 Functional project, following conclusions were drawn:1) The project
voltage of the
battery. provides an electric lawn mower that can remove the weeds
3.After 3hours on the school ground in an easier, faster, safer and more cost-
of using.
effective way compared to manual grass cutter.2) The project
minimizes the difficulty and exposure to the sun of school
utility/janitor in mowing the grass through the use of

Android phone.3) The project maintains the cleanliness of The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of
the school field and give a suitable field to be walked in by M. Mapalad, K.J. Cuya, S.M. Dino Lainez and Dr. M.
students and teachers. Cantos for the technical support, financial support for this
work and providing all the facilities to finish this project.
The developers highly recommend the following for REFERENCES
further enhancement and better performance of the project: [1] Wasif, M. (2014). Mower Robot Controller, (September 2011).
Make sure every component is compatible to use and the
motors, wheels, caster wheels and batteries can easily lift the [2] Ramlee, R. A., Othman, M. A., Leoung, M. H., Ismail, M. M., &
Mohsin, M. (2017). International Journal of Advance Engineering
lawn mower and move it in any direction. The suggestion is and Research Android based Home Automation System via Wi-Fi,
to add power source to avoid power fluctuate to the project 674–676.
so that it freely moves according to its functions. The users [3] Elshafee, A., & Hamed, K. A. (2012). Design and Implementation of
must know how to operate ENIRO: Android Application. a WiFi Based Home Automation System, 6(8), 1074–1080.
The users should undergo training or orientation on how to [4] Polytechnic, L. S. (2014). Design And Development Of A Solar
operate the project.Add solar power to have an alternative Powered Lawn Mower, 5(6), 215–220.
power for the battery. Add Ultrasonic Sensor for detecting an [5] T. Salonidis et al., “Distributed Topology Construction of Bluetooth
obstacle in our field and camera for give a simple way to see Personal Area Networks,” Proc. IEEE Infocom 2001, IEEE
the location of the lawn mower. Attach Xbee module for Communication Society, New York, 2001.
longer distance of wireless control for the Lawn Mower.