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𝟐𝑿 : 2𝑋 is used in functional analysis, Measure Theory etc to denote power set 𝑃(𝑋) of all

subsets of 𝑋.
α-CUT OF A FUZZY SET: An α-cut of a fuzzy set 𝐴 is a crisp set 𝐴, that contains all the
elements in 𝑈 that have membership values in 𝐴 greater than or equal to a, that is,
𝐴𝛼 = {𝒂 ∇ 𝑈; 𝝁𝑨 (𝑥) ≥ 𝛼}
ς-ALGEBRA: Let X be a set. A ς-algebra on 𝑋 is a collection of subsets of 𝑋, say 𝑅 ⊆ 2𝑋 ,
such that

1. 𝑋 ∇ 𝑅;

2. if 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅, then 𝐴 ∖ 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅;

3. if (𝐴𝑛 ) is any sequence in 𝑅, then ⋃𝑛 𝐴𝑛 ∇ 𝑅.

If we drop the first condition from the definition we got a ς-ring. Note, that in the third
condition we admit any countable unions. The empty set belongs to any ς-algebra. For
a 𝜍-algebra 𝑅 and 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅, we have 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑋\ 𝑋\(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = X ((X\A)⋃(X\B) ) ∇ R .
Note that

 As the intersection of a family of 𝜍 −algebras is again a 𝜍 −algebra.


 The power set 2𝑋 is a 𝜍 −algebra.
 Given any collection ⊆ 2𝑋 , there is a 𝜍 −algebra 𝑅 such that 𝐷 ⊆ 𝑅, such that if 𝑆
is any other 𝜍 −algebra, with 𝐷 ⊆ 𝑆, then 𝑅 ⊆ 𝑆. We call R the ς-algebra
generated by 𝐷.

ς-LOCALLY FINITE BASE: A ς-locally finite base is a base which is a union of countably
many locally finite collections of open sets.

Ɛ-Net: A sub set S of a metric space X is called ɛ-net if for any point in X there is a point
in S on the distance ≤ ɛ. This is different from topological nets which oversimplify
limits.

A
A-SET: It is the continuous image of a Borel set. Since any Borel set is a continuous
image of the set of irrational numbers, an A-set can be defined as a continuous image of
the set of irrational numbers.
 A countable intersection and a countable union of A-sets is an A-set.
 Any A-set is Lebesgue-measurable.
 The property of being an A-set is invariant relative to Borel-measurable
mappings, and to A-operations. Moreover, for a set to be an A-set it is necessary
and sufficient that it can be represented as the result of an A-operation applied to
a family of closed sets.
 Any uncountable A-set topologically contains a perfect Cantor set.
ABACUS: Abacus is a counting device consisting of rods on which beads can be moved
so as to represent numbers.
abc CONJECTURE: (1) The abc conjecture of Masser and Oesterlé efforts to state as much
as possible about repeated prime factors in an equation a + b = c. For example 3 + 125
= 128 but the prime powers here are special.
(2) 𝑎𝑚 + 𝑏 𝑛 = 𝑐 𝑝 has no solution in integers if a, b, c >2
ABEL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The ordinary differential equation

𝑦 ′ = 𝑓0 𝑥 + 𝑓1 𝑥 𝑦 + 𝑓2 𝑥 𝑦 2 + 𝑓3 𝑥 𝑦 3 (Abel's DE of the first kind) or

(𝑔0 (𝑥) + 𝑔1 (𝑥)𝑦)𝑦′ = 𝑓0 𝑥 + 𝑓1 𝑥 𝑦 + 𝑓2 𝑥 𝑦 2 + 𝑓3 𝑥 𝑦 3 (Abel's DE of the second


kind). Abel's differential equations of the first kind represent a natural generalization of
the Riccati equation.

If 𝑓1 ∇ 𝐶(𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑓2 , 𝑓3 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑓3 (𝑥) ≠ 0 for 𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏], then Abel's differential
equation of the first kind can be reduced to the normal form 𝑑𝑧/𝑑𝑡 = 𝑧 3 + 𝛷(𝑡) by
substitution of variables. In the general case, Abel's differential equation of the first kind
cannot be integrated in closed form, though this is possible in special cases.
If 𝑔0 , 𝑔1 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑔1 (𝑥) ≠ 0, 𝑔0 (𝑥) + 𝑔1 (𝑥)𝑦 ≠ 0, Abel's differential equation of
the second kind can be reduced to Abel's differential equation of the first kind by
substituting
𝑔0 (𝑥) + 𝑔1 (𝑥)𝑦 = 1/𝑧.
ABELIAN CATEGORY: An Abelian category is an abstract mathematical category which
displays some of the characteristic properties of the category of all abelian groups.
ABELIAN DIFFERENTIALS: An Abelian differential on a closed Riemann surface ℛ is, by
definition, a complex differential form 𝑤 = 𝑎(𝑧)𝑑𝑧, where 𝑎(𝑧) is a meromorphic
function of a local parameter 𝑧. Such a differential is said to be of the first kind if 𝑎(𝑧) is
holomorphic, of the second kind if the residue vanishes everywhere, and of the third
kind otherwise.
ABELIAN FUNCTION: An inverse function of an abelian integral. Abelian functions have
two variables and four periods. They are a generalization of elliptic functions, and, are
also called hyper elliptic functions.

ABELIAN GROUP: A group G with binary operation ∗ is said to be an abelian group if


𝑎 ∗ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ∗ 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺 i.e. G is commutative under the operation ∗. For example, the set
of real numbers and the set of all rational numbers form an Abelian group with respect
to usual addition, and the set of nonzero real numbers and the set of all nonzero rational
numbers form an Abelian group with respect to usual multiplication. The theory of
Abelian groups has its origins in number theory, and is now extensively applied in many
modern mathematical theories. Thus, the duality theory of characters for finite Abelian
groups has been considerably extended to the duality theory of locally compact Abelian
groups. The development of homological algebra has made it possible to solve a whole
series of problems in Abelian groups, such as classifying the set of all extensions of one
group by another. The theory of modules is closely connected with Abelian groups
regarded as modules over the ring of integers. Many results in the theory of Abelian
groups can be applied to the case of modules over a principal ideal ring. Owing to their
relative simplicity and to the fact that they have been very thoroughly studied (which is
confirmed, for instance, by the solvability of the elementary theory of Abelian groups),
and to the availability of a sufficient variety of objects, Abelian groups serve as a
constant source of examples in various fields of mathematics.

Examples of Abelian groups:


 All cyclic groups are Abelian, in particular, the additive group of integers.
 All direct sums of cyclic groups are Abelian. Also the additive group of rational
numbers Q is Abelian; it is moreover a locally cyclic group, i.e. a group in which
all finitely generated subgroups are cyclic.
 The free composition in the variety of Abelian groups coincides with the direct
sum. A free Abelian group is a direct sum of infinite cyclic groups.
 Every subgroup of a free Abelian group is free Abelian.
 The set of all elements of finite order in an Abelian group forms a subgroup,
which is called the torsion subgroup of the Abelian group.
 The quotient group of an Abelian group by its torsion subgroup is a group
without torsion.
 Every Abelian group is an extension of a torsion-free group by a torsion group.
This extension does not always split, i.e. the torsion group is usually not a direct
summand.
 An Abelian torsion group in which the order of every element is a power of a
fixed prime number p is said to be primary with respect to p (the term p-group is
used in general group theory).
 Every torsion group splits uniquely into a direct sum of primary groups that
correspond to distinct prime numbers.

A complete classification is known for finitely generated Abelian groups. This is given by
the fundamental theorem of finitely generated Abelian groups:

Every finitely generated Abelian group is a direct sum of finitely many non-split cyclic
subgroups some of which are finite and primary, while the others are infinite. In
particular, finite Abelian groups split into a direct sum of primary cyclic groups. Such
splittings are, in general, not unique, but any two splitting of a finitely generated Abelian
group into direct sums of non-split cyclic groups are isomorphic, so that the number of
infinite cyclic summands and the collection of the orders of the primary cyclic
summands do not depend on the splitting chosen. These numbers are called invariants
of the finitely generated Abelian group.

 Two finitely generated Abelian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the
same invariants.

 Each subgroup of a finitely generated Abelian group is itself finitely generated.

 Not every Abelian group is a direct sum of (even infinitely many) cyclic groups.
 Any subgroup of an Abelian group that is a direct sum of cyclic groups itself is
such a direct sum.
A finite set of elements 𝑔1 , … , 𝑔𝑘 in an Abelian group is called linearly dependent if there
𝑘
exist integers 𝑛1 , … , 𝑛𝑘 , not all equal to zero, such that 𝑖=1 𝑛𝑖 𝑔𝑖 = 0. If such numbers do
not exist, the set is said to be linearly independent. An arbitrary collection of elements
of A is said to be linearly dependent if there exists a finite linearly dependent sub
collection. An Abelian group that is not a torsion group has maximal linearly
independent sets. The cardinality of all maximal linearly independent collections of
elements is the same and is called the rank of the given Abelian group. The rank of a
torsion group is considered to be zero. The rank of a free Abelian group coincides with
the cardinality of a set of free generators of it.
ABEL’S IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM: In general, polynomial equations higher than
fourth degree are incapable of algebraic solution in terms of a finite number of
additions, multiplications, and root extractions.

ABEL’S INEQUALITY: If ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ and ⌌𝑏𝑛 ⌍ are sequences such that for some 𝑚 ∇ 𝑁, and
𝑛
𝛼 ∇ 𝑅 +, 𝑏1 ≥ 𝑏2 ≥ 𝑏3 ≥ . . . ≥ 𝑏𝑚 −1 ≥ 𝑏𝑚 ≥ 0 and |𝑠𝑛 | ≅ 𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 ≤𝛼 for
𝑛
𝑛 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑚, then 𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 𝑏𝑖 ≤ 𝛼𝑏1 .
ABEL’S IRREDUCIBILITY THEOREM: If one root of the equation 𝑓(𝑥) = 0, which is
irreducible over a field K, is also a root of the equation 𝐹(𝑥) = 0 in K, then all the roots
of the irreducible equation 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 are roots of 𝐹(𝑥) = 0. Equivalently, 𝐹(𝑥) can be
divided by 𝑓(𝑥) without a remainder, 𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥)𝑔(𝑥), where 𝑔(𝑥) is also a polynomial
over K.

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK (1802–29): Norwegian mathematician who, at the age of 19,
proved that the general equation of degree greater than 4 cannot be solved
algebraically. He was also responsible for fundamental developments in the theory of
algebraic functions. He died in some poverty at the age of 26, just a few days before he
would have received a letter announcing his appointment to a professorship in Berlin.

ABEL'S CONTINUITY THEOREM: If the power series



𝑘
𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏
𝑘=0

converges at a point 𝑧0 on the boundary of the disc of convergence, then it is a


continuous function in any closed triangle with vertices 𝑧0 , 𝑧1, 𝑧2 , where 𝑧1, 𝑧2 are
located inside the disc of convergence. In particular

lim 𝑠 𝑧 = 𝑠(𝑧0 )
𝑧→𝑧0
This limit always exists along the radius: The series

𝑘
𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏
𝑘=0

converges uniformly along any radius of the disc of convergence joining the
points 𝑏 and 𝑧0 . This theorem is used, in particular, to calculate the sum of a power
series which converges at the boundary points of the disc of convergence.

ABEL’S METHOD OF SUMMATION: If the radius of convergence of the power series


∞ 𝑛 ∞ 𝑛
𝑛=1 𝑢𝑛 𝑟 is ≥ 1 and 𝑛=0 𝑢𝑛 𝑟 → 𝑠 𝑎s 𝑟 → 1, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by
Abel’s method or A-summable) to 𝑠, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐴). The transformation
matrix is denoted by 𝐴, and the transformation is called Abel’s method of summation.

ABEL’S PARTIAL SUMMATION: Let 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏0 , 𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , … be arbitrary


sequences, and put 𝐴𝑛 = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 for 𝑛 ≥ 0. Then the following formula
of Abel’s partial summation holds;

n+k n+k

a v bv = Av bv − bv+1 − An bn−1 +an+k bn+k−1


v=n+1 v=n+1

For any n ≥ 0 and any k ≥ 1; this formula also holds for n = −1 if we put 𝐴−1 = 0.

Able’s partial summation enables us to deduce a number of tests of convergence for


series of the form 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 . In particular, the following criteria are easy to apply:

(1) 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is convergent if 𝑎𝑛 is convergent and if the sequence 𝑏𝑛 is montone


and bounded Abel’s test .
(2) 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is convergent if the sequence 𝑠𝑛 of partial sums of 𝑎𝑛 is bounded and
if 𝑏𝑛 is monotone and converges to zero Dirichlet’s test .
(3) 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is convergent if (𝑏𝑛 − (𝑏𝑛+1 ) is absolutely convergent and if 𝑎𝑛 is (at
least conditionally) convergent (test of du Bois- Reymond and Dedekind).

ABEL’S TEST: Abel’s test is a test for the convergence of an infinite series which states
that if 𝛴𝑎𝑛 is a convergent series, and {𝑏𝑛 } is monotonically decreasing, then 𝛴𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is
also convergent.
ABEL’S THEOREM (ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS): Formulas expressing the solution of an
arbitrary equation of degree in terms of its coefficients using radicals do not exist for
any 𝑛 ≥ 5 . The theorem was proved by N.H. Abel in 1824. Abel's theorem may also be
obtained as a corollary of Galois Theory, from which a more general theorem follows:
For any 𝑛 ≥ 5 there exist algebraic equations with integer coefficients whose roots
cannot be expressed in terms of radicals of rational numbers.

ABEL'S THEOREM ON POWER SERIES: If the power series



𝑘
𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏 (∗)
𝑘=0

where 𝑎𝑘 , 𝑏, 𝑧 are complex numbers, converges at 𝑧 = 𝑧0 , then it converges absolutely


and uniformly within any disc 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝜌 of radius 𝜌 ≤ 𝑧0 − 𝑏 and with centre at 𝑏.
The theorem was established by N.H. Abel. It follows from the theorem that there exists
a number 𝑅 ∇ [0, ∞) such that if 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 the series is convergent, while
if 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 the series is divergent. The number 𝑅 is called the radius of convergence
of the series (*), while the disc 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 is known as the disc of convergence of the
series (*).

ABOVE (GREATER THAN): The limit of a function at 𝑎 from above is the limit of 𝑓(𝑥) as
𝑥 → 𝑎 for values of 𝑥 > 𝑎. It is of particular importance when 𝑓(𝑥) has a discontinuity
at 𝑎, i.e. where the limits from above and from below do not coincide. It can be written
as 𝑓(𝑎+) or lim𝑥→𝑎+ 𝑓(𝑥).
ABRIDGED MULTIPLICATION: A method of multiplication where digits may be dropped
in each step of the calculation, in order to simplify the calculations, while maintaining
the desired level of accuracy, usually expressed in terms of decimal places.

ABSCISSA: Abscissa in two dimensional plane means x-coordinate. The abscissa of the
point (a, b) in Cartesian coordinates is a.
ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY OF LEBESGUE INTEGRAL: Let 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋). Then for any 𝜀 > 0
there is a 𝛿 > 0 such that

∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ < 𝜀 𝑖𝑓 µ 𝐴 < 𝛿.
𝐴

Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be spaces, and let 𝑆 and 𝑇 be semirings on 𝑋 and 𝑌 respectively and µ and 𝜈
be measures on 𝑆 and 𝑇 respectively. If µ and 𝜈 are 𝜍 −additive, then the product
measure 𝜈 × µ is 𝜍 −additive as well.
Let 𝐶 ∇ 𝐿(𝑋 × 𝑌). For almost every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set 𝐶𝑥 = {𝑦 ∇ 𝑌: (𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝐶} is
𝜈 −measurable and 𝜈(𝐶𝑥 ) = 𝑓𝐶 (𝑥).

Any measurable set is up to a set of zero measure can be received from elementary sets
by two monotonic limits.

Let µ and 𝜈 are 𝜍 −finite measures and 𝐶 be a µ × 𝜈 measurable set 𝑋 × 𝑌. We define


𝐶𝑥 = {𝑦 ∇ 𝑌: (𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝐶}. Then for µ −almost every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set 𝐶𝑥 is 𝜈 −measurable,
function 𝑓𝐶 (𝑥) = 𝜈(𝐶𝑥 ) is µ −measurable and (µ × ν)(C) = ∫ fc dμ, where both parts may
have the value +∞.

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE: A series is said to be absolutely convergent if it still


converges when all the terms are replaced by the corresponding absolute values. The
series 1 − (1/2)2 + (1/3)3 − (1/4)4 + . ..is an example of absolute convergence. This
is because 1 − (1/2)2 + (1/3)3 − (1/4)4 + . .. is also convergent.

ABSOLUTE ERROR: The difference between the measured value or the approximation of
a quantity and the true value. When 0.7 is used as an approximation for 0.709, the error
equals (0.7-0.709), which is -0.009. In this case, the absolute error is |0.7-0.709|, which
is 0.009.
ABSOLUTE EXTREMUM: It is also known as an absolute maximum or an absolute
minimum.
ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY: Absolute frequency is the number of occurrences of an event.
For example, if a die is rolled 50 times and 8 sixes are observed, the absolute frequency
of sixes is 8 and the relative frequency is 8/50.
ABSOLUTE GEOMETRY: The term Absolute Geometry had been introduced by J. Bolyai
in 1832. Absolute Geometry is derived from the first four of Euclid's postulates. The first
28 Propositions from Elements, I belong to Absolute Geometry. Euclid apparently made
a conscientious effort to see how far he can reach without invoking his Fifth postulate.
All theorems of Absolute Geometry are automatically true in the geometries of Euclid,
Lobachevsky and Riemann since those three only differ in their treatment of the Fifth
postulate.
ABSOLUTE INEQUALITY: It is an inequality that contains absolute value(s). Example: |7x
- 6| < 1.
ABSOLUTELY CONTINUOUS CHARGE: Let 𝑋 be a set with 𝜍 −algebra 𝑅 and 𝜍 −finite
measure µ and finite charge 𝜈 on 𝑅. The charge 𝜈 is absolutely continuous with respect
to µ if µ(𝐴) = 0 for 𝐴 ∇ 𝑅 implies 𝜈(𝐴) = 0. Two charges 𝜈1 and 𝜈2 are equivalent if two
conditions | 𝜈1 |(𝐴) = 0 and | 𝜈2 |(𝐴) = 0 are equivalent.

ABSOLUTELY CONVERGENT SERIES: A series 𝑢𝑛 is said to be absolutely convergent if


the series 𝑢𝑛 is convergent.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM: The absolute maximum point for a function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is the
point where 𝑦 has the largest value on an interval 𝐼. If the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is
differentiable, the absolute maximum of the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) will either be a point
where there is a horizontal tangent so the derivative is zero, or a point at one of the
ends of the interval.
ABSOLUTE MINIMUM: The absolute minimum point for a function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is the point
where 𝑦 has the smallest value on an interval 𝐼. If the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is
differentiable, then the absolute minimum of the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) will either be a
point where there is a horizontal tangent so the derivative is zero, or a point at one of
the ends of the interval.

ABSOLUTE NUMBER: A real value with its sign ignored - the result of applying
the modulus function to a value.

ABSOLUTE TERM: The constant term in an expression such as a polynomial.

ABSOLUTE VALUE: The absolute value of a real number 𝑎, written as 𝑎 , is:


𝑎; 𝑖𝑓 𝑎 ≥ 0
𝑎 =
−𝑎; 𝑖𝑓 𝑎 ≤ 0
The following properties hold:
(i) |𝑎𝑏| = |𝑎||𝑏|.
(ii) |𝑎 + 𝑏| ≤ |𝑎| + |𝑏|.
(iii) |𝑎 − 𝑏| ≥ ||𝑎| − |𝑏||.
(iv) For 𝑎 > 0, |𝑥| ≤ 𝑎 if and only if −𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑎.
Figure given below illustrates the absolute value function in nbd of zero.
Absolute value of a real number is always positive or zero. If we represent all the real
numbers on a number line, we can think of the absolute value of a number 𝑎 as being
the distance from origin (zero) to that number 𝑎. The absolute value of a complex
number 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 is denoted and defined as

𝑧 = 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 .
It is to be noted that absolute value of a complex number 𝑧 is again the distance from
origin (zero) to that number 𝑧.
In a similar fashion, we can define the absolute value of a number 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 as
𝑎 = 𝑎1 2 + 𝑎2 2 + − − − − +𝑎𝑛 2 , where 𝑎 = 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , − − −𝑎𝑛 .
It is to be noted that absolute value of a number 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 is again the distance from origin
(zero) to that number 𝑎 in n dimensional space.
ABSORPTION LAWS: For all sets A and B, we have
𝐴 ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴 ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝐴.
These are said to be the absorption laws.
ABSTRACT ALGEBRA: It is the area of mathematics concerned with algebraic structures
involving sets of elements with particular operations satisfying certain axioms such as
groups, rings and fields.
ABSTRACTION: Abstraction is the process of making a general statement which
summarizes what can be observed in particular instances. For example, we can say that
𝑥 3 < 𝑥 for 0 < 𝑥 < 1 and 𝑥 3 > 𝑥 for 𝑥 < 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 > 1. Mathematical theorems are
essentially abstraction of concepts to a higher level.
ABSTRACT MANIFOLD: An abstract manifold (or just a manifold) of dimension m, is a
Hausdorff topological space 𝑀, equipped with an m-dimensional smooth atlas.
Compatible atlases are regarded as belonging to the same manifold (the precise
definition is thus that a manifold is a Hausdorff topological space equipped with a
smooth structure). A chart on 𝑀 is a chart from any atlas compatible with the structure.
It is often required of an abstract manifold that it should have a countable atlas.
ABSTRACT SUBMANIFOLD: Let 𝑀 be an abstract manifold. An abstract submanifold of 𝑀
is a subset 𝑁 ⊂ 𝑀 which is an abstract manifold on its own such that:
(i) the topology of 𝑁 is induced from 𝑀,
(ii) the inclusion map 𝑖: 𝑁 → 𝑀 is smooth, and
(iii) the differential 𝑑𝑖𝑝 : 𝑇𝑝 𝑁 → 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 is injective for each 𝑝 ∇ 𝑁.
In this case, the manifold 𝑀 is said to be ambient to 𝑁. In particular, since 𝑑𝑖𝑝 is injective,
the dimension of 𝑁 must be smaller than or equal to that of 𝑀.
ABUNDANCE: The abundance of a number 𝑛 is the quantity

𝐴 𝑛 = 𝜍(𝑛) 2𝑛,

where 𝑜(𝑛) is the divisor function. Kravitz has conjectured that no numbers exist whose
abundance is an odd square.

The following table lists special classifications given to a number n based on the value of
A(n).

A(n) Number
<0 deficient number
-1 almost perfect number
0 perfect number
1 Quasi-perfect number
>1 abundant number
ABUNDANT NUMBER: Abundant number is a positive integer that is smaller than the
sum of its positive divisors, not including itself, For example, 12 is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4
and 6, and 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 16 > 12.
AC: It is the abbreviation for Axiom of Choice.
ACCELERATION: The acceleration of a moving object measures the rate of change in its
velocity with respect to time. For example, if a car increases its velocity from 20 to 45
45−20
meters/ second in 8 seconds, its acceleration would be = 3.125 meters/ second2
8

to read as 3.125 meters/ second-squared.


If 𝑦(𝑡) represents the position of the moving object as a function of time, then the
𝑑𝑦
derivative represents the velocity of the object, and the second derivative
𝑑𝑡
𝑑2𝑦
represents the acceleration.
𝑑𝑡 2

Newton obtained that, if F represents the force acting on a moving object and m
represents its mass, the acceleration 𝑎 of the moving object is determined by the
formula 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎.
ACCEPTANCE REGION: The set of values for a random variable in hypothesis
testing such that the null hypothesis is not rejected.

ACCEPTANCE REJECTION ALGORITHM: An algorithm for generating random numbers


from some probability distribution, 𝑓(𝑥), by first generating a random number from
some other distribution, 𝑔(𝑥), where 𝑓 and 𝑔 are related by 𝑓(𝑥) ≤ 𝑔(𝑥) for all 𝑥 with 𝑘
a constant. The algorithm works as follows:

1. let 𝑟 be a random number from 𝑔(𝑥);


2. let 𝑠 be a random number from a uniform distribution on the interval (0,1);
3. calculate 𝑐 = 𝑘𝑠𝑔(𝑟);
4. if 𝑐 > 𝑓 (𝑟) reject 𝑟 and return to the first step; if 𝑐 ≤ 𝑓 (𝑟) accept 𝑟 as a random
number from 𝑓.

ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING: A type of quality control procedure in which a sample is


taken from a collection or batch of items, and the decision to accept the batch as
satisfactory, or reject them as unsatisfactory, is based on the proportion of defective
items in the sample. It is a method of quality control where a sample is taken and a
decision whether to accept the population is made on the basis of the quality of the
sample. The simplest method is to have a straight accept/reject criterion, but a more
classy approach is to take another sample if the evidence from the existing sample, or a
set of samples, is not evidently indicating whether the group should be accepted or
rejected. One of the main benefits of this approach is reducing the cost of taking samples
to satisfy quality control criteria.

ACCUMULATION POINT: An accumulation point is a point which is the limit of a


sequence, also called a limit point. For some maps, periodic orbits give way to chaotic
ones beyond a point known as the accumulation point.
ACCURACY: Accuracy is defined as a measure of the exactness of a numerical quantity,
frequently given to n significant figures (where the proportional accuracy is the
significant aspect) or n decimal places (where the absolute accuracy is more
significant).
ACCURATE (CORRECT) TO n DECIMAL PLACES: Rounding a number with the accuracy
specified by the number of decimal places given in the rounded value. So e = 2.71828 …
= 2.718 to three decimal places and = 2.72 to two decimal places.
ACTIVE CONSTRAINT: An inequality such as 3𝑦 + 5𝑥 ≥ 21 is said to be active at a
point on the boundary, i.e. where equality holds, for example (2, 3) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (7, 0).
ACUTE ANGLE: An angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees.
ACYCLIC AND CYCLIC MOTION: When the region occupied by the fluid moving
irrotationally is simply connected, the velocity potential will be single-valued. Thus the
velocity potential becomes

∅B = − rdr
OAB

For all paths from O to B. Thus the motion in which the velocity potential is single
valued is called acyclic. In simply connected region the only possible irrotational motion
is acylic. When the velocity potential is not single- valued, the motion is said to be cyclic
i.e., it is not possible to assign to every point of the original region a unique and definite
value of ∅.

ACYCLIC GRAPH: A graph is said to be acyclic if it contains no circuits.


ADAPTIVE CLUSTER SAMPLING: A procedure in which an initial set of subjects is
selected by some sampling procedure and, whenever the variable of interest of a
selected subject satisfies a given criterion, additional subjects in the neighbourhood of
that subject are added to the sample.

ADDEND: A quantity to be added to another, also called a summand. For example, in


the expression 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐, 𝑎, 𝑏, and 𝑐 are all addends. The first of several addends, or “the
one to which the others are added” a in this example , is sometimes called the augend.
One of the numbers that are being added together in a sum. For example, when we write
4 + 5 = 9, 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 5 are called the addends.
ADDITION: The operation, or process, of calculating the sum of two numbers or
quantities.
ADDITION (OF COMPLEX NUMBERS): Let the complex numbers 𝑧1 and 𝑧2 , where
𝑧1 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 and 𝑧2 = 𝑐 + 𝑖𝑑 be represented by the points 𝑃 and 𝑄 in the complex plane.
Then 𝑧1 + 𝑧2 = (𝑎 + 𝑐) + 𝑖(𝑏 + 𝑑), and 𝑧1 + 𝑧2 is represented in the complex plane
by the point 𝑅 such that 𝑂𝑃𝑅𝑄 is a parallelogram.

ADDITION (OF LINEAR MAPS): We define a map 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 : 𝑈 → 𝑉 by the rule

( 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 )(𝑢) = 𝑇1 𝑢 + 𝑇2 (𝑢) 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑢 𝜖 𝑈

ADDITION (OF MATRICES): Let 𝑨 and 𝑩 be 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrices, with 𝑨 = [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] and


𝑩 = [𝑏𝑖𝑗 ]. The operation of addition is defined by taking the sum 𝑨 + 𝑩 to be the
𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑪, where 𝑪 = [𝑐𝑖𝑗 ] and 𝑐𝑖𝑗 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 + 𝑏𝑖𝑗 . The sum 𝑨 + 𝑩 is not defined if
𝑨 and 𝑩 are not of the same order. This operation + of addition on the set of all m × n
matrices is associative and commutative. Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be two matrices of the same type
𝑚 × 𝑛. The their sum (to be denoted by 𝐴 + 𝐵) is defined to be the matrix of the type
𝑚 × 𝑛 obtained by the adding the corresponding elements of 𝐴 and 𝐵. Thus if

𝐴 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 and 𝐵 = 𝑏𝑖𝑗 ,then 𝐴 + 𝐵 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 + 𝑏𝑖𝑗 .


𝑚 ×𝑛 𝑚 ×𝑛 𝑚 ×𝑛

Note that A + B is also a matrix of the type 𝑚 × 𝑛. More clearly we can say that:

a11 a12 … a1n b11 b12 … b1n


a21 a22 … a2n b21 b22 … b2n
A= … … … … and B =
… … … …
am1 am2 … amn m×n b m1 bm2 … bmn m×n

Then
a11 + b11 a12 + b12 … a1n + b1n
a + b21 a22 + b22 … a2n + b2n
A + B = 21
……… ……… … ……
am1 + bm1 am2 + bm2 … amn + bmn m×n.

For example, if

3 2 −1 1 −2 7
A= and B = ; then
4 −3 1 2×3 3 2 −1 2×3

3+1 2 − 2 −1 + 7 4 0 6
A+B= =
4+3 −3 + 2 1 − 1 7 −1 0 2×3.

It should be noted that addition is defined only for matrices which are of the same size.
If two matrices A and B are of the same size, they are said to be conformable for
addition. If the matrices A and BA are not of the same size, we cannot find their sum.

ADDITION (OF VECTORS): Given vectors 𝒂 and 𝒃, let 𝑂𝐴 and 𝑂𝐵 be directed line-
segments that represent 𝒂 and 𝒃, with the same initial point O. The sum of 𝑂𝐴 and 𝑂𝐵 is
the directed line-segment 𝑂𝐶 , where OACB is a parallelogram, and the sum 𝒂 + 𝒃 is
defined to be the vector c represented by 𝑂𝐶 .
This is called the parallelogram law. Alternatively, the sum of vectors 𝒂 and 𝒃 can be
defined by representing a by a directed line-segment 𝑂𝑃 and 𝒃 by 𝑃𝑄 where the final
point of the first directed line-segment is the initial point of the second. Then 𝒂 + 𝒃 is
the vector represented by 𝑂𝑄. This is called the triangle law. Addition of vectors has the
following properties, which hold for all a, b and c:
(i) 𝒂 + 𝒃 = 𝒃 + 𝒂, the commutative law.
(ii) 𝒂 + (𝒃 + 𝒄) = (𝒂 + 𝒃) + 𝒄, the associative law.
(iii) 𝒂 + 𝟎 = 𝟎 + 𝒂 = 𝒂, where 0 is the zero vector.
(iv) 𝒂 + (−𝒂) = (−𝒂) + 𝒂 = 𝟎, where −𝒂 is the negative of 𝒂.
ADDITION LAW: In the theory of probability, If A and B are two events then the addition
law states that the
𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵) − 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵).
In the special case, where A and B are mutually exclusive events this reduces to
𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵).
ADDITIVE FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑥) over a domain 𝐷 is said to be an additive
functiuon if
𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑦 ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐷.
For example, 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑛𝑥 is an additive function since
𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑛 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑛𝑥 + 𝑛𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑓(𝑦)
ADDITIVE GROUP: A group G with the operation + (addition) may be called an additive
group.
ADDITIVE IDENTITY: The number zero is known as the additive identity element,
because it satisfies the property that the addition of zero does not change a number:
𝑎 + 0 = 𝑎 = 0 + 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅..
ADDITIVE INVERSE: The sum of a number and its additive inverse is zero. The additive
inverse of 𝑎 (written as −𝑎) is also called the negative or the opposite of 𝑎: 𝑎 + −𝑎 =
0 = −𝑎 + 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅. For example, -6 is the additive inverse of 6 and -7 is the additive
inverse of 7.
ADHERENT POINT: Adherent point of a set A is a point of the set A in a topological space
that belongs to the closure of a set A. In other words, a point 𝑝 ∇ 𝑆 is said to be an
adherent point of 𝑆 if every nbd of 𝑝 contains a point of 𝑆. The set of all adherent points
of the set 𝑆 is called adherence of 𝑆 and is denoted by 𝐴𝑑𝑕 𝐴.
ADHERENT POINT OF A FILTER: Let (𝐸, 𝑇) be a topological space and 𝐹 a filter on 𝐸. A
point 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 is said to be adherent point of 𝐹 if it is adherent to every 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹, i.e. if every
𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥) meets every 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. Consider in 𝑅 the set of points 1/𝑛, 1 − 1/𝑛 (where
𝑛 ∇ 𝑁) and the point 2. Let 𝐹 be the filter consisting of the complements of finite
subsets of this set. 𝐹 has the points 0 and 1 as adherent points.
AD INFINITUM: Literally meaning "to infinity" in Latin. It is a phrase used in
mathematics (and other fields) as a more elegant way of what is more commonly
expressed as "... and so on and so forth".

ADJ: It is the abbreviation for adjoint of a matrix.


ADJACENCY MATRIX: For a simple graph G, with n vertices 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 , the adjacency
matrix A is the 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] with 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 1, if 𝑣𝑖 is joined to 𝑣𝑗 , and 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0,
otherwise. The matrix A is symmetric and the diagonal entries are zero. The number of
ones in any row (or column) is equal to the degree of the corresponding vertex. An
example of a graph and its adjacency matrix A is shown below.

ADJACENCY RELATION: The set E of edges of a graph (V, E), being a set of unordered
pairs of elements of V, constitutes a relation on V. Formally, an adjacency relation is any
relation which is irreflexive and symmetric.

ADJACENT ANGLES: Two angles that share a ray, thereby being directly next to each
other
ADJACENT EDGES: Adjacent edges are a pair of edges in a graph joined by a common
vertex.
ADJACENT FRACTION: Two fractions are said to be adjacent if their difference has a
unit numerator. For example, I/3 and 1/4 are adjacent since l/3 - l/4 = l/12, but l/2 and
l/5 are not since l/2 - l/5 = 3/10. Adjacent fractions can be adjacent in a Farey sequence.

ADJACENT VERTICES: Adjacent vertices are a pair of vertices in a graph joined by a


common edge.
ADJOINT CURVE: A curve which has at least multiplicity 𝑝𝑖 − 1 at each point where a
given curve (having only ordinary singular points and cusps) has a multiplicity Q is
called the adjoint to the given curve. When the adjoint curve is of order 𝑛 − 3, it is
called a special adjoint curve.

ADJOINT OF A SQUARE MATRIX: Let A = aij be any n × n matrix. The transpose 𝐵′


n×n

of the matrix B = Aij , where Aij denotes the cofactor of the element aij in the
n×n

determinant A , is called the adjoint of the matrix A and is denoted by ht symbol Adj. A.
If A be any n-rowed square matrix, then Adj A A = A Adj A = A In , where 𝐼𝑛 is the n-
rowed unit matrix.

ADJOINT OPERATOR: Let 𝐻 and 𝐾 be Hilbert Spaces and 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝐻, 𝐾). Then there exists
operator 𝑇 ∗∇ 𝐵(𝐾, 𝐻) such that ⟨ 𝑇𝑕, 𝑘 ⟩𝐾 = ⟨ 𝑕, 𝑇 ∗ 𝑘 ⟩𝐻 for all 𝑕 ∇ 𝐻, 𝑘 ∇ 𝐾. Such
𝑇 ∗ is called the adjoint operator of 𝑇. Also 𝑇 ∗∗ = 𝑇 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ||𝑇 ∗ || = ||𝑇||.

 For operators 𝑇1 and 𝑇2 , (𝑇1 𝑇2 )*= 𝑇2 *𝑇1 *, (𝑇1 +𝑇2 )*= 𝑇1 *+𝑇2 * and λ T)*=λT*.
 If A is an operator on a Hilbert space H then (𝑘𝑒𝑟𝐴)⊥ = 𝐼𝑚 𝐴∗ .

ADJUNCTION: If 𝑎 is an element of a field 𝑓 over the prime field 𝑃, then the set of all
rational functions of a with coefficients in 𝑃 is a field derived from 𝑃 by adjunction of 𝑎.

ADMISSIBLE: A string or word is said to be admissible if that word appears in a given


sequence. For example, in the sequence aabaabaabaabaab . . ., a, aa, baab are all
admissible, but bb is inadmissible.

ADMISSIBLE HYPOTHESIS: Any hypothesis that has not been ruled out, that is, a
hypothesis that may possibly be true.
a.e.: It is the abbreviation for almost everywhere
AEROFOIL: The aerofoil has a profile if fish type. It is used in modern airplanes. Such an
aerofoil has a blunt leading edge and a sharp trailing edge. The projection of the profile
on the double tangent is the chord. The ratio of the span to the chord is the aspect ratio.
The locus of the point midway between the points in which an ordinate perpendicular
to the chord meets the profile is known as the camber line of a profile. The camber is the
ratio of the maximum ordinate of the camber line to the chord.

The theory of the flow round such an aerofoil is made on the following assumptions:

1. The air behaves as an incompressible inviscid fluid,


2. The aerofoil is as cylinder whose cross section is a curve of the above form and
the flow is two-dimensional irrotational cyclic motion.

AFFINE GEOMETRY: Affine Geometry is not concerned with the notions


of circle, angle and distance. It's a known dictum that in Affine Geometry all triangles are
the same. In this context, the word affine was first used by Euler (affinis). In modern
parlance, Affine Geometry is a study of properties of geometric objects that remain
invariant under affine transformations (mappings). Affine transformations preserve
collinearity of points: if three points belong to the same straight line, their images under
affine transformations also belong to the same line and, in addition, the middle point
remains between the other two points. As further examples, under affine
transformations

 parallel lines remain parallel,


 concurrent lines remain concurrent (images of intersecting lines intersect),
 the ratio of length of line segments of a given line remains constant,
 the ratio of areas of two triangles remains constant (and hence the ratio of any
areas remain constant),
 ellipses remain ellipses and the same is true for parabolas and hyperbolas.
 barycenters of triangles (and other shapes) map into the corresponding
barycenters.

AFFINE SPACES: An affine space 𝐴 is constructed as follows: Let 𝑉 be a vector space


over a field 𝐾, and let 𝐴 be a nonempty set. For any vector 𝑎 ∇ 𝑉 and any element 𝑝 of 𝐴,
suppose that an addition 𝑝 + 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 is defined so as to satisfy the following three
conditions:
(i) 𝑝 + 0 = 𝑝 (0 being a zero vector);
(ii) (𝑝 + 𝑎) + 𝑏 = 𝑝 + (𝑎 + 𝑏) (𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑉); and
(iii) for any 𝑞 ∇ 𝐴 there exists a unique vector 𝑎 ∇ 𝑉 such that 𝑞 = 𝑝 + 𝑎.
Condition (i) follows from (ii) and (iii). Then we call 𝐴 an affine space, 𝑉 the standard
vector space of 𝐴, and 𝐾 the coefficient field of 𝐴. Each element of 𝐴 is called a point.
AFFINE TRANSFORMATION: A transformation which involves any combination
of translations, reflections, stretches, shrinks, or rotations. Collinearity and concurrency
are invariant under affine transformations.
AGGREGATION: The process of representing the sum of mathematical terms as a single
(mathematical) term.

AGREE: If 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) are two functions defined on a set S, and 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑥) for all
𝑥 ∇ 𝑆, then we say that 𝑓 and 𝑔 agree on the set 𝑆.
Ai: It is the abbreviation for Airy function.
AHLFORS-BERS THEOREM: The Riemann’s moduli space gives the solution to
Riemann’s moduli problem, which requires an analytic parameterization of the compact
Riemann surfaces in a fixed homeomorphism.

AIRLINE PROBLEM: Given n cities, it is desired to design a network of flights between


the cities satisfying the following conditions. For each city there are direct flights to and
from exactly the same number of other cities. Between any two cities there is exactly
one flight with at most one stopover. For what values of n do such networks exist?

AITKEN’S METHOD (NUMERICAL METHODS): If an iterative formula 𝑥𝑟+1 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑟 ) is to


be used to solve an equation, Aitken’s method of accelerating convergence uses the
initial value. This can then be used as a new starting point from which to repeat the
process until the required accuracy has been reached. Let us suppose that 𝑥0 , 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 are
the initial value and the first two iterations and
𝛥𝑥𝑟 = 𝑥𝑟+1 − 𝑥𝑟 , 𝛥2 𝑥𝑟 = 𝛥𝑥𝑟+1 − 𝛥𝑥𝑟
are the forward differences then
𝛥𝑥 2 2
𝑥4 = 𝑥3 − .
𝛥2 𝑥 1

More generally this will be expressed as


𝛥𝑥𝑟−1 2
𝑥𝑟+1 = 𝑥𝑟 − .
𝛥2 𝑥𝑟−2
ALAOGLU THEOREM: The unit ball in 𝑋 ∗ is weak compact.
ALEPH: Aleph is a symbol that is used to denote any infinite cardinal number and
usually denoted by the Hebrew letter ‫א‬.
ALEPH-NULL: Aleph-null is the smallest infinite cardinal number. It is the cardinality of
any set which can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the set of natural numbers.
Such sets are also known as countable or denumerable sets. One of the apparent
paradoxes in number theory is that the set of rational numbers between 0 and 1, the set
of all rational numbers, and the set of natural numbers all have the same cardinality.
The symbol ‫א‬0 is used.
ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION: The collection consisting of all open subsets of 𝑋
and all complements in 𝑋 ∞ of closed compact subsets of 𝑋 is the finest topology on 𝑋 ∞
such that 𝑋 ∞ is compact and contains 𝑋 as a subspace. If 𝑋 is not compact then 𝑋 is
dense in 𝑋 ∞ , and 𝑋 ∞ is called the Alexandroff compactification of 𝑋.

ALEXANDROV SPACE: A generalization of Riemannian manifolds with upper, lower or


integral curvature bounds (the last one works only in dimension 2)
ALEXANDROV TOPOLOGY: The topology of a space 𝑋 is an Alexandrov topology (or
is finitely generated) if arbitrary intersections of open sets in 𝑋 are open, or
equivalently, if arbitrary unions of closed sets are closed, or, again equivalently, if the
open sets are the upper sets of a poset.
ALGEBRA: Algebra is the branch of Mathematics that studies the properties of
operations carried out on sets of numbers. It started with Alkwarizmi’s 820 Al Gebr
W’ali Muquabala, the origin of the word “algebra.” It was the first mathematical book
written in Arabic. Its content was essentially a variety of methods of solving algebraic
equations. Al gebr means “transposition of negative terms on one side of the equation to
the other side and changing their signs.” and W’ali muquabala means “simplification of
the equation by gathering similar terms.” Algebra is a generalization of arithmetic in
which symbols, usually letters, are used to stand for numbers. It is the area of
mathematics related to the general properties of arithmetic. Relationships can be
summarized by using variables, usually denoted by letters x, y, n, … to stand for
unknown quantities, whose value(s) may be determined by solving the resulting
equations. The structure of algebra is based upon axioms (or postulates), which are
statements that are assumed to be true. Some algebraic axioms include the transitive
axiom and the associative axiom of addition i.e.:
 𝑎 = 𝑏 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏 = 𝑐 ⇒ 𝑎 = 𝑐.
 𝑎+ 𝑏 + 𝑐= 𝑎+ 𝑏+ 𝑐 .
These axioms are used to prove theorems about the properties of operations on real
numbers.
ALGEBRAICALLY CLOSED: A field 𝐹 is said to be algebraically closed if every polynomial
with coefficients in 𝐹 has a solution in 𝐹. Equivalently, every polynomial with
coefficients in 𝐹 can be written as a product of linear polynomials.
ALGEBRAIC CLOSURE: It is the procedure of the extension of a given set to include all
the roots of polynomials with coefficients in the given set. The smallest algebraically
closed set of numbers is C, the set of complex numbers, since the very simple equation
𝑥 2 + 1 = 0 has a complex solution.
ALGEBRAIC FIELD EXTENSION: Let 𝐿: 𝐾 be a field extension, and let 𝛼 be an element of
𝐿. If there exists some non-zero polynomial 𝑓 ∇ 𝐾[𝑥] with coefficients in 𝐾 such that
𝑓(𝛼) = 0, then α is said to be algebraic over 𝐾; otherwise 𝛼 is said to be transcendental
over 𝐾. A field extension 𝐿: 𝐾 is said to be algebraic if every element of 𝐿 is algebraic
over 𝐾.
ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION: An algebraic function is a function which can be expressed as a
root of an equation of the form
𝜆𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛–1 𝜆𝑛–1 + ··· + 𝑏1 𝜆 + 𝑏0 = 0
Where 𝑏𝑛–1 , − − − 𝑏1 , 𝑏0 are rational functions of 𝑥.
ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: Algebraic geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals
with algebraic varieties, that is, point sets defined by several algebraic equations in a
space of any dimension or those derived from these sets by means of certain
constructions, It may also be considered to be a theory of the field of algebraic functions
in several variables in geometric language, and it is closely related to the theories of
complex analytic manifolds, commutative algebra, and homological algebra. It also has
an important connection with number theory through the theories of automorphic
functions, Diophantine equations, and zeta functions.
ALGEBRAIC INTEGER: A complex number 𝑧 is said to be an algebraic integer if it is the
root of some monic polynomial with integer coefficients. It follows from the above
definition that a complex number is an algebraic integer if and only if it is integral over
the ring of integers. It follows from the relevant definitions that a complex number is an
algebraic number if and only if it is integral over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers. Also a
complex number is an algebraic integer if and only if it is integral over the ring 𝑍 of
(rational) integers. In algebraic number theory, elements of the ring 𝑍 are often referred
to as rational integers to distinguish them from algebraic integers. The set of all
algebraic integers constitutes a subring of the field 𝐶 of complex numbers that is
integrally closed in 𝐶. An algebraic number is an algebraic integer if and only if the
coefficients of its minimum polynomial over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers are rational
integers.
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION: This avoids the initial use of components, and is distinguished
by the explicit use of the tensor product symbol.
ALGEBRAIC NUMBER: Algebraic number is a real number that is the root of some
polynomial equation with integer coefficients. All rational numbers are algebraic, since
𝑎/𝑏 is the root of the equation 𝑏𝑥 − 𝑎 = 0. Some irrational numbers are algebraic; for
example, 3 is the root of the equation 𝑥 2 − 3 = 0. An irrational number that is not
algebraic such as π, e etc. is called a transcendental number.
ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELD: A complex number that satisfies an algebraic equation with
rational integral coefficients is said to be an algebraic number. If the coefficient of the
term of highest degree of the equation is 1, this algebraic number is said to be an
algebraic integer. The set 𝐴 of ah algebraic numbers is a field which is the algebraic
closure of the rational number field 𝑄 in the complex number field 𝐶. The set 𝐼 of all
algebraic integers is an integral domain which contains the integral domain 𝒁 of all the
rational integers. The field of quotients of 𝐼 is 𝐴. An extension field 𝑘 of 𝑄 of finite
degree, which we shall always suppose to be contained in C is said to be an algebraic
number field of finite degree, and 𝑘 is a subfield of 𝐴. Thus An algebraic number field is a
subfield of the field 𝐶 of complex numbers that is a finite-dimensional vector space over
the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.
ALGEBRAIC SET: A subset of 𝑛-dimensional affine space 𝐴𝑛 is said to be an algebraic set
if it is of the form {(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 ) ∇ 𝐴𝑛 ∶ 𝑓(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 ) = 0 for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑆} for some
subset 𝑆 of the polynomial ring 𝐾[𝑋1 , 𝑋2 , . . . , 𝑋𝑛 ].
ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE: It is the term used to describe an abstract concept defined as
consisting of certain elements with operations satisfying given axioms. Thus, a group
(ring or field) is an algebraic structure. The purpose of the definition is to recognize
similarities that appear in different contexts within mathematics and to encapsulate
these by means of a set of axioms.
ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM: It is a set together with the operations and relations defined on
that set.
ALGEBRA (LINEAR ALGEBRA): A linear space 𝑆 over a field 𝐹 is called an algebra, (or a
linear algebra) if a composition (.) is defined in 𝑆 such that
(i) 𝑓. 𝑔 . 𝑕 = 𝑓. 𝑔. 𝑕 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕 ∇ 𝑆,
(ii) 𝑓. 𝑔 + 𝑕 = 𝑓. 𝑔 + 𝑓. 𝑕 and 𝑓 + 𝑔 . 𝑕 + 𝑔. 𝑕, for all 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕, ∇ 𝑆, and
(iii) 𝑎 𝑓. 𝑔 = 𝑎𝑓 . 𝑔 = 𝑓. 𝑎𝑔 , for all 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕 ∇ 𝑆, and 𝑎 ∇ 𝐹.

ALGEBRA OF MEASURABILITY: Let 𝑓, 𝑔: 𝑋 → ℝ be measurable. Then the functions


𝑎𝑓, 𝑓 + 𝑔, 𝑓𝑔, 𝑚𝑎𝑥(𝑓, 𝑔) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑖𝑛(𝑓, 𝑔) are all measurable. That is measurable functions
form algebra and this algebra is closed under convergence a.e.

We say that sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) of functions converges


𝑠𝑢𝑝
1. uniformly to f (notated 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓) if 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥) → 0
𝑥∇𝑋 𝑛
𝑎. 𝑒
2. almost everywhere to 𝑓 (notated 𝑓𝑛 𝑓) if 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋\𝐴, 𝜇 𝐴 = 0.

𝜇
3. in measure µ to f (notated 𝑓𝑛 𝑓) if for all 𝜀 > 0, 𝜇 {𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑓𝑛 𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥) >

𝜀} → 0.

Clearly uniform convergence implies both convergences a.e and in measure.

On finite measures convergence a.e. implies convergence in measure.

ALGEBRA OF SETS: The set of all subsets of a universal set E is closed under the binary
operations ∪ union and ∩ intersection and the unary operation complementation .
The following are some of the properties, or laws, that hold for subsets A, B and C of E:
(i) 𝐴 ∪ (𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∪ 𝐶 and 𝐴 ∩ (𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∩ 𝐶 (Associative
property)
(ii) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝐵 ∪ 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝐵 ∩ 𝐴 (commutative property)
(iii) 𝐴 ∪ Ø = 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ Ø = Ø, where Ø is the empty set.
(iv) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐸 = 𝐸 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 = 𝐴.
(v) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 = 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴 = 𝐴.
(vi) 𝐴 ∩ (𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶)
and 𝐴 ∪ (𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐶) (distributive property)
(vii) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ = 𝐸 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′ = Ø.
(viii) 𝐸′ = Ø and Ø′ = 𝐸.
(ix) (𝐴′)′ = 𝐴.
(x) (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∩ 𝐵′ and (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∪ 𝐵′ De Morgan’s laws
The application of these laws to subsets of E is known as the algebra of sets.
ALGEBRA WITH IDENTITY: An algebra A is called an algebra with identity if there exists
a non-zero element in A, denoted by 𝑒 and called the identity element or the identity
such that
𝑒𝑓 = 𝑓𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝜖 𝐴
Obviously the identify in an algebra is unique.
ALGORITHM: An algorithm is a chain of instructions that tell how to carry out a task. An
algorithm must be specified exactly, so that there can be no doubt about what to do
next, and it must have a finite number of steps.
ALIQUOT PART : Aliquot part is another name for a proper divisor, i.e. any divisor of a
given number other than the number itself. A prime number has only one aliquot part -
the number 1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 are all aliquot parts of 12. The number 1 does not have aliquot
parts.
AL-KHWARIZMI: Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (780 AD to 850 AD) was a
Muslim mathematician who introduced modern numerals (the Hindu-arabic numerals)
to Europe in his book titled Kitab -al-jabr-walli-muqabalah that provided the source for
the term algebra. His name is the source for the term algorithm.
ALMOST CONTINUOUS FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is almost continuous,
𝑓 ∇ 𝐴𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided each open subset of 𝑋 × 𝑌 containing the graph of 𝑓 also
contains the graph of a continuous function from 𝑋 to 𝑌 . This property was defined as a
generalization of functions having the fixed-point property. It is easy to see that if every
function in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑋) has the fixed-point property, then so does every 𝑓 ∇ 𝐴𝐶(𝑋, 𝑋).

ALMOST EVERYWHERE: If we have a property 𝑃(𝑥) which is true except possibly for
𝑥 ∇ 𝐴 and µ(𝐴) = 0, we say 𝑃(𝑥) is almost everywhere or a.e. t is Therefore, it is a
property holding for all values except on a set of zero measure. The most remarkable
example of a set of zero measure is the set of rational numbers, so if

1, when 𝑥 is rational
𝑓 𝑥 = ,
0, when 𝑥 is irrational
then we can say that 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 almost everywhere.
ALMOST PERIODIC FUNCTIONS: The theory of almost periodic functions was originated
by H. Bohr in 1924 as a result of his study of Dirichlet series. The theory provides a
method of studying a wide class of trigonometric series of general type.
Let 𝑓(𝑥) be a complex-valued continuous function defined for all real values of 𝑥. A
number 𝑻 is called a translation number of 𝑓(𝑥) belonging to 𝜖 > 0 if
𝑠𝑢𝑝
𝑓(𝑥 + 𝑇) − 𝑓(𝑥) <∇
−∞ < 𝑥 < ∞
If for any ∇ > 0 there exists a number 𝑙(∇) > 0 such that any interval of length 𝑙(∇)
contains a translation number belonging to ∇, then 𝒇(𝒙) is called almost periodic in the
sense of Bohr. We denote by 𝑩 the set of all almost periodic functions in the sense of
Bohr.
ALPHABETS AND WORDS: Let 𝐴 be a finite set. We refer to this set 𝐴 as an alphabet and
we refer to the elements of 𝐴 as letters. (For example, the set 𝐴 might be the set of
letters in the English language, or in any other world language, or the set {0, 1} of binary
digits, or the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} of decimal digits.) For any natural number 𝑛, we
define a word of length 𝑛 over the alphabet 𝐴 to be a string of the form 𝑎1 𝑎2 . . . 𝑎𝑛 in
which 𝑎𝑖 ∇ 𝐴 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛. We shall denote by 𝐴𝑛 the set of all words of length 𝑛
over the alphabet 𝐴. In particular, 𝐴1 = 𝐴.
Alt: alternating group (Alt(n) is also written as An)
ALTERNATING GROUP, An: It is the subgroup of the symmetric group 𝑆𝑛 and it contains
all the even permutations of 𝑛 objects. It has order 𝑛!/2. For 𝑛 > 4, it is the only proper
normal subgroup of 𝑆𝑛 apart from the empty set. The alternating group is a simple
group.
ALTERNATING MAP: A multilinear map 𝜙: 𝑉 𝑘 = 𝑉 × · · · × 𝑉 → 𝑈 where 𝑘 > 1, is
said to be alternating if for all 𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ∇ 𝑉 the value 𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ) changes sign
whenever two of the vectors 𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 are interchanged, that is
𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑖 , . . . , 𝑣𝑗 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ) = −𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑗 , . . . , 𝑣𝑖 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ).
ALTERNATING SERIES: An alternating series is a series in which every term has the
opposite sign from the preceding term. For example, 1 − 𝑥 + 𝑥 2 − 𝑥 3 + − − − is an
alternating series.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: The model considered to be the case if the null
hypothesis in considered to be rejected (not hold). There is some debate as to whether
an alternative hypothesis increases the subjectiveness of hypothesis testing, since the
alternative hypothesis does not necessarily have to be the negation of the null
hypothesis. The issue is whether it is appropriate to make presumptions of what
the model in consideration cannot be (models not covered by the null or alternative
hypothesis but not considered) in hypothesis testing. Setting the alternative hypothesis
to be the negation of the null hypothesis amounts to not using alternative hypothesis as
some statistician would advocate. The alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis that
states, “The null hypothesis is false.”

AMBIGUOUS: Having more than one possible way, meaning , value, or solution.
AMICABLE NUMBERS: A pair of numbers with the property that each is equal to the sum
of the positive proper divisors of the other. Here proper divisor means that the number
is not included as one of its own divisors. For example, 220 and 284 are amicable
numbers because the positive divisors of 220 are 1,
2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 20, 22, 44, 55 and 110, whose sum is 284, and the positive divisors of 284
are 1, 2, 4, 71 and 142, whose sum is 220. More than 600 pairs are now known.
AMOUNT: The total value of an investment, including the principal and the interest
AMPLITUDE: Half the difference between the maximum and the minimum values of a
periodic function. The amplitude of a periodic function is half of the difference between
the largest possible value of the function and the smallest possible value. For example,
for the function 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑥, the largest possible value of 𝑦 is 1 and the smallest possible
1−(−1)
value of 𝑦 is −1, so the amplitude is = 1.
2

An : The alternating group of degree 𝑛 and order 𝑛!/2. That is, a group having 𝑛!/
2 members which act on 𝑛 elements of a set. It is a group that consists of members
which are even permutations (compositions of even number of permutations) only.

ANALOG COMPUTATION: The term analog computation is a generic term describing


various techniques of computation employing diagrams, or physical systems whose
equations are similar to the mathematical problems in question. The history of analog
computation is probably as old as that of digital computation; for example, the ancient
Greeks tried to solve cubic equations using diagrams, and the astrolabe widely used by
astronomers through the medieval period is also a kind of analog computer. Soon after
the discovery of logarithms, the slide rule was invented. In the 18th Century, the
planimeter, used to measure plane areas, was introduced, and in the 19th Century, the
nomogram appeared. In the first half of 20th Century, a large electronic analog computer
was developed, thus predating the first practical digital computer. However, analog
computation has an essential defect, namely, the limitation of accuracy. Today it is
useful for simple calculation, but is rapidly becoming less important as the development
of digital computers, including pocket calculators, advances.
ANALYSIS: Analysis (Real Analysis, Mathematical Analysis or Complex Analysis) is the
branch of mathematics that studies limits and convergence; calculus is a part of analysis.
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: The sum of squared deviations from the mean of a whole
sample is split into parts representing the contributions from the major sources of
variation. The procedure uses these parts to test hypotheses concerning the equality of
mean effects of one or more factors and interactions between these factors. A special
use of the procedure enables the testing of the significance of regression, although in
simple linear regression this test may be calculated and presented in the form of a t-test.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a process used to test the hypothesis that three or more
different samples were all selected from populations with the same mean. The method
is based on a test statistic:
𝑛𝑆 ∗ 2
𝐹= 2
𝑆
where n is the number of members in each sample, 𝑆 ∗ 2 is the variance of the sample
averages for all of the groups, and 𝑆 2 is the average variance for the groups. If the null
hypothesis is true and the population means actually are all the same, this statistic will
have an 𝐹 distribution with (𝑚 − 1) and 𝑚(𝑛 − 1) degrees of freedom, where 𝑚 is the
number of samples. If the value of the test statistic is too large, the null hypothesis is
rejected. Intuitively, a large value of 𝑆 ∗ 2 means that the observed sample averages are
spread further apart, thereby making the test statistic larger and the null hypothesis
less likely to be accepted.
ANALYTIC FUNCTION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): A single-valued function which is
differentiable at every point of its domain. If the function is not differentiable
everywhere it may be said to be analytic at points where it is differentiable.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY: Analytic geometry is the branch of mathematics that uses
algebra to help in the study of geometry.
ANALYTIC METHOD: If the OR, model is solved by using all the tools of classical
mathematics such as differential calculus and finite differences available for this task,
then such type of solutions are called analytic solutions. Solutions of various inventory
models are obtained by adopting the so called analytic procedure.

ANALYTIC SETS: We say that a subset 𝐴 of a complex analytic manifold 𝑮 is an analytic


set in 𝐺 if it is a closed subset and each point of 𝐴 has a neighborhood 𝑈 such that 𝑈 ∩ 𝐴
is the set of common zeros of a finite number of holomorphic functions in 𝑈. Specifically,
if 𝐴 is locally the set of zeros of a single holomorphic function that does not vanish
identically, then 𝐴 is called the principal analytic set.
ANCHOR RING: A surface obtained by rotating a circle (radius a) about a line in its plane
at a distance b (>a) from the centre is called anchor ring.

AND: The word “AND” is a connective word used in logic. The sentence “ p AND q” is true
only if both sentence p as well as sentence q are true. The operation of AND is illustrated
by the truth table:
p Q p AND q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F

An AND sentence is also called a conjunction.


ANGLE BETWEEN A LINE AND A PLANE: The complement of the angle between the
normal to a plane and a straight line is called the angle between the line and the plane.

Let the given plane be 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛 = 𝑞 and the given line ne parallel to the vector b. Then if ∅
be the angle between the normal to the plane i.e. n and the given line (parallel to b), we
have

𝑛 ∙ 𝑏 = 𝑛 𝑏 cos ∅ = 𝑛𝑏 cos ∅ , 𝑤𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑛 = 𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏 = 𝑏 .

𝑛 ∙𝑏
∴ ∅ = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 .
𝑛𝑏

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES: If a line has slope m, then the angle it makes with the
positive direction of x-axis is tan−1 𝑚.
The angle between a line with slope 𝑚1 and another line with slope 𝑚2 is given by
𝑚1 − 𝑚2
tan−1 .
1 + 𝑚1 𝑚2
If 𝒗𝟏 is a vector pointing in the direction of a line, and 𝒗𝟐 is a vector pointing in the
direction of another line, then the angle between them is:
𝒗𝟏 . 𝒗𝟐
cos−1
𝒗𝟏 × 𝒗𝟐
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO PLANES: The angle between the normals to two planes is called
the angle between the planes.

Let the two planes be 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛1 = 𝑞1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛2 = 𝑞2 𝑤𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑛1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛2 are vectors


perpendicular to the two planes. Now if 𝜃 be the angle between the two planes (i.e.
between their normal’s, then 𝑛1 ∙ 𝑛2 = 𝑛1 𝑛2 cos 𝜃

𝑛1∙ 𝑛2 𝑛1∙ 𝑛2
or cos 𝜃 = where 𝑛1 = 𝑛1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛2 𝑛2 or 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 .
𝑛1𝑛2 𝑛1𝑛2

ANGLE BETWEEN LINES IN SPACE: If ⌌𝑙1 , 𝑚1 , 𝑛1 ⌍ and ⌌𝑙2 , 𝑚2 , 𝑛2 ⌍ are direction ratios for
directions along the lines, the angle θ between the lines is given by
𝑙1 𝑙2 + 𝑚1 𝑚2 + 𝑛1 𝑛2
𝜃 = cos −1
𝑙1 2 + 𝑚1 2 + 𝑛1 2 𝑙2 2 + 𝑚2 2 + 𝑛2 2

ANGLE BISECTOR THEOREM: A theorem which states that, given any triangle and any
one of its angle, the angle bisector divides its opposite side into
2 segments whose length are of the same ratio as the lengths of the
corresponding adjacent sides.

ANGULAR ACCELERATION: The time derivative of angular velocity, that is, the rate
(with respect of time) of increase of angular velocity.

ANGULAR FREQUENCY: Also known as angular speed. (So called because the measure is
essentially the same as how often - frequency - a certain unit of angle is achieved.). It is the
𝑑2𝑥
constant ω in the equation = −𝜔2 𝑥 for simple harmonic motion. The angular
𝑑𝑡 2

frequency ω is usually measured in radians per second. The frequency of the


oscillations is equal to ω/2π.

ANGULAR MEASURE: The angle between the line from the observer to object 1 and the
line from the observer to object 2. For example: Shortly after sunrise, you see that the
sun is only a few degrees above the horizon, while at noon it is elevated to nearly 90
degrees (or directly overhead). You are the observer, the sun is Object 1, and the
horizon is Object 2.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: A measure of the state of a physical system that is related to its
spin or abiliy to spin. Analogous to linear momentum, angular momentum of a system is
conserved unless an external force is applied in a particular way. Suppose that the
particle P of mass m has position vector 𝒓 and is moving with velocity 𝒗 at any time t.
Then the angular momentum 𝑳 of P about the point A with position vector 𝒓’ is the
vector defined by 𝑳 = (𝒓 – 𝒓’) × 𝑚𝒗. It is the moment of the linear momentum about
the point A

ANGULAR SPEED: Angular speed is the magnitude of the angular velocity.


ANGULAR VELOCITY: Suppose that a particle P is moving in the plane, in a circle with
centre at the origin 𝑂 and radius 𝑟0 . Let (𝑟0 , 𝜃) be the polar coordinates of P. At an
elementary level, the angular velocity may be defined to be θ.
ANNULUS: It is the region between two concentric circles. If the circles have radii 𝑟 and
1
𝑟 + 𝑤, the area of the annulus is equal to 2𝜋𝑤(𝑟 + 𝑤). It is therefore the same as the
2

area of a rectangle of width 𝑤 and length equal to the circumference of the circle
midway in size between the two original circles.

ANNULUS OF CONVERGENCE: The set of convergence of a Laurent series is either an


open set of the form {𝑧 ∶ 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < |𝑧 − 𝑃| < 𝑟2 }, together with perhaps some or all of
the boundary points of the set, or a set of the form {𝑧 ∶ 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < |𝑧 − 𝑃| < +∞},
together with perhaps some or all of the boundary points of the set. Such an open set is
called an annulus centered at 𝑃.
ANTECEDENT: The "if" part of a conditional statement. It is the part of a conditional
statement such that if the antecedent is true, then the other part (the consequent) must
also be true. For example, the antecedent is the clause "he is good at math" in the
statement "If he is good at math, he must know what is."
ANTIDERIVATIVE: Given a real function 𝑓 in the domain 𝐷, any function 𝑔 such that
𝑔′(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥), for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝐷, is an antiderivative of 𝑓. If 𝑔1 and 𝑔2 are both
antiderivatives of a continuous function 𝑓, then 𝑔1 (𝑥) and 𝑔2 (𝑥) differ by a constant. In
that case, the notation ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 may be used for an antiderivative of f, with the
understanding that an arbitrary constant can be added to any antiderivative.
ANTIDIAGONAL: For conventionally written matrices, the diagonal that runs from the
top right to thr bottom left. i.e. The "other" diagonal, as opposed to the main diagonal.
(The main diagonal is the diagonal that the elements "1" in an identity matrix runs
along.)

ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM: The Antikythera mechanism is an analog computer that


was used by the Greeks more than 2000 years ago to locate and predict the positions of
celestial objects. When new, the device was made of bronze with a wooden frame and
was roughly the size of a wall clock. The name Antikythera comes from the island near
where the device was discovered in the remains of a shipwreck that occurred in or
around the year 76 B.C. Like a mechanical clock, the Antikythera mechanism has dials
along with a sophisticated system of gears. It bears inscriptions that have been
deciphered. Based on its construction and on the nature of the writing, scientists have
deduced that the Antikythera mechanism must have been used to measure astronomical
time based on cycles of the sun, the moon and the planets. In this way it could have been
employed to predict solar and lunar eclipses, tides and the recurrence of the seasons.
These functions would have made the device useful to farmers, seafarers and perhaps
even military commanders.

ANTIPODAL POINTS: Antipodal points are two points on a sphere that are at opposite
ends of a diameter.
ANTISYMMETRIC MATRIX: A matrix such that it's sum with its transpose matrix is
the zero matrix.

ANTISYMMETRIC RELATION: A binary relation ~ on a set S is called as antisymmetric if,


for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆, whenever 𝑎 ~ 𝑏 and 𝑏 ~ 𝑎, then 𝑎 = 𝑏.
ANTI-SYMMETRIC TENSOR: A tenser 𝐴𝑖𝑗 is said to be anti-symmetric (or skew-
symmetric) if 𝐴𝑖𝑗 = −𝐴𝑗𝑖 .

ANTITONE FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 from a partially ordered set 𝑆 to a partially


ordered set 𝑇 is antitone if 𝑥 ≤ 𝑦 in 𝑆 implies 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝑓(𝑥) in 𝑇.
APOLLONIUS: Apollonius of Perga (262 BC to 190 BC) was a mathematician who
studied in Alexandria under pupils of Euclid, wrote works that extended Euclid’s work
in geometry, particularly focusing on conic sections.

APOTHEM: The apothem of a regular polygon is the distance from the center of the
polygon to one of the sides of the polygon, in the direction that is perpendicular to that
side.

APPROXIMATE EQUALITY: Approximate equality is a concept used primarily in physics


and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics. Two quantities are
approximately equal when they are close enough in value so the difference is
inconsequential in practical terms. Approximate equality is symbolized by a squiggly
equal sign ( ).
As an example of how approximate equality can be used in mathematics, consider the
positive square root of 2 (or 2 ). This is an irrational number ; when written in
decimal form, it is nonterminating and nonrepeating. Expressed to four significant
digits, 2 1.414. It is possible to express it to many more significant digits, but the
result will always be an approximation. Thus, to 10 significant digits,
2 1.414213562, and to 20 significant digits, 2 1.4142135623730950488. An
example of an approximate equation using variables is x + y z.

In many cases, the ordinary equality symbol (=) is used in situations where, to be
rigorous, the approximate equality sign ought to be used. This is done for two reasons:
first, most fonts do not include an approximate equality symbol; and secondly, many
people do not know what the approximate equality symbol means.
APPROXIMATION: When two quantities 𝑋 and 𝑥 are approximately equal, written
𝑋 ≈ 𝑥, one of them may be used in suitable circumstances in place of, or as an
22
approximation for, the other. For example, 𝜋 = and 3 = 1.73.
7

APPROXIMATION SCHEME: An approximation method requires a set of approximating


functions, 𝑈 say, which is a subset of 𝑋. Specifically, the method is just a mapping from 𝑋
to 𝑈. In other words, given any 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋, the method picks the element 𝑢𝑓 , say, from 𝑈,
which is regarded as an approximation to 𝑓. To find whether the method is good or bad,
it should be compared with the best approximation
APPROXIMATION THEORY: It is the area of numerical analysis related to finding a
simpler function 𝑓(𝑥) which has approximately the same value as 𝑔(𝑥) over a specified
interval. The analysis is then carried out on the more accessible 𝑓(𝑥) knowing that the
difference will be small.
ARAKELOV THEORY: Arakelov theory is an approach to arithmetic geometry that
explicitly includes the 'infinite primes'.
ARBITRARY CONSTANT: It is a non–numerical symbol which is not a variable in a
generalized operation. For example, 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 is the general equation of a straight
line in two dimensions, where 𝑚 and 𝑐 are arbitrary constants which represent the
slope of the line and the y- intercept.
ARC: An arc of a circle is the set of points on the circle that lie in the interior of a
particular central angle. Therefore an arc is a part of a circle. The degree measure of an
arc is the same as the degree measure of the angle that defines it. If 𝜃 is the degree
measure of an arc and r is the radius, then the length of the arc is 2𝜋𝑟𝜃/360. The term
arc is also used for a portion of any curve.
arccos: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosine function.
arccosec: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosecant function. (Also written as arccsc).
arccosech: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written
as arcsch).
arccosh: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosine function.
arccot: It is the abbreviation for It is the abbreviation for inverse cotangent function.
arccoth: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cotangent function.
arccsc: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosecant function. (Also written as arccosec).
arccsch: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as
arcosech).
ARC LENGTH: The length of an arc of a curve can be found with integration. Let ds
represent a very small segment of the arc, and let dx and dy represent the x and y
components of the arc.
Then: 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2 .

Rewrite this as:

2
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑠 = 1+ 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥
Now, suppose we need to know the length of the arc between the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 =
𝑏. Set up this integral:
𝑏
2
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑠 = 1+ 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑎

For the curve 𝑥 = 𝑥(𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑦(𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]), the arc length equals
𝑡=𝑏
2 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑠 = + 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑡=𝑎

For the curve 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝜃)(𝑎 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 𝑏), the arc length equals


𝜃=𝑏
2
𝑑𝑟
𝑑𝑠 = 𝑟2 + 𝑑𝜃
𝑑𝜃
𝜃=𝑎

arcsec: It is the abbreviation for inverse secant function.


arcsin: It is the abbreviation for inverse sine function.
arctan: It is the abbreviation for inverse tangent function.
ARCHIMEDEAN ORDERED FIELD: An ordered field F is said to be an Archimedean
ordered field if ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐹, 𝑦 > 0, there exists some 𝑛 ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑛𝑦 > 𝑥.
ARCHIMEDEAN PROPERTY OF REAL NUMBERS: Let 𝑎 be any real number and 𝑏 any
positive real number. Then there exists a positive integer 𝑛 such that 𝑛𝑏 > 𝑎.
ARCHIMEDEAN SPIRAL: It is the curve whose equation is 𝑟 = 𝑎𝜃 in polar coordinates,
where 𝑎 (> 0) is a constant.

ARCHIMEDES: Archimedes (290 BC to 211 BC) studied at Alexandria and then lived in
Syracuse. He wrote extensively on mathematics and developed formulas for the volume
and surface area of a sphere, and a way to calculate the circumference of a circle. He also
developed the principle of floating bodies and invented military devices that delayed
the capture of the city by the Romans.
ARCHIMEDES’ SPIRAL INVERSE: Taking the origin as the inversion center, archimedes'
spiral 𝑇 = 𝑎𝜃 inverts to the hyperbolic spiral = 𝑎/𝜃 .

AREA: The size of a surface measured in square units is called area.


AREA OF A CIRCLE: The area of a circle with radius r is equal to r2.
AREA OF AN ELLIPSE: The area of an ellipse (semi-major axis a and semi-minor axis b)
is equal to ab.
AREA OF A PARALLELOGRAM: The area of a parallelogram is equal to the length of a
base multiplied by the height to that base.
AREA OF A SQUARE OR A RECTANGLE: The area of a rectangle equals the product of its
base and its height (or the product of its length and its width). The area of a square is
equal to the square of the length of a side.
AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION: Let 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) be the graph of a function 𝑓 such
that 𝑓′ is continuous on [𝑎, 𝑏] and 𝑓(𝑥) ≥ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏]. The area of the surface
obtained by rotating, through one revolution about the 𝑥-axis, the arc of the curve
𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) between 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏, equals
𝑏
2
𝑑𝑦
2𝜋 𝑦 1+ 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑎

For the curve 𝑥 = 𝑥(𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑦(𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]), the surface area equals
𝑡=𝑏
2 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
2𝜋 𝑦 + 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑡=𝑎

For the curve 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝜃)(𝑎 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 𝑏), the surface area equals


𝜃=𝑏
2
𝑑𝑟
2𝜋 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑟 2 + 𝑑𝜃
𝑑𝜃
𝜃=𝑎

AREA OF A TRAPEZOID: The area of a trapezoid is equal to half the product of its height
and the sum of its bases.
AREA OF A TRIANGLE: The area of a triangle is equal to half the product of a base (a
side) and the height to that base.
AREA-PRESERVING MAP: A map 𝐹 from 𝐼𝑘 n to 𝑅 n is area-preserving if 𝑚(𝐴) =
𝑚(𝐹 𝐴 ) for every subregion 𝐴 of 𝐼𝑘 n , where 𝑚(𝐴) is the measure of 𝐴. A linear
transformation is area preserving if its corresponding determinant is equal to 1.

AREA SAMPLING: A method of sampling where a geographical region is subdivided into


smaller areas (counties, villages, city blocks, etc.), some of which are selected at random,
and the chosen areas are then subsampled or completely surveyed.

AREA THEOREM (CONFORMAL MAPPING): Suppose that 𝑓 is analytic and injective in


the punctured open unit disk 𝐷 − {0} and has the power series representation

then the coefficients satisfy

AREA UNDER A CURVE: Suppose that the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) lies above the 𝑥 −axis, so that
𝑓(𝑥) ≥ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏]. The area under the curve, that is, the area of the region
bounded by the curve, the 𝑥-axis and the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏, equals
𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑎
If 𝑓(𝑥) ≤ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏], the integral above is negative. However, it is still the case
that its absolute value is equal to the area of the region bounded by the curve, the
𝑥 −axis and the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏. If 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) crosses the 𝑥-axis, appropriate
results hold. For example, if the regions A and B are as shown in the figure below,

then area of region A is


𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑎

and area of region B is


𝑐

− 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑏

It follows that
𝑐 𝑏 𝑐

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑎 𝑎 𝑏

Similarly, to find the area of the region bounded by a suitable curve, the 𝑦-axis, and lines
𝑦 = 𝑐 and 𝑦 = 𝑑, an equation 𝑥 = 𝑔(𝑦) for the curve must be found. Then the
required area equals
𝑑

𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝑐

If a curve has an equation 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝜃) in polar coordinates, there is an integral that gives
the area of the region bounded by an arc AB of the curve and the two radial lines OA and
OB. Suppose that ∠xOA = α and ∠xOB = β. The area of the region described equals
𝛽
1
𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃
2
𝛼

ARG: It is the abbreviation for argument of a complex number.


ARGAND, JEAN ROBERT (1768–1822): Jean Robert Argand was a Swiss Mathematician,
who invented a geometrical representation of complex numbers. The name Argand
diagram is due to him.
ARGAND DIAGRAM: Another name for the complex plane. In a Cartesian coordinate
system, a point can be represented using coordinates (𝑥, 𝑦). When this point is taken to
represent the complex number (𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦), the plane is called complex plane or Argand
diagram. It is named after the Swiss-born mathematician Jean Robert Argand, one of
several people who invented this geometrical representation for complex numbers.
ARG MAX: It is the abbreviation for argument of the maximum.
ARG MIN: It is the abbreviation for argument of the minimum.
ARGUMENT: (1) The argument of a function is the independent variable that is put into
the function. In the expression sin x, x is the argument of the sine function.
(2) In logic, an argument is a sequence of sentences (called premises) that lead to a
resulting sentence (called the conclusion).
ARISTOTLE: Aristotle (384 BC to 322 BC) wrote about many areas of human knowledge,
including the field of logic. He was a student of Plato and also a tutor to Alexander the
Great.
ARITHMETIC-GEOMETRIC MEAN INEQUALITY: The arithmetic mean of a set of non-
negative numbers is never less than their geometric mean. So for any 𝑎, 𝑏 > 0, we have
𝑎+𝑏
≥ 𝑎𝑏 with equality if and only 𝑎 = 𝑏.
2

ARITHMETIC MEAN: The arithmetic mean of a group of n numbers (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , . . . 𝑎𝑛 ),


written as AM, is the sum of the numbers divided by n:
𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + . . . +𝑎𝑛
𝐴𝑀 =
𝑛
The arithmetic mean is commonly called the average.
ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE: An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of n numbers of the
form
𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑏, 𝑎 + 2𝑏, 𝑎 + 3𝑏, . . . , 𝑎 + (𝑛 − 1)𝑏
ARITHMETIC SERIES: An arithmetic series is a sum of an arithmetic sequence:
𝑎 + 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑎 + 2𝑏 + 𝑎 + 3𝑏 + . . . +( 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑏)
In an arithmetic series the difference between any two successive terms is a constant
(in this case b). The sum of the first n terms in the arithmetic series above is
𝑛
𝑆𝑛 = 2𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑏
2
ARITY: The arity of something is the number of arguments it takes. This is usually
applied to functions: an 𝑛-ary function is one that takes 𝑛 arguments. Unary is a
synonym for 1-ary, and binary for 2-ary.
ARMSTRONG NUMBER: The 𝑛-digit numbers equal to sum of nth powers of their digits
(a finite sequence), also called plus perfect numbers. They first few are given by 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 8208, 9474, 54748.

ARRAY: A configuration or arrangement of objects which is considered systematic in


some ways, including but not limited to a rectangular array, where matrices (and by
extension, the matrix representation of vectors) are examples.

ARTIFICIAL SINGULARITIES: These singularities are due to particular choice of


parametric representation e.g. the pole in the plane, referred to polar coordinates is an
artificial singularity.
ARTIN APPROXIMATION THEOREM: Let 𝐾 be a valued field of characteristic zero and let
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) be a vector of convergent power series in two sets of variables 𝑥 and 𝑦. Assume
given a formal power series solution 𝑦(𝑥) vanishing at 0, 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦 (𝑥)) = 0. Then there
exists, for any 𝑐 ∇ 𝑁, a convergent power series solution 𝑦(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦(𝑥)) = 0 which
coincides with 𝑦(𝑥) up to degree c, 𝑦(𝑥) ≡ 𝑦(𝑥) modulo (𝑥)𝑐 .
ARTIN, EMIL: Emil Artin (March 3, 1898-December 20, 1962) was born in Vienna. After
he studied at the Universities of Vienna, Leipzig, and Gottingen, he taught at the
University of Hamburg from 1923 to 1937. In 1937 he left Germany under the Nazi
regime for America, where he taught at Notre Dame, Indiana, and Princeton universities.
He returned to Germany in 1948 and taught again at the University of Hamburg until his
fatal heart attack.
ARTINIAN GROUP: A group in which any decreasing chain of distinct subgroups
terminates after a finite number.

ARTINIAN RING: A non-commutative semi-simple ring satisfying the “descending chain


condition.”

ARTIN L-FUNCTIONS: Artin L-functions are defined for quite general Galois
representations. The introduction of étale cohomology in the 1960s meant that Hasse–
Weil L-functions (q.v) could be regarded as Artin L-functions for the Galois
representations on l-adic cohomology groups.
ARTIN’S CONJECTURE: There are at least two statements which go by the name of
Artin’s conjecture. The first is the Riemann hypothesis. The second states that every
integer not equal to −1 or a square number is a primitive root modulo 𝑝 for infinitely
many p and proposes a density for the set of such 𝑝 which are always rational multiples
of a constant known as Artin's constant. There is an analogous theorem for functions
instead of numbers which has been proved by Billharz.

ARTIN’S RECIPROCITY THEOREM: A general reciprocity theorem for all orders. If R is


a number field and R’ a finite integral extension, then there is a surjection from the
group of fractional ideals prime to the discriminant, given by the Artin symbol. For some
cycle c, the kernel of this surjection contains each principal fractional ideal generated by
an element congruent to 1 mod c.

ARTIN–WEDDERBURN THEOREM: Artin–Wedderburn theorem is a classification


theorem for semi-simple rings and semi-simple algebras. The theorem states that an
(Artinian) semi-simple ring 𝑅 is isomorphic to a product of finitely many 𝑛𝑖 × 𝑛𝑖 matrix
rings over division rings 𝐷𝑖 , for some integers 𝑛𝑖 , both of which are uniquely determined
up to permutation of the index 𝑖. In particular, any simple left or right Artinian ring is
isomorphic to an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix ring over a division ring 𝐷, where both 𝑛 and 𝐷 are
uniquely determined.
ĀRYABHATA (about 476-550): An Indian mathematician, author of one of the oldest
Indian mathematical texts. Written in verse, the Āryabhatīya is a summary of
miscellaneous rules for calculation and mensuration. It deals with the areas of certain
plane figures, values for π, and the summation of arithmetic series.

ARZELA-ASCOLI THEOREM: A sequence {𝑓𝑛  } of continuous functions on an interval 𝐼 =


[𝑎, 𝑏] is uniformly bounded if there is a number 𝑀 such that

for every function  𝑓𝑛   belonging to the sequence, and every 𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]. The sequence
is equicontinuous if, for every 𝜀 > 0, there exists 𝛿 > 0 such that

whenever |𝑥 − 𝑦| < 𝛿  for all functions  𝑓𝑛   in the sequence. Succinctly, a sequence is
equicontinuous if and only if all of its elements admit the same modulus of continuity. In
simplest terms, the theorem can be stated as follows:

Consider a sequence of real-valued continuous functions  𝑓𝑛   ; 𝑛 ∇ 𝑵 defined on a


closed and bounded interval [𝑎, 𝑏] of the real line. If this sequence is uniformly
bounded and equicontinuous, then there exists a subsequence (𝑓𝑛𝑘 ) that converges
uniformly.
The converse is also true, in the sense that if every subsequence of  𝑓𝑛  } itself has a
uniformly convergent subsequence, then  𝑓𝑛  } is uniformly bounded and
equicontinuous.
ASCENDING CHAIN CONDITION: A collection 𝑆 of subsets of a set 𝑋 satisfies the
ascending chain condition or ACC if there does not exist an infinite ascending chain
𝑆1 ⊆ 𝑆2 ⊆ · · · of subsets from 𝑆.

ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM: It is a type of problem in which things of one type are to be


matched with the same number of things of another type in a way that is, in a specified
sense, the best possible.
 The number of assignees and the number of tasks are the same, 𝑛.
 Each assignee is to be assigned to exactly one task.
 Each task is to be performed by exactly one assignee.
 There is a cost 𝑐𝑖𝑗 associated with assignee 𝑖 (𝑖 = 1,2, … , 𝑛) performing
task 𝑗 (𝑗 = 1,2, … , 𝑛).
 The objective is to determine how all 𝑛 assignments should be made to minimize
the total cost.
ASSOCIATED LAGUERRE POLYNOMIALS: The differential equation

d2 y dy
𝑥 + 𝛼 + 1 − 𝑥 + ny = 0,
dx 2 dx

is called associated Laguerre equation.

ASSOCIATION: A relationship between two or more variables.


ASSOCIATIVE: Denoting an operation in which the outcome is independent of the
grouping of the symbols and numbers involved, that is,
(𝑎 ∗ 𝑏) ∗ 𝑐 = 𝑎 ∗ (𝑏 ∗ 𝑐), in which ∗ is the operation. Such examples include addition
and multiplication.

(1 + 2) + 3 = 1 + (2 + 3)
(4 × 5) × 6 = 4 × (5 × 6)

The following examples demonstrate that subtraction and division are not associative:

(3 − 2) − 1 3 − (2 − 1)
(12 / 4) / 3 12 / (4 / 3)

ASSOCIATIVE ALGEBRAS: Let 𝐾 be a commutative ring with unity element 1, and let 𝐴
be a ring which is a unitary 𝐾-module. Such a ring 𝐴 is called an associative algebra over
𝐾 (or simply algebra over 𝐾 ) if it satisfies the condition 𝛼(𝑎𝑏) = (𝛼𝑎)𝑏 = 𝑎(𝛼𝑏) (𝛼 ∇
𝐾; 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐴). An (associative) algebra 𝐴 over 𝐾 is often written 𝐴/𝐾, and 𝐾 is called the
coefficient ring (or ground ring) of the algebra 𝐴 = 𝐴/𝐾 . In particular, if 𝐾 is a field,
then it is called the coefficient field (or ground field) of 𝐴. Notions such as zero algebra,
unitary algebra, commutative algebra, (semi) simple algebra, and division algebra are
replicas of the respective ones for rings. Considering both structures as rings and as 𝐾 -
modules, homomorphisms and isomorphisms are defined in a natural manner, and are
called algebra homomorphism and algebra isomorphism, respectively. In this
connection, subalgebra, quotient algebra (or residue class algebra), and direct product
of algebras are also defined as in the case of rings.
ASSOCIATIVE BINARY OPERATIONS: Let ∗ be a binary operation on a set 𝐴. Given any
three elements 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 of a set 𝐴, the binary operation, applied to the elements 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦
and 𝑧 of 𝐴, yields an element (𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) ∗ 𝑧 of 𝐴, and, applied to the elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 ∗ 𝑧
of 𝐴, yields an element 𝑥 ∗ (𝑦 ∗ 𝑧) of 𝐴. A binary operation ∗ on a set 𝐴 is said to be
associative if (𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) ∗ 𝑧 = 𝑥 ∗ (𝑦 ∗ 𝑧) for all elements 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 of 𝐴. The
operations of addition and multiplication on the set 𝑅 of real numbers are associative,
since (𝑥 + 𝑦) + 𝑧 = 𝑥 + (𝑦 + 𝑧) and (𝑥 × 𝑦) × 𝑧 = 𝑥 × (𝑦 × 𝑧) for all real numbers
𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧. However the operation of subtraction is not associative. For example
(1 − 2) − 3 = −4, but 1 − (2 − 3) = 2.
ASSOCIATIVE PROPERTY: An operation obeys the associative property if the grouping of
the numbers involved does not matter. Formally, the associative property of addition
says that
𝑎+ 𝑏 + 𝑐= 𝑎+ 𝑏+ 𝑐 .
The associative property for multiplication says that
(𝑎 × 𝑏) × 𝑐 = 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝑐 .
ASSUMPTION OF SEQUENCING: Some principal assumptions are as follows:

(i) The processing times 𝐴′𝑖 𝑠 etc. are exactly known and are independent of the
order of the jobs in which they are to be processed. Such problems where times are
exactly known are called deterministic problems.
(ii) The time taken by the jobs in going from one machine to another is negligible.
(iii) Each job, once started on a machine, is to be performed up to completion on that
machine.
(iv) A job starts on the machine as soon as the job and the machine both are idle and
job is next to the machine and the machine is also next to the job.
(v) There is only one machine of each type.
(vi) No machine may process more than one job at a time.
(vii) The cost of keeping the jobs in inventory (if needed) during the in process is
same for all jobs. Also it is too small that it can be neglected.
(viii) The order of completion of jobs has no significance i.e., no job is to be given
priority. Times of jobs are independent of sequence of jobs.

ASTROID: It is a hypocycloid in which the radius of the rolling circle is a quarter of the
radius of the fixed circle. It has parametric equations 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝑡, 𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑠𝑖𝑛3 𝑡, where
𝑎 is the radius of the fixed circle.

ASYMMETRIC RELATION: A binary relation ~ on a set S is said to be asymmetric if,


∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆, whenever 𝑎 ~ 𝑏, then 𝑏 ~ 𝑎 does not hold. For example, the relation > on
the set of integers is asymmetric.
ASYMPTOTE: An asymptote is a straight line that is a close approximation to a particular
curve as the curve goes off to infinity in one direction. The curve becomes very, very
close to the asymptote line, but never touches it.

ASYMPTOTIC: 1. Of or related to an asymptote, having an asymptote or capable of


having an asymptote.

2. The relation between two functions that tends to the same value (possibly infinite)
and such that the difference between the values of the 2 functions, considered as a
proportion of the values of either function, becomes arbitrarily small.

ATKINSON'S THEOREM: Let 𝐻 be a Hilbert space and 𝐿(𝐻) the set of bounded operators
on 𝐻. An operator 𝑇 ∇ 𝐿(𝐻) is said to be a Fredholm operator if the kernel 𝐾𝑒𝑟(𝑇) is
finite-dimensional, 𝐾𝑒𝑟(𝑇 ∗ ) is finite-dimensional (where 𝑇 ∗ denotes the adjoint of 𝑇),
and the range 𝑅𝑎𝑛(𝑇) is closed. Atkinson's theorem states:
A 𝑇 ∇ 𝐿(𝐻) is a Fredholm operator if and only if 𝑇 is invertible modulo compact
perturbation, i.e. 𝑇𝑆 = 𝐼 + 𝐶1 and 𝑆𝑇 = 𝐼 + 𝐶2 for some bounded
operator 𝑆 and compact operators 𝐶1 and 𝐶2 .
ATLASES: The description of most manifolds requires more than one chart (a single
chart is adequate for only the simplest manifolds). A specific collection of charts which
covers a manifold is called an atlas. An atlas is not unique as all manifolds can be
covered multiple ways using different combinations of charts. Two atlases are said to
be Ck equivalent if their union is also a Ck atlas.
AUGEND: An argument in the binary operation of addition. Technically the second
argument, it is commonly applied to both arguments due to addition
being commutative.

AUGMENTED MATRIX: For a given set of 𝑚 linear equations in 𝑛 unknowns 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … 𝑥𝑛 ,

the augmented matrix is the matrix obtained by adjoining to the matrix of coefficients
an extra column of entries taken from the right-hand sides of the equations.

We would like to make the process of solving a system of linear equations more
mechanical by forgetting about the variable names 𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 etc and doing the whole
operation as a matrix calculation. For this, we use the augmented matrix of the system
of equations, which we have constructed by “glueing” an extra column on the right-hand
side of the matrix representing the linear transformation, as above.

For the system 𝐴𝑥 = 𝐵 of m equations in n unknowns, where A is the 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix (𝑎𝑖𝑗 )


is defined to be the 𝑚 × (𝑛 + 1) matrix.
𝛼11 𝛼12 ⋯ 𝛼1𝑛 : 𝑏1
𝛼21 𝛼22 ⋯ 𝛼2𝑛 : 𝑏2
⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ : ⋮
𝛼𝑚1 𝛼𝑚2 ⋯ 𝛼𝑚𝑛 : 𝑏𝑚

The vertical line in the matrix is put there to remind that the rightmost column is
different from the others, and arises from the constants on the right hand side of the
equations.

Let us look at the following system of linear equations over ℝ: Suppose that we want to
find all 𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 𝜖 ℝ satisfying the equations.
2𝑤 − 𝑥 + 4𝑦 − 𝑧 = 1
𝑤 + 2𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 = 2
𝑤 − 3𝑥 + 3𝑦 − 2𝑧 = −1
−3𝑤 − 𝑥 − 5𝑦 + 0𝑧 = −3

Elementary row operations on 𝐴 are precisely Gauss transformations of the


corresponding linear system. Thus the solution can be carried out mechanically as
follows:

Matrix Operation(s)

2 −1 4 −1 : 1
1 2 1 1 : 2 𝑅1 →
𝑅1
1 −3 3 −2 : −1 2
−3 −1 −5 0 : −3

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2 𝑅2 → 𝑅2 − 𝑅1
1 2 1 1 : 2 𝑅3 → 𝑅3 − 𝑅1
1 −3 3 −2 : −1
𝑅4 → 𝑅4 + 3𝑅1
−3 −1 −5 0 : −3

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2
0 5 2 −1 3 2 : 3 2 𝑅3 → 𝑅3 + 𝑅2
0 −5 2 1 −3 2 : −3 2 𝑅4 → 𝑅4 + 𝑅2
0 −5 2 1 −3 2 : −3 2

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2
0 5 2 −1 3 2 : 3 2 𝑅2 →
2𝑅2
0 0 0 0 : 0 5
0 0 0 0 : 0
1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2
0 1 −2 5 3 5 : 3 5 𝑅1 → 𝑅1 +
𝑅2
0 0 0 0 : 0 2
0 0 0 0 : 0

1 0 9 5 −1 5 : 4 5
0 1 −2 5 3 5 : 3 5
0 0 0 0 : 0
0 0 0 0 : 0

The original system has been transformed to the following equivalent system, i.e, Both
systems have the same solutions.

𝑤 + 9𝑦 5 − 𝑧 5 = 4 5 , 𝑥 − 2𝑦 5 + 3 𝑧 5 = 3 5

In a solution to the latter, variables y and z can take arbitrary values in ℝ;

Say 𝑦 = 𝛼, 𝑧 = 𝛽.Then the equations tell us that 𝑤 = −9𝛼 5 + 𝛽 5 + 4 5 and

𝑥 = 2𝛼 5 − 3 𝛽 5 + 3 5 and so the complete set of solutions is

𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 = −9𝛼 5 + 𝛽 5 + 4 5 , 2𝛼 5 − 3 𝛽 5 + 3 5 , 𝛼, 𝛽

= (4 5 , 3 5,0,0) + 𝛼(−9 5, 2 5,1,0) + 𝛽(1 5, −3 5,0,1)

AUT: It is the abbreviation for automorphism group.


AUTOMORPHIC FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑧) is said to be automorphic under a group of
transformations if it is analytic in a domain D except at singular points and for all
transformations T in the group that if z is in D then so is T(z).
AUTOMORPHIC NUMBER: A number 𝑘 such that 𝑛𝑘 2 has its last digits equal to 𝑘 is
called n-automorphic. For example, 1. 52 = 25 - and 1. 62 = 36 are 1-automorphic and
2 . 82 = 128 and 2 . 882 = 15488 are 2-automorphic. de Guerre and Fairbairn (1968)
gave a history of automorphic numbers. The first few l-automorphic numbers are 1, 5, 6,
25, 76, 376, 625, 9376, 90625, . . .

AUTOMORPHISM: An automorphism is a one-to-one correspondence mapping the


elements of a set onto itself, so the domain and range of the function are the same. For
example, 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 + 5 is an automorphism on R but 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 is not.
1 1
AUXILLIARY SERIES: The series is known as the auxiliary series. Note that
𝑛𝑝 𝑛𝑝

converges if 𝑝 > 1 and diverges if 𝑝 < 1.


AVERAGE: The average of a group of numbers is the same as the arithmetic mean.
AVERAGE EXPECTED PAYOFF: An estimate of the amount that will be gained in a game
of chance, calculated by multiplying the probability of winning by the number of points
won each time.
AVERAGE LENGH OF LINE: The average time for which the system remains idle.

AXIAL PLANE: A fixed reference plane containing two of the three coordinate axes in a
three-dimensional coordinate system. For example, the plane that contains 𝑥-axis and 𝑦-
axis is the axial plane called the 𝑥𝑦-plane, or (𝑥, 𝑦)-plane. Similarly, the plane containing
𝑦-axis and 𝑧-axis is the 𝑦𝑧-plane.
AXIOM: An axiom is a statement that is assumed to be true without proof. Axiom is a
synonym for postulate.
AXIOMATIC SET THEORY: Axiomatic set theory pursues the goal of reestablishing the
essentials of G. Cantor’s rather intuitive set theory by axiomatic constructions
consistent with modern theories of the foundations of mathematics. A system of axioms
for set theory was first given by E. Zermelo, and was completed by A. Fraenkel. J. von
Neumann expressed it in symbolic logic, gave a formal generalization, and eliminated
ambiguous concepts. P. Bernays and K. Godel further refined and simplified von
Neumann’s formulation. The theories based on the systems before and after the formal
generalization are called Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF) and Bernays-Gode1 set
theory (BG), respectively.
AXIOM OF CHOICE: It states that for any collection of mutually exclusive sets there is at
least one set that contains exactly one element in common with each of the non-empty
sets.

∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑎∃𝑦𝐴(𝑥, 𝑦) → ∃𝑦∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑎𝐴(𝑥, 𝑦 𝑥 ).

This asserts that if for any element 𝑥 of a there is a set 𝑦 such that 𝐴(𝑥, 𝑦), then there is a
choice function 𝑦 for the formula, i.e., 𝐴 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑥 for all 𝑥 in a. Usually a function is
represented by its graph. A set 𝑓 is called a function defined on a if

∀𝑥∀𝑦(𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝑓 → 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎), ∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑎∃𝑦(𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝑓).

∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑎∀𝑦𝐴𝑧 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑓⋀ 𝑥, 𝑧 ∇ 𝑓 → 𝑦 = 𝑧).
This formula is denoted by Fnc(𝑓); then the formula 𝐴 𝑥, 𝑓 𝑥 is an abbreviation of
Fun 𝑓 ⋀ 3𝑦(𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝑓 ⋀ 𝐴 (𝑥, 𝑦)).

AXIOM OF THE EMPTY SET: ∃𝑥∀𝑦 ℸ𝑦 𝜖 𝑥 .

This asserts the existence of the empty set. The empty set is denoted by ⊘ or 0.

AXIOM OF EXTENSIONALITY: ∀𝑥 𝑥 𝜖 𝑎 ≡ 𝑥 𝜖 𝑏 → 𝑎 = 𝑏.

This asserts that sets formed by the same elements are equal. The formula 𝑥 𝜖 𝑎 (𝑥 𝜖 𝑏)
is denoted by 𝑎 ⊂ 𝑏. This means “𝑎 is a subset of 𝑏.” Then Axiom 1 can be expressed by

𝑎 ⊂ 𝑏 ∧ 𝑏 ⊂ 𝑎 → 𝑎 = 𝑏.

AXIOM OF INFINITY: ∃𝑥 0 𝜖 𝑥 ∨ ∀ 𝑦 𝜖 𝑥(𝑦 ′ 𝜖𝑥) .

This asserts the existence of the set consisting all the natural numbers, whereas
0,1 = 0′ = 0 , 2 = 1′ = 0,1 , 3 = 2′ = 0,1,2 . This definition of natural number is due
to von Neumann.

AXIOM OF THE POWER SET: ∀𝑥∃𝑦 𝑦 𝜖 𝑥 ≡ ∀𝑧 𝜖 𝑦(𝑧𝜖𝑎) .

This asserts the existence, for any sets a of the power set 𝑥 consisting of all the subsets
of a. This 𝑥 is denoted by 𝑃𝑎. We have 𝑆(𝑃 𝑎 = 𝑎, 𝑠𝑜 𝑆 is a left inverse of 𝑃 and the
products 𝑆𝑃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝑆 are idempotent.

AXIOM OF REGULARITY: ∀𝑥(∀𝑦𝜖𝑥𝐴(𝑦) → ∀(𝑥) → ∀ 𝑥𝐴 (𝑥).

Using this we can show that ℸ𝑥𝜖𝑥,

ℸ(𝑥𝜖𝑦 𝐴 𝑦𝜖 𝑥), etc. If we assume the axiom of choice stated below, then this is equivalent
to the nonexistence of an infinite descending sequence

𝑥𝑛 ∇ ⋯ ∇ 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑥1 .

If a model e1 of a set theory satisfies the axiom of regularity and has an infinite
descending sequence that is not in the model, then such a model is called a nonstandard
model.

AXIOM OF REPLACEMENT: ∃𝑥∀𝑦𝜖𝑎 ∃𝑧 𝐴(𝑦, 𝑧) → ∃𝑧 𝜖 𝑥𝐴 (𝑦, 𝑧) .


This asserts the existence for any set a of a set 𝑥 such that for any 𝑦 of 𝑎𝑖 , if there exists a
𝑧 satisfying 𝐴(𝑦, 𝑧) then such 𝑧 exists in 𝑥. If the relation 𝐴(𝑦, 𝑧) determines a function,
then the image of a set by the relation is included in a set, so by Axiom 7, the image is a
set. This axiom was introduced by Frankel.

AXIOM OF SEPARATION: ∃𝑥∀𝑦 𝑦 𝜖 𝑥 ≡ 𝑦 𝜖 𝑎 ⋀ 𝐴 (𝑦) .

This asserts that the existence for any set a and a formula 𝐴(𝑦) of a set 𝑥 consisting of all
element of a satisfying 𝐴(𝑦). This 𝑥 is denoted by {𝑦𝜖𝑎 𝐴 𝑦 }. This is rather a schema for
an infinite number of axioms, for there are an infinite number of 𝐴(𝑦). This axiom, also
called the axiom of comprehension or axiom of subsets, was introduced by Zermelo.

For example, the set of all natural numbers is introduced by

{𝑥𝜖𝑎}∀𝑦(0𝜖𝑦 ⋀ 𝐴 𝑧𝜖𝑦 (𝑧 ′ 𝜖𝑦) → 𝑥𝜖𝑦)}.

AXIOM OF THE SUM SET: ∃𝑥∀𝑦 𝑦 𝜖 𝑥 ≡ ∃𝑧 𝜖 𝑎(𝑦𝜖𝑧) .

This asserts the existence, for any sets a of the sum (or union) 𝑥 of all the sets that are
elements of a. This 𝑥 is denoted by the 𝑈𝑎 or 𝑆(𝑎). We write a 𝑈𝑏 for 𝑈 𝑎, 𝑏 and
𝑎′ for 𝑎𝑈{𝑎. 𝑎}.

AXIOM OF THE UNORDERED PAIR: ∃𝑥∀𝑦 𝑦 𝜖 𝑥 ≡ 𝑦 𝜖 𝑎 ∨ 𝑦 = 𝑏 .

This asserts the existence, for any sets a and b, of a set 𝑥 having a and b as its only
elements. This 𝑥 is called the unordered pair of a and b and is denoted by 𝑎, 𝑏 . The
notion of ordered pair is characterized by

𝑎, 𝑏 = 𝑐. 𝑑 ≡ 𝑎 = 𝑐 ∨ 𝑏 = 𝑑.

An example of such is 𝑎, 𝑏 = 𝑎, 𝑎 , 𝑎, 𝑏 .

AXIOM RELATING ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION:

α + β . γ = α. γ + β. γ for all α, β, γ ϵ S (Distributivity)

AXIOMS OF PROBABILITY: There are three axioms of probability:


1) The probability of an event is a real number greater than or equal to zero; 2) The sum
of the probabilities of all possible outcomes of a given experiment is 1;
3) If two events cannot both occur at the same time, the chance that either one occurs is
the sum of the chances that each occurs.
AXIOMS FOR NUMBER SYSTEM: Any particular axiom might be true in some number
systems but not in others.

AXIOMS FOR ADDITION: Let S be any number system.

A1.α + β = β + α for all α, β ϵ S (Commutativity)

A2. α + β + γ = α + β + γ for all α, β, γ ϵ S (Associativity)

A3.There is a number 0 ∇ 𝑆 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡 𝛼 + 0 = 0 + 𝛼 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝛼 𝜖 𝑆

(Identity)

A4.For each number 𝛼 𝜖 𝑆,there exist a number – 𝛼 𝜖 𝑆 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡

𝛼 + −𝛼 = 0 = −𝛼 + 𝛼 (Inverse)

These axioms may or may not be satisfied by a given number system S.For example,
in ℕ, A1 and A2 hold but A3 and A4 do not hold. A1-A4 all hold in ℞, ℚ, ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℂ.

AXIOMS FOR MULTIPLICATION:

M1.α. β = β. α for all α, β ϵ S (Commutativity)

M2. α. β .γ = α. β. γ for all α, β, γ ϵ S (Associativity)

M3. There is a number 1𝜖 𝑆 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡 𝛼. 1 = 1. 𝛼 = 𝛼 for all α ϵ S (Identity)

M4. For each number 𝛼 𝜖 𝑆 𝑤𝑖𝑡𝑕 𝛼 ≠ 0,there exist a number 𝛼 −1 𝜖 𝑆 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡

𝛼. 𝛼 −1 = 1 = 𝛼 −1 . 𝛼 (Inverse)

In ℕ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℞, M1-M3 hold but M4 does not hold. M1-M4 all hold in ℚ, ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℂ.

AXIS OF SYMMETRY: It is a line in which the two halves of a curve reflect into each
other.
AXIS-SYMMETRIC FLOW FIELD: A flow field is said to be axis-symmetric when the
velocity components (𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤) with regard to cylindrical coordinates x, r, ∅ are all
independent of the azimuthal angle ∅. The velocity component q ∅ in the direction of
increasing ∅ is called swirl component of velocity.

AZIMUTH: The angle between the projection of the radius vector onto the plane
perpendicular to the polar axis, and the initial line.

B
BABBAGE, CHARLES (1792–1871): Charles Babbage was a British mathematician and
inventor of mechanical calculators.
BACK-SUBSTITUTION: A method of solving a system of linear equations (or
the equivalent matrix equation) that involves finding the components in the reverse
order to the way it is indexed, due to its being manipulated to a row-echelon form. (The
Upper-triangular form of a square matrix is a special case of this.)

BACKWARD DIFFERENCE: If {(𝑥𝑖 , 𝑓𝑖 )}, 𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, … is a given set of function values with


𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑕, 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the backward difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by
𝑓𝑖 – 𝑓𝑖−1 = 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖−1 ).

BAIRE CATEGORY THEOREM: A Baire space is a topological space with the following
property: for each countable collection of open dense sets 𝑈𝑛 , their intersection ⋂ 𝑈𝑛 is
dense.

(BCT1) Every complete metric space is a Baire space. More generally, every topological
space which is homeomorphic to an open subset of a complete pseudometric space is a
Baire space. Thus every completely metrizable topological space is a Baire space.

(BCT2) Every locally compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space. The proof is similar to
the preceding statement; the finite intersection property takes the role played by
completeness.

Note that neither of these statements implies the other, since there are complete metric
spaces which are not locally compact (the irrational numbers with the metric defined
below; also, any Banach space of infinite dimension), and there are locally compact
Hausdorff spaces which are not metrizable (for instance, any uncountable product of
non-trivial compact Hausdorff spaces is such; also, several function spaces used in
Functional Analysis; the uncountable Fort space).

(BCT3) A non-empty complete metric space is not the countable union of nowhere-
dense closed sets.

This formulation is equivalent to BCT1 and is sometimes more useful in applications.


Also: if a non-empty complete metric space is the countable union of closed sets, then
one of these closed sets has non-empty interior.

BAIRE SPACE: This has two distinct meanings of Baire spaces:

 A space is a Baire space if the intersection of any countable collection of dense


open sets is dense;
 Baire space is the set of all functions from the natural numbers to the natural
numbers, with the topology of pointwise convergence
BALINSKI'S THEOREM: It is a theorem about the graph-theoretic structure of three-
dimensional polyhedra and higher-dimensional polytopes. It states that, if one forms
an undirected graph from the vertices and edges of a convex d-dimensional polyhedron
or polytope (its skeleton), then the resulting graph is at least d-vertex-connected: the
removal of any d − 1 vertices leaves a connected subgraph. For instance, for a three-
dimensional polyhedron, even if two of its vertices (together with their incident edges)
are removed, for any pair of vertices there still exists a path of vertices and edges
connecting the pair.
BALKING: A customer may not like to join the queue seeing it very long and he may not
like to wait.

BALL: A ball in a metric space is a set containing all the points which are not more than a
given distance (radius of the ball) from a fixed point (center of the ball). An open ball
does not include the boundary where the distance is equal to the given constant and a
closed ball does include the boundary.
BANACH–ALAOGLU THEOREM : Banach–Alaoglu theorem also known as Alaoglu's
theorem states that the closed unit ball of the dual space of a normed vector
space is compact in the weak topology.
BANACH FIXED POINT THEOREM: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a non-empty complete metric
space with a contraction mapping 𝑇 : 𝑋 → 𝑋. Then 𝑇 admits a unique fixed-
point 𝑥 ∗ in 𝑋 (i.e. 𝑇(𝑥 ∗ ) = 𝑥 ∗ ). Furthermore, 𝑥 ∗ can be found as follows:
Start with an arbitrary element 𝑥0 in X and define a sequence {𝑥𝑛 } by 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑇(𝑥𝑛−1 ),
then 𝑥𝑛 → 𝑥 ∗ .
BANACH–MAZUR THEOREM: Most well-behaved normed spaces are subspaces of the
space of continuous paths. It is named after Stefan Banach and Stanisław Mazur.
BANACH SPACE: A complete normed vector space on the real or complex numbers.
A. For 1 ≤ 𝑝 < ∞, the space 𝑙𝑝 is a Banach space.
B. The spaces 𝑐0 and 𝑙∞ are Banach spaces.
C. Let 𝐸 be a normed space, and let 𝐹 be a Banach space. Then 𝐵(𝐸, 𝐹) is a Banach
space.
D. Let 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, and again let 𝑞 be such that 1/𝑝 + 1/𝑞 = 1. Then the map
𝑙𝑞 → (𝑙_𝑝)∗ : 𝑢 ↦ 𝜑𝑢 , is an isometric isomorphism, where 𝜑𝑢 is defined, for

𝑢 = (𝑢𝑗 ) ∇ 𝑙𝑞 , by 𝜑𝑢 𝑥 = 𝑖=1 𝑢𝑖 𝑥𝑖 𝑥 = 𝑥𝑖 ∇ 𝑙𝑝

BANACH STAR ALGEBRA: An involution in Banach algebra 𝑅 is an operation 𝑥 → 𝑥 ∗ that


satisfïes
 (𝑥 + 𝑦)∗ = 𝑥 ∗ + 𝑦 ∗ ;
 (𝑙𝑥)∗ = 𝑙𝑥 ∗ ;
 (𝑥𝑦)∗ = 𝑦 ∗ 𝑥 ∗ ;
 (𝑥 ∗ )∗ = 𝑥.
A Banach algebra with an involution is called a Banach *-algebra. A *-homomorphism 𝜑
between two Banach*-algebras is an algebraic homomorphism which preserves
involutions, i.e., 𝜑(𝑥 ∗ ) = 𝜑(𝑥)∗ . To represent a Banach *-algebra, we prefer a *-
representation, i.e., a representation 𝑥 → 𝑇𝑥 on a Hilbert space such that 𝑇𝑥 is equal to
the adjoint 𝑇𝑥 ∗ of 𝑇𝑥 for any 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 .
BANACH, STEFAN (1892–1945): Stefan Banach was a Polish mathematician who gave a
major contribution to the subject known as functional analysis.
BANACH SUBALGEBRA: A closed subalgebra M of Banach algebra of A is called Banach
subalgebra of A if M itself is a Banach algebra with respect to the operations, identify
and norm defined on A.
BAR GRAPH: A bar graph is a pictorial rendition of statistical data in which
the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values. The dependent
variable may be discrete or continuous. The most common form of bar graph is the
vertical bar graph, also called a column graph. In a vertical bar graph, values of the
independent variable are plotted along a horizontal axis from left to right. Function
values are shown as shaded or colored vertical bars of equal thickness extending
upward from the horizontal axis to various heights. In a horizontal bar graph, the
independent variable is plotted along a vertical axis from the bottom up. Values of the
function are shown as shaded or colored horizontal bars of equal thickness extending
toward the right, with their left ends vertically aligned.

In a specialized type of vertical bar graph called a Pareto chart , values of the dependent
variable are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Another
type of bar graph called a histogram uses rectangles to show the frequency of data items
in successive numerical intervals of equal size. Other types of bar graphs allow plotting
multiple ranges of the dependent variable, multiple independent variables,
positive/negative variables and multi-category variables.

BARYCENTRIC: Of or related to the centre of mass of an object.

BASES OF VECTOR SPACES: The vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 in 𝑉 form a basis of 𝑉 if they are


linearly independent and span 𝑉. The vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 in 𝑉 form a basis of 𝑉 if and
only if ever 𝑣 𝜖 𝑉 can be written uniquely as 𝒗 = 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑣𝑛 : i.e the
coefficients 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 are uniquely determined by the vector v.

The scalars 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 in the note above are called the coordinates of 𝑣 with respect
to the basis 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 . with respect to the different basis, 𝑣 will have different
coordinates.

Examples: Here are some examples of basis of vector space

1: (1,0) and (0,1) form a basis of ℝ2 .This follows because each element (𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜖ℝ2 can be
written as 𝑥(1,0) + 𝑦(0,1) and this expression is clearly unique.
2: More generally (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1) form a basis of ℝ3 .
(1,0,0,0, ), (0,1,0,0), (0,0,1,0) , (0,0,0,1) form a basis of ℝ4 and so on. This is called the
standard basis of ℝ𝑛 for n 𝜖𝑁.

3: There are many other basis of ℝ𝑛 .For example (1,0), (1,1) form a basis of ℝ2 because
(𝛼1 , , 𝛼2 ) = 𝛼1 −𝛼2 1,0 + 𝛼2 (0,1) and this expression is unique. In fact, any two non-
zero vectors such that one is not a scalar multiple of the other form a basis of ℝ2 .

4: As we have defined a basis, it has to consist of a finite number of vectors. Not every
vector space has a finite basis. For example, let 𝐾 𝑥 be the space of polynomials in an
indeterminate x with coefficients in the field K.Let 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 be any finite
collection of polynomials in 𝐾 𝑥 .Then if 𝑑 is the maximum degree of
𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 ,any linear combination of 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 has degree
atmost d,and so 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 cannot span 𝐾[𝑥].On the other hand, it is
possible to define what it means for an infinite set of vectors 1, 𝑥, 𝑥 2 , … … … , … . . 𝑥 𝑛 … … ..
is a basis of 𝐾 𝑥 . A vector space with a finite basis is called finite-dimensional. The
spaces of functions mentioned in example above have uncountably infinite dimension.

BASE (TOPOLOGY): Let X be a topological space with Γ as topology defined on it. Then a
collection 𝐵𝑛 of subsets of X is said to be a base for the topology Γ if for every open set
𝐺 ∇ Γ and for every element 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺, there exists a member 𝐵𝑛 of this collection such that
𝑥 ∇ 𝐵𝑛 ⊆ 𝐺. If there exists a countable base for a topological space, then the topological
space is called a second countable space.
BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION: A basic feasible solution for a linear programming problem
is a solution that satisfies the constraints of the problem where the number of nonzero
variables equals the number of constraints.
Consider a linear programming problem with 𝑚 constraints and 𝑛 total variables
(including slack variables). Then a basic feasible solution is a solution that satisfies the
constraints of the problem and has exactly 𝑚 nonzero variables and 𝑛 − 𝑚 variables
equal to zero. The basic feasible solutions will be at the corners of the feasible region,
and an important theorem of linear programming states that, if there is an optimal
solution, it will be a basic feasible solution.
BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS OF TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS: A feasible solution
(𝑥𝑖,𝑗 ) of a Transportation Problem is said to be basic if there exists a basis 𝐵 for that
Transportation Problem such that 𝑥𝑖,𝑗 = 0 whenever (𝑖, 𝑗) ∈ 𝐵.
BASIC MODULE DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: If 𝑀 is a finitely generated module over a
Euclidean domain 𝐷 then 𝑀 may be written as an internal direct sum 𝑀 = 𝑀1 ⊕
𝑀2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ 𝑀𝑠 where 𝑀𝑖 is a non-trivial cyclic submodule of order 𝑑𝑖 [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠]
and 𝑑𝑖 |𝑑𝑖+1 [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠 − 1].
BASIS: A set of vectors in a vector space form a basis if other vectors can be written as a
linear combination of the basis vectors. The vectors in the basis need to be necessarily
linearly independent.
BASIS AND DIMENSION OF A SUBSPACE: A set of vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , … , 𝑎𝑘 belonging to
the subspace 𝑆 is said to be a basic of 𝑆, if

(i) The subspace 𝑆 is spanned by the set 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑘 and


(ii) The vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑘 are linearly independent.

It can be easily shown that every subspace, 𝑆,or 𝑉𝑛 possesses a basic. It can be easily
shown that the vectors e1 = 1,0,0, … 0 , e2 = 0,1,0, … 0 , e3 = 0,0,1, … 0 , … en =
0,0,0, … 1 constitute a basis of 𝑉𝑛 .

We have already shown that these vectors are linearly independent. Moreover any
vector 𝑎 = (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 ) of 𝑉𝑛 is expressible as 𝑎 = 𝑎1 𝑒1 + 𝑎2 𝑒2 + 𝑎3 𝑒3 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑛 .
Hence the vectors 𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , 𝑒3 , … , 𝑒𝑛 constitute a basis of 𝑉𝑛 .

 A basis of a subspace, 𝑆, can always be selected out of a set of vectors which span
𝑆.
 A vector subspace may (and in fact does) possess several bases.
 The number of members in any one basis of a subspace is the same as in any
other basis. This number is called the dimension of the subspace.

BASIS THEOREM: Any linearly independent set of n vectors is a basis of a vector space of
finite dimension n.
BAYES FACTOR: The Bayesian equivalent (in its application) to the classical frequentist
concept of hypothesis testing.
BAYESIAN CONFIDENCE INTERVAL: An interval of a posterior distribution which is
such that the density at any point inside the interval is greater than the density at any
point outside and that the area under the curve for that interval is equal to a
prespecified probability level. For any probability level there is generally only one such
interval, which is also often known as the highest posterior density region. Unlike the
usual confidence interval associated with frequentist inference, here the intervals
specify the range within which parameters lie with a certain probability.

BAYESIAN INFERENCE: An approach to inference based largely on Bayes’ Theorem and


consisting of the following principal steps:

(1) Obtain the likelihood, 𝑓 (𝑥 𝜃 ) describing the process giving rise to the data 𝑥 in
terms of the unknown parameters 𝜃.

(2) Obtain the prior distribution, 𝑓 (𝜃) expressing what is known about 𝜃, prior to
observing the data.

3 Apply Bayes’ theorem to derive the posterior distribution 𝑓 (𝑥 𝜃) expressing what


is known about 𝜃 after observing the data.

(4) Derive appropriate inference statements from the posterior distribution. These may
include specific inferences such as point estimates, interval estimates or probabilities of
hypotheses. If interest centres on particular components of q their posterior
distribution is formed by integrating out the other parameters.

This form of inference differs from the classical form of frequentist inference in several
respects, particularly the use of the prior distribution which is absent from classical
inference. It represents the investigator’s knowledge about the parameters before
seeing the data. Classical statistics uses only the likelihood. Consequently to a Bayesian
every problem is unique and is characterized by the investigator’s beliefs about the
parameters expressed in the prior distribution for the specific investigation.

BAYESIAN PROBABILITY: A popular interpretation of probability which evaluates the


probability of a hypothesis by specifying some prior probability, and then updating in
the light of new relevant data.
BAYES’S RULE PROBABILITY): Bayes’s rule tells how to find the conditional probability
𝑃(𝐵 ∕ 𝐴) (that is, the probability of the event 𝐵 given that event 𝐴 has occurred),
provided that 𝑃(𝐴 ∕ 𝐵) and 𝑃(𝐴 ∕ 𝐵 𝑐 ) are known.
Bayes’s rule states:
𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑃(𝐵)
𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 =
𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑃 𝐵 + 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑐 𝑃(𝐵 𝑐 )
For example, suppose that two dice are rolled. Let A be the event of rolling doubles, and
let B be the event where the sum of the numbers on the two dice is greater than or equal
to 11. Then 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 refers to the probability of obtaining doubles if the sum of the two
numbers is greater than or equal to 11; this probability is 1/3. There are 3 possible
outcomes where the sum of the two numbers is greater than or equal to 11, and one of
1
these are doubles: (6, 6). Also, 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑐 = 1 − 3 = 2/3. Then, we can use Bayes’s rule to

find the probability that the sum of the two numbers will be greater than or equal to 11,
given that doubles were obtained as
1 3
3 12 1
𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 = =
1 3 2 9 7
+
3 12 3 12
BAYES, THOMAS (1702 to 1761): Thomas Bayes was an English mathematician who
studied probability and statistical inference.
BEARING: The angle that the direction makes with north, measured in degrees in a
clockwise direction from north. Bearings of less than 100° are generally written with an
initial 0. For example, north-east has a bearing of 045°, and south-west has a bearing of
225°. Bearing is an important concept in radar, sonar, navigation, and surveying.
BECKMAN–QUARLES THEOREM: If a transformation of the Euclidean plane or a higher-
dimensional Euclidean space preserves unit distances, then it preserves all distances.
Equivalently, every automorphism of the unit distance graph of the plane must be
an isometry of the plane.
BECQUEREL: An SI derived unit of radio acitivity denoted by the symbol Bq.

BEES ALGORITHM: The bees algorithm is a method of problem solving that mimics the
behavior of honeybees to find the optimum solution. Based on the behaviors bees
employ to search and prioritize, the algorithm is a classical example of swarm
intelligence, in which many individuals work together to solve problems or optimize
scenarios. Bees search for food by using scouts to explore areas deemed most likely to
produce favorable results. At first, the scouts conduct random searches to locate the
areas where food exists in the greatest abundance. Then they conduct more orderly,
localized searches until they arrive at the most efficient possible food-recovery process.

The bees algorithm makes it possible for research scientists and engineers to solve
complex problems involving vast amounts of data, categorizing the results according to
specific criteria (such as geographic region or age group), and then giving priority to the
results most likely to yield workable solutions. Computers and swarms of insect
robots can use the bees algorithm as well.

Practical applications of the bees algorithm include:

 Machine vision
 Pattern recognition
 Image analysis
 Job scheduling
 Finding multiple solutions to problem
 Data aggregation
 Mechanical component design
 Robot control
BELL CURVE: It is the shape of the normal curve i.e. the shape of the graph that indicates
a normal distribution in probability and statistics.
BELL-SHAPED DISTRIBUTION: A probability distribution having the overall shape of a
vertical cross-section of a bell. The normal distribution is the most well known example,
but Student’s t-distribution is also this shape.

BELONGS TO: If x is an element of a set S, then we say that x belongs to S and this is
written as x ∇ S. Naturally, x ∈ S means that x does not belong to S.
BELOW (LESS THAN): The limit of a function at 𝑎 from below is the limit of 𝑓(𝑥) as
𝑥 → 𝑎 for values of 𝑥 < 𝑎. It is of particular importance when 𝑓(𝑥) has a discontinuity
at 𝑎, i.e. where the limits from above and from below do not coincide. It can be written
as 𝑓(𝑎−) or lim𝑥→𝑎− 𝑓(𝑥).
BELTRAMI AND ENNPER THEOREM (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Statement: At a point
on a surface where the Gaussian curvature is negative and equal to 𝜅, the torsion of the
asymptotic line is ± −𝜅.

BELTRAMI FLOW: If the motion be steady and irrotational then

∂q
∂∅ ∂t = 0 ⇒ curl q = 0. Since 𝑞×curl 𝑞= 0.

It follows that 𝑞 and curl 𝑞 are parallel i.e., streamlines and vortex lines coincide. For
such a motion, 𝑞 is known as a Beltrami vector and the flow is known as a Beltrami flow.

BELTRAMI –MICHELL COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS:- Let us consider the stress strain


relations

𝜍 1+ 𝜍
ℯ𝑖𝑗 = − 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜃 + 𝜏𝑖𝑗
𝐸 𝐸

And the compatibility equation is

ℯ𝑖𝑗 , 𝑘𝑙 + ℯ𝑘𝑙, 𝑖𝑗 − ℯ𝑖𝑘 , 𝑗𝑙 − ℯ𝑗𝑙 , 𝑖𝑘 =0

1 𝜍 1+ 𝜍
Then ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 − 1+ 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 − 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖
1+ 𝜍 1− 𝜍

1 𝜍
Or ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 + 1− 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = − 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖
1+ 𝜍

1 𝜍
Or ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 = − 1− 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = − 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖
1+ 𝜍

These are called Beltrami- Michell compatibility equations. The Cartesian form of this
equation is

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑥
∆2 𝜏𝑥𝑥 + 2
=− 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑥 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑥

2
1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑦
∆ 𝜏𝑦𝑦 + = − 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑦 2 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑦
1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑧
∆2 𝜏𝑧𝑧 + 2
=− 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑧 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑧

2
1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜕𝐹𝑦 𝜕𝐹𝑧
∆ 𝜏𝑦𝑧 + =− + ,
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦
2
1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜕𝐹𝑧 𝜕𝐹𝑥
∆ 𝜏𝑧𝑥 + =− + ,
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜕𝐹𝑥 𝜕𝐹𝑦


∆2 𝜏𝑥𝑦 + =− +
1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

BELTRAMI’S RESULT: 2n + 1 x 2 − 1 P′n = n n + 1 Pn+1 − Pn−1 .

BELTRAMI'S THEOREM (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Geodesic maps preserve the


property of having constant curvature. More precisely, if (𝑀, 𝑔) and (𝑁, 𝑕) are
two Riemannian manifolds and 𝜑 : 𝑀 → 𝑁 is a geodesic map between them, and if
either of the manifolds (𝑀, 𝑔) or (𝑁, 𝑕) has constant curvature, then so does the other
one.
BEND POINT: Also known as an (extremal) turning point.

BERGER–KAZDAN COMPARISON THEOREM: It is a theorem in Riemannian


geometry that gives a lower bound on the volume of a Riemannian manifold and also
gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the manifold to be isometric to the m-
dimensional sphere with its usual metric. The theorem is named after
the mathematicians Marcel Berger and Jerry Kazdan. It can be stated as follows:

Let (𝑀, 𝑔) be a compact 𝑚-dimensional Riemannian manifold with injectivity


radius 𝑖𝑛𝑗(𝑀). Let vol denote the volume form on 𝑀 and let 𝑐𝑚 (𝑟) denote the volume of
the standard m-dimensional sphere of radius r. Then

with equality if and only if (𝑀, 𝑔) is isometric to the 𝑚-sphere 𝑺𝒎 with its usual metric.

BERNOULLI, DANIEL (1700 to 1782): Daniel Bernoulli, son of Johann Bernoulli,


investigated mathematics and other areas. He developed Bernoulli’s theorem in fluid
mechanics, which governs the design of airplane wings.
BERNOULLI DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation which can be
written in the form 𝑦′ + 𝑓(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛 . The transformation 𝑧 = 𝑦1−𝑛 gives
𝑑𝑧
= (1 − 𝑛)𝑦 −𝑛 𝑦 ′ . Dividing the original equation by 𝑦 𝑛 gives 𝑦– 𝑛𝑦ʹ + 𝑓(𝑥)𝑦1−𝑛 =
𝑑𝑥
1 𝑑𝑧
𝑔(𝑥) which reduces to + 𝑓 𝑥 𝑧 = 𝑔(𝑥), which is in linear form and can be
1−𝑛 𝑑𝑥

solved by use of an integrating factor.


BERNOULLI DISTRIBUTION: It is a type of discrete probability distribution. BERNOULLI
EXPERIMENT: An experiment consisting of Bernoulli trials is called a Bernoulli
experiment.

BERNOULLI INEQUALITY: It is an inequality that approximates exponentiations


of 1 + x.

The inequality states that

for every integer 𝑟 ≥ 0 and every real number 𝑥 ≥ − 1. If the exponent 𝑟 is even, then
the inequality is valid for all real numbers 𝑥. The strict version of the inequality reads

for every integer 𝑟 ≥ 2 and every real number 𝑥 ≥ − 1 with 𝑥 ≠ 0.

BERNOULLI, JAKOB (1655 to 1705): Jakob Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician who
studied concepts in what is now the calculus of variations, particularly the catenary
curve.
BERNOULLI, JOHANN (1667 to 1748): Johann Bernoulli, brother of Jakob Bernoulli, was
also a mathematician investigating these issues.
BERNOULLI NUMBER: Bernoulli number can be defined through the power series
expansion of
𝑥 𝑥 2 ∕ 2! 𝑥 4 ∕ 4! 𝑥 6 ∕ 6!
𝑥 1 − 𝑒 −𝑥 = 1 + + + + +−−−
2 6 30 42
𝑥𝑛
The Bernoulli numbers are the coefficients of in this expansion.
𝑛!

BERNOULLI TRIAL: One of a sequence of independent experiments, each of which has an


outcome considered to be success or failure, all with the same probability p of success.
It is the event that has only two possible outcomes: success and failure.
BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS: For 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶[0, 1], the Bernstein polynomials of 𝑓 are given
𝑛 𝑛
by the formula 𝐵𝑛 (𝑓, 𝑥) ∶= 𝑘=0 𝑘 𝑥 𝑘 (1 − 𝑥)𝑛−𝑘 𝑓( 𝑘/𝑛 ). This formula produces a
positive linear map 𝑓 → 𝐵𝑛 (𝑓) of 𝐶[0, 1] into 𝑃𝑛 .
BERTRAND CURVES: If a pair of curves 𝐶 and 𝐶1 are such that the principal normal to 𝐶
are also principal normal to 𝐶1 , then the curves 𝐶 and 𝐶1 are called conjugate or
associate Bertrand curves.

BERTRAND–DIQUET–PUISEUX THEOREM: The theorem is closely related to the Gauss–


Bonnet theorem. Let 𝑝 be a point on a smooth surface 𝑀. The geodesic circle of
radius 𝑟 centered at 𝑝 is the set of all points whose geodesic distance from 𝑝 is equal
to 𝑟. Let 𝐶(𝑟) denote the circumference of this circle, and 𝐴(𝑟) denote the area of the
disc contained within the circle. Then

BERTRAND’S POSTULATE: For any integer greater than 3, there is always at least one
prime between n and 2n – 2. For example, for n = 6 the number 7 is prime and lies
between 6 and 10. This statement was first conjectured in 1845 by Joseph Bertrand.
Bertrand himself verified his statement for all numbers in the interval [2, 3 × 106 ]. His
conjecture was completely proved by Chebyshev in 1852 and so the postulate is also
called the Bertrand–Chebyshev theorem or Chebyshev's theorem. Chebyshev's theorem
can also be stated as a relationship with 𝜋(𝑥), where 𝜋(𝑥) is the prime counting
𝜋
function (number of primes less than or equal to 𝑥): 𝜋 𝑥 − 𝜋 ≥ 1 ∀ 𝑥 ≥ 2.
2

BESSEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1784–1846): Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel was a German


astronomer and mathematician who made a major contribution to mathematics in the
development of what are now called Bessel functions.
BESSEL FUNCTION: These are the functions that provide solutions to Bessel’s
equation. These are of the form

(−1)𝑟 𝑧 𝑛+2𝑟
𝐽𝑛 𝑧 =
𝑟! Γ(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1) 2
𝑟=0

of which the simplest is the Bessel function of the first kind



(−1)𝑟 𝑧 2𝑟
𝐽0 𝑧 =
𝑟! 2 2
𝑟=0

BESSEL’S EQUATION: It is the second-order differential equation in the form


𝑥 2 𝑦ʺ + (𝑥 2 – 𝑛2 )𝑦 = 0
∂2 V 1 ∂V 1 ∂2 V 𝜕2𝑉
BESSEL EQUATION FROM LAPLACE EQUATION: ∂r 2 + r + r 2 ∂θ 2 + 𝜕𝑧 2 = 0.
∂r
Let V = Rθ′z′ where R, θ′ , z′ are functions of r, θ and z alone, respectively.

Substituting in (i), we have

d2R 1 dR 1 d2θ′ d 2 z′
θ′ z′ dr 2 + r θ′ z′ dr + r 2 Rz′ + Rθ′ dz 2 = 0.
dθ 2

1 d2R 1 dR 1 1 d 2 θ′ 1 d2z′
or +r + r 2 θ′ + z′ + = 0. …………….. ii
R dr 2 dr dθ 2 dz 2

Since the first three terms are independent of z therefore the fourth terms also be
independent of z. Thus the fourth term must be equal to constant

1 d2z′ d2z′
i.e. z′ = C (constant) or = Cz′. ………….. iii
dz 2 dz 2

Similarly third term must be free form θ and therefore must be equal to a constant

1 d2θ′ d2θ′
i.e., = D or = Dθ′ . ………….. iv
θ′ dθ 2 dθ 2

∴ With the help of (iii) and (iv), equation (ii), becomes

d2R dR
r2 + dr + D + Cr 2 R = 0 …………….. v
dr 2

dR dR dv dR d2R d 2 R dv d2R
Putting kr = v so that dr = . dr = k dv and = k dv 2 . dr = k 2 dv 2
dv dr 2

in (v), we have

d2R dR v2
k 2 r 2 dv 2 + kr dv + D + C k 2 R = 0.

d2R dR
Putting 𝐶 = k 2 𝐷 = −n2 , we get v 2 dv 2 + v dv + v 2 − n2 R = 0.

d2y dy
Putting 𝑅 = 𝑦 and 𝑣 = 𝑥, we have x 2 dx 2 + x dx + x 2 − n2 y = 0

which is the Bessel’s equation.

The solution of this equation is called the cylindrical function or Bessel’s function of
order n.
2 𝑛
BESSEL’S INEQUALITY: If ⌌𝑒𝑖 ⌍ is orthonormal set, then 𝑥 ≥ 𝑖=1 ⌌𝑥, 𝑒𝑖 ⌍ 2 . For an
arbitrary vector 𝑕 of 𝑆, we have

𝑛
2 2
𝑕 ≥ 𝑕, 𝑒𝑖
𝑖=1

BEST APPROXIMATION: A point of a subject in a metric space that is closest to a given


point outside the subset. A best approximation to 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋 from 𝑈 is an element
𝑢∗ ∇ 𝑈 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑑(𝑓, 𝑢∗ ) = 𝑖𝑛𝑓{𝑑(𝑓, 𝑢) ∶ 𝑢 ∇ 𝑈} = : 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡(𝑓, 𝑈).
BETA DISTRIBUTION: If X is a random variable with probability density function given
by
1
𝑓 𝑥, 𝛼, 𝛽 = 𝑥 𝛼 −1 (1 − 𝑥)𝛽−1 ; 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1
𝐵 𝛼, 𝛽
where 𝐵(𝛼, 𝛽) is a beta function and 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝑥 > 0, then we say that 𝑋 has a beta
𝛼
distribution with parameters 𝛼, 𝛽. The beta distribution has mean and variance
𝛼+𝛽
𝛼𝛽
2
.
𝛼 +𝛽 𝛼+𝛽+1

BETA FUNCTION: The function


1
Γ 𝑝 Γ(𝑞)
𝐵 𝑝, 𝑞 = 𝑥 𝑝−1 1 − 𝑥 𝑞−1
𝑑𝑥 =
Γ(𝑝 + 𝑞)
0

where 𝛤(𝑝) is the gamma function, is called a beta function. For integers 𝑚, 𝑛, we have
𝑚 − 1 ! (𝑛 − 1)!
𝛽 𝑚, 𝑛 =
(𝑚 + 𝑛 − 1)!

BÉZOUT'S IDENTITY: Let 𝑎 and 𝑏 be nonzero integers and let 𝑑 be their greatest
common divisor. Then there exist integers 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that

In addition,

 𝑑 is the smallest positive integer that can be written as 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦.

 every integer of the form 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 is a multiple of 𝑑.

𝑥 and 𝑦 are called Bézout coefficients for (𝑎, 𝑏) and are not unique. A pair of Bézout
coefficients can be computed by the extended Euclidean algorithm.
BHĀSKARA (1114–85): Bhaskara was an eminent Indian mathematician who continued
in the tradition of Brahmagupta, making corrections and filling in many gaps in the
earlier work. He solved examples of Pell’s equation and grappled with the problem of
division by zero.

BHATIA–DAVIS INEQUALITY: It is named after Rajendra Bhatia and Chandler Davis, is


an upper bound on the variance of any bounded probability distribution on the real line.

Suppose a distribution has minimum 𝑚, maximum 𝑀, and expected value 𝜇. Then the
inequality says:

Equality holds precisely if all of the probability is concentrated at the


endpoints 𝑚 and 𝑀.

Bi: It is the abbreviation for Airy function of the second kind.


BIAS: A prejudice or a lack of objectivity or randomness resulting in an imbalance that
makes it likely that the outcome will tend to be distorted. In statistics this is when a
process contains some systematic imbalance so that, on average, the outcome of the
process is not equal to the true value. Randomization techniques are employed to try
and remove bias that may result from other sample estimator selection methods
requiring choices to be made. An estimate of a parameter is biased if its expected value
does not equal the population value of the parameter.
BIASED SAMPLE: It is a sample whose composition is not determined only by the
population from which it has been taken, but also by some property of the sampling
method which has a tendency to cause an over-representation of some parts of the
population. It is a property of the sampling method rather than the individual sample.
BICONDITIONAL STATEMENT: A biconditional statement is a compound statement that
says one sentence is true if and only if the other sentence is true. Symbolically, this is
written as p ↔ q, which means “p → q” and “q → p.”
BIEBERBACH CONJECTURE: Because of applications, there is a lot of interest in
functions 𝑓 which are analytic and one-one in 𝐵(0, 1). Since 𝑓 ′ (0) ≠ 0, we can
normalize so that 𝑓(0) = 0, 𝑓 ′ (0) = 1 (else consider (𝑓(𝑧) − 𝑓(0))/𝑓 ′ (0) instead of

𝑓), and look at the Taylor series 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑧 + 𝑘=2 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 𝑘 , |𝑧| < 1. Bieberbach proved
in 1916 that |𝑎2 | ≤ 2, and asked whether we always have |𝑎𝑛 | ≤ 𝑛. This became his
conjecture, an object of an enormous amount of research, and was finally proved by
Louis de Branges in 1984
BIHOLOMORPHISM: 𝑓 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 is said to be a biholomorphism if it is bijective and
𝑓, 𝑓 −1 are both holomorphic. Since the derivative map is a composition of scaling and
rotation, it preserves angles between vectors. So biholomorphisms are conformal maps,
meaning they preserve angles.
BIJECTION: A one-to-one onto mapping, that is, a mapping that is both injective and
surjective is known as a bijection.
BILATERAL SYMMETRY: Reflective symmetry. It is a type of self-similarity
through reflection in a line or a plane.

BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION ON MOBIUS TRANSFORMATION: A transformation of the


form

𝑎𝑧 + 𝑏
𝑤=
𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑

is called a bilinear transformation of linear fractional transformation, where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 are


complex constants. Such type of transformation was first studied by Mobius and hence
it is sometimes called Mobius transformation is expressible as

𝑐𝑤𝑧 + 𝑤𝑑 − 𝑎𝑧 − 𝑏 = 0

Evidently it is linear both in 𝑤 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑧.

That is why, it is called bilinear. Here we assume that 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 ≠ 0 which is called the
determinant of the transformation. The transformation (1) is said to be normalized if
𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 = 1. If the determinant vanishes, then 𝑤 is merely a constant.

BI-LIPSCHITZ MAP: A map 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 is called bi-Lipschitz if there are positive constants c


and C such that for any x and y in X

BILLION: The name variously given to a thousand million and a million million in the
past. Traditionally, the US used a billion as the former and the UK as the latter, also
referred to as short billion and long billion respectively. With the rapid globalization in
the past few decades, the US definition has become more prevalent although it is better
to clarify as its use is dominant.
BIMODAL: A frequency distribution of numerical data that shows two distinct peaks
(modes).
BINARY AND TERNARY CODE: A code over 𝐴 = {0, 1} is called a binary code and a code
over 𝐴 = {0, 1, 2} is called a ternary code.
BINARY HAMMING CODE: Let 𝑟 ≥ 2 and let C be a binary linear code with 𝑛 = 2𝑟 −
1 whose parity-check matrix 𝐻 is such that the columns are all of the non-zero vectors
in 𝐹2𝑟 . This code 𝐶 is called a binary Hamming code of length 2𝑟 − 1, denoted
𝐻𝑎𝑚(𝑟, 2).
BINARY NUMBERS: Binary (base-2) numbers are written in a positional system that
uses only two digits: 0 and 1. Each digit of a binary number represents a power of 2. The
rightmost digit is the 1’s digit, the next digit to the left is the 2’s digit, and so on. For
example, the binary number 11101 represents
1 × 24 + 1 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 21 + 1 × 20 = 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 29
BINARY OPERATIONS ON SETS: A binary operation ∗ on a set 𝐴 is an operation which,
when applied to any elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of the set 𝐴, yields an element x ∗ 𝑦 of 𝐴. Example
The arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication are binary
operations on the set 𝑅 of real numbers which, when applied to real numbers 𝑥 and 𝑦,
yield the real numbers 𝑥 + 𝑦, 𝑥 − 𝑦 and 𝑥𝑦 respectively. However division is not a
binary operation on the set of real numbers, since the quotient 𝑥/𝑦 is not defined when
𝑦 = 0. (Under a binary operation ∗ on a set must determine an element 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦 of the set
for every pair of elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of that set.)
BINARY RELATIONS: A binary relation on a set specifies relations between pairs of
elements from the set. Example The relations = ‘equals’ , ≠ ‘not equal to’ , < ‘less
than’ , > ‘greater than’ , ≤ ‘less than or equal to’ and ≥ ‘greater than or equal to’
are all binary relations on the set 𝑅 of real numbers. Let 𝐴 be a set, and let 𝑃(𝐴) be the
power set of 𝐴 (i.e., the set whose elements are the subsets of 𝐴). Then ⊂ is a binary
relation on 𝑃(𝐴), where two subsets 𝐵 and 𝐶 of A satisfy 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐶 if and only if 𝐵 is a
subset of 𝐶. If one has a relation 𝑅 on a set 𝐴, then, given two elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of 𝐴,
either 𝑥 is related to 𝑦, in which case we may write 𝑥𝑅𝑦, or else the element 𝑥 is not
related to 𝑦.
BINARY SYMMETRIC CHANNEL: A binary symmetric channel has two probabilities:
𝑃[1 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 0 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑃[0 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 1 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑝
𝑃[1 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 1 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑃[0 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 0 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 1 − 𝑝
The probability 𝑝 is called the crossover probability.

BINARY SYSTEM: A base 2 positional system representing numbers with only


the digits 0 and 1.

BINARY VARIABLE: A random variable with only two possible outcomes.

BINOMIAL: A binomial is the sum of two terms. For example, (𝑝𝑥 + 𝑞) is a binomial.

BINOMIAL COEFFICIENTS: Numbers used in the calculation of the coefficients of


binomial expansions. They can be represented in Pascal's triangle and are identical to

the concept of combinations in combinatorics. The symbol is used in the calculation


of the (𝑘 + 1)st term in a binomial expansion of exponent 𝑛, it is also the number of
ways that a set of 𝑘 objects can be chosen from a set of n distinct objects, provided that
the set of 𝑘 objects are chosen at the same time and so the order (of being chosen) does
not matter. The calculation of these binomial coefficients involves factorials as follows,

Note that the following is true for all values of 𝑛 ≥ 0

BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION: Suppose we want to conduct an experiment 𝑛 times, with a


probability of success of 𝑝 each time. If X is the number of successes that occur in those
𝑛 trials, then X will have the binomial distribution with parameters 𝑛 and 𝑝. X is a
discrete random variable whose probability function is given by
𝑛 𝑟
𝑃 𝑋=𝑟 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛−𝑟
𝑟
 The expectation is 𝐸 𝑋 = 𝑛𝑝
 The variance is 𝑉𝑎𝑟 𝑋 = 𝑛𝑝(1 − 𝑝).

BINOMIAL INVERSE THEOREM: If 𝑨, 𝑼, 𝑩, 𝑽 are matrices of sizes 𝑝 × 𝑝, 𝑝 × 𝑞, 𝑞 ×


𝑞, 𝑞 × 𝑝 respectively, then
provided A and B + BVA−1UB are nonsingular. Note that if B is invertible, the
two B terms flanking the quantity inverse in the right-hand side can be replaced with
(B−1)−1, which results in

BINOMIAL THEOREM: The binomial theorem tells how to expand the expression
(𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑛 . The general formula is
𝑛 0 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛
(𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑛 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛 + 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛−1 + − − − + 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)0
0 1 𝑛
Some examples of the powers of binomials are as follows:
(𝑎 + 𝑏)0 = 1
(𝑎 + 𝑏)1 = 𝑎 + 𝑏
(𝑎 + 𝑏)2 = 𝑎2 + 2𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2
(𝑎 + 𝑏)3 = 𝑎3 + 3𝑎2 𝑏 + 3𝑎𝑏 2 + 𝑏 3
(𝑎 + 𝑏)4 = 𝑎4 + 4𝑎3 𝑏 + 6𝑎2 𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑏 3 + 𝑏 4
(𝑎 + 𝑏)5 = 𝑎5 + 5𝑎4 𝑏 + 10𝑎3 𝑏 2 + 10𝑎2 𝑏 3 + 5𝑎𝑏 4 + 𝑏 5
The coefficients form an interesting pattern of numbers known as Pascal’s triangle. This
triangle is an array of numbers such that any entry is equal to the sum of the two entries
above it.
BINORMAL: The normal perpendicular to the principal to the principal normal at point
𝑃 is called binormal at point 𝑃.
BIPARTITE GRAPHS: A graph (𝑉, 𝐸) is said to be bipartite if there exist subsets 𝑉1 and 𝑉2 ,
such that

(i) 𝑉1 ∪ 𝑉2 = 𝑉 ;
(ii) 𝑉1 ∩ 𝑉2 = ∅;
(iii) each edge in E is of the form {𝑣, 𝑤} with 𝑣 ∇ 𝑉1 and 𝑤 ∇ 𝑉2 .

BIQUADRATIC: A polynomial that is the quadratic of a square. The result is


a quartic whose cubic and linear coefficients are zero. Note that this term is also used to
refer the product of two quadratics or the quadratic of a quadratic, which makes
the term equivalent to the term quartic.

BIRCH AND SWINNERTON-DYER CONJECTURE: The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer


conjecture on elliptic curves postulates a connection between the rank of an elliptic
curve and the order of pole of its Hasse-Weil L-function. It has been an significant
pointer in Diophantine geometry since the mid-1960s, with significant results such as
the Coates–Wiles theorem, Gross–Zagier theorem and Kolyvagin's theorem.
BIRTHDAY PROBLEMS: The birthdays of 𝑟 people form a sample of size 𝑟 from the
population of all days in the year. As a first approximation these may be considered as a
random selection of birthdays from the year consisting of 365 days. Then the
probability, 𝑝, that all 𝑟 birthdays are different is

1 2 3 r−1
𝒫 = 1− 1− 1− −−− 1−
365 365 365 365

For example, when 𝑟 = 23, 𝑝 < 0.5, so that for 23 people the probability that no two
people have the same birthday is less than a half, so the probability that at least two of
the twenty three people share a birthday is greater than a half; most people when asked
to make a guess of how many people are needed to achieve a greater than 50% chance
of at least two of them sharing a birthday, put the figure higher than 23. Matching
triplets of birthdays are much harder to observe and it can be shown that in a group of
23 people the probability of at least one triplet of matching birthdays is only 0.013; now
there has to be a group of 88 people before the probability becomes larger than 0.5.

BIRECTANGULAR: A plane figure with two right angles.

BISECT: Dividing into two equal halves.

BISECTOR: A line or plane which divides a geometrical object (e.g. a figure or an angle)
into two congruent parts.

BIT: The simplest unit of information consisting of one binary digit, conventionally
labelled 0 and 1.

BITANGENT: The tangent of a curve simultaneously at two different points.

BLASIUS’S THEOREM: Let a fixed cylinder be placed in a liquid which is moving steadily
and irrotationally given by the relation 𝑤 = 𝑓(𝑧), if the hydro-dynamical pressure on
the contour of a fixed cylinder are represented by a force (𝑋, 𝑌) and a couple 𝑀 about
the origin of coordinates then
1 𝑑𝑤 2
𝑋 − 𝑖𝑌 = 2 𝑖𝜌 ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 (neglecting extraneous forces)
𝑑𝑧

1 𝑑𝑤 2
and 𝑀 = 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑜𝑓 − 2 𝜌 ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 ,
𝑑𝑧

where the integrations are round any contour which surrounds the cylinder.

BLOCH'S THEOREM: Bloch's theorem gives a lower bound on the size of a disc in which
an inverse to a holomorphic function exists. Let 𝑓 be a holomorphic function in the unit
disk |𝑧| ≤ 1. Take |𝑓′(0)| = 1. Then there exists a disc of radius 𝑏 and an analytic
function 𝜑 in this disc, such that 𝑓(𝜑(𝑧)) = 𝑧 for all 𝑧 in this disc. Here 𝑏 > 1/72 is an
absolute constant.

BLOCK CODE: Let 𝐴 = {𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑞 } be an alphabet; we call the 𝑎𝑖 values symbols. A block
code 𝐶 of length 𝑛 over 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐴𝑛 . A vector 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶 is called a codeword. The
number of elements in 𝐶, denoted |𝐶|, is called the size of the code. A code of length 𝑛
and size 𝑀 is called an (𝑛, 𝑀)-code.
BOCHNER’S THEOREM: A continuous function 𝑓 ∶ 𝐺 → 𝐶 is positive definite if and only
if 𝑓 = µ for some µ ∇ 𝑀 +(𝐺 ).

BODY FORCES: The forces which are proportional to the mass contained in the volume
element are called body forces.

BOLYAI, JANOS (1802 to 1860): Janos Bolyai was a Hungarian mathematician who
developed a version of non-Euclidian geometry.
BOLZANO WEIRSTRASS THEOREM: Every infinite bounded set of real numbers has a
limit point.
Every bounded sequence has at least one limit point.
BONNET’S THEOREM ON PARALLEL SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): In general
for every surface (S) of constant positive Gaussian curvature. 𝐴−2 there are associated
two surface of constant mean curvature ±(2𝐴)−1 which are parallel to the former (S)
and distant ± 𝐴 form it.

BONSE'S INEQUALITY: if 𝑝1 , 𝑝2 , . . . , 𝑝𝑛+1 are the smallest 𝑛 + 1 prime


numbers and 𝑛 ≥ 4, then
BOOLE GEORGE (1815 to 1865): George Boole was an English mathematician who
developed the symbolic analysis of logic now known as Boolean algebra, which is used
in the design of digital computers.
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Boolean algebra is the study of operations carried out on variables
that can have only two values: 1 (true) or 0 (false). Boolean algebra was developed by
George Boole in the 1850s; it is an important part of the theory of logic and has become
of tremendous importance since the development of computers.
Here are some rules from Boolean algebra. In the following statements, p, q, and r
represent Boolean variables and ⟷ represents “is equivalent to.” Parentheses are used
as they are in arithmetic: an operation inside parentheses is to be done before the
operation outside the parentheses.
Double Negation:
𝑝 ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝)
Commutative Principle:
(𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) ↔ (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑝)
(𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) ↔ (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑝)
Associative Principle:
𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟
𝑝 𝑂𝑅 (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) 𝑂𝑅 𝑟
Distribution:
𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) 𝑂𝑅 (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟)
𝑝 𝑂𝑅 (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑟)
De Morgan’s Laws:
(𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑞) ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞)
(𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝) 𝑂𝑅 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑞) ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞)

BOOLEAN FUNCTION: Let 𝐴 be a set. A Boolean function on 𝐴 is a function 𝑓: 𝐴 → {𝑇, 𝐹}


whose domain is 𝐴 and whose codomain is the set {𝑇, 𝐹} whose elements are the truth
values T = true and F = false.

BOOLEAN PRIME IDEAL THEOREM: The Boolean prime ideal theorem is the strong
prime ideal theorem for Boolean algebras. Its formal statement is:
Let 𝐵 be a Boolean algebra, let 𝐼 be an ideal and let 𝐹 be a filter of 𝐵, such
that 𝐼 and 𝐹 are disjoint. Then 𝐼 is contained in some prime ideal of 𝐵 that is disjoint
from 𝐹.

The weak prime ideal theorem for Boolean algebras simply states that every Boolean
algebra contains a prime ideal.

BOOLE'S INEQUALITY: For any finite or countable set of events, the probability that at
least one of the events happens is no greater than the sum of the probabilities of the
individual events. Formally, for a countable set of events 𝐴1 , 𝐴2 , 𝐴3 , . . ., we have

BOOTSTRAP: A statistical re-sampling method for obtaining estimators of


distribution parameters.

BOREL AND CARATHEODORY THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose 𝑓 𝑧 is


analytic for 𝑧 ≤ 𝑅. Also suppose 𝑀 𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴(𝑟) are respectively maxima of 𝑓(𝑧) and
𝑅 𝑓(𝑧) on 𝑧 =r where 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑅. then

2𝑟 𝑅+𝑟
𝑀 𝑟 ≤ 𝐴 𝑅 + 𝑓(0)
𝑅−𝑟 𝑅−𝑟

BOREL, FÉLIX EDOUARD JUSTIN EMILE: Félix Edouard Justin Emile Borel (1871–1956)
was a French mathematician who was one of the first to study real-valued functions,
with important results in set theory and measure theory.
BOREL MEASURE: It is a measure defined on the sigma algebra of a topological space
onto the set of real numbers. If the mapping is onto the interval [0, 1] it is a Borel
probability measure.
BOREL SET: It is a set obtained from repeated applications of unions and intersections
of countable collections of closed or open intervals on the real line.
BOREL’S METHOD OF SUMMATION: If for a given series 𝑢𝑛 ,


𝑠𝑛 𝑥 𝑛
𝑢 𝑥 =
𝑛!
𝑛=0
is convergent for all 𝑥, and 𝑢(𝑥) 𝑒 𝑥 → 𝑠 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 → ∞, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by
Borel’s expontial method to the sum 𝑠, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐵). The transformation
thus determined is denoted by 𝐵 and is called Borel’s method of summation.

BOREL 𝝈 −ALGEBRA: Let 𝐾 be a compact topological space. The Borel 𝜍 −algebra, 𝐵(𝐾),
on 𝐾, is the 𝜍 −algebra generated by the open sets in 𝐾. A member of 𝐵(𝐾) is a Borel
set. Notice that if 𝑓: 𝐾 → 𝐾 is a continuous function, then clearly f is 𝐵(𝐾) −measurable
(the inverse image of an open set will be open, and hence certainly Borel). So if
µ: 𝐵(𝐾) → 𝐾 is a finite charge or complex measure (for 𝐾 = ℝ or 𝐾 = ℂ respectively),
then 𝑓 will be µ-integrable (as 𝑓 is bounded) and so we can define 𝜑𝜇 : 𝐶𝐾 𝐾 → 𝐾 by
𝜑𝜇 𝑓 = ∫𝑋 𝑓𝑑𝜇. Clearly 𝜑𝜇 is linear. Suppose for now that µ is positive, so that
𝜑𝜇 (𝑡) ≤ ∫𝑋 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 ≤ 𝑓 ∞ 𝜇(𝐾)

So 𝜑𝜇 ∇ 𝐶𝐾 (𝐾)∗ with ||𝜑𝜇 || ≤ µ(𝐾).

A measure µ: 𝐵(𝐾) → [0, ∞) is regular if for each 𝐴 ∇ 𝐵(𝐾), we have

𝑠𝑢𝑝 𝜇 𝐸 : 𝐸 ⊆ 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐸 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡


𝜇 𝐴 =
𝑖𝑛𝑓 𝜇 𝐹 : 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡

A charge 𝜈 = 𝜈+ − 𝜈− is regular if 𝜈+ and 𝜈− are regular measures. A complex measure is


regular if its real and imaginary parts are regular.

Note that

1. Many common measures on the real line, e.g. the Lebesgue measure, point
measures, etc., are regular.

2. Examples of measure µ on [0,1] which are not regular:

1
𝜇 ∅ = 0, 𝜇 = 0, 𝜇 𝐴 = +∞
2

3. Another example of a 𝜍 −additive measure µ on [0,1] which is not regular:

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒
𝜇 𝐴 =
+∞, 𝑖𝑓 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑡𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒

We let 𝑀𝑅 (𝐾) and 𝑀𝐶 (𝐾) be the collection of all finite, regular, signed or complex
measures on 𝐵(𝐾). The variation || · || is a norm on 𝑀𝐾 (𝐾).
BORSUK-ULAM THEOREM: For any continuous real function on the sphere 𝑆 𝑛 there
must be antipodal (i.e. opposite) points where the values of the function are same.

BOUND: Let 𝑆 be a non-empty subset of 𝑹. A real number 𝑢 is said to be an upper bound


for 𝑆 if 𝑢 is greater than or equal to every element of 𝑆. If 𝑆 has an upper bound, then 𝑆 is
said to be a set bounded above. Moreover, 𝑢 is a supremum (or least upper bound) of 𝑆
if 𝑢 is an upper bound for 𝑆 and no upper bound for 𝑆 is less than 𝑢; this is written
𝑢 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝 𝑆. For example, if 𝑆 = {1/𝑛; 𝑛 ∇ 𝑁} then 𝑠𝑢𝑝 𝑆 = 1. Similarly, a real number
𝑙 is a lower bound for the set 𝑆 if 𝑙 is less than or equal to every element of 𝑆. If 𝑆 has a
lower bound, then 𝑆 is said to be a set bounded below. Moreover, 𝑙 is an infimum (or
greatest lower bound) of 𝑆 if 𝑙 is a lower bound for the set 𝑆 and no lower bound for 𝑆 is
greater than 𝑙; this is written 𝑙 = 𝑖𝑛𝑓 𝑆. A set is said to be a bounded set if it is bounded
above and below. It is a non-elementary result about the real numbers that any non-
empty set that is bounded above has a supremum, and any non-empty set that is
bounded below has an infimum.
BOUNDARY CONDITION: A complete set of values for all variables at some instant (often
the initial condition, when 𝑡 = 0) which provides a particular solution to a differential
equation.
BOUNDARY MAXIMUM MODULUS THEOREM: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a bounded domain. Let 𝑓 be
a continuous function on 𝑈 that is holomorphic on 𝑈. Then the maximum value of |𝑓| on
𝑈 must occur on ∂U.
BOUNDARY MINIMUM MODULUS PRINCIPLE: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a bounded domain. Let 𝑓 be
a continuous function on 𝑈 that is holomorphic on 𝑈. Assume that 𝑓 never vanishes on
𝑈. Then the minimum value of |𝑓| on 𝑈 must occur on ∂U.
BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM: A differential equation to be satisfied over a region
together with a set of boundary conditions is usually called a boundary value problem.
BOUNDED FUNCTION: A real valued function 𝑓, defined on a domain 𝐷, is said to be a
bounded function on 𝐷 if there is a number 𝐾 such that, for all 𝑥 in 𝐷, we have
| 𝑓(𝑥)| < 𝐾. If 𝑓 is a continuous function on a closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] then it is bounded
on 𝑎, 𝑏 .
BOUNDED INVERSE THEOREM: Bounded inverse theorem is an important result in the
theory of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces. It states that a bijective bounded
linear operator 𝑇 from one Banach space to another has bounded inverse 𝑇 −1 . It is
equivalent to both the open mapping theorem and the closed graph theorem.

BOUNDED LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: The linear functional Φ on the normed linear space 𝑁
is said to be bounded if there exists a real constant 𝑘, such that Φ (𝑓) ≤ 𝑘 𝑓 .

Equivalently, we can say that Φ is bounded if Φ (𝑓) is bounded on the closed unit
sphere of 𝑁 i.e, Φ(𝑓) / 𝑓 is bounded for every 𝑓 ≠ 0 in 𝑁.

BOUNDED LINEAR OPERATOR: Let 𝑁 and 𝑁′ be two normed linear spaces with the
same scalars. Then a linear operator 𝑇 of 𝑁 into 𝑁′ is said to be bounded if there exists
a non-negative real number 𝑘 such that

𝑇 𝑓 ≤ 𝑘 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑁.

BOUNDED SEQUENCE: The real sequence ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ is said to be bounded if there is a real
number 𝑀 such that, for all 𝑛, |𝑎𝑛 | < 𝑀.
BOUNDED SET: A set 𝐴 is said to be a bounded set if closure of 𝐴 does not consist of any
infinite values.

BOX-AND-WHISKER DIAGRAM: (box plot) A graphical summary of data representing the


boundaries of the 4 quadrants on a scale with the middle quadrants represented
as rectangles (boxes) and the outer quadrants as lines (whiskers).

BOX PLOT: Box plot is another name of the box-and-whisker diagram, also known as a
box-and-whisker plot.

BRAHMAGUPTA (598–665): Brahmagupta was an Indian astronomer and


mathematician whose text on astronomy includes some notable mathematics for its
own sake: the areas of quadrilaterals and the solution of certain Diophantine equations,
for example. Here, the systematic use of negative numbers and zero occurs for probably
the first time.

BRACES: Symbols { and } commonly used to represent the order of operations along
with parentheses and brackets. (And other less common types.) They're also used to
represent sets.
BRACHISTOCHRONE: The trajectory of fastest travel between 2 points if a bead is
considered to be guided by a smooth wire, under gravity only, between the 2 points
starting from rest. Note that the starting point must not be the lower of the 2 points or
the bead would never reach the other point. (At the starting point, the bead
has zero Kinectic energy. It will never reach the point with higher gravitational potential
energy. However, due tot he smoothness of the wire, points of equal heights are
possible.)

BRACKETS: Symbols [ and ] commonly used to represent the order of operations, along
with parentheses and braces. (And other less common types.) Informally, all 3 pairs of
symbols are referred to as brackets. Brackets are also used to
represent matrices amongst other mathematical objects.

BRANCH: A branch is a section of a curve with an endpoint at which it meets another


branch, and where the differential has a discontinuity.
BRANCH OF A HYPERBOLA: The two separate parts of a hyperbola are called the two
branches.
BRANCH AND BOUND METHOD: This procedure constructs a branching method that
terminates each branch once the constraint limit has been reached, and by allowing
items to be added in an order which is determined at the start. This reduces
considerably the number of combinations that have to be tried.
BRANCH POINT: Branch point is a point on the curve at which two or more branches of
the curve meet.
BRANCH POINT (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): A point is called a branch point of a function
𝑓 𝑧 if some of the branches interchange as the independent variable 𝑧 describes a
closed path about it.

BRITISH RAIL EXPRESS METRIC: If we define 𝑑 ∶ 𝑅 2 × 𝑅 2 → 𝑅 by

2
𝑢 + 𝑣 2 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑢 ≠ 𝑣,
𝑑(𝑢, 𝑣) =
0 𝑖𝑓 𝑢 = 𝑣,

then 𝑑 is called the British Rail express metric.

BROOKS' THEOREM: It states a relationship between the maximum degree of a graph


and its chromatic number. According to the theorem, in a connected graph in which
every vertex has at most 𝑚 neighbors, the vertices can be colored with only 𝑚 colors,
except for two cases, complete graphs and cycle graphs of odd length, which require
𝑚 + 1 colors.
BROUWER'S FIXED-POINT THEOREM: It is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named
after Luitzen Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function 𝑓 mapping a compact
convex set into itself there is a point 𝑥0 such that 𝑓(𝑥0 ) = 𝑥0 . The simplest forms of
Brouwer's theorem are for continuous functions 𝑓 from a closed interval 𝐼 in the real
numbers to itself or from a closed disk 𝐷 to itself.

BRUNN–MINKOWSKI THEOREM: It is a theorem relating the Lebesgue measures


of compact subsets of Euclidean space. Let 𝑛 ≥ 1 and let 𝜇 denote the Lebesgue
measure on Rn. Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be two nonempty compact subsets of Rn. Then the
following inequality holds:

where 𝐴 + 𝐵 denotes the Minkowski sum:

BUMP FUNCTION: Let 𝜍: 𝑈 → 𝑀 be a chart on an abstract manifold, and let


𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑟) ⊂ 𝐵 (𝑥0 , 𝑠) ⊂ 𝑈 be concentric balls in 𝑈 with 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑠. There exists a
smooth function 𝑔 ∇ 𝐶 ∞ (𝑀), which takes values in [0, 1], such that 𝑔(𝑞) = 1 for
𝑞 ∇ 𝜍(𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑟)) and 𝑔(𝑞) = 0 for 𝑞 ∈ 𝜍(𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑠)). The function 𝑔 is called a bump
function around 𝑝 = 𝜍(𝑥0 ), because of the resemblance with speed bumps used to
reduce traffic.
BURALI-FORTI PARADOX: The Burali-Forti paradox demonstrates that the class of all
ordinals is not a set. If there were a set of all ordinals, 𝑂𝑟𝑑, then it would follow that 𝑂𝑟𝑑
was itself an ordinal, and therefore that 𝑂𝑟𝑑 ∇ 𝑂𝑟𝑑. Even if sets in general are allowed
to contain themselves, ordinals cannot since they are defined so that ∇ is well founded
over them.

BURNSIDE'S THEOREM: If 𝐺 is a finite group of order where 𝑝 and 𝑞 are prime


numbers, and 𝑎 and 𝑏 are non-negative integers, then 𝐺 is solvable. Hence each non-
Abelian finite simple group has order divisible by at least three distinct primes.

BUSEMANN FUNCTION: Given a ray, γ : 0, ∞ →X, the Busemann function is defined by


BUSEMANN’S THEOREM: Let 𝐾 be a convex body in 𝑛-dimensional Euclidean
space 𝑹𝒏 containing the origin in its interior. Let 𝑆 be an (𝑛 − 2)-dimensional linear
subspace of 𝑹𝒏 . For each unit vector 𝜃 in 𝑆 ⊥ , the orthogonal complement of 𝑆, let 𝑆𝜃
denote the (𝑛 − 1)-dimensional hyperplane containing 𝜃 and 𝑆. Define 𝑟(𝜃) to be the
(𝑛 − 1)-dimensional volume of 𝐾 ∩ 𝑆𝜃 . Let 𝐶 be the curve {𝜃𝑟(𝜃)} in 𝑆 ⊥ . Then 𝐶 forms
the boundary of a convex body in 𝑆 ⊥ .

BUTLER’S SPHERE THEOREM: Let a rigid sphere r = a be introduced into flow field of an
axis-symmetric irrotational flow in an incompressible inviscid fluid with no rigid
boundaries, characterized by the stream function Ψ0 = Ψ0 (r, θ)all of whose singularties
are at a distance greater than a from the origin, where Ψ0 = 0(r 2 ) at an origin, then the
stream function becomes

r a2
Ψ = Ψ0 − Ψ1 = Ψ0 r, θ − Ψ0 ,θ
a r

BUTTERFLY THEOREM: Let 𝑀 be the midpoint of a chord 𝑃𝑄 of a circle, through which


two other chords𝐴𝐵 and 𝐶𝐷 are drawn; 𝐴𝐷 and 𝐵𝐶 intersect chord 𝑃𝑄 at 𝑋 and 𝑌
correspondingly. Then 𝑀 is the midpoint of 𝑋𝑌.

𝑩𝑽 𝒂, 𝒃 SPACE: Let 𝑓 (𝑡) be complex valued function defined on the interval 𝑎, 𝑏 . We


take an arbitrary subdivision of [𝑎, 𝑏] as

𝑎 = 𝑡0 ≤ 𝑡1 ≤ 𝑡2 ≤ ⋯ ≤ 𝑡𝑛 = 𝑏,

and form the expression


𝑛

𝑉𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑡𝑘 − 𝑓 𝑡𝑘−1 .
𝑘=1

It the aggregate of sums 𝑉𝑛 corresponding to all possible subdivisions of [𝑎, 𝑏] is


bounded, then the function 𝑓(𝑡) is defined as a function of bounded variation on the
interval 𝑎, 𝑏 , and the quantity

𝑉𝑎𝑏 𝑓 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑘 𝑉𝑘,

is called the total variation of the function 𝑓 𝑡 .

We denote the space of all functions of bounded variation in the interval [𝑎, 𝑏] by
𝐵𝑉 𝑎, 𝑏 . That this is a linear space follows from the property that a function is of
bounded variation if and only if it can be expressed as the difference of two non-
decreasing functions.

C
𝑪𝟎 SPACE: This is the space of all sequences of complex numbers which converges to
zero, with the norm defined as in 𝑐. Since, if two sequences converge to zero, then their
linear combination also converges to zero, 𝑪𝟎 is a subspace of 𝑐. Thus 𝑐0 is a normed
linear space.


For completeness, let 𝑓𝑛 be a fundamental sequence in 𝑐0 . Since 𝑐0 ⊂ 𝑐, 𝑓𝑛 𝑛=1 is also
a fundamental sequence is 𝑐, and has a limit 𝑐. By the theorem of double limits
𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑛→∞𝑓(𝑛) exists and is equal to 0. Hence

𝑓 = 𝑓(𝑛)∞
𝑛=1 lies in 𝑐.

It follows that 𝑐0 is complete normed linear space, i.e. a Banach space.


𝐂[𝟎, 𝟏] SPACE: The linear space 𝐶[0,1] of all continuous real function defined on the
closed unit interval [0,1] is a normed linear space with respect the norm of an element 𝑓
defined by

1
𝑓 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡,
0

But it is not Banach space.

𝐂[𝐚, 𝐛] SPACE: The space 𝐶 [𝑎, 𝑏] is the space of all bounded continuous functions
defined on the closed interval 𝑎, 𝑏 . We know that 𝐶 [𝑎, 𝑏] is a linear space with respect
to pointwise linear operations defined by

𝑓+𝑔 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑔 𝑥 and 𝛼𝑓 𝑥 = 𝛼𝑓 𝑥 ,

For all 𝑓, 𝑔 ∇ 𝐶 𝑎, 𝑏 , 𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏] and all scalars 𝛼.

If 𝑓 is an arbitrary element of 𝐶 𝑎, 𝑏 , we define

𝑓 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥)

Now for all 𝑓, 𝑔 ∇ 𝐶 𝑎, 𝑏 and all scalars 𝛼, we have:

i) 𝑓 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) , which is clearly non-negative.


ii) 𝑓 = 0 ⟺ 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) ,
⟺ 𝑓 𝑥 =, for each 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 ,
⟺ 𝑓 = 0 (zero function)
iii) For any scalar 𝛼,
𝑎𝑓 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑎𝑓 𝑥
= 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑎 𝑓(𝑥)
= 𝛼 sup 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑓(𝑥)
= 𝛼 𝑓
iv) 𝑓 + 𝑔 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓+𝑔 𝑥
≤ 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑔 𝑥
= 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝛼 ∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑔(𝑥)
= 𝑓 + 𝑔
cal: Calorie - a metric unit of energy. The equivalent SI unit of energy is joule. 1 cal
(lower case c) is the energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 °C at roughly 4.2
joules, while 1 Cal (capital C) is the energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 °C 4.2
kilojoules.

CALCULUS: Calculus is divided into two general areas: differential calculus and integral
calculus. The basic problem in differential calculus is to find the rate of change of a
function. Geometrically, this means finding the slope of the tangent line to a function at a
particular point; physically, this means finding the speed of an object if you are given its
position as a function of time. The slope of the tangent line to the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) at a
𝑑𝑦
point (𝑥, 𝑓 (𝑥)) is called the derivative, written as 𝑦 ′ or . The reverse process of
𝑑𝑥

differentiation is integration (or anti-differentiation).


CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS: Calculus of variation is a development of calculus
concerned with problems in which a function is to be determined such that some
related definite integral achieves a maximum or minimum value. In calculus of
variations, the problem is to determine a curve 𝑦(𝑥) that minimizes (or maximizes) the
integral of a specified function over a specific range:
𝑏

𝐽= 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦 ′ 𝑑𝑥
𝑎

To determine the function y, we will define a new quantity Y:


𝑌 = 𝑦 + 𝑒𝜌
where 𝑒 is a new variable, and 𝜌 can be any continuous function as long as it meets
these two conditions:
𝜌 𝑎 = 0, 𝜌 𝑏 =0
These conditions mean that the value for 𝑌 is the same as the value of 𝑦 at the two
endpoints of our interval 𝑎 and 𝑏. Then 𝐽 can be expressed as a function of 𝑒:
𝑏

𝐽(𝑒) = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥
𝑎

To find the derivative:


𝑏
𝑑 𝑑
𝐽(𝑒) = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑒
𝑎
𝑏
𝑑
= 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑒
𝑎
𝑏
𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑌 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑌 ′
= + + 𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑒 𝜕𝑌 𝑑𝑒 𝜕𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑒
𝑎

CANCELLATION: Any method of calculation the result of which, when compared to the
original form, attributes a number of components of the original form to mitigate the
effects of the rest (of those components), so that the result remains the same through
their omission. A common example invloves the numerator and denominator of
a fraction, and another invloves the omission of one logarithm symbol from each side of
the equation (when the each side consists of the logarithm only), even though the
former is a result of the equivalence of fractions and the latter the injective nature of
the logarithmic function. Failure of understanding these can result in the misuse of such
methods, and is commonplace amongst students.

CANCELLATION LAWS: Let ⟪ be a binary operation on a set 𝑆. The cancellation laws are
said to hold if, for all 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 in 𝑆,
(i) if 𝑎⟪𝑏 = 𝑎⟪𝑐, then b = c,
(ii) if 𝑏⟪𝑎 = 𝑐⟪𝑎, then b = c.
In a group G, the cancellation laws hold.
CANONICAL: Describes a representation of an object (e.g. an expression,
a transformation) in a way that is preferred, perhaps unique or considered natural due
to certain properties that it exhibits, even though there may be
other equivalent representations.

CANONICAL HEIGHT: The canonical height on an abelian variety is a height function that
is a distinguished quadratic form.
CANONICAL OR NORMAL FORM OF A REAL QUADRATIC FORMS: If X ′ AX is a real
quadratic form in 𝑛 variables, then there exists real non-singular linear transformation
𝑋 = PV which transforms X ′ AX to the form

𝑦12 + ⋯ + 𝑦𝑝2 − 𝑦𝑝+1


2
− ⋯ − 𝑦𝑟2
In the new form the given quadratic form has been expressed as a sum and difference
of the squares of new variables. This latter expression is called the canonical form or
normal form of the given quadratic form.

CANONICAL PRODUCT (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is an integral function of


finite order 𝜌 with an infinite number of zeroes 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , 𝑧3 arranged in the order of
increasing modulus. Let 𝜌1 be the exponent of the convergence of zeros. We associate an
integer 𝜌 with sequence of zeros s.t.

𝜌1 , 𝜌1 ≠ 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟

𝜌= 𝜌1 − 1, 𝜌1 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑟𝑛 − 𝜌1 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑛=1
𝜌1 , 𝑜𝑡𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒

Where 𝜌1 denotes greatest integer less than or equal to 𝜌1

Evidently 𝜌1 − 1 ≤ 𝑝 ≤ 𝜌1 ≤ 𝜌 in any case.

Then the infinite product


𝑧
𝐺 𝑧 = ,𝑝
𝑧𝑛
𝑛 =1

Converges uniformly and absolutely in any bounded closed domain of 𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 which
does not contain any 𝑧𝑛 𝑛 = 1,2,3, … . Also 𝐺(𝑧) is an integral function and vanishes if
and only if 𝑧 is a zero of 𝑓 𝑧 . We call this product by the name Canocial product formed
with zero of 𝑓 𝑧 , the integer 𝜌 is called genus of it.

CANTILEVER: A beam or such similar structures which is anchored at only one end such
that it resists rotation under load.

CANTOR, GEORGE (1845–1918): George Cantor was a German Mathematician


responsible for the establishment of set theory and for profound developments in the
notion of the infinite. In 1873, he showed that the set of rational numbers is
denumerable. He also showed that the set of real numbers is not. Later he fully
developed his theory of infinite sets and so-called transfinite numbers. The latter part of
his life was clouded by repeated mental illness.
CANTOR INTERMEDIATE VALUE PROPERTY: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 has the Cantor
intermediate value property if for every 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 and for each perfect set 𝐾 between
𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑓 (𝑦), there is a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that 𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ 𝐾; the strong
Cantor intermediate value property if for every 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 and for each perfect set 𝐾
between 𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑓 (𝑦) there is a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that 𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ 𝐾
and 𝑓I𝐶 is continuous; the weak Cantor intermediate value property if for every
𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 with 𝑓 (𝑥) < 𝑓 (𝑦) there exists a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that
𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ (𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑓 (𝑦)); the perfect road if for every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 there exists a perfect set
𝑃 ⊂ 𝑅 having 𝑥 as a bilateral (i.e., two sided) limit point for which 𝑓I𝑃 is continuous at
𝑥.
CANTOR SET: Consider the closed interval [0, 1]. Remove the open interval that forms
1 2
the middle third, that is, the open interval , . From each of the remaining two
3 3

intervals, again remove the open interval that forms the middle third. The Cantor set is
the set that remains when this process is continued indefinitely. It consists of those real
numbers whose ternary representation 0. 𝑐1 𝑐2 𝑐3 … has each ternary digit 𝑐𝑖 equal to
either the digit 0 or 2.

CANTOR-BERNSTEIN-SCHROEDER THEOREM: The Cantor-Bernstein-Schroeder


theorem underlies the theory of transfinite cardinals. In an infinite set, there are subsets
of the exactly same cardinality. But then there are also different transfinite cardinalities.
So how does one compare infinite sets. Given two infinite sets 𝑨 and 𝑩, assume there is
a 1-1 correspondence between B and a subset of A. It is reasonable and viable to expect
that |𝑩| ≤ |𝑨|. Similarly, it is reasonable to say that |𝑩| < |𝐴| provided it is not true
that |𝑨| ≤ |𝑩|, which would hold if there was a 1-1 correspondence between A and a
subset of B. The theorem states as follows:

Let there be an injection 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 and another 𝑔: 𝐵 → 𝐴. Then there isa bijection


𝛼 ∶ 𝐴 → 𝐵. In other words, if |𝐴| ≤ |𝐵| and |𝐵| ≤ |𝐴|, then |𝐴| = |𝐵|.

CANTOR INTERSECTION THEOREM: It states that a decreasing nested sequence of non-


empty compact subsets of 𝑆 has nonempty intersection. In other words, supposing {𝐶𝑘 }
is a sequence of non-empty, closed and bounded sets satisfying

it follows that
CANTOR LEMMA: No interval [a, b] is countable.
CANTOR’S PARADOX: Suppose there exists an infinite set A containing the largest
possible number of elements. Cantor’s Diagonal Theorem shows that its power set has
more elements than A had. This proves there is no largest cardinal number.
CANTOR'S THEOREM: It states that, for any set A, the set of all subsets of 𝐴 (the power
set of 𝐴) has a strictly greater cardinality than 𝐴 itself.

CAPTURE-RECAPTURE SAMPLING: A method for estimating total population (usually of


animals) through 2 periods of capture (observation), assuming that the total number
has remained constant and that the probability of capture of any animal on any one visit
is constant and equal. In implementing this method, a researcher captures a number of
animals and mark them (or make sure that they can be identified in the future in some
way) and releases them, they come back to capture a number of animals and count the
proportion of animals that were captured both times. By assuming that the proportion
of animals recaptured in an unbiased estimate of the proportion of animals marked in
the first capture, combine this with the number of animals marked on the first visit, we
can easily calculate the estimated number of the total population. In practice, it is
difficult to ensure that the animal population remains constant (or roughly the same)
while ensuring that the chance of recapture is truly equal amongst the population since
the former requires the visits to be relatively close to each other so that the population
does not change significantly and yet the latter condition requires the visits to be
sufficiently space apart so that the locations of the animals are truly randomized.

CARATHÉODORY MEASURABLE SET: Given an outer measure µ∗ , we define 𝐸 ⊆ 𝑋 to be


Carathéodory measurable if 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 = 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 + 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴\𝐸 for any 𝐴 ⊆ 𝑋. As µ∗ is sub-
additive, this is equivalent to 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ≥ 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 + 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴\𝐸 as the other inequality is
automatic. Measurability by Lebesgue and Carathéodory are equivalent.

CARATHÉODORY'S THEOREM: It states that if 𝑈 is a simply connected open subset of the


complex plane C, whose boundary is a Jordan curve 𝛤 then the Riemann map 𝑓: 𝑈 → 𝐷
from 𝑈 to the unit disk 𝐷 extends continuously to the boundary, giving a
homeomorphism 𝐹 : 𝛤 → 𝑆 1 from 𝛤 to the unit circle 𝑆 1 .
CARD: It is the abbreviation for cardinality of a set. (Card(X) is also written
#𝑋, ♯𝑋 𝑜𝑟 |𝑋|).
CARDINALITY OF A SET: For a finite set 𝐴, the cardinality of 𝐴, denoted by 𝑛(𝐴), is the
number of elements in 𝐴. The notation #(𝐴) or |𝐴| is also used. For subsets 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 of
some universal set 𝐸,
 𝑛(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑛(𝐴) + 𝑛(𝐵) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)
 𝑛(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = 𝑛(𝐴) + 𝑛(𝐵) + 𝑛(𝐶) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) – 𝑛(𝐵 ∩
𝐶) + 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶).
CARDINAL NUMBER: A number that gives the number of elements in a set. If two sets
can be put in one-to-one correspondence with one another they have the same cardinal
number or cardinality. For finite sets, the cardinal numbers are 0, 1, 2, 3, …, but infinite
sets require new symbols to describe their cardinality like aleph and aleph-null.
CARDIOID: A cardioids is the curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle
rolling round another circle of the same radius. Its equation, in which 𝑎 is the radius of
each circle, may be taken in polar coordinates as 𝑟 = 2𝑎(1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃)(– 𝜋 < 𝜃 ≤ 𝜋). In
the figure, OA = 4a and OB = 2a.

CARMICHAEL'S THEOREM: It states that for 𝑛 greater than 12, the 𝑛th Fibonacci
number 𝐹(𝑛) has at least one prime divisor that does not divide any earlier Fibonacci
number.

The only exceptions for 𝑛 up to 12 are:

 𝐹(1) = 1 and 𝐹(2) = 1, which have no prime divisors


 𝐹(6) = 8 whose only prime divisor is 2 (which is 𝐹(3))
 𝐹(12) = 144 whose only prime divisors are 2 (which is 𝐹(3)) and 3 (which is
𝐹(4))
If a prime 𝑝 is a divisor of 𝐹(𝑛) that does not divide any 𝐹(𝑚) with 𝑚 < 𝑛, then 𝑝 is
called a characteristic factor or a primitive prime divisor of 𝐹(𝑛).
Carmichael's theorem says that every Fibonacci number, apart from the exceptions
listed above, has at least one primitive prime divisor.

CARTAN: It is extended Einstein's General relativity to Einstein-Cartan theory, using


Riemannian-Cartan geometry instead of Riemannian geometry. This extension provides
affine torsion, which allows for non-symmetric curvature tensors and the incorporation
of spin-orbit coupling.
CARTAN–HADAMARD THEOREM: It states that a connected, simply connected complete
Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional curvature is diffeomorphic to Rn via
the exponential map; for metric spaces, the statement that a connected, simply
connected complete geodesic metric space with non-positive curvature in the sense of
Alexandrov is a globally CAT(0) space.

CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM: The rectilinear coordinate system used for any
(finite and natural) number of dimensions. The number of axes used is commonly seen
as a basic way of "defining" the number of dimensions.

These axes must all be mutually perpendicular and the components (the coordinates) of
a point are the shortest distances of a point to the hyperplane consisting the axes
(except the axis related to the component in question). Thus, the x-coordinate of a point
is the shortest distance from the point to any point on the line (plane) consisting of
the y-axis (both y and z-axes) in 2D (3D).

While rectilinear coordinate system is a more descriptive name of its function, it is more
commonly called Cartesian, named after Cartesius, the Latin name of René Descartes.
CARTESIAN PRODUCT: The Cartesian product 𝐴 × 𝐵, of sets 𝐴 and 𝐵, is the set of all
ordered pairs (𝑎, 𝑏), where 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 and 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵. Similarly, the Cartesian product
𝐴 × 𝐵 × 𝐶 of sets 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 can be defined as the set of all ordered triples (𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐),
where 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵 and 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶.

CARTESIAN TENSOR: Cartesian tensors are extensively used in a variety of branches of


continuum mechanics, such as fluid mechanics and elasticity. In classical continuum
mechanics, the space of concentration is usually 3-dimensional Euclidean space, as is
the tangent space at each point. If we put a ceiling on the local coordinates to be
Cartesian coordinates with the same scale centered at the point of concentration, the
metric tensor is the Kronecker delta. This means that there is no requirement to
distinguish covariant and contravariant components, and furthermore there is no need
to distinguish tensors and tensor densities. All Cartesian-tensor indices are written as
subscripts. Cartesian tensors achieve considerable computational simplification at the
cost of generality and of some theoretical insight.

CASORATI-WEIERSTRASS THEOREM: If 𝑓 ∶ 𝐷(𝑃, 𝑟0 ) \ {𝑃} → 𝐶 is holomorphic and 𝑃 is


an essential singularity of 𝑓, then 𝑓(𝐷(𝑃, 𝑟) \ {𝑃}) is dense in 𝐶 for any 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑟0 .
CASTING OUT NINES: It is a method of verification of integer arithmetic by checking that
the answer matches the equivalent calculations under modulo arithmetic.
The modulus of 9 is chosen simply because of our decimal systems (base 10).
The difference of 1 between the modulus (9) and the base (10) allows for an easy
conversion of a number to modulo 9. (By adding the constituent digits of a number
represented in base 10.)

CATEGORICAL DATA: Observations that indicate categories to which individuals belong


rather than measurements or values of variables. Often such data consists of a summary
that shows the numbers or frequencies of individuals in each category. This form of data
is known as a 'frequency table' or, if there are two or more categorized features, as 'a
contingency table'.
CATEGORICAL VARIABLE: A random variable with values which are categories. (e.g.
nationality, gender etc.)

CATEGORY OF A SET: A topological characterization of the "massiveness" of a set. 𝑨


subset 𝑬 of a topological space 𝑿 is said to be of the first category in 𝑿 if it can be
expressed as a finite or countable union of nowhere dense sets in 𝑿, otherwise 𝑬 is said
to be of the second category. This terminology is, however, not universal: some authors
use the name second category for complements in 𝑿 of sets of the first category. In the
case of a Baire space, a more appropriate name for such sets is residual. A non-empty
closed set of real numbers, in particular an interval, is not of the first category in itself.
This result generalizes to any complete metric space, it is called Baire category theorem
and has wide application in analysis. The role of a set of the first category in topology is
analogous to that of a null set in measure theory. However, in 𝑹 a set of the first
category can be a set of full (Lebesgue) measure, while there are (Lebesgue) null sets
which are residual.
CATENARY: The curve in which an ideal flexible heavy rope or chain of uniform density
hangs between two points. The equation of the curve is 𝑦 = 𝑐 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑕 (𝑥/𝑐).

A catenary is a curve represented by the formula


1
𝑦= 𝑎 𝑒 𝑥/𝑎 + 𝑒 −𝑥/𝑎
2
The value of 𝑎 is the 𝑦 intercept. The catenary can also be represented by the hyperbolic
cosine function 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑕 𝑥.
CATENOID: Catenoid is the surface generated by rotating a catenary around its axis of
symmetry.
CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN-LOUIS (1789–1857): Augustin-Louis Cauchy was one of the most
important mathematicians of the early nineteenth century and a dominating figure in
French mathematics. His work ranged over vast areas of mathematics, in almost 800
papers, but he is chiefly remembered as one of the founders of rigorous mathematical
analysis. Using the definition of limit as it is now known; he developed sound definitions
of continuity and convergence. He was also a pioneer in the theory of functions of a
complex variable.

CAUCHY CONVERGENCE CONDITION: 1. For sequences - a necessary and sufficient


condition for the convergence of a sequence: an infinite sequence is convergent, if and
only if, for any positive number 𝜀, there is always a number 𝑁(𝜀) (𝑁 is a function of 𝜀),
such that the difference between any two terms after the 𝑁th term is less than 𝜀.

2. For series - a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of a series: An
infinite series 𝛴𝑎𝑛 is convergent, if and only if, for any positive number 𝜀 , there is an
integer 𝑁(𝜀) (𝑁 is a function of 𝜀 ), such that

𝑎𝑛+1 + 𝑎𝑛+2 + − − − + 𝑎𝑝 <∇

for all integers 𝑛 > 𝑁 and 𝑝 is a positive integer.

CAUCHY DISTRIBUTION: A symmetric continuous probability distribution with infinite


support.

CAUCHY ESTIMATE: If 𝑓 is a holomorphic on a region containing the closed disc 𝐷(𝑃, 𝑟)


𝜕𝑘 𝑀 · 𝑘!
and if |𝑓| ≤ 𝑀 on 𝐷 (𝑃, 𝑟), then 𝑓(𝑃) ≤ .
𝜕𝑥 𝑘 𝑟𝑘

CAUCHY HADAMARD THEOREM: Consider the formal power series in one complex
variable z of the form

Where 𝑎, 𝑐𝑛 ∇ ℂ. Then the radius of convergence of ƒ at the point 𝑎 is given by


where lim sup denotes the limit superior, the limit as 𝑛 approaches infinity of
the supremum of the sequence values after the 𝑛th position. If the sequence values are
unbounded so that the lim sup is ∞, then the power series does not converge near 𝑎,
while if the lim sup is 0 then the radius of convergence is ∞, meaning that the series
converges on the entire plane.

CAYLEY HAMILTON THEOREM: If 𝛼 ∶ 𝐶 2 → 𝐶 2 is a linear map, let us write 𝑄(𝑡) =


𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑡𝜄 − 𝛼). Then we have 𝑄(𝑡) = 𝑡 2 + 𝑎𝑡 + 𝑏 where 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐶. The Cayley–
Hamilton theorem states that 𝛼 2 + 𝑎𝛼 + 𝑏𝜄 = 𝑂 or, more briefly that Q α = O.

CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA FOR THE DERIVATIVE OF AN ANALYTIC FUNCTION: If a


function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on a closed contour 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎 is any point lying in it,
then

1 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧
𝑓′ 𝑎 = ∫𝐶
2𝜋𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑎)²

𝑡
CAUCHY MACLAURIN’S INTEGRAL TEST: Let 𝐹 𝑡 = ∫𝑎 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 for 𝑎 ≤ 𝑡 < ∞. If

lim𝑡→∞ 𝐹(𝑡) exists and is equal to 𝑙 ∇ 𝑅, the improper integral ∫𝑎 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 is convergent
to 𝑙 otherwise, it is divergent.
CAUCHY MEAN VALUE THEOREM: If real valued functions 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) are such that
 𝑓 𝑥 , 𝑔(𝑥) are continuous in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]
 𝑓 𝑥 , 𝑔(𝑥) are differentiable in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)
𝑓 ′ (𝑐) 𝑓 𝑏 −𝑓(𝑎)
then there exist at least one value of 𝑥 = 𝑐 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑔 ′ (𝑐) = 𝑔 .
𝑏 −𝑔(𝑎)

CAUCHY RATIO TEST: Also known simply as the ratio test. It is a method of deciding
the convergence of a series through the general ratio of one term of the series to the
next.

CAUCHY RIEMANN EQUATIONS: For an analytic function 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑢 + 𝑖𝑣 of the complex


variable 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦 the Cauchy–Riemann equations linking the real and imaginary
parts of the function are
𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑢
= 𝑎𝑛𝑑 =−
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
CAUCHY SCHWARZ–BUNYAKOVSKII INEQUALITY: For vectors 𝑥 and 𝑦 in an inner
product space 𝑉 let us define ||𝑥|| = ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑥 ⟩𝑎𝑛𝑑 ||𝑦|| = ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑦 ⟩ then we have
⌌𝑥, 𝑦⌍ ≤ 𝑥 𝑦 with equality if and only if 𝑥 and 𝑦 are scalar multiple each other.

CAUCHY SCHWARZ INEQUALITY FOR INTEGRALS: If 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑔(𝑥) are real functions then
{∫ [𝑓(𝑥)𝑔(𝑥)]𝑑𝑥}2 ≤ {∫ [𝑓(𝑥)]2 𝑑𝑥}{∫ [𝑔(𝑥)]2 𝑑𝑥}
if all these integrals exist.
CAUCHY SCHWARZ INEQUALITY FOR SUMS: If 𝑎𝑖 and 𝑏𝑖 are real numbers, 𝑖 = 1, 2, … , 𝑛
then

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

𝑎𝑖 𝑏𝑖 ≤ 𝑎𝑖2 𝑏𝑖2
𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1

CAUCHY SEQUENCE: A sequence ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ for which the metric 𝑑(𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑚 ), where 𝑚 > 𝑛,
satisfies lim𝑛 →∞ 𝑑 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑚 = 0.
Cauchy sequences converge when they are defined on the set of real numbers, but do
not necessarily converge on the set of rational numbers.
CAUCHY’S CONDENSATION TEST: If the function 𝑓(𝑥) is positive for all positive integral
values of 𝑛 and continually decreases as 𝑛 increases, then the two infinite series 𝑓(𝑛)
and 𝑎𝑛 𝑓(𝑎𝑛 ) are either both convergent or both divergent, 𝑎 being a positive integer
greater than 1.
CAUCHY’S FIRST THEOREM ON LIMITS: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ is a sequence of positive reals such that
lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙, then
𝑥1 + 𝑥2 + 𝑥3 + − − − + 𝑥𝑛
lim =𝑙
𝑛 →∞ 𝑛
CAUCHY’S GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONVERGENCE: A sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ of real numbers
converges if and only if it is a Cauchy sequence.
CAUCHY’S INEQUALITY COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on a circle
𝑛 𝑀𝑛 !
𝐶, given by 𝑧 − 𝑎 = 𝑅 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑓 𝑓(𝑧) ≤ 𝑀 for every 𝑧 𝑜𝑛 𝐶, then 𝑓 (𝑎) ≤ 𝑅𝑛

CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL THEOREM: For a closed curve C and an analytic function 𝑓(𝑧),

𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧 = 0

CAUCHY’S LEMMA: If 𝐺 is a finite group and 𝑝 is a prime number that divides the order
of 𝐺, then 𝐺 must contain an element of order 𝑝.
1
CAUCHY’S ROOT TEST: Let 𝑢𝑛 be a series of positive terms such that lim𝑛→∞ 𝑢𝑛 𝑛 = 𝑙.
Then
1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑙 < 1.
2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑙 > 1.
3. The test fails if 𝑙 = 1.
CAUCHY’S SECOND THEOREM ON LIMITS: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ is a sequence of positive reals such that
lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙, then
𝑛
lim 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 − − − 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙
𝑛→∞

CAUCHY’S THEOREM: If 𝐺 is a finite group and 𝑝 is a prime number which is a divisor of


the order of the group𝐺, then 𝐺 contains an element of order 𝑝. This implies that there
must be a subgroup of 𝐺 whose order is 𝑝.
CAUCHY’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If a function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic and single
valued inside and on a simple closed contour 𝐶, then ∫𝑐 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧 = 0

CAUSE VARIABLE: Also known as an independent variable, an explanatory variable, a


predictor or predictor variable or regressor.

CAUSTIC: The envelope of rays refracted or reflected by a geometric object.

CAVALIERI’S PRINCIPLE: Two geometrical figures whose cross sections are the same as
each other, at the same distance away from some reference line/lines (plane/planes)
have the same area (volume). As an example, this explains why triangles whose bases
have the same length, and have the same height, have also the same area, regardless of
its shape.

CAYLEY, ARTHUR (1821–95): Arthur Cayley was a British mathematician who


contributed greatly to the resurgence of pure mathematics in Britain in the nineteenth
century. He published over 900 papers on many aspects of geometry and algebra. He
conceived and developed the theory of matrices, and was one of the first to study
abstract groups.
CAYLEY–HAMILTON THEOREM: The characteristic polynomial 𝑝(𝜆) of an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix
𝑨 is defined by 𝑝(𝜆) = 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰). The following result about the characteristic
polynomial is called the Cayley–Hamilton Theorem:
Theorem: If the characteristic polynomial 𝑝(𝜆) of an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑨 is 𝑝(𝜆) =

(– 1)𝑛 (𝜆𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛–1 𝜆𝑛–1 + ··· + 𝑏1 𝜆 + 𝑏0 ),

then 𝐴𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛–1 𝐴𝑛–1 + ··· + 𝑏1 𝐴 + 𝑏0 𝑰 = 𝟎.


CAYLEY-HAMILTON THEOREM FOR RINGS: Let 𝑈 be be an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix with
coefficients in a unital commutative ring 𝑅 and let 𝜒𝑈 (𝑡) be the characteristic
polynomial of 𝑈. Then 𝜒𝑈 (𝑈) = 0.
CAYLEY REPRESENTATION THEOREM: Every group is isomorphic to a group of
permutations.
cdf: It is the abbreviation for cumulative distribution function. Short form of
Cumulative distribution function of a probability distribution.

CEILING FUNCTION: It is the function on real numbers whose value is always rounded
up, if the argument is not already an integer. The function leaves integers unchanged.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS: The study of motions of celestial bodies such as stars, planets
and comets etc.

CELL: Categories of data divided into rectangular arrays through more than
one variable. It is essentially a conventional use for the analogue of groups in 1
dimension.

CELSUIS: Represented by the symbol °C. It is based on dividing the difference between
the freezing point and boiling point of water into 100 equal "degrees.

CENSORED OBSERVATIONS: In statistics, these are the observations that are made
incomplete systematically due to the nature of the procedure (possible) for observation
or the objects under study.

CENSUS: A survey of the entire population.

CENTESIMAL MEASURE: A metric angular measure dividing a right angle into 100
centesimal degrees.

CENTI-: An SI prefix for one one hundredth.


CENTRAL ANGLE: An angle between two radii (of a circle or sphere).

CENTRAL AXIS: The axis of symmetry of a right-circular cone

CENTRAL CONIC: A central conic is a conic with a centre of symmetry, and thus an
ellipse or a hyperbola. The conic with equation
𝑎𝑥 2 + 2𝑕𝑥𝑦 + 𝑏𝑦 2 + 2𝑔𝑥 + 2𝑓𝑦 + 𝑐 = 0
is central if and only if
𝑎𝑏 ≠ 𝑕2 .
CENTRAL DIFFERENCE: If {(𝑥𝑖 , 𝑓𝑖 )}, 𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, … is a given set of function values with
𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑕, 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the central difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by
𝑓𝑖+1 – 𝑓𝑖−1 𝑓 𝑥𝑖+1 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖−1 )
=
2 2
CENTRAL DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION: The most common numerical approximation
to the derivative of a function 𝑓(𝑥) is to take the gradient of the chord joining the point
and another point where 𝑥 has been increased by a small amount 𝑕. The central
difference approximation uses the chord joining the two points whose 𝑥 values are a
small amount 𝑕 from the value 𝑥0 , giving
𝑓 𝑥0 + 𝑕 − 𝑓 𝑥0 − 𝑕
𝑓 ′ (𝑥0 ) ≈
2𝑕
CENTRAL FIELD: The family of curves 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥, 𝑐 is said to form a central field over a
domain D if together they cover the whole D without intersecting each other.
CENTRALIZER: Let 𝐺 be a group. The centralizer 𝐶(𝑕) of an element 𝑕 of 𝐺 is the
subgroup of 𝐺 defined by 𝐶(𝑕) = {𝑔 ∇ 𝐺 ∶ 𝑔𝑕 = 𝑕𝑔}.
CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM: If independent samples of size n are taken from a
population the distribution of the sample means (known as the sampling distribution of
the mean) will be approximately normal for large n. The mean of the sampling
distribution is the population mean and its variance is the population variance divided
by n. Note that there is no need for the distribution in the population sampled to be
normal. The theorem is important because it allows statements to be made about
population parameters by comparing the results of a single experiment with those that
would be expected according to some null hypothesis.

CENTRAL TENDENCY: A common measure in summary statistics bsed around the loose
idea that we can assign one location to represent the locations of a number of objects
considered as one. Thus, there is not just one but rather a number of slightly different
concepts which fits the description of central tendency. It is what is commonly referred
to by the similarly loose idea of an average.

CENTRE (CENTRE OF SYMMETRY): A point about which a geometric figure is in some


way self-similar. It can either be a centre of rotational symmetry, or the intersections of
multiple lines/planes of reflective symmetry, or even the intersections of medians in
a triangle.

CENTRE OF A FUZZY SET: if the mean value of all points at which the membership
function of the fuzzy set achieves its maximum value is finite, then define this mean
value as the center of the fuzzy set; if the mean value equals positive (negative) infinite,
then the center is defined as the smallest (largest) among all points that achieve the
maximum membership value.

CENTRE OF A GROUP: The set of elements which are commutative with every elements
of the group. Note that there must be at least one element in the centre, the identity.
Whereas the centre can be as large as the group, such a group is called an Abelian group.

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY: The centre of gravity of the body of water that an object
displaces.

CENTRE OF CURVATURE: Given a curve, the centre of curvature of a point on this curve
is the centre of a circle which "locally" (for a neighborhood of that point) describes the
curvature of the curve.

CENTRE OF GRAVITY: A point through gravity can be considered to be acting, instead of


individually on the point masses or acting on the body as a whole. It is a different
concept from the centre of mass, although due to the small differences in gravitational
strength in most context, they can be considered close approximates of each other.

CENTRE OF MASS: The point (not necessarily within the object) which is the
weighted average of the point masses of a body (or the set of infinitely many point
masses through integration), which can be used to calculate linear motion of a rigid
body as if all of the object's mass are at that point (the centre of mass) only.
(Considering the object as a particle.) It is also known as the barycentre. A point q ∇ M is
called the center of mass of the points if it is a point of global minimum
of the function

Such a point is unique if all distances are less than radius of convexity.
For uniform bodies:
2
TRIANGULAR LAMINA: along median from vertex
3
𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼
CIRCULAR ARC, RADIUS r, ANGLE AT CENTRE 2α: from centre
α
2𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼
SECTOR OF CIRCLE, RADIUS r, ANGLE AT CENTRE 2𝛼: from centre

CENTRE OF ROTATION: The invariant point in a rotation.

CENTRIPETAL COMPONENT: A component of an object's acceleration corresponding to


a centripetal force.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE: A force perpendicular to the velocity of an object which causes


the object to travel on a curved (not straight) path.

CENTROID: The center of mass of an object. For a one-dimensional uniform object of


length L, the centroid is the midpoint of the line segment. For a triangle, the centroid is
the intersecting point of its three medians. The centroid of a symmetrical figure is the
center of symmetry. For any other irregular shaped two-dimensional object, the
centroid is the point where this single support can balance this object. Generally, the
centroid of a two- or three-dimensional object is found by using double or triple
integrals.
CESARO’S THEOREM: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ and ⌌𝑦𝑛 ⌍ are two sequences of positive reals such that
lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙 and lim𝑛→∞ 𝑦𝑛 = 𝑙 ′ , then
𝑥1 𝑦𝑛 + 𝑥2 𝑦𝑛−1 + 𝑥3 𝑦𝑛−2 + − − − + 𝑥𝑛 𝑦1
lim = 𝑙𝑙 ′
𝑛 →∞ 𝑛

CEVIAN: Any line segment joining a vertex of a triangle to a point on the infinite line
containing the opposite side.
c.g.s. UNITS: A system of units based on centimeters, grams and seconds. (Instead
of meters, kilograms and hours for the SI units). It has been largely superseded by the
use of SI units nowadays.

CHAIN: Let 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴, where 𝐴 is ordered by ≤. 𝐵 is a chain in 𝐴 if any two elements of 𝐵


are comparable. That is, 𝐵 is a linearly ordered subset of 𝐴.
CHAIN COMPLEXES: A chain complex 𝐶 ∗ is a (doubly infinite) sequence (𝐶𝑖 ∶ 𝑖 ∇ 𝑍) of
modules over some unital ring, together with homomorphisms 𝜕𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐶𝑖−1 for each
𝑖 ∇ 𝑍, such that 𝜕𝑖 ∘ 𝜕𝑖 + 1 = 0 for all integers 𝑖.
CHAIN MAP: Let 𝐶 ∗ and 𝐷 ∗ be chain complexes. A chain map 𝑓: 𝐶 ∗ → 𝐷∗ is a sequence
𝑓𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐷𝑖 of homomorphisms which satisfy the commutativity condition
𝜕𝑖 ∘ 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓𝑖−1 ∘ 𝜕𝑖 for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝑍.
CHAIN RULE: The following rule that gives the derivative of the composition of two
functions: If 𝑕(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)) for all x, then 𝑕′(𝑥) = 𝑓′(𝑔(𝑥))𝑔′(𝑥).
char: It is the abbreviation for characteristic of a ring.
CHARACTERS: A character 𝜒 of an Abelian group 𝐺 is a function which assigns to each
𝑎 ∇ 𝐺 a complex number 𝜒(𝑎) of absolute value 1 and satisfies 𝜒(𝑎𝑏) = 𝜒(𝑎)𝜒(𝑏)for all
𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺. The product 𝜒 = 𝜒1 𝜒2 of two characters 𝜒1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜒2 is delïned by 𝜒(𝑎) =
𝜒1 (𝑎)𝜒2 (𝑏), and 𝜒 is also a character of 𝐺. Thus all the characters of 𝐺 form an Abelian
group 𝐶(𝐺), which is called the character group of 𝐺. The identity element of the
character group is the identity character (or principal character) 𝜒 such that 𝜒(𝑎) = 1
for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝐺. If 𝐺 is finite, then 𝐺 ≈ 𝐶(𝐺). This implies the duality 𝐺 = 𝐶[𝐶(𝐺)].
CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYNOMIALS: The order of a zero of a polynomial equals the
order of its first non-vanishing derivative.

CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION: Suppose A is a subset of a set X. Then the function


1, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴
𝜒𝐴 𝑥 =
0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴
is the characteristic function for 𝐴.
CHARACTERISTIC OF A FIELD: The smallest positive whole number 𝑛 such that the sum
of the multiplicative identity added to itself 𝑛 times equals the additive identity. If no
such 𝑛 exists, the field is said to have characteristic zero.
CHARACTERISTIC OF A RING: Let 𝑅 be a ring, and let 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅. We may define 𝑛. 𝑟 for all
natural numbers 𝑛 by recursion on 𝑛 so that 1. 𝑟 = 𝑟 and 𝑛. 𝑟 = (𝑛 − 1). 𝑟 + 𝑟 for all
𝑛 > 0. We define also 0. 𝑟 = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (−𝑛). 𝑟 = −(𝑛. 𝑟) for all natural numbers n. Then
(𝑚 + 𝑛). 𝑟 = 𝑚. 𝑟 + 𝑛. 𝑟, 𝑛. (𝑟 + 𝑠) = 𝑛. 𝑟 + 𝑛. 𝑠, (𝑚𝑛). 𝑟 = 𝑚. (𝑛. 𝑟), (𝑚. 𝑟)(𝑛. 𝑠) =
(𝑚𝑛). (𝑟𝑠) for all integers 𝑚 an 𝑛 and for all elements 𝑟 and 𝑠 of 𝑅. In particular,
suppose that 𝑅 is a unital ring. Then the set of all integers n satisfying 𝑛. 1 = 0 is an
ideal of 𝑍. Therefore there exists a unique nonnegative integer 𝑝 such that 𝑝𝑍 = {𝑛 ∇
𝑍 ∶ 𝑛. 1 = 0} . This integer 𝑝 is referred to as the characteristic of the ring 𝑅, and is
denoted by 𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑟 𝑅.
CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIAL: Let 𝑨 be a square matrix. Then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 (𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) is a
polynomial in 𝜆 and is called the characteristic polynomial of 𝑨. The equation
𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) = 0 is the characteristic equation of 𝑨, and its roots are the characteristic
values of 𝑨.
CHARACTERISTIC SUBSPACES OF A MATRIX: Suppose λ is an eigenvalue of a square
matrix 𝐴. Then every non-zero vector 𝑋 satisfying the equation

A − λI = 0 ………. 1

is an eigenvector of 𝐴 corresponding to the eigenvalue λ. If the matrix 𝐴 − λI is of rank 𝑟,


then the equation (1) will possess 𝑛 − 𝑟 linarly independent solutions. Each non-zero
linear combination of these solutions is also a solution of (1) and therefore it will be an
eigenvector of 𝐴. The set of all these linear combinations is a subspace of 𝑉𝑛 provided we
add zero vector also to this set. This subspace of 𝑉𝑛 is called characteristic subspace of 𝐴
corresponding to the eigenvalue λ. It is nothing but the column null space of the matrix
𝐴 − λI. Its dimension 𝑛 − 𝑟 is the geometric multiplicity of the eigenvalue λ.

CHARACTERISTIC VALUE: Let 𝑨 be a square matrix. The roots of the characteristic


equation 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) = 0 are called the characteristic values of 𝑨. Then 𝜆 is a
characteristic value of 𝑨 if and only if there is a non-zero vector 𝒙 such that 𝑨𝒙 = 𝜆𝒙.
Let A = aij be any 𝑛-rowed square matrix and λ an indeterminate. The matrix
n×n

𝐴 − λI is called the characteristic matrix of 𝐴 where 𝐼 is the unit matrix of order 𝑛.

a11 − λ a12 … a1n


a21 a22 − λ … a2n
Also the determinant A − λI = which is an ordinary
… … … …
an1 an2 … ann − λ
polynomial of λ of degree 𝑛, is called the characteristic polynomial of 𝐴. The equation
A − λI = 0 is called the characteristic equation of A and the roots of this equation are
called the characteristic roots or characteristics values or eigen values or latent roots or
proper values of the matrix A. The set of the eigen values of A is called the spectrum of
A.

If λ is a characteristic roots of the matrix 𝐴, then A − λI = 0 and the matrix A − λI is


singular. Therefore there exists a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that

A − λI X = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝐴𝑋 = λX.

CHARACTERISTIC VECTOR: Any vector 𝒙 such that 𝑨𝒙 = 𝜆𝒙 is called a characteristic


vector corresponding to the characteristic value 𝜆. If λ is a characteristic root of an 𝑛 × 𝑛
matrix 𝐴, then a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that 𝐴𝑋 = λX is called a character vector or
eigenvector of 𝐴 corresponding to the characteristic root λ. λ is a characteristic root of a
matrix 𝐴 if and only if there exists a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that 𝐴𝑋 = λX.
If 𝑋 is a characteristic vector of a matrix 𝐴 corresponding to the characteristic value λ,
then 𝑘𝑋 is also a characteristic vector of 𝐴 corresponding to the same characteristic
value λ. Here 𝑘 is any non-zero scalar.

If 𝑋 is a characteristic vector of a matrix 𝐴, then 𝑋 cannot corresponding to more than


one characteristic value A.

The characteristic vectors corresponding to distinct characteristic roots of a matrix are


linear independent.

If λ1 be a characteristic root of order 𝑡 of the characteristic equation A − λI = 0, then 𝑡


is called the algebraic multiplicity of λ1 . If s be the number of linearly independent
eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue λ1 , then s is called the geometric
multiplicity of λ1 . In this case number of linearly independent solutions of A − λ1 I X =
0 will be s and the matrix A − λ1 I will be rank n − s.

The geometric multiplicity of a characteristic root cannot exceed its algebraic


multiplicity i.e., s ≤ t.

The characteristic roots of a Hermitian matrix are real.

The characteristic roots of a skew-Hermitian matrix are either pure imaginary or zero.
The characteristic roots of a real symmetric matrix are either pure imaginary or zero,
for every such matrix is skew- Hermitian.

The characteristic roots of a unitary matrix are of unit modulus.

The characteristic roots of an orthogonal matrix are of unit modulus.

CHARACTER OF THE GROUP: If 𝐺 is a Hausdorff locally compact Abelian group we say


that a continuous group homomorphism 𝜒 ∶ 𝐺 → 𝑆 1 is a character of the group. We
write 𝐺 for the set of such characters and 𝑕𝑥, 𝜒𝑖 = 𝜒(𝑥) for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺 and 𝜒 ∇ 𝐺 .

CHART: Let 𝑆 be a surface in 𝑅 3 . A chart on 𝑆 is an injective regular parametrized


surface 𝜍: 𝑈 → 𝑅 3 with image 𝜍(𝑈) ⊂ 𝑆. A collection of charts 𝜍𝑖 : 𝑈𝑖 → 𝑅 3 on 𝑆 is said
to cover 𝑆 if 𝑆 = ⋃𝑖 𝜍𝑖 𝑈𝑖 . In that case the collection is called an atlas of 𝑆. A coordinate
map, a coordinate chart, or simply a chart, of a manifold is an invertible map between a
subset of the manifold and a simple space such that both the map and its inverse
preserve the desired structure. For a topological manifold, the simple space is
some Euclidean space Rn and interest focuses on the topological structure. This
structure is preserved by homeomorphisms, invertible maps that are continuous in
both directions. In the case of a differentiable manifold, a set of charts called
an atlas allows us to do calculus on manifolds. Polar coordinates, for example, form a
chart for the plane R2 minus the positive x-axis and the origin.

CHEBYSHEV APPROXIMATION: Let 𝐷 be a bounded closed subset of the complex plane,


and 𝑓(𝑧) a continuous function on 𝐷. Then there exists a polynomial 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 of degree 𝑛
such that 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑧𝜀𝐷 𝑓 𝑧 − 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 attains the infimum 𝐸𝑛 𝑓 . The polynomial 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 is
unique and is called the best approximation polynomial (in the sense of Chebyshev). If
𝐷 is simply connected and 𝑓 𝑧 is single-valued and holomorphic on 𝐷, then 𝜋𝑛 𝑧
converges to 𝑓 𝑧 uniformly on 𝐷. Moreover, in this case there exist a number 𝑀 that
does not depend on 𝑛 and a number 𝑅 > 1 such that

𝑓 𝑧 − 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 ≤ 𝑀 𝑅𝑛 .

CHEBYSHEV, PAFNUTY LVOVICH (1821–94): Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev was a Russian


mathematician and founder of a notable school of mathematicians in St Petersburg. His
name is remembered in results in algebra, analysis and probability theory. In number
theory, he proved that, for all 𝑛 > 3, there is at least one prime between 𝑛 and 2𝑛 – 2.
CHEBYSHEV’S DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy
1 − 𝑥2 − x + n2 y = 0
dx 2 dx

is called Chebyshev’s differential equation.

CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITIES (PROBABILITY): Chebyshev proved a number of


inequalities relating to the maximum proportion of distributions which could lie beyond
1
a certain point: 𝑃 𝑋 − 𝜇𝑥 > 𝑘𝜍 ≤ 𝑘 2 says that the probability a random variable 𝑋 lies

more than 𝑘 standard deviations from its mean is not more than 1/𝑘 2 . If X is a random
𝐸{𝑔 𝑋 }
variable and 𝑔(𝑋) is always ≥ 0 then 𝑃 𝑔(𝑋) ≥ 𝑘 ≤ says that for a non-negative
𝑘

function of a random variable, the probability the function takes a value at least 𝑘 can be
no more than the mean of the function divided by 𝑘.
While these inequalities are very weak statements in that most distributions do not
come close to the limit specified, it is very useful sometimes to be able to identify an
upper limit that it is impossible for a probability to exceed.
CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY (MEASURE THEORY): If 𝑓 is non-negative & summable, then
1
𝜇 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑓 𝑥 > 𝑐 < 𝑐 ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇. Let (𝑓𝑛 ) be monotonically ↑ sequence of µ −summable

functions on 𝑋. Define 𝑓(𝑥) = lim𝑛 →∞ 𝑓𝑛 (𝑥) (allowing the value +∞).

1. If all integrals ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ are bounded, then 𝑓 is summable and ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ =


lim𝑛→∞ ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ .

2. If lim𝑛→∞ ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ = ∞ then function 𝑓 is not summable.

Let 𝑓 be a measurable non-negative function attaining only finite values. 𝑓 is summable


if and only if 𝑠𝑢𝑝∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ < ∞, where the supremum is taken over all finite-measure set 𝐴
such that 𝑓 is bounded on 𝐴.

CHEBYSHEV’S POLYNOMIALS: The Chebyshev polynomials of first kind, Tn (x) and


second kind Un (x) are defined by

Tn x = cos(ncos −1 x)

and Un x = sin(ncos −1 x)

where n is a non-negative integer.


Sometimes the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind is defined by

1
Un x = sin (n + 1)cos−1 x) / [ 1 − x 2 ] Un+1 (x)
[ 1 − x2

Chebyshev’s polynomials are also known as Teheibehef, Tbbicheff or Tshebysheff’s


polynomials.

CHEBYSHEV'S SUM INEQUALITY: It states that if

and

then

Similarly, if

and

then

CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM (NUMBER THEORY): For any positive integer greater than 𝑛
there is always a prime between 𝑛 and 2𝑛.
CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM (STATISTICS): For a random variable, whatever the
distribution, with 𝐸(𝑋) = 𝜇, 𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑋) = 𝜍 2 the proportion of values which lie within 𝑘
1
standard deviations of the mean will be at least 1 − 𝑘 2 .

CHINESE POSTMAN PROBLEM: The problem of finding the least weighted circuit in a
connected graph. If an Eulerian cycle exists than such a cycle is the solution to the
problem, otherwise, it is necessary to repeat at least one edge and the problem can be
more complicated.
CHINESE REMAINDER THEOREM: Suppose 𝑛1 , . . . , 𝑛𝑘 are positive integers that
are pairwise coprime. Then, for any given sequence of integers 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑘 , there exists
an integer 𝑥 solving the following system of simultaneous congruences.

Furthermore, all solutions 𝑥 of this system are congruent modulo the product,
𝑁 = 𝑛1 , . . . , 𝑛𝑘 . Hence

CHI-SQUARED DISTRIBUTION: Chi-squared distribution is a type of non-negative


continuous probability distribution, normally written as the χ2-distribution, with one
parameter υ called the degrees of freedom. The distribution is skewed to the right and
has the property that the sum of independent random variables each having a χ2-
distribution also has a χ2-distribution. It is used in the chi-squared test for measuring
goodness of fit, in tests on variance and in testing for independence in contingency
tables. It has mean υ and variance 2υ.
CHI-SQUARED TEST: A test, normally written as the χ2-test, to determine how well a set
of observations fits a particular discrete distribution or some other given null
hypothesis. The observed frequencies in different groups are denoted by 𝑂𝑖 , and the
expected frequencies from the statistical model are denoted by 𝐸𝑖 . For each 𝑖, the value
(𝑂𝑖 – 𝐸𝑖 )2 /𝐸𝑖 is calculated, and these are summed. The result is compared with a chi-
squared distribution with an appropriate number of degrees of freedom. The number of
degrees of freedom depends on the number of groups and the number of parameters
being estimated. The test requires that the observations are independent and that the
sample size and expected frequencies exceed minimum numbers depending on the
number of groups. Chi-Square is a squared standard normal variable that has zero mean
and unit variance but is more often used for the sum of v independent squared standard
normal variables. The mean of this quantity is v, and this is termed the "degrees of
freedom". Common uses include:
 To test a sample variance against a known value;
 To test the homogeneity of a set of sample means where the population variance
is known;
 To test the homogeneity of a set of proportions;
 To test the goodness-of-_t of a theoretical distribution to an observed frequency
distribution;
 To test for association between categorized variables in a contingency table;
 To construct a confidence interval for a sample variance
CHRISTOFFEL’S EXPANSION: P′n = 2n − 1 Pn−1 + 2n − 5 Pn−3 + 2n − 9 Pn−5 + ⋯
The last terms of the series being 3P1 or P0 according as n is, even or odd.

CHRISTOFFEL’S FIRST SUMMATION FORMULA: Christoffel’s first summation formula is


given as

n P n +1 x P n y −P n +1 y P n x
r=0 2r + 1 Pr x Pr y = (n + 1) .
(x−y)

CHRISTOFFEL’S SECOND SUMMATION FORMULA: Christoffel’s second summation


formula is given as

𝑛
1 + n + 1 [Pn+1 x Qn y − Pn x Qn+1 y
(2𝑟 + 1) Pr x Qr y =
y−x
𝑟=0

CHROMATIC NUMBER: For a graph or map 𝐺, the maximum number of colours needed
so that all regions touching one another (meeting at an edge or a vertex) are in a
different colour is the chromatic number, denoted by 𝜒(𝐺). The Four Colour Theorem
proved that 𝜒(𝐺) ≤ 4 for all planar graphs.
CIRCLE: The conic produced by slicing a right-circular cone at right angles to its central
axis
CIRCLE OF CONVERGENCE: A circle in the complex plane with the property that

𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑧0 )𝑖 converges for all 𝑧 within a distance 𝑅 > 0 of 𝑧0 and diverges for all 𝑧
for which |𝑧 − 𝑧0 | > 𝑅 . 𝑅 is the radius of convergence and if the power series
converges for the whole of the complex plane then 𝑅 is infinite. The case where 𝑅 = 0
is trivial since convergence only occurs when 𝑧 − 𝑧0 = 0. For points on the
circumference of the circle the series may either converge or diverge.
CIRCLE OF CURVATURE: A circle which describes correctly the curvature of a curve for
the neighborhood of a point on the curve.

CIRCLE THEOREM: Let 𝑓(𝑧) be the complex potential of motion of a two-dimensional


irrotational flow of an incompressible, inviscid fluid with no rigid boundaries and 𝑓(𝑧)
has no singularities within the circle z = a. If a circular cylinder, classified by its cross-
section the circle z = a, be introduced into the field of flow, the complex potential
becomes

𝑤 = 𝑓 𝑧 + 𝑓 (𝑎2 /𝑧)

where f is the complex conjugate form of f.

Note that the angular velocity (rate of rotation) at any point of the flowing fluid is equal
to the half the curl of the velocity at the point. The vector curl q is termed the vector or
the vorticity of the fluid at a point.

Body forces are those which act equally on all the matter within a small element of
volume and the total force is proportional to the size of the volume element or mass of
the fluid considered. The simplest example of such a force is the gravitational force.
Centrifugal force is treated as a body force when the coordinate system is rotating, but it
is not treated as a body force if the coordinates system is stationary. Thus the body can
be specified as per unit mass of the fluid. It may vary from point to point of the fluid, and
at any point it may have different values at different instances of times. The body forces
have three components and can be represented by a vector function of position and
time.

Surface forces are viewed s acting on any surface divided in the fluid including its
boundaries. Each point in the fluid may belong to several surfaces. Several such surf e
forces seem to co-exist at the point.

Surface forces have a direct molecular origin, decrease rapidly with increase of distance
between interacting elements. These are considerable only when that distance is of the
separation of molecules of the fluid. They are negligible unless there is direct
mechanical contact between the interacting elements. These are the forces exerted by
adjacent portions of the fluid upon one another and are in the nature of action and
reaction. The specification of these force are obtained from the concept of stress tensor
which has nine components.

CIRCUIT: A closed path on a graph.

CIRCULAR: Of or related to a circle.

CIRCULAR CONE: A cone whose base is a circle. It is normally known as cone.


CIRCULAR CYLINDER: A cylinder whose base is a circle. It is normally known as
cylinder.

CIRCULAR DATA: The class of cyclic directional data in statistics.

CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS: Another name for the trigonometric functions. Trigonometric


functions are based on parameterization of a circle just as hyperbolic functions are
based on parameterization of hyperbolae. This usage highlights the analogue between
the two.

CIRCULAR HELIX: A helix which lies on the surface of a circular cylinder is called a
circular helix or right circular helix.

CIRCULAR MEASURE: Also known as angular measure.

CIRCULAR MOTION: The motion of an object whose path forms a circle.

CIRCULAR SECTIONS: When the intersection of a plane and a quadric is a circle, the
intersection is called a circular section. In general, circular sections are cut off by two
systems of parallel planes through a quadric. The point of contact on the tangent plane
parallel to these is an umbilical point of the quadric.

CIRCUMCENTRE: The centre of a circle which goes through all vertices of a polygon.

CIRCUMCIRCLE: A circle whose circumference contains all points of the polygon.

CIRCUMFERENCE: The length of the closed curve of a circle.


CIRCUMSCRIBED: It is the act of enclosing a geometric figure with a
(minimal) circle or sphere.

CIS: A commonly defined function in the study of complex numbers. 𝑐𝑖𝑠(𝜃) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜃) +
𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃) Incidentally, 𝑐𝑖𝑠(𝜃) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑖𝜃). As such, 𝑐𝑖𝑠 is seldom used apart from a
particular stage of learning in school as most favour the use of the simpler 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑖𝜃).

CLAIRAUT'S EQUATION: A family of differential equations of the form

which can be solved by differentiating the whole equation.

CLAIRAUT’S THEOREM DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): If a geodesic on a surface of


revolution cuts the meridian through any point P on it at an angle Ψ, then 𝑢 sin Ψ is
constant where 𝑢 the distance of the point P from the axis is.

CLAPEYRON FORMULA: Let us assume that the energy density function


𝑊 ℯ1, ℯ2 , … … . . 𝑒6 can be expanded in a power series

2 𝑊= 𝑐0 + 2𝑐𝑖 𝑒𝑖 , + 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑖 𝑒𝑗 + … … .,

Neglecting constant terms 𝑐𝑜 and third and higher order terms in the strains.
Differentiating partially (1) w.r.t 𝑒𝑖 , we have

2𝜕𝑊
= 2𝑐𝑖 + 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑖
𝜕𝑒𝑖

2𝜕𝑊 1
Or = 𝜏𝑖 = 𝑐𝑖 + 2 𝑐𝑖𝑗 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑗 ∵ 𝑖 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑢𝑚𝑚𝑦
𝜕𝑒 𝑖

If 𝜏𝑖 = 0 𝑤𝑖𝑡𝑕 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑒𝑗 , 𝑤𝑒 𝑕𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑐𝑖 = 0 and thus we get,

1
𝑊 = 2 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗

𝜕𝑊 1
𝐻𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝜏𝑖 = = 𝑐 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑗 .
𝜕𝑒𝑖 2 𝑖𝑗
Also the coefficient in the generalized Hooke’s law is symmetric of the strain- energy
density function W, with the property stated above, exists.

Thus we can write 𝜏𝑖 = 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 , where 𝑐𝑖𝑗 = 𝑐𝑗𝑖

This gives

1
𝑊 = 2 𝜏𝑖𝑒 𝑖 𝑖 = 1,2, … . .6 . This formula is known as the Clapeyron’s formula.

CLASS: A collection of objects, not necessary a set. The distinction generally is that
certain operations on sets are not allowed so as to allow us to refer to a (usually large)
collection of objects without causing contradictions such as Russell's paradox.

CLASS FREQUENCY: It is the number of occurrence in a class.

CLASSICAL MECHANICS: A loosely defined term generally considered to be the study


of motion of objects before the drastically different quantum mechanics. Thus classical
mechanics include Newtonian, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and arguably, relativistic
mechanics.

CLASSIFICATION THEOREM: Every finite simple group is isomorphic to one of the


following groups:

 A cyclic group with prime order;


 An alternating group of degree at least 5;
 A simple group of Lie type, including both

 the classical Lie groups, namely the simple groups related to


the projective special linear, unitary, symplectic or orthogonal
transformations over a finite field;
 the exceptional and twisted groups of Lie type.

 The 26 sporadic simple groups.

The classification theorem has applications in many branches of mathematics, as


questions about the structure of finite groups (and their action on other mathematical
objects) can sometimes be reduced to questions about finite simple groups.
CLASS INTERVALS: The intervals in which data fall into a particular class.

CLASS OF A SURFACE: If the equation of the surface be 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑢, 𝑣 ; 𝑦 = 𝑔 𝑢, 𝑣 ; 𝑧 =


𝑢, 𝑣 ; 𝑧 = 𝑕(𝑢, 𝑣) then the surface is said to be of class 𝑟 if the functions 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕 are
single valued as well continuous and possess partial derivatives of rth order.
CLOSED (GRAPH THEORY): A walk, trail or path which finishes at its starting point is
closed.
CLOSED BALL: If (𝑀, 𝑑) is a metric space, a closed ball is a set of the form 𝐷(𝑥; 𝑟) : =
{𝑦 ∇ 𝑀 : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑟}, where 𝑥 is in 𝑀 and 𝑟 is a positive real number, the radius of
the ball. A closed ball of radius 𝑟 is a closed 𝒓-ball. Every closed ball is a closed set in the
topology induced on 𝑀 by 𝑑. Note that the closed ball 𝐷(𝑥; 𝑟) might not be equal to
the closure of the open ball 𝐵(𝑥; 𝑟).
CLOSED CURVE: A continuous plane curve that has no ends or, in other words, that
begins and ends at the same point. In other words, a closed curve is a curve that
completely encloses an area.
CLOSED FIGURE: It is a shape or a curve that begins and ends at the same point.
CLOSED GRAPH: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be metric spaces. A correspondence 𝛤 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is said to
be closed at 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, if, for any sequence (𝑥𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑋 and (𝑦𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑌, 𝑥𝑚 → 𝑥, 𝑦𝑚 ∇ 𝛤(𝑥𝑚 )
(for each 𝑚) and 𝑦𝑚 → 𝑦 imply 𝑦 ∇ 𝛤(𝑥). 𝛤 is said to have a closed graph if it is closed
at every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋.

CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM: Let 𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵′ be Banach spaces and let 𝑇 be a linear
treansformation of 𝐵 into 𝐵 ′ . Then 𝑇 is a continuous mapping of and only if its graph is
closed.

CLOSED INTERVAL: The closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is the set of all real numbers between 𝑎
and 𝑏 including 𝑎 and 𝑏 i.e. {𝑥|𝑥 ∇ 𝑹, 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏}.

CLOSED RANGE THEOREM: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be Banach spaces, 𝑇: 𝐷(𝑇) → 𝑌 a closed linear
operator whose domain 𝐷(𝑇) is dense in 𝑋, and 𝑇 ′ the transpose of 𝑇. The theorem
asserts that the following conditions are equivalent:

 𝑅(𝑇), the range of 𝑇, is closed in 𝑌.


 𝑅(𝑇 ′ ), the range of 𝑇 ′ , is closed in 𝑋 ′ , the dual of 𝑋.
 .

 .

CLOSED REGION: It is a set of points containing all limit points and is connected.

CLOSED SET: The complement of an open set in a metric space or in a topological space
is called a closed set. Therefore, a subset of a topological space is called closed if it is the
complement of an open set

CLOSED SURFACE: A closed surface is a surface that completely encloses a volume of


space. For example, a sphere is a closed surface, but a teacup is not.
CLOSED WALK: Let (𝑉, 𝐸) be a graph. A walk 𝑣0 𝑣1 𝑣2 . . . 𝑣𝑛 in the graph is said to be
closed if 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑛 . Thus a walk in a graph is closed if and only if it starts and ends at the
same vertex.
CLOSURE OF A SET: The closure of an open set A is obtained by including in it all limit
points of the set A.
CLOSURE PROPERTY: An arithmetic operation obeys the closure property with respect
to a given set of numbers if the result of performing that operation on two numbers
from that set will always be a member of that same set. For example, the operation of
addition is closed with respect to the integers, but the operation of division is not.
Operation Natural Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Real Numbers
Addition Closed Closed Closed Closed
Subtraction Not Closed Closed Closed Closed
Division Not Closed Not Closed Closed Closed
Root extraction Not Closed Not Closed Not Closed Not Closed
CLUSTER POINT: 𝑥 ∗ ∇ 𝑅 is a cluster point of the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ iff, given any 𝜀 > 0, and
any positive integer 𝑚, there exists 𝑛 > 𝑚 such that |𝑥𝑛 − 𝑥 ∗ | < 𝜀. The real number 𝑥 ∗
is a cluster point of the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ iff there exists a subsequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 𝑖 ⌍ of ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍, such
that 𝑥𝑛 𝑖 → 𝑥 ∗ . If the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ converges to 𝑥 ∗ ∇ R, then 𝑥 ∗ is a cluster point; in fact
the only cluster point of ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍. CM: An abbreviation for the centre of mass of an object.

CLUSTER SAMPLING: Where a population is geographically scattered it is reasonable to


divide it into regions from which a sample is taken, and then a sample of individuals is
taken from those regions only. The result is that the individuals in the final sample
appear as clusters in the original population, but the costs of taking the sample are
much lower than doing a full random sampling process. There are different strategies
possible at both stages of the sampling process.

COAXIAL: The property of having the same axis.

CODIMENSION: The codimension of a submanifold is the dimension of the ambient


space minus the dimension of the submanifold.
CODING THEORY: The area of mathematics concerned with the encryption of messages
to ensure security during transmission, and with the recovery of information from
corrupted data. With increasing use of the internet and other electronic
communications to conduct business, this is one of the developing areas of mathematics
research, for example encryption using numbers based on the product of very large
primes.

CO-DOMAIN: The co-domain of a function is a superset of the image of the function. It is


sometimes known as the range of the function. The co-domain serves as a constraint as
to what values a function can take, thus there can be elements of the co-domain which is
not the value of the function but not vice versa.

COEFFICIENT: The quantity with which we multiply the variable in question.

coefficient matrix: A matrix formed from a system of linear equations using


the coefficients of the equations only (omitting the variables). Also known as
an augmented matrix
COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION: A name for several related methods which measure
the relationship between two sets of data.

COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION: A measure of how much of the variation in the


data can be accounted for by the statistical model, for the purpose of inferring the likely
level of determination of outcomes.

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION: A dimensionless quantity, the ratio of the friction force to


the normal reaction as determined by a number of other factors.

COEFFICIENT OF KURTOSIS: A measure of how much the data concentrates around


the mean. Informally, it measured the "pointiness"/"peakedness" of the
distribution curve.

COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION: A dimensionless quantity, the ratio of the speed of


separation to the speed of approach of 2 objects as determined by other factors. (e.g. the
material the objects consist of and their arrangement.)

COEFFICIENT OF SKEWNESS: A measure of the asymmetry of a distribution.

COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION: coefficient of variation is a measure of dispersion equal to


the standard deviation of a sample divided by the mean. The value is a dimensionless
quantity, not dependent on the units or scale in which the observations are made, and is
often expressed as a percentage.
i+j
COFACTORS: The minor Mij multiplied by −1 is called the cofactor of the element
aij . We shall denote the cofactor of an element by the corresponding capital letter. With
this notation, cofactor of aij = Aij = (−1)i+j Mij . For example,

The cofactor of the element a21 = A21 = (−1)2+1 M21

a12 a13
=− a a33 ,
32

a11 a13
The cofactor of the element a32 = A32 = − a a23 ,
21

a22 a23
The cofactor of the element a11 = A11 = − a a33 , and so no
32
Thus the cofactor of any element aij = (−1)i+j × the determinant obtained by leaving
the row and the column passing through that element.

In terms of the notation of cofactors, we have

∆= a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13 ,

or ∆= a21 A11 + a22 A22 + a23 A23 ,

or ∆= a13 A13 + a23 A23 + a33 A33 , and so on.

Therefore, in a determinant the sum of the products of the elements of any row or
column with the corresponding cofactors is equal to the value of the determinant.

COFUNCTION IDENTITIES: A set of trigonometric identites which relates trigonometric


functions to their cofunctions, e.g. sin and cos, sec and csc, tan and cot.

COINCIDENT: The property of two geometric figures to have all points in common.

CO-INTIAL VECTOR: The vectors which have the same initial point are called co-initial
vectors.

COLATITUDE: The angle between the vector and the polar axis (z-axis) in a
Spherical polar coordinate system, whereas latitude is the value subtracting colatitude
from 90 degrees, the smallest angle between the radius vector and the plane
perpendicular to the polaw axis through the origin. (the equator)

COLLINEAR: A set of three or more points is collinear if they all lie on the same line.
COLLINEARITY OF THREE POINTS: The necessary and sufficient condition for three
points with position vectors 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 to be collinear is that there exist three scalars x, y, z
not all zero, such that x𝒂 + y𝒃+ z𝒄=0 where x + y + z= 0.

COLLINEAR OR PARALLEL VECTORS: Vectors having the same line of action or having
the lines of action parallel to one another are called collinear or parallel vectors.

COLLISION: The interaction of two objects with each other through contact transitioned
from a state of non-contact prior.

COLLUSION: Several customers may collaborate and only one of them may stand in the
queue.

COLUMN RANK OF A MATRIX: Let A = aij be any 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix. Each of the 𝑛 rows of 𝐴
consists of 𝑚 elements. Therefore the column vectors of 𝐴 are 𝑚-vectors. These column
vectors of 𝐴 will span a subspace 𝐶 to 𝑉𝑚 . This subspace 𝐶 is called the column space of
the matrix 𝐴. The dimension 𝑐 of 𝐶 is called the column rank of 𝐴. In other words the
column rank of a matrix 𝐴 is equal to the maximum number of linearly independent
column of 𝐴.

COLUMN SPACE: Let 𝜏 ∇ 𝐿(𝐹 𝑚 , 𝐹 𝑛 ) be represented by a matrix 𝑇. So the columns of 𝑇


are 𝜏 (𝑒1 ), . . . , 𝜏 (𝑒𝑚 ). Thus the image of 𝜏 is the subspace of 𝐹 𝑛 spanned by the columns
of 𝑇. We call this the column space of 𝑇 and define the column rank of 𝑇 to be the
dimension of this column space.
COMBINATION: A selection of all or part of a set of objects, where the order of the
selection is not significant.
COMBINATORICS: The branch of mathematics that includes the study of permutations
and combinations. The area of mathematics concerned with counting strategies to
calculate the ways in which objects can be arranged to satisfy given conditions.
COMMON DIFFERENCE: A constant that is added to each term to produce an arithmetic
sequence. It is the constant difference between any two successive terms in an
arithmetic sequence.

COMMON LOGARITHM: A base-10 logarithm.


COMMON RATIO: It is a constant that is multiplied to each term to produce a geometric
sequence. It is the ratio of successive terms in a geometric sequence.
COMMON REFINEMENT OF TWO PARTITIONS: Let 𝑃 and 𝑃 ∗ be two partitions of a closed
interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. Then 𝑃∗∗ is said to be a common refinement of 𝑃 and 𝑃∗ if 𝑃∗∗ = 𝑃 ∪ 𝑃 ∗ .
COMMON TANGENT: One single line that forms a tangent to two or more different
curves. The term is also used for the distance between two tangential points.
COMMUNICATION CHANNEL: A communication channel is comprised of an alphabet
𝐴 = {𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑞 } and a set of forward channel probabilities of the form
𝑃[𝑎𝑗 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 𝑎𝑖 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] such that for every 𝑖:
𝑞

𝑃[𝑎𝑗 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 𝑎𝑖 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 1


𝑗 =1

A communication channel is memoryless if for all vectors 𝑥 = 𝑥1 . . . 𝑥𝑛 and


𝑐 = 𝑐1 . . . 𝑐𝑛 it holds that
𝑛

𝑃[𝑥 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 𝑐 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑃[𝑥𝑖 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 𝑐𝑖 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡]


𝑖=1

COMMUTATIVE: The binary operation ⟪on a set 𝑆 is said to be commutative

if,
𝑎⟪ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⟪𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 , 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆
COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA: An algebra A is called commutative algebra if

𝑓𝑔 = 𝑔𝑓, 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓, 𝑔 𝜖𝐴

COMMUTATIVE BINARY OPERATIONS: A binary operation ∗ on a set 𝐴 is said to be


commutative if 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦 = 𝑦 ∗ 𝑥 for all elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of 𝐴. Example The operations of
addition and multiplication on the set R of real numbers are commutative, since
𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑦 + 𝑥 and 𝑥 × 𝑦 = 𝑦 × 𝑥 for all real numbers 𝑥 and 𝑦. However the
operation of subtraction is not commutative, since 𝑥 − 𝑦 ≠ 𝑦 − 𝑥 in general. (Indeed
the identity 𝑥 − 𝑦 = 𝑦 − 𝑥 holds only when 𝑥 = 𝑦.)
COMMUTATOR: The element 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑥 −1 𝑦 −1 𝑥𝑦 for 𝑥, 𝑦 in the group. It has the
property that [𝑥, 𝑦] and [𝑦, 𝑥] must be commutative, because one is the inverse of the
other, and therefore both products will be equal to the identity.
COMMUTE: Let ⟪ be a binary operation on a set 𝑆. The elements 𝑎 and 𝑏 of 𝑆 are said to
commute if 𝑎⟪ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⟪𝑎.
COMPACTIFICATION: A compactification of a space 𝑋 is a compact space 𝑌 such that 𝑋 is
homeomorphic to a dense subspace of 𝑌. A compactification of the Euclidean interval
(0, 1) is the Euclidean interval [0, 1].

COMPACT OPEN TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be two topological spaces. Let 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) be the
set of all continuous functions from 𝑋 to 𝑌. The topology on generated by all sets of the
form 𝑆(𝐴, 𝑈) = { 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) | 𝑓(𝐴) ⊂ 𝑈} where 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 is compact and 𝑈 ⊂ 𝑌 is
open is called the compact-open topology on 𝐶 𝑋, 𝑌 . The compact-open topology on the
set 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) of all continuous maps between two spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 is defined as follows:
Given a compact subset 𝐾 of 𝑋 and an open subset 𝑈 of 𝑌, let 𝑉(𝐾, 𝑈) denote the set of
all maps 𝑓 in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) such that 𝑓(𝐾) is contained in 𝑈. Then the collection of all
such 𝑉(𝐾, 𝑈) is a subbase for the compact-open topology.

COMPACT OPERATOR: T is a compact operator if whenever (𝑥𝑖 )1 ∞ is a bounded


sequence in 𝑋 then its image (𝑇𝑥𝑖 )1 ∞ has a convergent subsequence in 𝑌.
The set of finite rank operators is denote by 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) and the set of compact operators—
by (𝑋, 𝑌) . Both 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) and 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌) are linear subspaces of 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌). For any two metric
spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 we have 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) ⊂ 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌).
Let 𝑇𝑚 be a sequence of compact operators convergent to an operator 𝑇 in the norm
topology (𝑖. 𝑒. ||𝑇 − 𝑇𝑚 || → 0) then 𝑇 is compact itself. Equivalently 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌) is a closed
subspace of 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌).

COMPACT SET IN A METRIC SPACE: A compact set in a metric space is defined by the
property that any its covering by a family of open sets contains a subcovering by a finite
subfamily. In the finite dimensional vector spaces ℝn or ℂn there is the following
equivalent definition of compactness:

 E is bounded and closed;


 E is compact;
 Any infinite subset of E has a limiting point belonging to E.

COMPACT SPACE: A topological space in which any collection of open sets whose union
is the whole space (open cover of space) has a finite number of open sets from this
collection (finite subcover of the cover) whose union is also the whole space.
A topological space is compact when
(i) Each open cover contains a finite subcover OR
(ii) Every convergent net has a convergent subnet OR
(iii) Every filter on X has a convergent refinement OR
(iv) Every ultrafilter converges to at least one point.
COMPARATIVE STATICS: Comparative static is concerned with the dependencies of
optimal solutions on the parameter.

COMPARATIVE STATICS, MONOTONE: Monotone comparative static is concerned the


optimal solutions varying monotonically with the parameter.

COMPARISON OF FILTERS: If 𝐹 and 𝐹0 are two filters on the same set 𝐸, 𝐹 is said to be
finer than 𝐹0 , or 𝐹0 is coarser than 𝐹, if the fundamental family 𝐹 is finer than 𝐹0 , i.e. if
every 𝐴0 ∇ 𝐹0 contains an 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. If 𝐹 is finer than 𝐹0 and 𝐹0 is finer than 𝐹, 𝐹0 and 𝐹
are said to be equivalent.

COMPARISON TEST: If 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑏𝑛 ∇ 𝑅 and 0 ≤ 𝑎𝑛 ≤ 𝑏𝑛 then whenever 𝑛=1 𝑏𝑛

converges 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 must converge.
COMPATIBLE ATLASES: Two m-dimensional smooth atlases on 𝑀 are said to be
compatible, if every chart from one atlas has smooth transition on its overlap with every
chart from the other atlas (or equivalently, if their union is again an atlas). It can be seen
that compatibility is an equivalence relation. An equivalence class of smooth atlases is
called a smooth structure. All atlases on a given manifold 𝑆 in 𝑅 𝑛 are compatible. The
smooth structure so obtained on 𝑆 is called the standard smooth structure.
COMPATIBLE MATRICES: Two matrices in a particular order so that they can be
multiplied. In the usual convention, the number of columns in the first matrix and the
number of rows in the second matrix must be the same. In more abstract terms,
considering the matrices as transformations, it amounts to maintaining that the number
of dimensions (rank) of the co-domain of the first transformation be the same as the
dimensions (rank) of the domain of the second transformation.

COMPETITIVE GAME: A game is said to be competitive game if it has the following four
properties:

1. There should be finite number of players means 𝑛 ≥ 2.


2. Each player has a finite list of his possible course of action.
3. A play is said to be played when each player choose one of his course of action
and no player knows the choice of action of the other player until he has decided his
own.
4. When each player chooses his activity, then this combination of activities gives a
result according which player gains a payment which may be –ve, +ve or zero.

COMPLEMENT: Let 𝐴 be a subset of some universal set 𝐸. Then the complement of 𝐴 is


the difference set 𝐸\𝐴 (𝑜𝑟 𝐸 – 𝐴). It may be denoted by 𝐴′ (or Ā) when the universal set
is understood or has previously been specified. Complementation is a unary operation
on the set of subsets of a universal set E.
The following properties hold:
 𝐸′ = Ø and Ø′ = 𝐸.
 For all 𝐴, (𝐴′)′ = 𝐴.
 For all 𝐴, 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′ = Ø and 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ = 𝐸

COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES: Two angles that sum to a right angle. In this case, each
angle is called the complement of the other angle.

COMPLEMENTARY EVENTS (PROBABILITY): Events which are both exhaustive and


mutually exclusive. So for A and B to be complementary, 𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 1 and
𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 0. It then follows that 𝑃(𝐵) = 1 – 𝑃(𝐴).

COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION: Along with the particular integral, it forms the general
solution of a linear differential equation. It is essentially an element in the kernel of
the differential operator.

COMPLEMENTARY SUBSPACES: Two subspaces 𝑊1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊2 of V are called


complementary if 𝑊1 ∩ 𝑊2 = 0 and 𝑊1 + 𝑊2 = 𝑉

Let 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are subspaces of V. Then 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are complementary subspaces iff each


vector in v 𝜖 𝑉 can be written uniquely as v= 𝑤1 + 𝑤2 with 𝑤1 𝜖 𝑊1 , 𝑤2 𝜖 𝑊2 .

Examples: 1. Let V=ℝ2 , let 𝑊1 = 𝛼, 0 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊2 = 0, 𝛼 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ .Then 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are


complementary subspaces.
2. V=ℝ3 , 𝑊1 = 𝛼, 0,0 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊2 = 0, 𝛼, 𝛽 : 𝛼, 𝛽 𝜖ℝ . Here 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are
complementary subspaces.

3. Let V=ℝ2 , let 𝑊1 = 𝛼, 𝛼 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊2 = −𝛼, 𝛼 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ .Then 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are


complementary subspaces.

COMPLETE ANALYTIC FUNCTION: Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in a domain 𝐷. Let us form


all possible analytic continuation of (𝑓, 𝐷) and then all possible analytic continuations of
𝑓1 , 𝐷1 , 𝑓2 , 𝐷2 , 𝑓3 , 𝐷3 , … (𝑓𝑛 , 𝐷𝑛

and so on. At some stage we arrive at a function 𝐹(𝑧) such that for any 𝑣, 𝐹(𝑣) denotes
the value of values obtained for 𝑣 by all possible continuation to 𝑣, that is to say.

𝑓1 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷1
𝑓2 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷2
𝐹 𝑧 =
…………………
𝑓𝑛 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷𝑛

Such a function 𝑓(𝑧) is called complete analytic function. In this process of continuation,
we may arrive at a closed curve beyond which it is not possible to take analytic
continuation. Such a closed curve is called the natural boundary of the complete analytic
function. A point outside the natural boundary is called the singularity of complete
analytic function.

COMPLETE INDUCTION: Also known as strong induction. This method assumes that the
statement is true for all values below a certain finite value in the inductive step of
proving the next statement. Logically strong induction is equivalent to weak induction
and is not "stronger" in this logical sense.

COMPLETE LATTICE: A poset where all subsets have a supremum and an infimum.

COMPLETELY REGULAR SPACE: A space is said to be completely regular (also called a


𝑇31 -space) if it is a 𝑇1 -space and for each point 𝑥 and each closed set 𝐴 with 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴𝑐
2

there is a map 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝑋) such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎 and 𝑓(𝐴) = {𝑏} where 𝑎 ≠ 𝑏. Thus in a
completely regular space a point and a closed set disjoint from it can be separated by a
continuous real function.
COMPLETE GRAPH: A simple graph in which every vertex is joined to every other. The
complete graph with 𝑛 vertices, denoted by 𝐾𝑛 , is regular of degree 𝑛 – 1 and has edges.

𝐾4 𝐾5 𝐾6

COMPLETE METRIC SPACE: A metric space is said to be a complete metric space in


which every Cauchy sequence is convergent. For example, the real numbers, with the
usual metric.
COMPLETENESS: A system S of numbers is said to be complete if every non-empty
subset S, which is bounded above has a member of S for its supremum. COMPLETE
ORDERED FIELD: An ordered field F is said to be a complete ordered field if every non-
empty subset S of F which is bounded above has an element of F for its supremum. The
set of all real numbers is a complete ordered field.
COMPLETE ORTHONORMAL SEQUENCE: An orthonormal sequence ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍1∞ in a Hilbert
space 𝐻 is complete if the identities ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑒𝑘 ⟩ = 0 for all 𝑘 imply 𝑦 = 0. A complete
orthonormal sequence is also called orthonormal basis in H.
COMPLETE SET OF RESIDUES (modulo n): A set of 𝑛 integers, one from each of the 𝑛
residue classes modulo 𝑛. Thus {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} is a complete set of residues modulo 5; so
too are {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and {−2, – 1, 0, 1, 2}.
COMPLETE SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The solution of differential
equation containing a particular integral and the complementary function. This
generates a family of solutions which contains all possible solutions.

COMPLETING THE SQUARE: It is the method for solving a quadratic equation in general
by writing a quadratic expression in the vertex form. Note that the quadratic formula is
derived from the method of completing the square for the general quadratic expression.

COMPLETION: Let 𝑋, 𝜌 be an arbitrary metric space. The complete metric space


𝑋′, 𝜌′ is said to be a completion of 𝑋, 𝜌 if

(i) 𝑋, 𝜌 is isometric to a sub-space 𝑋0 , 𝜌′ of 𝑋 ′ , 𝜌′ , and


(ii) The closure of 𝑋0 i.e. 𝑋0 , is all of 𝑋 ′ , 𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑋0 = 𝑋 ′ .

An equivalent way of stating condition (ii) is that 𝑋0 is dense of 𝑋 ′ . It means that every
point of 𝑋 ′ is either a point or a limit point of 𝑋0, which in turn implies that, given any 𝑓
of 𝑋 ′ , there exists a sequence of points in 𝑋0 which converges to 𝑓.

COMPLEX ANALYSIS: Complex analysis is the area of mathematics relating to the study
of complex functions.
COMPLEX CONJUGATE: Given a complex number, the complex conjugate is the complex
number whose real part is the same, while the imaginary part (being a real number)
has opposite signs. The significance of complex conjugates stems from the theorem that
says the complex conjugates of all roots of real polynomials are also roots themselves.

COMPLEX FRACTION: A fraction consisting of complex numbers. Considering


the division of complex numbers as complex fractions is a standard way of calculating
the division. (through algebraic methods such as the difference of two squares.)

COMPLEX FUNCTION: Complex function is a function involving complex variables as


either input or output, but usually both. So if 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖, 𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑧 2 , 𝑔 𝑧 =
sin 𝑧 , 𝑕 𝑧 = 𝑧 etc are complex functions.
COMPLEX LINE INTEGRAL: Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is continuous at every point of a closed curve
𝐶 having a finite length i.e. 𝐶 is a rectifiable curve.

Divide 𝐶 into 𝑛 parts by means of points

𝑧0 , 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , … , 𝑧𝑛 ,

Let 𝑎 = 𝑧0 , 𝑏 = 𝑧𝑛

We choose a point 𝜉𝑘 on each are joining 𝑧𝑘−1 𝑡𝑜 𝑧𝑘 .

Form the sum

𝑆𝑛 = 𝑓 𝜉𝑘 (𝑧𝑟 − 𝑧𝑟 − 1)
𝑟=1

Suppose maximum value of 𝑧𝑟 − 𝑧𝑟 − 1 ⟶ 0 𝑎𝑠 𝑛 ⟶ ∞


Then the sum 𝑆𝑛 tends to a fixed limit which does not depend upon the mode of
subdivision and denote this limit by

𝑏
𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑥 𝑜𝑟 ∫𝑐 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧
𝑧

Which is called the complex line integral or line integral of 𝑓(𝑧) along 𝐶. An evaluation
of integral by such method is also called ab-initio method.

COMPLEX NUMBER: There is no real number 𝑥 satisfying the quadratic equation


𝑥 2 + 1 = 0. The introduction of the imaginary number 𝑖 such that 𝑖 2 = – 1 gives rise
to further numbers of the form 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖. A number of the form 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖, where 𝑎 and 𝑏 are
real, is a complex number. Since one may take b = 0, this includes all the real numbers.
The set of all complex numbers is usually denoted by 𝑪. Thus the set C of complex
numbers is closed under addition and multiplication, and the elements of this enlarged
number system satisfy the laws commonly expected of numbers.
It can be verified that addition and multiplication are associative and commutative, that
the distributive law holds, that there is a zero element and an identity element and that
every element has a negative and every non-zero element has an inverse. This shows
that 𝑹 × 𝑹 with this addition and multiplication is a field whose elements, according to
this approach, are called complex numbers. The elements of the form (𝑎, 0) can be seen
to behave exactly like the corresponding real numbers 𝑎.
COMPLEX PLANE: Let points in the plane be given coordinates (𝑥, 𝑦) with respect to a
Cartesian coordinate system. The plane is called the complex plane when the point
(𝑥, 𝑦) is taken to represent the complex number 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖.
COMPLEX POTENTIAL AND COMPLEX VELOCITY: Since the function ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) and Ψ(𝑥, 𝑦)
constitute the Cauchy. Riemann equation so they provide the necessary and sufficient
condition for the function

𝐹 𝑧 = ∅ 𝑥, 𝑦 + 𝑖Ψ(𝑥, 𝑦)

To be an analytic function of the complex variable 𝑧 = (𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦). Thus the real and
imaginary parts of any analytic function may be regarded as the potential function and
stream function of a flow of an inviscid fluid in two dimensions. The complex function 𝐹,
whose real and imaginary parts are the velocity potential and stream function
respectively, is termed the complex potential of the liquid motion. It ceases to exist at
exist at point occupied by sources, sinks to vortices. Differentiating (1) partially with
regard to 𝑥, we have

dF ∂z ∂∅ ∂Ψ
∙ = +i
dz ∂x ∂x ∂x

dF ∂F
=
dz ∂z

as F is a function of z only .

or
dF ∂∅ ∂∅ ∂Ψ ∂∅
= −i = −𝑢 + 𝑖𝑣; =
dz ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

which is called the complex velocity.

COMPLEX VARIABLE: If a simple z takes any one of the values of a set of complex
numbers, then z is called a complex variable.

COMPONENT (CONNECTED SPACES, TOPOLOGY): A connected set in a topological space


is said to be a component if it is not contained in any other connected set of that
topological space other than the topological space itself.
COMPONENT (GRAPH): A graph may have several small pieces and these are called its
components: two vertices are in the same component if and only if there is a path from
one to the other. A more precise definition can be given by defining an equivalence
relation on the set of vertices with u equivalent to v if there is a path from u to v. Then
the components are the corresponding equivalence classes.
COMPONENT (VECTOR): In a Cartesian coordinate system in 3-dimensional space, let
𝒊, 𝒋 and 𝒌 be unit vectors along the three coordinate axes. Given a vector 𝒑, there are
unique real numbers 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 such that 𝒑 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 + 𝑧𝒌. Then 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 are called
as the components of 𝒑.
COMPOSITE NUMBER: A positive integer is composite if it is neither prime, nor equal to
1; that is, if it can be written as a product 𝑕𝑘, where the integers 𝑕 and 𝑘 are both
greater than 1.
COMPOSITION LAW: If (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝜌) and (𝑍, 𝜍) are metric spaces and 𝑔 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 , 𝑓 ∶
𝑌 → 𝑍 are continuous, then so is the composition 𝑓 ∘ 𝑔.
COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS: Let 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇 and 𝑔: 𝑇 → 𝑈 be mappings. With each
𝑠 ∇ 𝑆 is associated the element 𝑓(𝑠) ∇ 𝑇, and hence the element 𝑔(𝑓(𝑠)) ∇ 𝑈. This
rule gives a mapping from 𝑆 to 𝑈, which is denoted by 𝑔°𝑓 and is the composition of 𝑓
and 𝑔. Thus 𝑔°𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑈 is defined by (𝑔 °𝑓)(𝑠) = 𝑔(𝑓(𝑠)), and exists if and only if the
domain of 𝑔 equals the range of 𝑓.
COMPOSITION OF LINEAR MAPS: Let 𝑇1 : 𝑈 → 𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇2 : 𝑈 → 𝑉 be two linear maps. We
define a map 𝑇2 𝑇1 : 𝑈 → 𝑊 by

𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑢 = 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑢 ∀𝑢 𝜖 𝑈

In particular, we define 𝑇 2 = 𝑇𝑇 and 𝑇 𝑖+1 = 𝑇 𝑖 𝑇 for 𝑖 > 2

It is easy to check that 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 , 𝛼𝑇 and 𝑇2 𝑇1 are themselves all linear maps.

COMPOUND DISTRIBUTION: The compound probability distribution is the result of a


probability distribution whose parameters are distributed along other probability
distributions.

COMPOUND FRACTION: A fraction that consists of another fraction as


its numerator or denominator.

COMPOUND INTEREST: The calculation of interest payments taking into account of


previous interest payments as part of the principal.

COMPOUND STATEMENT: A statement formed from simple statements by the use of


words such as ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘not’, ‘implies’ or their corresponding symbols. The simple
statements involved are the components of the compound statement. For example,
(𝑝 ∧ 𝑞) ∨ (¬𝑟) is a compound statement built up from the components 𝑝, 𝑞 and 𝑟.
COMPRESSION: A name for a transformation where a figure becomes
proportionally smaller.

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of


applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how
a gas or liquid flows -- as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past.
Computational fluid dynamics is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. These equations
describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are
related.

Computational fluid dynamics has been around since the early 20th century and many
people are familiar with it as a tool for analyzing air flow around cars and aircraft. As
the cooling infrastructure of server rooms has increased in complexity, CFD has also
become a useful tool in the data center for analyzing thermal properties and modeling
air flow. CFD software requires information about the size, content and layout of the
data center. It uses this information to create a 3D mathematical model on a grid that
can be rotated and viewed from different angles. CFD modeling can help an
administrator identify hot spotsand learn where cold air is being wasted or air is
mixing.

Simply by changing variables, the administrator can visualize how cold air will flow
through the data center under a number of different circumstances. This knowledge can
help the administrator optimize the efficiency of an existing cooling infrastructure and
predict the effectiveness of a particular layout of IT equipment. For example, if an
administrator wanted to take one rack of hard drive storage and split the hard drives
over two racks, a CFD program could simulate the change and help the administrator
understand what adjustments would be need to be made to deal with the additional
heat load before any time or money has been spent.

CONCAVE: A geometric figure where it is possible to form a line between two points in
the figure where the line consists of points not from the figure. For a plane figure, it
is equivalent to a shape having an interior angle of greater than 180 degrees.

CONCAVE FUNCTION: A function whose graph is such that, for any two points of the
graph, the function for arguments between the two points are higher than the straight
line joining the two points. For a differentiable function, it is equivalent to a function
with a monotonically decreasingly gradient. Note that a function can be described
as concave for a certain interval only.

CONCAVE POLYGON: A polygon, as a plane figure, which is concave.


CONCAVITY: At a point of a graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), it may be possible to specify the concavity
by describing the curve as either concave up or concave down at that point, as follows, If
the second derivative 𝑓″(𝑥) exists and is positive throughout some neighbourhood of a
point 𝑎, then 𝑓′(𝑥) is strictly increasing in that neighbourhood, and the curve is said to
be concave up at 𝑎. At that point, the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and its tangent look like one of the
cases shown in the first figure.

If 𝑓″(𝑎) > 0 and 𝑓″ is continuous at a, it follows that 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is concave up at 𝑎.


Consequently, if 𝑓′(𝑎) = 0 and 𝑓″(𝑎) > 0, the function 𝑓 has a local minimum at 𝑎.
Similarly, if 𝑓″(𝑥) exists and is negative throughout some neighbourhood of 𝑎, or if
𝑓″(𝑎) < 0 and 𝑓″ is continuous at 𝑎, then the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is concave down at 𝑎 and
looks like one of the cases shown in the second figure. If 𝑓′(𝑎) = 0 and 𝑓″(𝑎) < 0, the
function 𝑓 has a local maximum at 𝑎.
CONCAVE SET: A set of three or more points is concave if it is possible to draw a line
segment that connects two points that are in the set, but includes also some points that
are not in the set.

CONCENTRIC CIRCLES: A collection of circles is said to be concentric if they have the


same center. The region formed between two concentric circles is therefore an annulus.
CONCURRENT: The property of sharing a common point.

CONCYCLIC POINTS: A number of points are said to be concyclic points if there is a circle
that passes though all of them.
CONDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION: The distribution of a random variable given that another
random variable is known to be of a certain value.

CONDITIONAL EQUATION: An equation which is only true under certain contexts.


Normally known simply as equations, as opposed to identities, which is true regardless
of contexts.

CONDITIONAL INEQUALITY: An inequality that is only true under certain conditions.

CONDITIONAL STATEMENT: A statement of the type that something will be true


provided that something else is true. For example ‘if 𝑛 is not divisible by 2, 𝑛 is odd is a
conditional statement.
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY: For two events 𝐴 and 𝐵, the probability that 𝐴 occurs,
given that 𝐵 has occurred, is denoted by 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵), read as ‘the probability of 𝐴 given 𝐵’.
This is called a conditional probability. Provided that 𝑃(𝐵) is not zero, 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵) =
𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)/𝑃(𝐵). This result is often useful in the following form: 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) =
𝑃(𝐵) 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵). If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are independent events, 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴), and this gives the
product law for independent events: 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) 𝑃(𝐵).
CONDITIONALY CONVERGENT SERIES: A series 𝑢𝑛 is said to be absolutely convergent
if 𝑢𝑛 is convergent but the series 𝑢𝑛 is not convergent.
CONDITION FOR CONSISTENCY: The system of equations 𝐴𝑋 = 𝐵 is consistent i.e.,
possesses a solution, if and only if the coefficient matrix 𝐴 and the augmented matrix
[𝐴, 𝐵] are of the same rank.

CONDITION FOR FOUR POINTS TO BE COPLANAR: The necessary and sufficient


condition for any four points in three dimensional space to be coplanar is that there
exists a linear relation between their position vectors such that the algebraic sum of the
scalar coefficients in it is zero, provided the scalars are nor all zero.

CONDITION FOR THREE POINTS TO BE COLLINEAR: The necessary and sufficient


condition for three points in three dimensional space to be collinear is that there exists
a linear relation connecting their position vectors such that the algebraic sum of the
scalar coefficients in it is zero, provided the scalars are not all zero.
CONDITION, NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT (DISCRETE MATHEMATICS): The
implication 𝑞 ⇒ 𝑝 can be read as ‘if 𝑞 then 𝑝’. When this is true, it may be said that 𝑞 is
a sufficient condition for 𝑝; that is, the truth of the ‘condition’ 𝑞 is sufficient to ensure
the truth of 𝑝. This means that 𝑝 is true if 𝑞 is true. On the other hand, when the
implication 𝑝 ⇒ 𝑞 holds, then 𝑞 is a necessary condition for 𝑝; that is, the truth of the
‘condition’ 𝑞 is a necessary consequence of the truth of 𝑝. This means that 𝑝 is true only
if 𝑞 is true. When the implication between 𝑝 and 𝑞 holds both ways, 𝑝 is true if and only
if q is true, which may be written 𝑝 ⇔ 𝑞. Then 𝑞 is a necessary and sufficient condition
for 𝑝.
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL (CONFIDENCE LEVEL): An interval, calculated from a sample,
which contains the value of a certain population parameter with a specified probability.
The end-points of the interval are the confidence limits. The specified probability is
called the confidence level. An arbitrary but commonly used confidence level is 95%,
which means that there is a one-in-twenty chance that the interval does not contain the
true value of the parameter. For example, if 𝑥 is the mean of a sample of 𝑛 observations
taken from a population with a normal distribution with a known standard deviation 𝜍,
1.96 𝜍 1.96 𝜍
then 𝑥 − , 𝑥+ is a 95% confidence interval for the population mean 𝜇.
𝑛 𝑛

CONFIDENCE LIMITS: Two values between which the true value of a population
parameter is thought to lie with some given probability. This probability represents the
proportion of occasions when such limits calculated from repeated samples actually
include the true value of the parameter. An essential feature of the interval is that the
distance between the limits depends on the size of the sample, being smaller for a larger
sample. CONFOCAL CONICS: Two central conics are said to be confocal conics if they
have the same foci. An ellipse and a hyperbola that are confocal intersect at right angles.
CONFOCAL QUADRICS: A family of central quadrics represented by the following
equations is called a family of confocal quadrics.

𝑥2 𝑦2 𝑧2
+ 𝑏+𝑘 + 𝑐+𝑘 = 1, 𝑎 > 𝑏 > 𝑐 > 0,
𝑎+𝑘

Where 𝑘 is a parameter. For a quadric belonging to this family, any point on the ellipse
𝑥2 𝑎 − 𝑐 + 𝑦2 𝑏 − 𝑐 = 1, 𝑧 = 0 or the hyperbola
𝑥2 𝑎 − 𝑏 − 𝑧2 𝑏 − 𝑐 = 1, 𝑦 = 0 is called a focus. The ellipse and hyperbola are
called focal conics of the quadric.
CONFORMABLE MATRICES: Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable matrices
(for multiplication) if the number of columns of A equals the number of rows of B. Then
A has order 𝑚 × 𝑛 and B has order 𝑛 × 𝑝, for some 𝑚, 𝑛 and 𝑝, and the product AB, of
order 𝑚 × 𝑝, is defined.

CONFORMALITY: Now we make some remarks about “conformality.” A function is


conformal at a point 𝑃 ∇ 𝐶 if the function “preserves angles” at 𝑃 and “stretches
equally in all directions” at 𝑃. Both of these statements must be interpreted
infinitesimally. Holomorphic functions enjoy both properties.
CONFORMALLY FLAT: An 𝑀 is conformally flat if it is locally conformally equivalent to a
Euclidean space, for example standard sphere is conformally flat.

CONFORMAL MAPPING (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A surface S is said to be


conformally mapped on to a surface S* if there is a differentiable homomorphism (i.e.
and analytic one-one map) of S on to S* such that the angle between any two curves at
any arbitrary point P on S is equal to the angle between the corresponding directed
curves on S*. Thus in short, a map said to be conformal if it preserves angles.

CONFORMAL TRANSFORMATION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose the transformation


𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑣 = 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦) maps the two curves 𝑐1 , 𝑐2 [intersecting at the point p 𝑤0 of 𝑤
plane .

If the angle between 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 at 𝑧0 is equal to the angle between 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 at 𝑤0 then the
transformation is called isogonal. If the sense of rotation as well as the magnitude of the
angle is preserved the transformation is called conformal.

CONGRUENCE (modulo n): For each positive integer 𝑛, the relation of congruence
between integers is defined as follows: 𝑎 is congruent to 𝑏 modulo 𝑛 if 𝑎 – 𝑏 is a
multiple of 𝑛. This is written as 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛). The integer 𝑛 is the modulus of the
congruence. Then 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) if and only if 𝑎 and 𝑏 have the same remainder upon
division by 𝑛. For example, 33 is congruent to 8 modulo 5.
The following properties hold, if 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) and 𝑐 ≡ 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛):
 𝑎 + 𝑐 ≡ 𝑏 + 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛),
 𝑎 – 𝑐 ≡ 𝑏 – 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛),
 𝑎𝑐 ≡ 𝑏𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛).
It can be shown that congruence modulo n is an equivalence relation and so defines a
partition of the set of integers, where two integers are in the same class if and only if
they are congruent modulo n. These classes are the residue (or congruence) classes
modulo n.
CONGRUENCE EQUATION: congruence equations are the equations involving
congruence modulo n. The following are examples of congruence equations:
(i) 𝑥 + 5 ≡ 3 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 7); this has the solution 𝑥 ≡ 5 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 7).
(ii) 2𝑥 ≡ 5 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 4); this has no solutions.
In seeking solutions to a congruence equation, it is necessary only to consider a
complete set of residues and find solutions in this set.
The linear congruence equation 𝑎𝑥 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) has a solution if and only if (𝑎, 𝑛)
divides 𝑏, where (𝑎, 𝑛) is the greatest common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑛.
CONGRUENCE OF MATRICES: A square matrix B of order 𝑛 over a field 𝐹 is said to be
congruent to another square matrix 𝐴 of order 𝑛 over 𝐹, if there exists a non-singular
matrix 𝑃 over 𝐹 such that 𝐵 = 𝑃 −1 𝐴𝑃.

 The relation of ‘congruence of matrices’ is an equivalence relation in the set of all


n × n matrices over a field 𝐹.
 Every matrix congruent to a symmetric matrix is a symmetric matrix.
 Each congruent transformation of a matrix consists of a pair of elementary
transformations, one row and the other columns, such that of the corresponding
elementary matrices each is the transpose of the other.
 Every matrix B obtained from any given matrix 𝐴 by subjecting 𝐴 to a finite chain
of congruent operations is congruent to 𝐵.

CONGRUENCE OF QUADRATIC FORMS OR EQUIVALENCE OF QUADRATIC FORMS: Two


quadratic forms X T AX and Y T BY over a field F are said to be congruent or equivalent
over F if their respective matrices A and B are congruent over F. Thus X T AX is
equivalent to Y T BY if there exists a non-singular matrix P over F such that 𝑃 −1 𝐴𝑃 = 𝐵.
Since congruence of matrices is an equivalence relation therefore equivalence of
quadratic forms is also an equivalence relation.
CONGRUENT: One figure that would coincide with another with
a combination of translation, rotation and reflection. Essentially, two shapes are
congruent if they can be considered "the same" except for its location and orientation.

For triangles, there are certain conditions that make it easier to decide if two such
figures are the same. (Without having to consider the transformations)

I - SSS - The length of all three sides of a triangle are the same as the lengths of the
corresponding sides of another.

II - SAS - The lengths of any two pairs of sides correspond, and the angles between those
sides are also the same as each other.

III - ASA/AAS - Any pair of angles on one shape correspond with the other shape, while
any side of either shape is the same as the corresponding side of the other.

IV - RHS (also known as LH) - Both triangles are right-angled, their hypotenuses are of
the same length and they share another side of the same length.

CONICAL PENDULUM: A weight attached through a string to a fixed point so that


the trajectory of the weight is a (horizontal) circle with the string being taut (and
having constant length) at all times. The circle drawn out by the weight together with
the positions of the string forms a cone which explains the name.

CONICOID: A surface generated by the rotation about an axis of one of the conics -
ellipsoids, paraboloids, hypocycloids and a sphere.

CONIC SECTIONS: It is a curve produced when a plane intersects a right-circular cone.


The four curves—circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas are called conic sections
because they can be formed by the intersection of a plane with a right circular cone. If
the plane is perpendicular to the axis of the cone, the intersection will be a circle. If the
plane is slightly tilted, the result will be an ellipse. If the plane is parallel to one element
of the cone, the result will be a parabola. If the plane intersects both parts of the cone,
the result will be a hyperbola.
b

CONJECTURE: An assertion that is not yet proven. In this sense, it is the same as
an hypothesis.

CONJUGACY: Two elements 𝑕 and 𝑘 of a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate if 𝑘 = 𝑔𝑕𝑔−1


for some 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.
CONJUGACY CLASS: The set of all elements of a group that are conjugate to an element 𝑎
is called cojugacy class of 𝑎.
CONJUGATE (COMPLEX NUMBER): For any complex number 𝑧, where 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖, its
conjugate read as ‘z bar’ is equal to 𝑧 = 𝑥 – 𝑦𝑖. In the complex plane, the points
representing a complex number and its conjugate are mirror images with respect to the
real axis. The following properties hold:

It is an important fact that if the complex number 𝛼 is a root of a polynomial equation

𝑧 𝑛 + 𝑎1 𝑧 𝑛–1 + ··· + 𝑎𝑛–1 𝑧 + 𝑎𝑛 = 0, where 𝑎1 , − − − 𝑎𝑛–1 , 𝑎𝑛 are real, then ᾱ is also a


root of this equation.
CONJUGATE AXIS: It is the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the transverse axis of a
hyperbola.
CONJUGATE ELEMENTS: Two elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 in a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate to

each other if there is an element 𝑎 in 𝐺 for which 𝑦 = 𝑎–1 𝑥𝑎.


CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS: If 𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑢 + 𝑖𝑣 is analytic and if 𝑢 and 𝑣 satisfy Laplace’s
equation ∆2 = V = 0, then 𝑢 and 𝑣 are called conjugate harmonic function or conjugate
functions simply.

CONJUGATE OF A MATRIX: The matrix obtained from any given matrix A on replacing its
elements by the corresponding conjugate complex numbers is called the conjugate of A
and is denoted by A.

Thus if A = aij where aij denoted the conjugate complex of aij .


m×n

If A be a matrix over the field of real numbers, then obviously A coincides with A.

2 + 3i 4 − 7i 8 2 − 3i 4 + 7i 8
A= , then A = .
−i 6 9+i i 6 9−i

If A and B be the conjugates of A and B respectively, then

(i) A = A; (ii) A + B = A + B;
(i) kA = k A; 𝑘 being any complex number;
(ii) AB = A B, A and B being conformable to multiplication.

CONJUGATE POINTS (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Two points 𝑝 and 𝑞 on a geodesic 𝛾


are called conjugate if there is a Jacobi field on 𝛾 which has a zero at 𝑝 and 𝑞.

CONJUGATE SETS: Subsets 𝑋 and 𝑌 in a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate if there is an

element 𝑎 in 𝐺 for which 𝑌 = 𝑎–1 𝑋𝑎.


CONJUGATE SUBGROUPS: Two subgroups 𝐻 and 𝐾 of a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate
if 𝐾 = 𝑔𝐻𝑔−1 for some 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.
CONJUNCTION: If 𝑝 and 𝑞 are statements, then the statement ‘𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞’, denoted by
𝑝 ∧ 𝑞, is the conjunction of 𝑝 and 𝑞. For example, if 𝑝 is ‘It is raining’ and 𝑞 is ‘It is
March’, then 𝑝 ∧ 𝑞 is ‘It is raining and it is March’. The conjunction of 𝑝 and 𝑞 is true
only when 𝑝 and 𝑞 are both true, and so the truth table is as follows:
p Q 𝑝 ∧𝑞
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F

CONNECTED (RELATION): A binary relation is connected if for all pairs of elements


𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑥 ≠ 𝑦, either 𝑥 ~ 𝑦 or 𝑦 ~ 𝑥. So, for example, in the set of real numbers the relation
‘is greater than’ is connected.
CONNECTED (SET): A set A is said to be a connected set if ∄ non-empty subsets E and F
of A such that 𝐸 ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑 and 𝐸 ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑.
CONNECTED COMPONENT: Let 𝛺 be an open set in 𝐶 and 𝑧 ∇ 𝛺. The connected
component (or simply the component) of 𝛺 containing 𝑧 is the set 𝐶𝑧 of all points w in 𝛺
that can be joined to 𝑧 by a curve entirely contained in 𝛺. In other words, a connected
component of a space is a maximal nonempty connected subspace. Each connected
component is closed, and the set of connected components of a space is a partition of
that space.

CONNECTED GRAPH: A connected graph is a graph in which there always exists a path
from any one vertex to any other vertex. So a graph is connected if it is ‘all in one piece’;
that is, if it has precisely one component.
CONNECTED METRIC SPACE: A metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) is said to be connected if there do
not exist two nonempty and disjoint open sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 in 𝑋 such that 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑋. A
metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) is connected if, and only if, the only subsets of 𝑋 that are both open
and closed in 𝑋 are ∅ and 𝑋. Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be metric spaces, and let 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a
continuous function. If 𝑋 is connected, then 𝑓(𝑋) is a connected subset of 𝑌.

CONNECTED SET: A set that can't be split into a union of two sets each of which is
both open and closed.
CONNECTED SUM: Let S and T be two surfaces. From each surface, delete an open disk,
then glue the two boundary circles. The resulting surface is called the connected sum of
the two surfaces, denoted by S#T. It is known that the connected sum does not depend
on the choices of the disks.
CONSECUTIVE ANGLES: A set of angles where every member can be considered to be
"next" to another angle within the set. This idea of "next" or adjacency can be sharing
a side or sharing a side as well as a point depending on the context.

CONSECUTIVE SIDES: A set of sides (edges) where every memeber can be considered to
be "next" to another side within the set. This idea of "next" or adjacency can be sharing
a vertex or sharing an angle depending on the context.

CONNECTIVITY: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is connectivity, 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑛(𝑋, 𝑌 ), if the graph of


the restriction 𝑓/ 𝑍 of 𝑓 to 𝑍 is connected in 𝑋 × 𝑌 for every connected subset 𝑍 of 𝑋. It
is easy to see that 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 is connectivity if and only if its graph is a connected
subset of 𝑅 2 . However, there are functions 𝐹 ∶ 𝑅 2 → 𝑅 with a connected graph which
are not connectivity functions. For example, this is the case if 𝐹 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛(1/𝑥) for
𝑥 = 0, and 𝐹 (0, 𝑦) = 𝑕(𝑦), where 𝑕 ∶ 𝑅 → [−1, 1] is any function with a disconnected
graph.

CONSEQUENT: In the conventional way of expressing hypothetical propositions, "If A


then B", the consequent is the second part of the sentence. It is the part of the sentence
whose truth value is dependent on the other part. (Within the context of the statement
itself)

CONSERVATION LAWS: Any theorem or assertion that states that certain measurable
quantities remains unchanged, and the condition under which this happens.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: The law that states that the amount of energy in a closed
system remains unchanged. The exactness of this law, in our current understanding,
depends on whether we use mass-energy as the measure or simply energy in the
classical sense.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM: The law that states that the total momentum of a
closed system of objects remains unchanged.

CONSISTENCY: An axiomatic theory is consistent if it's impossible (in the confines of the
theory) to prove simultaneously a statement and its negation. The Godel's Theorem
states that any (sufficiently powerful) consistent axiomatic theory is incomplete.
CONSISTENT SET OF EQUATIONS: A set of equations is consistent if there is a
solution.
CONSTANT FUNCTION: In real analysis, a constant function is a real function 𝑓 such that
𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎 for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑹, where 𝑎, the value of 𝑓, is a fixed real number.
CONSTANT OF INTEGRATION: If 𝜑 is a particular antiderivative of a continuous function
𝑓, then any antiderivative of 𝑓 differs from 𝜑 by a constant. It is common practice,
therefore, to write
∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝜑(𝑥) + 𝑐,
where 𝑐, an arbitrary constant, is the constant of integration.
CONSTANT VALUE THEOREM: If 𝑓 ′ (𝑡) = 0 for all 𝑡 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) then 𝑓 is constant on
[𝑎, 𝑏]. (That is, 𝑓(𝑦) = 𝑓(𝑥) whenever 𝑏 ≥ 𝑦 > 𝑥 ≥ 𝑎.)

CONSTRAINTS: The constraints may be defined as that set of linear equations /


inequations under the action of which the objective function is optimized.

CONSTRUCTION OF MEASURES, PRODUCTS: Consider the semiring S of intervals [a,b).


There is a simple description of all measures on it. For a measure µ, define 𝐹𝜇 𝑡 =
µ 0, t if t > 0
0 if t = 0
−µ t, 0 if t < 0

𝐹𝜇 is monotonic and any monotonic function 𝐹 defines a measure µ on 𝑆 by the by


µ([𝑎, 𝑏)) = 𝐹(𝑏) − 𝐹(𝑎). The correspondence is one-to-one with the additional
assumption 𝐹(0) = 0. The above measure µ is 𝜍 −additive on 𝑆 if and only if 𝐹 is
continuous from the left: 𝐹(𝑡 − 0) = 𝐹(𝑡) for all 𝑡 ∇ ℝ.

CONTAINED IN, CONTAINS: It is tempting to say that ‘𝑥 is contained in 𝑆’ when 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆,


and also to say that ‘𝐴 is contained in 𝐵’ if 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵. To distinguish between these two
different notions, it is better to say that ‘𝑥 belongs to 𝑆’ and to say that ‘𝐴 is included in
𝐵’ or ‘𝐴 is a subset of 𝐵’. However, some authors consistently say ‘is contained in’ for ⊆.
Given the same examples, it is similarly tempting to say that ‘𝑆 contains 𝑥’ and also that
‘𝐵 contains 𝐴.’ It is again desirable to distinguish between the two by saying that
‘𝐵 includes 𝐴’ in the second case, though some authors consistently say ‘contains’ in this
situation. The first case is best avoided or else clarified by saying that ‘𝑆 contains the
element 𝑥’ or ‘𝑆 contains 𝑥 as an element.’
CONTINGENCY TABLE: A table in which individuals are categorized according to two or
more characteristics or variables. Each cell of the table contains the number of
individuals with a particular combination of characteristics or values.
CONTINGENT (LOGIC): A statement or proposition is contingent if it is neither always
true nor always false. For example ‘𝑥 divided by 2 is an integer’ is true when
𝑥 = 2, 4, 6, … but is not true when 𝑥 = 3, 4.5, 7, …
CONTINUED FRACTION: An expression of the form 𝑞1 + 1/𝑏2 , where 𝑏2 = 𝑞2 +
1/𝑏3 , 𝑏3 = 𝑞3 + 1/𝑏4 , and so on, where 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , 𝑞3 , … are integers, usually positive. If
the continued fraction terminates, it gives a rational number. When the continued
fraction continues indefinitely, it represents an irrational number.

CONTINUITY CORRECTION: The adjustment of the argument of a discrete distribution to


form a closer approximation to a continuous argument. (Usually an adjustment of 0.5
for discrete distributions that admits integers)

CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTION: A distribution where the domain of the


cumulative distribution function is continuous.

CONTINUOUS FUNCTION: The real function f of one variable is said to be continuous at 𝑎


if 𝑓(𝑥) → 𝑓(𝑎) 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 → 𝑎. The rough idea is that, close to 𝑎, the function has values
close to 𝑓(𝑎). It means that the function does not suddenly jump at 𝑥 = 𝑎 or take
widely differing values arbitrarily close to 𝑎.
A function 𝑓 is continuous in an open interval if it is continuous at each point of the
interval; and 𝑓 is continuous on the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏], where 𝑎 < 𝑏, if it is
continuous in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏) and if lim𝑥→𝑎+ 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑎) and lim𝑥→𝑏− 𝑓(𝑥) =
𝑓(𝑏). The following properties hold:
 The sum of two continuous functions is a continuous function.
 The product of two continuous functions is a continuous function.
 The quotient of two continuous functions is continuous at any point or in any
interval where the denominator is not zero.
 Suppose that 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎, that 𝑓(𝑎) = 𝑏 and that 𝑔 is continuous at 𝑏.
Then 𝑕, defined by 𝑕(𝑥) = (𝑔 𝑓)(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑓(𝑥)), is continuous at 𝑎.
CONTINUOUS HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: According to Gauss, the function
𝐹 a′ , b′ , c ′ , z′ is continuous to 𝐹 a; b; c; z if it is obtained by increasing or decreasing
one and only one of the parameters a, b, c by unity.

Thus there are six hypergeometric functions continuous to 𝐹 a; b; c; z and are denoted
as

𝐹 a + 1; b; c; z = Fa+, 𝐹 a − 1; b; c; z = Fa−

𝐹 a; b + 1; c; z = Fb+, 𝐹 a; b − 1; c; z = Fb−

𝐹 a; b; c + 1; z = Fc+, 𝐹 a; b; c − 1; z = Fc−

CONTINUOUS MAP (TOPOLOGY): A map 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is continuous if inverse image of an


open set is always open. Note that
(1) A composition of continuous functions is continuous,
(2) 𝑓 continuous ⇒ 𝑓(compact subset) is compact,
(3) 𝑓 continuous ⇒ 𝑓(connected subset) is connected.
(4) Continuous bijection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space ⇒
homeomorphism.
(5) Continuous surjection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space ⇒ quotient map.
CONTINUOUSLY DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTION: A function is continuously differentiable
if its derivative is itself a continuous function. The function 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 for 𝑥 ≤ 0 and
𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 for 𝑥 ≥ 0 is continuous, but not continuously differentiable since 𝑓′(𝑥) = 0
for 𝑥 < 0 and 𝑓′(𝑥) = 1 for 𝑥 > 0.
CONTINUUM: The set of real numbers or any interval (𝑎, 𝑏), which can be open or closed
at either end is a continuum.
CONTINUUM HYPOTHESIS: The conjecture made by Georg Cantor that there is no set
with a cardinal number between aleph-null which is the cardinal number of the set of
natural numbers and the cardinal number of the set of real numbers, i.e. the continuum.
CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLE: A random variable that can take on any real-number
value within a certain finite or infinite interval.
CONTOUR: By counter, we mean a continuous chain of a finite number of regular areas.
If the contour is closed and does not interest itself, then it is called closed contour.

For example, Boundaries of triangles and rectangles are closed contours.


CONTOUR INTEGRAL: An integral ∫ 𝑓(𝑧) 𝑑𝑧 of a function f in the complex plane over a
curve C, usually a closed curve, in the plane.
CONTOUR LINE: A line joining points of a constant value. If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is a function
which defines a surface and the line 𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥) has the property that 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑔(𝑥)) is
constant then the line 𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥) is a contour line.
CONTRACTION MAPPING: A mapping 𝑓 on a metric space 𝑋 is said to be a contraction
mapping, which decreases the distance, 𝑑, between any two points in 𝑋, i.e. for some
𝑎 < 1, i.e. 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝑎 × 𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦 for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑋.
CONTRACTION MAPPING PRINCIPLE: Suppose that 𝑆 is a closed subset of a Banach
space, 𝑌, and that 𝑇 ∶ 𝑆 → 𝑆 is a mapping on 𝑆 such that
||𝑇𝑢 − 𝑇𝑣||𝑌 ≤ 𝛼||𝑢 − 𝑣||𝑌 ; 𝑢, 𝑣 ∇ 𝑆
for some constant 𝛼 < 1. Then T has a unique fixed point 𝑢 ∇ 𝑆 that satisfies
𝑇𝑢 = 𝑢.
CONTRADICTION: The simultaneous assertion of both the truth of a proposition and its
denial. Since both cannot be true there must necessarily be a flaw in either the
reasoning leading to the simultaneous assertion or in the assumptions on which the
deductive reasoning is based. It is this latter situation which provides the basis for proof
by contradiction.
CONTRAPOSITION: The logical principle, upon which proof by contradiction is based.
Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be statements. If 𝑝 implies not 𝑞, then 𝑞 being true implies that 𝑝 cannot be.
For example, since all rhombuses are parallelograms, a shape which is not a
parallelogram cannot be a rhombus. Here 𝑝 is the statement ‘is a rhombus’ and 𝑞 is the
statement ‘is not a parallelogram’.
CONTRAPOSITIVE: The contrapositive of an implication 𝑝 ⇒ 𝑞 is the implication
¬𝑞 ⇒ ¬𝑝. An implication and its contrapositive are logically equivalent, so that one is
true if and only if the other is. So, in giving a proof of a mathematical result, it may on
occasion be more convenient to establish the contrapositive rather than the original
form of the theorem. For example, the theorem that if 𝑛2 is odd then 𝑛 is odd could be
proved by showing instead that if 𝑛 is even then 𝑛2 is even.
CONTRAVARIANT AND CO-VARIANT VECTORS: Let 𝐴𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2 … . 𝑛, be 𝑛 functions of co-
ordinate 𝑥1 , 𝑥 2 , … 𝑥 𝑛 . If the quantities 𝐴𝑖 are transformed to another co-ordinate system
𝜕𝑥 𝑎
𝑥′1 , 𝑥′2 , 𝑥′3 , … 𝑥′𝑛 according to the rule 𝐴𝑖 = 𝐴𝑎 , then the function Ai are called
𝜕𝑥 𝑖

components of contravariant vector.

Let 𝐴𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2 … . 𝑛, be 𝑛 functions of co-ordinates 𝑥1 , 𝑥 2 , … … . , 𝑥 𝑛 . If the quantities 𝐴𝑖


are transformed to another co-ordinate system 𝑥′1 , 𝑥′2 , 𝑥′3 , … 𝑥′𝑛 according to the rule
𝜕𝑥 𝑖
𝐴𝑖 = 𝐴𝑎 , then the functions 𝐴𝑖 are called components of a covariant vector. The
𝜕𝑥 𝑎

contravariant (or covariant) vector is also called a contravariant (or Covariant) tensor
of rank one.

CONVENIENCE SAMPLE: Quick, easy, and readily available people or objects selected to
conduct a survey. It is convenient for the person compiling the statistics. If you conduct
a survey on people´s opinions about a specific movie by interviewing people who just
walked out of that movie, you are taking a convenience sample.
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING: In convenience sampling, a sample is chosen by using the
most conveniently available group. Data collected from such a sample are unlikely to
contain much worthwhile information about a larger population.
CONVERGE (NET): A net 𝑓𝑛 is said to said to converge to a point 𝑥 of the directed set 𝐷,
CONVERGE (SEQUENCE): A real sequence 𝑥𝑛 is said to be convergent to a real number 𝑎
if for every ∇> 0 there exists a 𝑚∇ ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑥𝑛 − 𝑎 <∇ whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑚∇ .
CONVERGE (SEQUENCE IN A TOPOLOGICAL SPACE): A sequence 𝑥𝑛 in a topological
space is said to be convergent to a number 𝑎 if for every for every nbd 𝑁𝑎 of 𝑎 there
exists a 𝑚𝑎 ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑥𝑛 ∇ 𝑁𝑎 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑚𝑎 .
CONVERGE (SERIES): The infinite series 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + 𝑎3 + … is said to converge to a
limit 𝐿 if for every 𝜀 > 0 there exists an 𝑁 such that
𝑛
𝑖=1 𝑎𝑛 − 𝐿 <∇ for all 𝑛 > 𝑁.
CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE OF INFINITE SERIES: Let 𝑎𝑛 𝑛 = 1,2,3, … be a
sequence of real or complex numbers. Then the formal infinite sum 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ is

called an infinite series (or series) and is denoted by 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛 . The number 𝑎𝑛 is
the 𝑛𝑡𝑕 term of the series 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑛 = 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 is the 𝑛𝑡𝑕 partial sum of
𝑎𝑛 . Also for a finite sequence 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 , the sum 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 is called a series.
To distinguish these two series, the latter is called a finite series. Series means an
infinite series. If the sequence of partial sums 𝑠𝑛 converges to s, we say that the series

𝑎𝑛 converges or is convergent to the sum 𝑠 and write 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑠. If the
sequence 𝑠𝑛 is not convergent, we say that the series diverges or divergent. In
particular, if 𝑠𝑛 is divergent to +∞(−∞) or oscillating, we say that the series is
properly divergent to +∞(−∞) or oscillating, respectively.

CONVERGENT INTEGRAL: A improper integral whose limit exists and is finite.

CONVERGENT ITERATION: An iterative process for which the sequence of each state (in
order) is a convergent sequence

CONVERGENT NET: A net 𝑥𝑖 ; 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼 is said to be convergent to 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 if for each


neighborhood 𝑈 of 𝑥 there is an index 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼 such that if 𝑗 ≥ 𝑖 then 𝑥𝑗 belongs to 𝑈. The
point 𝑥 is called a limit of the net 𝑥𝑖 ; 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼 and we often write 𝑥𝑖 → 𝑥. Convergence of
nets with index set 𝐼 = 𝑁 with the usual order is exactly convergence of sequences.

CONVERGENT PRODUCT: A continued product whose sequence of partial


products (analogues to partial sums) converges.

CONVERGENT SEQUENCE: It is a sequence in which the difference between two


consecutive terms tends to zero when n is large.
CONVERGENT SERIES: A series in which the sum is finite.
CONVERGES UNIFORMLY: Let 𝑋 be a set, (𝑌, 𝑑) a metric space and {𝑓𝑛 } a sequence of
functions from 𝑋 to 𝑌 , and 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 another function. If for any 𝜖 > 0 there exists an
integer 𝑁 such that
𝑑(𝑓𝑛 (𝑥), 𝑓(𝑥)) < 𝜖
for all 𝑛 > 𝑁 we say that fn converges uniformly to 𝑓.

CONVERSE: The converse of an implication 𝑝 ⇒ 𝑞 is the implication 𝑞 ⇒ 𝑝. If an


implication is true, then its converse may or may not be true.
CONVERSE OF THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM: If the square of the hypotenuse is equal
to the sum of the squares of the other two legs of a triangle, then the triangle is a right
triangle.
CONVERSION TABLE: A table showing the equivalent numerical values in two or more
desired units. When the value in one unit is given, the corresponding value in another
unit can be directly read from the table. One example is to convert from imperial to
metric measures and vice versa.
CONVEX (MANIFOLD): A subset K of a Riemannian manifold M is called convex if for any
two points in K there is a shortest path connecting them which lies entirely in K.

CONVEX COMBINATION: A convex combination of a finite number of points


𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , 𝑥3 , … , 𝑥𝑛 is defined as a point . 𝑥 = 𝜆1 𝑥1 + 𝜆2 𝑥2 = ⋯ 𝜆𝑛 𝑥𝑛 where 𝜆𝑖 is real and
𝑛
≥ 0, ∀ 𝑖 and 𝑖=1 𝜆𝑖 = 1.

CONVEX CONES: Let 𝑚 be a positive integer. A subset 𝐶 of 𝑅 𝑚 is said to be a convex cone


in 𝑅 𝑚 if 𝜆𝑣 + µ𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 for all 𝑣, 𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 and for all real numbers 𝜆 and µ satisfying
𝜆 ≥ 0 and µ ≥ 0. Every convex cone in 𝑅 𝑚 is a convex subset of 𝑅 𝑚 .

CONVEX FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 𝑥 is said to be strictly convex as x if for any two


other distinct points 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑓 𝜆𝑥1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑥2 } < 𝜆𝑓 𝑥1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑓(𝑥2 ) , where
0 < 𝜆 < 1. On the other hand, a function 𝑓 𝑥 is strictly concave if -𝑓 𝑥 is strictly
convex.

CONVEX FUNCTION (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A function 𝑓 on a Riemannian


manifold is a convex if for any geodesic 𝛾, the function 𝑓 ∘ 𝛾 is convex. A function 𝑓 is
called 𝜆-convex if for any geodesic 𝛾 with natural parameter 𝑡, the function 𝑓 ∘ 𝛾 𝑡 −
𝜆𝑡 2 is convex.

CONVEX HULL: The convex hull C(x) of any given set of points X is the set of all convex
combination of sets of points from X. For examples, if x is just the eight vertices of a
cube, then the convex hull C(x) is the whole cube.

CONVEX POLYHEDRON: The set of all convex combinations of finite number of points is
called the convex polyhedron generated by these points.

For example: The set of the area of the triangle is a convex polyhedron its vertices.

CONVEX POLYTOPE: A subset 𝑋 is said to be a convex polytope if there exist linear


functionals 𝜂1 , 𝜂2 , . . . , 𝜂𝑚 on 𝑅 𝑛 and real numbers 𝑠1 , 𝑠2 , . . . , 𝑠𝑚 such that 𝑋 = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 ∶
𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑚}. Let (𝜂𝑖 ∶ 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼) be a finite collection of linear
functionals on 𝑅 𝑛 indexed by a finite set 𝐼, let 𝑠𝑖 be a real number for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼, and let
𝑋 = ⋂𝑖∇𝐼 {𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 ∶ 𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 }. Then 𝑋 is a convex polytope in 𝑅 𝑛 . A point 𝑥 of 𝑅 𝑛
belongs to the convex polytope 𝑋 if and only if 𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼.
CONVEX SET: A plane or solid figure, such as a polygon or polyhedron, is said to be
convex if the line segment joining any two points inside it lies wholly inside it.

CONVEX FUZZY SET: A fuzzy set 𝑨 in 𝑹𝒏 is convex if and only if


𝜇𝐴 (𝜆𝑥1 + (1 − 𝜆𝑥2 ) ≥ min⁡
(𝜇𝐴 𝑥1 , 𝜇𝐴 𝑥2 )
for all 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑹𝒏 and all 𝜆 ∇ [0, 11.
CONVOLUTION THEOREM FOR FOURIER TRANSFORMS: Fourier transform of
convolution of 𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 is the product of their Fourier transforms i.e.

𝐹 𝐹∗𝑔 = 𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 𝐹 𝑔 𝑡

COORDINATE: One within a set of such numbers, called coordinates, which specifies the
position of a point e.g. abscissa and ordinate.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY: A study of geometric objects through their representation in


a coordinate system.

COORDINATE MAP OF A CHART: Let S be a manifold in 𝑅 𝑛 , and let 𝜍: 𝑈 → 𝑆 be a chart.


If 𝑝 ∇ 𝑆 we call (𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑈 the coordinates of 𝑝 with respect to 𝜍 when 𝑝 =
𝜍(𝑥). The map 𝜍 −1 : 𝜍(𝑈) → 𝑈 is called the coordinate map of 𝜍.
COORDINATE PLANE: A plane with a point selected as an origin, some length selected as
a unit of distance, and two perpendicular lines that intersect at the origin, with positive
and negative direction selected on each line. Traditionally, the lines are called 𝑥 (drawn
from left to right, with positive direction to the right of the origin) and 𝑦 (drawn from
bottom to top, with positive direction upward of the origin). Coordinates of a point are
determined by the distance of this point from the lines, and the signs of the coordinates
are determined by whether the point is in the positive or in the negative direction from
the origin.
COPLANAR SET OF POINTS: A set of points is coplanar if they all lie in the same plane.
Any three points are always coplanar. The vertices of a triangle are coplanar, but not the
vertices of a pyramid. Two lines are coplanar if they lie in the same plane, that is, if they
either intersect or are parallel.
COPRIME INTEGERS: Two integers n and m with no common factors are said to be
mutually prime or coprime. By definition, 𝒈𝒄𝒅(𝑛, 𝑚) = 1.
CORE: The core of a game with characteristic function v is the set, 𝐶(𝑣), of all
imputations that are not dominated for any coalition. The idea is that only such
imputations can persist in pre-game negotiations.
COROLLARY: Corollary is a result that follows from a theorem almost immediately, often
without further proof.
CORRELATION: Between two random variables, the correlation is a measure of the
extent to which a change in one tends to correspond to a change in the other. The
correlation is high or low depending on whether the relationship between the two is
close or not. If the change in one corresponds to a change in the other in the same
direction, there is positive correlation, and there is a negative correlation if the changes
are in opposite directions. Independent random variables have zero correlation. One
measure of correlation between the random variables 𝑋 and 𝑌 is the correlation
coefficient 𝜌 defined by
𝒄𝒐𝒗 (𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜌=
𝒗𝒂𝒓 𝑥 (𝒗𝒂𝒓 𝑦)
This satisfies — 1 ≤ 𝜌 ≤ 1. If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are linearly related, then 𝜌 = — 1 𝑜𝑟 + 1.
cos: It is the abbreviation for cosine function.
cosec: It is the abbreviation for cosecant function. (Also written as csc).
cosech: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as csch).
COSET: If 𝐻 is a subgroup of a group 𝐺, then for any element, 𝑥 of 𝐺 there is a left coset
𝑥𝐻 consisting of all the elements 𝑥𝑕, where 𝑕 is an element of 𝐻. Similarly, there is a
right coset, 𝐻𝑥, with elements 𝑕𝑥. If 𝑥𝐻 = 𝐻𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺, then 𝐻 becomes a normal
subgroup of 𝐺.
COSET (CODING THEORY): Let 𝐶 be a linear code of length 𝑛 over 𝑓𝑄 and let ∇ 𝑓𝑄𝑁 .
Then the coset of 𝐶 determined by 𝑢 is defined to be the set 𝐶 + 𝑢 = {𝑐 + 𝑢 | 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶}.
For example, let 𝐶 = {000, 101, 010, 111} be a binary linear code. Then, 𝐶 + 000 =
𝐶, 𝐶 + 010 = {010, 111, 000, 101} = 𝐶, and 𝐶 + 001 = {001, 100, 011, 110}.
COSETS OF IDEAL IN A RING: Let 𝑅 be a ring and let 𝐼 be an ideal of 𝑅. The cosets of 𝐼 in
𝑅 are the subsets of 𝑅 that are of the form 𝐼 + 𝑥 for some 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅, where 𝐼 + 𝑥 = {𝑎 +
𝑥 ∶ 𝑎 ∇ 𝐼}.
We denote by 𝑅/𝐼 the set of cosets of 𝐼 in 𝑅. Let 𝑥 and 𝑥 ′ be elements of 𝑅. Then
𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ if and only if 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼.
Indeed if 𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ , then 𝑥 = 𝑐 + 𝑥 ′ for some 𝑐 ∇ 𝐼. But then 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ = 𝑐, and
thus 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼.
Conversely if 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼 then 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ = 𝑐 for some 𝑐 ∇ 𝐼. But then 𝐼 + 𝑥 = {𝑎 + 𝑥 ∶
𝑎 ∇ 𝐼} = {𝑎 + 𝑐 + 𝑥 ′ ∶ 𝑎 ∇ 𝐼} = {𝑏 + 𝑥 ′ ∶ 𝑏 ∇ 𝐼} = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ .
If 𝑥, 𝑥 ′ , 𝑦 and 𝑦 ′ are elements of 𝑅 satisfying 𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ and 𝐼 + 𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑦 ′
then
(𝑥 + 𝑦) − (𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ), 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ = 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥𝑦 ′ + 𝑥𝑦 ′ −
𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ = 𝑥(𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ) + (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ )𝑦 ′ . But 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼 and 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, and therefore
𝑥(𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ) ∇ 𝐼 and (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ )𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, because 𝐼 is an ideal.
It follows that (𝑥 + 𝑦) − (𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ ) ∇ 𝐼 and 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, and therefore 𝐼 + 𝑥 +
𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ and 𝐼 + 𝑥𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ .
This shows that the quotient group 𝑅/𝐼 admits well-defined operations of addition and
multiplication, defined such that (𝐼 + 𝑥) + (𝐼 + 𝑦) = 𝐼 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 and (𝐼 + 𝑥)(𝐼 +
𝑦) = 𝐼 + 𝑥𝑦 for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅.
cosh: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosine function.
COSINE RULE: In trigonometry, (also known as the cosine formula or the law
of cosines ) it is a statement about a general triangle that relates the lengths of its sides
to the cosine of one of its angles.

cot: It is the abbreviation for cotangent function.


COTANGENT SPACE: Let 𝑀 be an 𝑚-dimensional abstract manifold, and let 𝑝 ∇ 𝑀. The
dual space (𝑇𝑝 𝑀)∗ of 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 is denoted 𝑇𝑝∗ 𝑀 and called the cotangent space of 𝑀 at 𝑝. Its
elements are called cotangent vectors or just covectors.
COTERMINAL ANGLES: Angles in standard position with the same initial arm and
terminal arm.
coth: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cotangent function.
COUNTABLE ATLAS: An atlas of an abstract manifold M is said to be countable if the set
of charts in the atlas is countable. Let M be an abstract manifold. Then M has a countable
atlas if and only if there exists a countable base for the topology.
COUNTABLE SET: A set X is said to be a countable set if there is a one-to-one
correspondence between X and a subset of the set of natural numbers. Thus a countable
set is either finite or denumerable. Some authors use ‘countable’ to mean denumerable.
COUNTABLY ADDITIVE MEASURE: We say that µ is countably additive (or 𝜍 −additive)
if for any countable family (𝐴𝑛 ) of pairwise disjoint sets from 𝑅 we have µ(⋃𝑛 𝐴𝑛 ) =
𝑛 µ(𝐴𝑛 ). If the sum diverges, then as it will be the sum of positive numbers, we can,
without problem, define it to be +∞.

COUNTEREXAMPLE: An example that proves a statement false.


cov: It is the abbreviation for covariance of a pair of random variables.
COVARIANCE: A measure of the extent to which two variables vary together. When
divided by the product of the standard deviations of the two variables, this measure
becomes the Pearson (or product-moment) correlation coefficient. The covariance of
two random variables 𝑋 and 𝑌, denoted by 𝐶𝑜𝑣(𝑋, 𝑌), is equal to 𝐸((𝑋 — 𝜇𝑋 )(𝑌 — 𝜇𝑌 )),
where 𝜇𝑋 and 𝜇𝑌 are the population means of 𝑋 and 𝑌 respectively. If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are
independent random variables, then 𝐶𝑜𝑣(𝑋, 𝑌) = 0. For computational purposes, note
that 𝐸((𝑋 — 𝜇𝑋 )(𝑌 — 𝜇𝑌 )) = 𝐸(𝑋𝑌) — 𝜇𝑋 𝜇𝑌 . For a sample of n paired observations
(𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ), (𝑥2 , 𝑦2 ), … , (𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ), the sample covariance is equal to
𝑥𝑖 − 𝑥 𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦
𝑛
COVARIANT CONSTANTS: The covariant derivatives of the tensors 𝑔𝑖𝑗 , 𝑔𝑖𝑗 , 𝑔𝑗𝑖 vanish
identically. It means these tensors behave as constants in covariant differentiation.
Hence these tensors are defined a covariant constant.

COVARIANT DERIVATIVE OF A SCALAR: Covariant derivative of a scalar ∅ w.r.t. 𝑥 𝑖 is


𝜕∅
defined as its ordinary partial derivative w.r.t. 𝑥 𝑖 and is denoted by ∅, 𝑖. Thus ∅, 𝑖 = 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 .
𝜕∅
Evidently ∅, 𝑖 = 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 = ∆∅.

CRAMER, GABRIEL (1704–52): Gabriel Cramer was a Swiss mathematician whose


introduction to algebraic curves, published in 1750, contains the so-called Cramer’s rule
of solving a system of 𝑛 linear equations in 𝑛 variables. The rule was known earlier by
Maclaurin.
CRAMER’S RULE: Consider a set of 𝑛 linear equations in 𝑛 unknowns 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 ,
written in matrix form as 𝑨𝒙 = 𝒃. When 𝑨 is an invertible matrix, the set of equations
has a unique solution 𝒙 = 𝑨—1 𝒃. Since 𝑨—1 = (1/𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨) 𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑨, this gives the solution
𝑎𝑑𝑗𝐴 𝑏
𝑥=
det 𝐴
The equation ax + by + cz = 0 is a linear homogeneous equation in x, y and z. On the
other hand the equation ax + by + cz = 0 is a linear non-homogeneous equation in
x, y and z.

Let the 𝑛 linear simultaneous equations in 𝑛 unknowns 𝐴, x2 , x3 , … . , xn be

a11 x1 − a12 x2 + ⋯ + a1n xn = b1 ,

a21 x1 − a22 x2 + ⋯ + a2n xn = b2 ,

… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … …

an1 x1 − an2 x2 + ⋯ + ann xn = bn .

a11 a12 ⋯ a1n


a21 a22 ⋯ a2n
Let ∆= ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ≠ 0.
⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯
an1 an2 ⋯ ann

Suppose A11 , A12 , A13 ,………. etc. denote the cofactors if a11 , a12 , a13, ………. etc, in ∆. Then
multiplying the given equation respectively byA11 , A12 , A13 ,……… An1 and adding, we get

𝑥1 a11 A11 + a21 A21 + ⋯ + an1 An1 + 𝑥2 0 + 𝑥2 0 + 𝑥3 0 + … + 𝑥𝑛 0

= b1 A11 + b2 A21 + ⋯ + bn An1

Or 𝑥1 ∆= ∆1 ,

Where ∆1 is the determinant obtained by replacing the elements in the first column of ∆
by the elements b1 , b2 , … , bn .
Again multiplying the given equation respectively by A12 , A22 , … , An2 and adding, we get

𝑥2 ∆= ∆2 ,

Where ∆2 is the determinant obtained by replacing the elements in the second column
of ∆ by the elements b1 , b2 , … , bn .

Similarly, we get

𝑥3 ∆= ∆3

…………

𝑥𝑛 ∆= ∆𝑛 .

This method of solving 𝑛 simultaneous equations in 𝑛 unknowns is known as Cramer’s


Rule.

Thus by Cramer’s rule, if ∆≠ 0, we have

∆i
xi = , i = 1,2, … , n,

Where ∆𝑖 is the determinant obtained by replacing the ith column of ∆ by the elements
b1 , b2 , … , bn .

CRITICAL POINT: A critical point for a function is a point where the first derivative(s) is
(are) zero.
CRITICAL POINTS (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Consider the bilinear transformation

𝑎𝑧 + 𝑏
𝑤=𝑇 𝑧 =
𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑

Solving this for 𝑧, we get the inverse map as

𝑏 − 𝑤𝑑
𝑧 = 𝑇 −1 𝑤 =
𝑤𝑐 − 𝑎

The transformation 𝑇 associates a unique point of the 𝑤 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 to any point of


𝑑
𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 except the point 𝑧 = − 𝑐 when 𝑐 ≠ 0. The transformation 𝑇 −1 associates a
𝑎
unique point of 𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 to any point 𝑤 plane except the point 𝑤 = , when 𝑐 ≠ 0.
𝑐
𝑑 𝑎
These exceptional points 𝑧 = − 𝑐 and 𝑤 − 𝑐 are mapped into the points 𝑤 = ∞ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑧 =

∞ respectively are obvious from (1) and (2)

𝑑𝑤 𝑎𝑑 −𝑏𝑐
From (1) = (𝑐𝑧 +𝑑)²
𝑑𝑧

𝑑
𝑑𝑤 ∞ 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 = − 𝑐
This ⟹ =
𝑑𝑧
0 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 = ∞

𝑑
The points 𝑧 = − 𝑐 , 𝑧 = ∞ are called Critical points where the conformal property does

not hold good.

CRITICAL REGION: If the calculated value of a test statistic falls within the critical region,
then the null hypothesis is rejected.
CROSS RATIO: For a set of coplanar points 𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶, 𝐷, it is,
𝐴𝐶 × 𝐵𝐷
𝐴𝐷 × 𝐵𝐶
and for points 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , 𝑧3 , 𝑧4 in the complex plane it is
𝑧1 − 𝑧3 𝑧2 − 𝑧4
𝑧1 − 𝑧4 𝑧2 − 𝑧3
The definition in the complex plane can be extended to the Riemann sphere by
continuity.
CRYPTOGRAPHY: Cryptography is the area of mathematics concerning the secure
coding and decoding of information, often relying on mathematics such as prime
factorizations of very large numbers.
csc: It is the abbreviation for cosecant function. (Also written as cosec).
csch: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as cosech).
CUBE ROOT OF UNITY: A complex number z such that 𝑧 3 = 1. The three cube roots of
−1+𝑖 3 −1−𝑖 3
unity are 1, 𝜔 and 𝜔2 , where 𝜔 = and 𝜔2 = .
2 2

CUBIC EQUATION: A polynomial having a degree of 3 (i.e. the highest power is 3), of the
form 𝑎𝑥 3 + 𝑏𝑥 2 + 𝑐𝑥 + 𝑑 = 0, which can be solved by factorization or formula to
find its three roots.
CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: For a random variable 𝑋, the cumulative
distribution function (c.d.f.) is the function 𝐹 defined by 𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 𝑥). Thus, for a
discrete random variable
𝐹 𝑥 − 𝑝(𝑥𝑖 )
𝑥 𝑖 ≤𝑋

where p is the probability mass function, and, for a continuous random variable,
𝑥

𝐹 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
−∞

where f is the probability density function.


CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY: The sum of the frequencies of all the values up to a given
value. If the values 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 , in ascending order, occur with frequencies 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , … , 𝑓𝑛 ,
respectively, then the cumulative frequency at 𝑥𝑖 is equal to 𝑓1 + 𝑓2 , … + 𝑓𝑖 . Cumulative
frequencies may be similarly obtained for grouped data.
CURL OF A VECTOR: For a vector function of position 𝑽 (𝒓) = 𝑉𝑥 𝒊 + 𝑉𝑦 𝒋 + 𝑉𝑧 𝒌, the curl
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
of 𝑽 is the vector product of the operator del ∆= 𝒊 𝜕𝑥 + 𝒋 𝜕𝑦 + 𝒌 𝜕𝑧 , with 𝑽 giving

𝜕𝑽 𝜕𝑽 𝜕𝑽
𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝑽 = ∆ × 𝑽 = 𝒊 × +𝒋× +𝒌×
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
which can be written in determinant form as
𝑖 𝑗 𝑘
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝑉𝑥 𝑉𝑦 𝑉𝑧
CURVATURE: The rate of change of direction of a curve at a point 𝑃 on the curve. The
Greek letter 𝜅 is used to denote curvature and
𝑦 ′′
𝜅= .
1 + 𝑦′ 2 3/2

1
𝜌 = 𝜅 is the radius of curvature which is the radius of the circle which best fits the curve

at that point, matching the position, the gradient and the second differential of the curve
at that point. The centre of curvature is the centre of that best-fitting circle, known as
the circle of curvature.
CURVE: A curve is a continuous mapping of the segment [0, 1] into another space -
container of the curve. A curve may not look as a line. For example, there are space
filling curves.
CUSP: A point at which two or more branches of a curve meet, and at which the limits of
the tangents approaching that point along each branch coincide. There are two main
characteristics used to describe cusps. In a single or simple cusp there are only two
branches, and the limits of the second differentials approaching that point are different.
If the branches are on opposite sides of the common tangent, it is said to be a cusp of the
first kind, and if the branches are on the same side of the common tangent it is a cusp of
the second kind.

A double cusp or point of osculation has four branches, comprising two continuously
differentiable curves meeting at a point with a common tangent. Double cusps can also
be of the first or second kind, or one or both curves can have a point of inflexion at the
cusp, so the tangent intersects the curve, in which case it is a point of osculinflection.

C(X) SPACES: All our topological spaces are assumed Hausdorff. Let X be a compact
space, and let 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) be the space of continuous functions from 𝑋 to 𝐾, with pointwise
operations, so that 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) is a vector space. We norm 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋)by setting 𝑓 ∞ =
𝑠𝑢𝑝
𝑓(𝑥) ; 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋).
𝑥∇𝑋

Note that
 Let 𝑋 be a compact space. Then 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) is a Banach space.
 Let 𝐸 be a vector space, and let || · || (1) and || · || (2) be norms on 𝐸. These norms
are equivalent if there exists 𝑚 > 0 with 𝑚−1 𝑥 (2) ≤ 𝑥 (1) ≤𝑚 𝑥 (2) . (𝑥 ∇
𝐸)
 Let E be a finite-dimensional vector space with basis {𝑒1 , … , 𝑒𝑛 }, so we can
identify 𝐸 with 𝐾 𝑛 as vector spaces, and hence talk about the norm || · || (2) on E.
If || · || is any norm on 𝐸, then || · || and || · || (2) are equivalent.
 Let E be a finite-dimensional normed space. Then a subset 𝑋 ⊆ 𝐸 is compact if
and only if it is closed and bounded.
 Let 𝐸 be a normed vector space, and let 𝐹 be a closed subspace of 𝐸 with 𝐸 ≠ 𝐹.
For 0 < 𝜃 < 1, we can find 𝑥0 ∇ 𝐸 with ||𝑥0 || ≤ 1 and ||𝑥0 − 𝑦|| > 𝜃 for 𝑦 ∇ 𝐹.
 Let 𝐸 be an infinite-dimensional normed vector space. Then the closed unit ball
of 𝐸, the set {𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 ∶ ||𝑥|| ≤ 1}, is not compact.

CYCLE (GRAPH THEORY): A closed path with at least one edge. In a graph, a cycle is a
sequence 𝑣0 , 𝑒1 , 𝑣1 , … , 𝑒𝑘 , 𝑣𝑘 (𝑘 ≥ 1) of alternately vertices and edges (where 𝑒𝑖 is an
edge joining 𝑣𝑖—1 and 𝑣𝑖 ), with all the edges different and all the vertices different,

except that 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑘 .
CYCLIC GROUP: Let 𝑎 be an element of a multiplicative group 𝐺. The elements 𝑎𝑟 , where
𝑟 is an integer (positive, zero or negative), form a subgroup of 𝐺, called the subgroup
generated by 𝑎. A group 𝐺 is cyclic if there is an element a in 𝐺 such that the subgroup
generated by 𝑎 is the whole of 𝐺. If 𝐺 is a finite cyclic group with identity element 𝑒, the
set of elements of 𝐺 may be written as {𝑒, 𝑎, 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛−1 }, where 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑒 and 𝑛 is the
smallest such positive integer. If 𝐺 is an infinite cyclic group, the set of elements may be
written { … , 𝑎−2 , 𝑎−1 , 𝑒, 𝑎, 𝑎2 , … }.
CYCLIC POLYGON: A polygon whose vertices all lie on the same circle. All triangles, all
rectangles, and all regular polygons are cyclic. Convex quadrilaterals, whose opposite
angles are supplementary, are also cyclic.
CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL: A four-sided figure whose four vertices all lie on a
circumscribed circle. If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral add to 180°, it is a cyclic
quadrilateral.
CYCLOID: The curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls
without slipping along a straight line. With suitable axes, the cycloid has parametric
equations 𝑥 = 𝑎(𝑡 — 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑎(1 — 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ 𝑹), where 𝑎 is a constant (equal
to the radius of the rolling circle). In the figure, 𝑂𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑎.

CYCLOTOMIC NUMBER FIELDS: The starting point for cyclotomic number fields is the
irreducibility of the cyclotomic polynomial 𝑓(𝑡) = 𝑡 𝑛 −1 + 𝑡 𝑛 −2 + … + 𝑡 + 1 in 𝑄[𝑡]
for any positive rational prime 𝑝. To see this, note that 𝑓(𝑡 + 1) = 𝑡 𝑝 −1 +
𝑝(𝑡 𝑝−2 + . . . ) + 𝑝, and the irreducibility now follows immediately from Eisenstein’s
criterion. For any positive rational prime 𝑝, the 𝑝-th cyclotomic number field is the
algebraic number field 𝑄(𝜁), where 𝜁 = 𝑒 2𝜋𝑖 /𝑝 is a primitive 𝑝-th root of unity.
CYCLOTOMIC POLYNOMIAL Φn(z): The polynomial whose roots are all the primitive n-
th roots of unity. We know
𝑧 𝑛 — 1 ≡ (𝑧 — 1)(𝑧 𝑛−1 + 𝑧 𝑛−2 + … + 𝑧 + 1),
so when n is prime 𝛷𝑛 (𝑧) = 𝑧 𝑛 −1 + 𝑧 𝑛 −2 + … + 𝑧 + 1 is the cyclotomic polynomial,
but when 𝑛 = 4, 𝑧 4 — 1 = (𝑧 — 1)(𝑧 + 1)(𝑧 2 + 1), and so 𝛷4 (𝑧) = (𝑧 2 + 1).
CYLINDRICAL HELICES: A cylindrical helix is a curve traced out on the surface of the
cylinder and cuts the generators at a constant angle.
Thus the tangent at any point on the helix makes a constant angle say 𝛼, with a fixed
line, this fixed line is known as axis (generator) of the cylinder, the axis of the cylinder is
also called the axis of the helix.
CYLINDRICAL POLAR COORDINATES: Suppose that three mutually perpendicular
directed lines 𝑂𝑥, 𝑂𝑦 and 𝑂𝑧, intersecting at the point 𝑂 and forming a right-handed
system, are taken as coordinate axes. For any point 𝑃, let 𝑀 and 𝑁 be the projections of
𝑃 onto the 𝑥𝑦 −plane and the 𝑧 −axis respectively. Then 𝑂𝑁 = 𝑃𝑀 = 𝑧, the
𝑧 −coordinate of 𝑃. Let 𝜌 = |𝑃𝑁|, the distance of 𝑃 from the 𝑧 −axis, and let ø be the
angle ∠𝑥𝑂𝑀 in radians (0 ≤ ø < 2 𝜋). Then
(𝜌, ø, 𝑧) are the cylindrical polar coordinates of 𝑃.
(It should be noted that the points of the 𝑧 −axis
give no value for ø.) The two coordinates (𝜌, ø) can be seen as polar coordinates of the
point 𝑀 and, as with polar coordinates, ø + 2 𝑘𝜋, where 𝑘 is an integer, may be allowed
in place of ø.

D
D’ ALEMBERT’S PARADOX: If we super- impose on the system a uniform velocity 𝑈 in
the direction opposite to that of the current the inviscid fluid at a great distance remain
undisturbed and the body moves with uniform velocity 𝑈. The dynamical conditions
remain unaltered by superposing a uniform velocity therefore, the resistance to a body
moving with uniform velocity through an unbounded inviscid fluid, otherwise at rest,
vanishes. This is in contradiction to the common experience and is called 𝐷’ Alembert’s
Paradox.

D’ ALEMBERT’S ROOT TEST: Let 𝑢𝑛 be a series of positive terms such that


𝑢 𝑛 +1
lim𝑛→∞ = 𝑙. Then
𝑢𝑛

1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑙 < 1.
2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑙 > 1.
3. The test fails if 𝑙 = 1.
DARBOUX FUNCTION: For topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌, a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is a
Darboux function (or has the Darboux property), 𝑓 ∇ 𝐷(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided the image
𝑓 [𝐶] of 𝐶 under 𝑓 is a connected subset of 𝑌 for every connected subset 𝐶 of 𝑋. In
particular, 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 is Darboux provided 𝑓 maps intervals onto intervals, that is,
when it has the intermediate value property.
DARBOUX THEOREM: Let 𝑓 be a bounded function defined on [𝑎, 𝑏]. Then to every ∇> 0,
there corresponds 𝛿 > 0 such that
𝑏

𝑈 𝑃, 𝑓 < 𝑓𝑑𝑥+∇
𝑎

and
𝑏

𝐿 𝑃, 𝑓 > 𝑓𝑑𝑥−∇
𝑎

DATA: The observations gathered from an experiment, survey or observational study.


Often the data are a randomly selected sample from an underlying population.
Numerical data are discrete if the underlying population is finite or countably infinite
and are continuous if the underlying population forms an interval, finite or infinite. Data
are nominal if the observations are not numerical or quantitative, but are descriptive
and have no natural order. Data specifying country of origin, type of vehicle or subject
studied, for example, are nominal. Note that the word ‘data’ is plural. The singular
‘datum’ may be used for a single observation.

DATA ANALYTICS: Data analytics (DA) is the science of examining raw data with the
purpose of drawing conclusions about that information. Data analytics is used in many
industries to allow companies and organization to make better business decisions and
in the sciences to verify or disprove existing models or theories. Data analytics is
distinguished from data mining by the scope, purpose and focus of the analysis. Data
miners sort through huge data sets using sophisticated software to identify
undiscovered patterns and establish hidden relationships. Data analytics focuses on
inference, the process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what is already known by
the researcher.

d-DIMENSIONAL WEIERSTRASS THEOREM: The restrictions of the polynomials in 𝑑


arguments to any compact subset 𝐾 of 𝑅 𝑑 is dense in 𝐶(𝐾).

DE BRANGES'S THEOREM: Also known as Bieberbach conjecture, is a theorem that gives


a necessary condition on a holomorphic function in order for it to map the open unit
disk of the complex plane injectively to the complex plane. It was posed by Ludwig
Bieberbach (1916) and finally proven by Louis de Branges (1985).
The statement concerns the Taylor coefficients 𝑎𝑛 of such a function, normalized as is
always possible so that 𝑎0 = 0 and 𝑎1 = 1. That is, we consider a function defined on
the open unit disk which is holomorphic and injective (univalent) with Taylor series of
the form

The theorem states that

DECISION ANALYSIS: The branch of mathematics considering strategies to be used


when decisions have to be made at stages in a process, but the outcomes resulting from
the implementation of those decisions are dependent on chance.
DECISION THEORY: The area of statistics and game theory concerned with decision
making under uncertainty to maximize expected utility.
DECISION TREE: The diagram used to represent the process in a decision analysis
problem. Different symbols are used to denote the different types of node or vertex. For
example, decisions may be shown as rectangles, chance events as circles, and payoffs as
triangles.
DECISION PROBLEMS: A decision problem (or recognition problem) is one that takes
the form of a question with a yes/no answer.
DECISION VARIABLES: The quantities to be found in linear programming or other
constrained optimization problems.
DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: If 𝐺 is a subspace (i.e. a closed linear manifold) of a Hilbert
space 𝐻, then every vector 𝑕 of H can be uniquely decomposed into the sum of a vector
𝑔 belonging to 𝐺 and a vector 𝑓 which is orthogonal to : i.e.

𝐻 = 𝐺 ⊕ 𝐺⊥

Morever, if 𝑑 = 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑕 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐺

= 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑕 − 𝑔′ ,

Taken over all the vectors 𝑔′ 𝑜𝑓 𝐺, 𝑡𝑕𝑒𝑛 𝑓 = 𝑕 − 𝑔 − 𝑑, 𝑖. 𝑒. this infimum is attained


at the vector 𝑔.
DECREASING FUNCTION: A function f (x) is a decreasing function if f (a) _ f (b) when a _
b.
DECREASING SEQUENCE: A real sequence 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , … is said to be a decreasing
sequence if 𝑎𝑛 ≥ 𝑎𝑛+1 for all 𝑛 and strictly decreasing if 𝑎𝑛 > 𝑎𝑛+1 for all 𝑛.
DEDEKIND- CANTOR AXIOM: To every real number there corresponds a unique point on
a directed line and conversely, to every point on a directed line there corresponds a
unique real number.
DEDEKIND DOMAINS: A Dedekind domain is an integrally-closed Noetherian domain in
which every non-zero prime ideal is maximal. It follows from this definition that a unital
commutative ring R is a Dedekind domain if and only if it possesses all four of the
following properties:
(i) R is an integral domain;
(ii) every ideal of R is finitely generated,
(iii) R is integrally closed in its field of fractions;
(iv) every non-zero prime ideal of R is maximal.
Properties (i) and (ii) characterize Noetherian domains, and property (iii) characterizes
integrally-closed domains. Every principal ideal domain is a Dedekind domain.
DEDEKIND, JULIUS WILHELM RICHARD (1831–1916): Richard Dedekind was a German
mathematician who developed a formal construction of the real numbers from the
rational numbers by means of the so-called Dedekind cut. This new approach to
irrational numbers, contained in the very readable paper Continuity and Irrational
Numbers, was an important step towards the formalization of mathematics. He also
proposed a definition of infinite sets that was taken up by Cantor, with whom he
developed a lasting friendship.
DEDEKIND’S AXIOM: Let 𝐿 and 𝑈 be two subsets of 𝑅 such that
1. 𝐿 ≠ 𝜑, 𝑈 ≠ 𝜑
2. 𝐿 ∪ 𝑈 = 𝑅
3. 𝑥 ∇ 𝐿, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑈 ⇒ 𝑥 < 𝑦
Then the subset L has the greatest member or the subset U has the smallest member i.e.
∃𝛼 ∇ 𝑅 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑥 < 𝛼 ⇒ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐿, 𝑦 > 𝛼 ⇒ 𝑦 ∇ 𝑈.
DEDUCTION: A deduction is a conclusion arrived at by reasoning.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING: Using facts, definitions, accepted properties, and the laws of
logic to make a logical argument.
DEFICIENT NUMBER: A positive integer is said to be a deficient number if it is larger
than the sum of its positive divisors
DEFINITE INTEGRAL: If 𝑓(𝑥) represents a function of 𝑥 that is always nonnegative, then
the definite integral of 𝑓(𝑥) between 𝑎 and 𝑏 represents the area under the curve
𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), above the x-axis, to the right of the line 𝑥 = 𝑎, and to the left of the line x = b.
The definite integral is represented by the expression
𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑎

and 𝑎 and 𝑏 are the limits of integration.


DEFINITION: An exact statement of the meaning, nature, and/or limits of a
mathematical object.
deg: It is the abbreviation for degree of a polynomial. (Also written as ∂ .
DEGENERACY IN TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS: The solution procedure for non-
degenerate basic feasible solution with exactly m+n-1 strictly positive allocations in
independent positions has been discussed so far. However, sometimes it is not possible
to get such initial feasible solution to start with. Thus degeneracy occurs in the
transportation problem whenever a number of occupied cells is less than m+n-1.

Basic feasible solution to an m –origin and n- destination transportation problem can


have at most m+n-1 number of positive (non –zero) basic variables. If this number is
exactly m+n-1 , the BFS is said to be non-degenerate; and if less than m+n-1 the basic
solution degenerates. It follows that whenever the number of basic cells is less than
m+n-1 , the transportation problem is a degenerate one.

Degeneracy in transportation problems can occur in two ways:

(i) Basic feasible solutions may be degenerate from the initial stage onward.
(ii) They may become degenerate at any intermediate stage.

A special technique called as the Assignment technique is used to solve the special type
of problems called Assignment problem. This type of problems may be defined as the
traditional or classical problems where the main motive is to allot a number of origins
to the equal number of destinations at a least cost are called assignment problems.
The assignment problems can be stated in the form of 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑐𝑖𝑗 of real
numbers called cost matrix or effectiveness matrix.

DEGENERACY PROBLEM (TIE FOR MINIMUM RATIO): At the stage of improving the
solution during simplex procedure, minimum ratio 𝑥8 /𝑥𝑘 (𝑥𝑘 > 0) is determined in the
last column of simplex table to find the key row (i.e. a row containing the key element).
But, sometimes this ratio may not be unique, i.e, the key element (hence the variable to
leave the basis) is not uniquely determined or at the very first iteration, the value of one
or more basic variables in the XB column become equal to zero, this causes the problem
of degeneracy.

However, if the minimum ratio is zero for two or more basic variables, degeneracy may
result the simplex routine to cycle indefinitely. That is, the solution which we have
obtained in one iteration may repeat again after few iterations and therefore no
optimum solution may be obtained under such circumstances.

DEGENERATE CONIC SECTION: A point, line, or pair of lines that arise as a limiting form
of a conic.
DEGREE OF AN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER: The degree of an algebraic number field 𝐾 is the
dimension [𝐾: 𝑄] of K considered as a vector space over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.
DEGREE OF A VERTEX OF A GRAPH: The degree of a vertex 𝑉 of a graph is the number of
edges ending at 𝑉. If loops are allowed, each loop joining 𝑉 to itself contributes two to
the degree of 𝑉.
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (MECHANICS): The number of degrees of freedom of a body is
the minimum number of independent coordinates required to describe the position of
the body at any instant, relative to a frame of reference. A particle in straight-line
motion or circular motion has one degree of freedom. A rigid body rotating about a fixed
axis also has one degree of freedom. A particle moving in a plane, such as a projectile, or
a particle moving on a cylindrical or spherical surface has two degrees of freedom. A
rigid body in general motion has six degrees of freedom.
DEGREES OF FREEDOM (STATISTICS): A positive integer normally equal to the number
of independent observations in a sample minus the number of population parameters to
be estimated from the sample. When the chi-squared test is applied to a contingency
table with 𝑕 rows and 𝑘 columns, the number of degrees of freedom equals
(𝑕 – 1)(𝑘 – 1).
DEL: The del symbol ∆ is used to represent this vector of differential operators:
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
∆= , ,
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
DELETED NEIGHBOURHOOD OF A POINT: If from a nbd of a point 𝑝, the point 𝑝 itself is
deleted, then we get a deleted nbd of the point 𝑝.
DELTA FUNCTION 𝛅 𝐱 − 𝐚 : It is defined as

∞ if x = a
δ(x − a) =
0 if x ≠ a

together with the condition ∫−∞ δ x − a dx = 1.

DE MOIVRE, ABRAHAM (1667–1754): De Moivre was a prolific mathematician, born in


France, who later settled in England. In De Moivre’s Theorem, he is remembered for his
use of complex numbers in trigonometry.
DE MOIVRE’S THEOREM: For all positive integers 𝑛,
(𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃)𝑛 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑛𝜃.
DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (1806–71): Augustus De Morgan was a British mathematician
and logician who was responsible for developing a more symbolic approach to algebra,
and who played a considerable role in the beginnings of symbolic logic. His name is
remembered in De Morgan’s laws, which he formulated.
DE MORGAN’S LAWS: For all sets A and B (subsets of a universal set),
(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∩ 𝐵′ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∪ 𝐵′.
DE MORGAN AND BERTRAND’S TEST: The series 𝑢𝑛 of positive terms is convergent or
divergent according as
𝑢𝑛
lim 𝑛 − 1 − 1 log 𝑛 > 1 𝑜𝑟 < 1.
𝑛 →∞ 𝑢𝑛 +1
DENSE IN ITSELF: A subset 𝐴 of 𝑅 is said to be dense in itself if it possesses no isolated
point i.e. every point of 𝐴 is a limit point of 𝐴.
DENSENESS PROPERTY OF REAL NUMBERS: Between any two distinct real numbers
there always lies a rational number and therefore infinitely many rational numbers.
DENSE SUBSET: A subset 𝑅 of a normed linear space 𝑁 is said to be dense in 𝑁, if every
element of 𝑁 is the limit of some fundamental sequence of vectors in 𝑅. This is
equivalent to saying that given any vector 𝑓 of 𝑁 and given any 𝜀 > 0, a vector 𝑔∇ in 𝑅
can be found such that 𝑓 − 𝑓∇ < 𝜀.

DENSITY PROPERTY: The property that states that there always exists another rational
number between any two given rational numbers. This means that the set of rational
numbers is dense.
DENSITY PROPERTY FOR REAL NUMBERS: The property that states that there always
exists another real number between any two given real numbers. This means that the
set of real numbers is dense.
DENUMERABLE SET: A set 𝑋 is said to be a denumerable set if there is a one-to-one
correspondence between X and the set of natural numbers. It can be shown that the set
of rational numbers is denumerable but that the set of real numbers is not.
DEPENDENT EQUATIONS: A set of equations where at least one of the set may be
expressed as a linear combination of the others.
DEPENDENT EVENT: An event that is affected by the occurrence of other events
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: The dependent variable stands for the output number of a
function. In the equation 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑦 is the dependent variable and 𝑥 is the
independent variable. The value of 𝑦 depends on the value of 𝑥. In statistics, the variable
which is thought might be influenced by certain other explanatory variables. In
regression, a relationship is sought between the dependent variable and the
explanatory variables. The purpose is normally to enable the value of the dependent
DERIVATIVE: The derivative of a function is the rate of change of that function. On the
graph of the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), the derivative at 𝑥 is equal to the slope of the tangent line
at the point (𝑥, 𝑓 (𝑥)). If the function represents the position of an object as a function of
time, then the derivative represents the velocity of the object. Derivatives can be
calculated from this expression:
Function Derivative
𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑕 − 𝑓(𝑥)
𝑦 ′ = 𝑓 ′ 𝑥 = lim
𝑕→0 𝑕
DERIVED SET: The set of all limit points of 𝐴 is called derived set of 𝐴.
DERIVED UNIT: It is a unit that is defined or obtained in terms of the fundamental units.
For example, a unit of force, one Newton (N), is defined as the amount of force that will
accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second.
Therefore, its formal definition is kg·m·s-2.
DEROGATORY AND NON-DEROGATORY MATRIX: An 𝑛-rowed matrix is said to be
derogatory or non-derogatory, according as the degree of its minimal equation is less
than or equal to 𝑛.

If the roots of the characteristic equation of a matrix are all distinct, then the matrix is
non-derogatory.

DESCARTES, RENE: Rene Descartes (1596 to 1650) was a French mathematician and
philosopher who is noted for the sentence “I think, therefore I am” and for developing
the concept now known as rectangular, or Cartesian coordinates. He was the
mathematician who in mathematics is known mainly for his methods of applying
algebra to geometry, from which analytic geometry developed. He expounded these in
La Géométrie, in which he was also concerned to use geometry to solve algebraic
problems.
DESCARTES’ RULE OF SIGNS: Descartes’ rule of signs states that the number of positive
roots of a polynomial equation will equal the number of sign changes among the
coefficients, or that number minus a multiple of 2. To count the sign changes, be sure the
polynomial terms are arranged in descending order by power of x, and ignore any zero
coefficients.
DESCENDING CHAIN CONDITION: A collection 𝑆 of subsets of a set 𝑋 satisfies the
ascending chain condition or DCC if there does not exist an infinite descending chain
𝑆1 ⊇ 𝑆2 ⊇ · · · of subsets from 𝑆.
DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY: A method of representing three-dimensional objects by
projections on the two-dimensional plane using a specific set of procedures.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: This is the part of the subject of statistics concerned with
describing the basic statistical features of a set of observations. Simple numerical
summaries, using notions such as mean, range and standard deviation, together with
appropriate diagrams such as histograms, are used to present an overall impression of
the data. Descriptive statistics is the study of ways to summarize data. For example, the
mean, median, and standard deviation are descriptive statistics that summarize some of
the properties of a list of numbers.
det: It is the abbreviation for determinant of a matrix or linear transformation.
DETERMINANT: The determinant of a matrix is a number that is useful in describing the
characteristics of the matrix. The determinant is symbolized by enclosing the matrix in
vertical lines. The determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix is:
𝑎 𝑏
= 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐
𝑐 𝑑
The determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix can be found from:
𝑎 𝑏 𝑐
𝑓 𝑑 𝑑 𝑒
𝑑 𝑒 𝑓 =𝑎 𝑒 𝑓
+𝑏 +𝑐
𝑕 𝑖 𝑖 𝑔 𝑔 𝑕
𝑔 𝑕 𝑖
= 𝑎 𝑒𝑖 − 𝑓𝑕 + 𝑏 𝑓𝑔 − 𝑑𝑖 + 𝑐(𝑑𝑕 − 𝑔𝑒)
The following properties hold:
(i) If two rows or two columns of a square matrix 𝑨 are identical, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 = 0.
(ii) If two rows or two columns of a square matrix 𝑨 are interchanged, then only the
sign of 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 is changed.
(iii) The value of 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 is unchanged if a multiple of one row is added to another row, or
if a multiple of one column is added to another column.
(iv) If 𝑨 and 𝑩 are square matrices of the same order, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨𝑩) = (𝑑𝑒𝑡𝑨) (𝑑𝑒𝑡𝑩).

(v) If 𝑨 is invertible, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨−𝟏 ) = (𝑑𝑒𝑡𝑨)–1 .


(vi) If 𝑨 is an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑘𝑨 = 𝑘 𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨.
DETERMINANT OF A SQUARE MATRIX: Let A = aij be a square matrix of order 𝑛.
m×n
a11 a12 ⋯ a1n
a21 a22 ⋯ a2n
Then the number ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ is called the determinant of the matrix A and is
⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯
an1 an2 ⋯ ann
denoted by A or by Det. A or by aij . Since in a determinant the number of rows is
equal to the number of columns, therefore only square matrices can have determinants.

The value of a determinant does not change when rows and columns are interchanged.

If any two rows (or two columns) of a determinant are interchanged, the value of the
determinant is multiplied by–1.

If all the elements of one rows (or one column) of a determinant are multiplied by the
same number k, the valuye of the new determinant is k times the value of the given
determinant.

If two rows (or two columns) of a determinant are identical, the value of the
determinant is zero.

In a determinant the sum of the products of the elements of any row (column) with the
cofactors of the corresponding elements of any other row (column) is zero.

If in a determinant each element in any row (or column) consists of the sum of two
terms, then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants of the
same order.

If to the elements of a row (or column) of a determinant are added m times the
corresponding elements of another row (or column), the value of the determinant thus
obtained is equal to the value of the original determinant.

DETERMINANTS OF ORDER 𝐧: A determinant of order n has n rows and n columns. It


has n × n elements.
A determinant of order n is a square array of n × n quantities (numbers of functions)
a11 a12 ⋯ a1n
a21 a22 ⋯ a2n
enclosed between vertical bars, ∆= ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .
⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯
an1 an2 ⋯ ann

The cofactor Aij of the element aij in ∆ is equal to (−1)i+j times the determinant of order
n − 1 obtained from ∆ by leaving the row and the column passing through the element
aij . Then we have

∆= ai1 Ai1 + ai2 Ai2 + ⋯ + ain Ain i = 1,2,3, … . , or n ,

Or ∆= a1j A1j + a2j A2j + ⋯ + anj Anj j = 1,2,3, … . , or n .

DETERMINANT TRICK: Let 𝑀 be a finitely-generated module over a unital commutative


ring 𝑅, let 𝐽 be an ideal of 𝑅, and let 𝜙: 𝑀 → 𝑀 be an endomorphism of the 𝑅-module 𝑀.
Suppose that 𝜙(𝑀) ⊂ 𝐽𝑀. Then there exist elements 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑛−1 of R such that
𝑛−1
𝑎𝑘 ∇ 𝐽 𝑛−𝑘 for 𝑘 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛 − 1 and 𝜙 𝑛 + 𝑘=0 𝑎𝑘 𝜙
𝑘
= 0𝐸𝑛𝑑 𝑅 (𝑀) .

DETERMINSTIC MODEL: The inventory models, in which demand is assumed to be fixed


for a subsequent period of time, are known as deterministic model.

DEVELOPABLE SURFACE: The envelope of a single parameter family of planes is called a


developable surface or simply a developable. It is a surface isometric to the plane.

DEVIATION: The difference between a value in a frequency distribution and a reference


value. If {𝑥𝑖 } is a set of observations of the random variable 𝑋 then 𝑥𝑖 – 𝑥 is the deviation
of the 𝑖th observation from the mean.

DIAGONAL FORMS: Diagonal forms are some of the simplest projective varieties to
study from an arithmetic point of view (including the Fermat varieties). Their local zeta-
functions are computed in terms of Jacobi sums. Waring's problem is the most classical
case.
DIAGONALIZABLE MATRIX: A matrix is said to be diagonalizable if it is similar to a
diagonal matrix.
An 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix is diagonalizable if and only if it possesses 𝑛 linearly independent
eigenvectors.

DIAGONAL MATRIX: A square matrix in which all entries, except the main diagonal
entries, are zero. A square matrix A = aij those elements above and below the
n×n

principle diagonal are all zero, i.e., aij = 0 for all i ≠ j, is called a diagonal matrix

Thus a diagonal matrix is both upper and lower triangular. An n- rowed diagonal matrix
whose diagonal elements in order are d1 , d2 , d3 , … , dn will often be denoted by the
symbol

Diag [d1 , d2 , … , dn ]

For example

2 0 0 2 0 0
A = 0 0 0 and 0 2 0 are diagonal matrices.
0 0 5 0 0 2

DIAMETER OF A METRIC SPACE: Diameter of a metric space is the supremum of


distances between pairs of points.

DIAMETRAL PLANE: The locus of points which bisect a system of parallel chords of a
given sphere is called the diametric plane, all chords being parallel to a given line.

DIFFEOMORPHISM: Given two differentiable manifolds 𝑀 and 𝑁, a bijective


map 𝑓 from 𝑀 to 𝑁 is called a diffeomorphism if both 𝑓: 𝑀 → 𝑁 and its inverse 𝑓 −1 : 𝑀 →
𝑁 are smooth functions.
DIFFERENCE EQUATION: Difference equations describe the change with time of
variables that change over discrete time steps. Difference equations have some
similarities with differential equations. The difference is that the independent variable
in a differential equation can vary continuously. In a difference equation, the function
has one value at time 1, then another value at time 2, another value at time 3, and so on.

Here is an example of a difference equation:


𝑥𝑖 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥𝑖−1
DIFFERENTIABLE: A continuous function is said to be differentiable over an interval
𝑎, 𝑏 if its derivative exists everywhere in that interval. This means that the graph of the
function is smooth, with no kinks, cusps, or breaks.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation is an equation containing the
derivatives of a function with respect to one or more independent variables. The order
of the equation is the highest derivative that appears.
DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY: The area of mathematics which uses differential calculus in
the study of geometry. For example, to prove that the area of a circle is exactly 𝜋𝑟 2 .
DIFFERENTIATION: Differentiation is the process of finding a derivative.
DIGRAPH: A digraph or directed graph consists of a number of vertices, some of which
are joined by arcs, where an arc, or directed edge, joins one vertex to another and has an
arrow on it to indicate its direction. The arc from the vertex 𝑢 to the vertex 𝑣 may be
denoted by the ordered pair (𝑢, 𝑣).
DIHEDRAL ANGLE: The angle formed by two intersecting planes. The size of the
dihedral angle is defined as the size of the angle formed by two intersecting lines (one in
each plane) that are both perpendicular to the straight edge along which the two planes
intersect.
DIHEDRAL GROUP: The group of symmetries of a regular 𝑛 −sided polygon; the notation
𝐷𝑛 is often used.
DILATION: Dilation of a map between metric spaces is the infimum of numbers L such
that the given map is L-Lipschitz.
dim: It is the abbreviation for dimension of a vector space.
DIMENSION OF A VECTOR SPACE: The number n of vectors in a basis of the finite-
dimensional vector space V is called the dimension of V and we write 𝑑𝑖𝑚(𝑉) = 𝑛. Thus,
as we might expect, ℝ𝑛 has dimension n. 𝐾 𝑥 is infinite-dimensional, but the space
𝐾 𝑥 ≤ 𝑛 of polynomials over 𝐾 of degree at most 𝑛 has basis 1, 𝑥, 𝑥 2 , … … … , 𝑥 𝑛 so its
dimension is (𝑛 + 1).
Note that the dimension of 𝑉 depends on the field 𝐾. Thus the complex numbers ℂ
can be considered as

 A vector space of dimension 1 over ℂ ,with one possible basis being the single
element 1.
 A vector space of dimension 2 over ℝ, with one possible basis given by the two
elements 1,i
 A vector space of infinite dimension over ℚ.
Note the following:
 Suppose that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 , 𝑤 span 𝑉 and that 𝑤 is a linear
combination of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 .Then 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 span 𝑉.
 Suppose that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 span the vector space 𝑉.Then there is a
subsequence of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 which forms a basis of 𝑉.
 Let 𝑉 be the vector space over 𝐾 which has a finite spanning set, and suppose
that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 are linearly independent in 𝑉. Then we can extend
the sequence to a basis 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 of 𝑉 where 𝑛 ≥ 𝑟.
 Suppose that the vectors v𝟏 , v𝟐 , ⋯ ⋯ , v𝒏 span 𝑉 and that vectors
w𝟏 , w𝟐 , ⋯ ⋯ , w𝒎 ϵ V are linearly independent. Then 𝑚 ≤ 𝑛.
 Let V be a vector space of dimension n over K. Then any n vectors which span V
forms a basis of V, and no n-1 vectors can span V.
 Let V be a vector space of dimension n over K. Then any linearly independent
vectors form a basis of V and no 𝑛 + 1 vectors can be linearly independent.
 If a non-trivial vector space V is spanned by a finite number of vectors, then it
has a basis.

DIMENSION THEOREM FOR VECTOR SPACES: Given a vector space 𝑉, any two linearly
independent generating sets (in other words, any two bases) have the same cardinality.
If 𝑉 is finitely generated, then it has a finite basis, and the result says that any two bases
have the same number of elements.

DINI'S THEOREM (ANALYSIS): Dini's theorem says that if a monotone sequence of


functions converges on a compact space, it converges uniformly. If 𝑋 is
a compact topological space, and { 𝑓𝑛 } is a monotonically increasing
sequence of continuous real-valued functions on 𝑋 which converges pointwise to a
continuous function 𝑓, then the convergence is uniform. The same conclusion holds if
{ 𝑓𝑛 } is monotonically decreasing instead of increasing.

DINI’S THEOREM (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Two surface which are mapped


geodescially on each other by a non-conformal mapping must have line elements which
can be written in the forms
𝑑𝑠 2 = 𝑈 − 𝑉 (𝑑𝑢2 + 𝑑𝑣 2 )

𝑑𝑠 ∗2 = 𝑉 −1 − 𝑈 −1 (𝑈 −1 + 𝑑𝑢2 + 𝑉 −1 𝑑𝑣 2 )

Where 𝑈 = 𝑈 𝑢 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉 = 𝑉 𝑣 .

DIOPHANTINE EQUATION: An algebraic equation in one or more unknowns, with


integer coefficients, for which integer solutions are required. A great variety of
Diophantine equations have been studied. Some have infinitely many solutions, some
have finitely many and some have no solutions. For example:
(i) 14𝑥 + 9𝑦 = 1 has solutions 𝑥 = 2 + 9𝑡, 𝑦 = – 3– 14𝑡 .
(ii) 𝑥 2 + 1 = 2𝑦 4 has two solutions 𝑥 = 1, 𝑦 = 1 and 𝑥 = 239, 𝑦 = 13.
(iii) 𝑥 4 + 𝑦 3 = 𝑧 5 has no solutions.
DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA: Diophantus of Alexandria was an ancient Greek
mathematician whose work displayed an algebraic approach to the solution of
equations in one or more unknowns, unlike earlier Greek methods that were more
geometrical. In the books of Arithmetica that survive, particular numerical examples of
more than 100 problems are solved, probably to indicate the general methods of
solution. These are mostly of the kind now referred to as Diophantine equations.
DIRAC DELTA FUNCTION: We have functions which have non-zero values on very short
intervals. The Dirac delta function may be thought of as a generation of this concept. The
Dirac delta function and its derivatives play a very useful role in the solution of the
boundary value problems in mathematical physics as well as in quantum mechanics.

Consider the function

1
, t >𝜖
δϵ t = 2ϵ ………….. 1
0, t <𝜖

∞ 𝜖 1
Thus ∫−∞ δϵ t dt = ∫−𝜖 2ϵ dt. ………….. 2

Again if 𝑓 𝑡 is any function which is integrable in the interval −ϵ, ϵ then using the
mean value theorem of the integral calculus, we have

∞ 1 𝜖
∫−∞ 𝑓(𝑡)δϵ t dt = 2ϵ ∫−𝜖 𝑓(𝑡)dt = 𝑓 𝜃𝜖 , 𝜃 ≤ 1. ……….…. 3

Thus we may think of a limiting function denoted by δ t approached by δϵ t as ϵ → 0.


i.e., δ t = limϵ→0 δϵ(t) …………… 4

as ϵ → 0, from (1) and (2), we have

∞ if t = 0
δ t = limϵ→0 δϵ(t) = ………….. 5
0 if t ≠ 0

and ∫−∞ δ t dt = 1. ………… 6

this limiting function δ t defined by equations (5) and (6) is known a the Dirac delta
function (or the unit impulse function) after Dirac who first introduced it. Dirac called
this delta function as improper function as there cannot be proper function satisfying
such conditions.

DIRECTED GRAPH: An directed graph or digraph (𝑉, 𝐸) consists of a finite set 𝑉


together with a subset 𝐸 of 𝑉 × 𝑉 . The elements of 𝑉 are the vertices of the digraph;
the elements of 𝐸 are the edges of the digraph.
DIRECTED NUMBER: A number having a positive or negative sign attached, such as +4
or -4. It is commonly used for temperature readings to emphasize whether it is above or
below 0°.
DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVE: The directional derivative of a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) in the
direction of a unit vector 𝒗 = (𝑣𝑥 , 𝑣𝑦 ) is the dot product of the gradient of 𝑓 with 𝒗:
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 = 𝑣𝑥 + 𝑣
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝑦
DIRECTRIX: A directrix is a line that helps to define a geometric figure.
DIRECT SUM OF MODULES: Let 𝑀1 , 𝑀2 , . . . , 𝑀𝑘 be modules over a unital commutative
ring 𝑅. The direct sum 𝑀1 ⊕ 𝑀2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ 𝑀𝑘 is defined to be the set of ordered 𝑘-tuples
(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ), where 𝑥𝑖 ∇ 𝑀𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑘. This direct sum is itself an 𝑅-module:
(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ) + (𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , . . . , 𝑦𝑘 ) = (𝑥1 + 𝑦1 , 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 + 𝑦𝑘 ), 𝑟(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ) =
(𝑟𝑥1 , 𝑟𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑟𝑥𝑘 ) for all 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖 ∇ 𝑀𝑖 and 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅. If 𝐾 is any field, then 𝐾 𝑛 is the direct
sum of 𝑛 copies of 𝐾.
DIRECT SUM OF SUBSPACES: If 𝑈 ∩ 𝑊 = {0}, then we write 𝑈 ⊕ 𝑊 for 𝑈 + 𝑊. A
vector space 𝑉 is said to be the direct sum of subspaces 𝑈 and 𝑊 if 𝑉 = 𝑈 ⊕ 𝑊.
DIRICHLET, PETER GUSTAV LEJEUNE (1805–59): Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was a
German mathematician who was professor at the University of Berlin before succeeding
Gauss at the University of Göttingen. He proved that in any arithmetic series
𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑑, 𝑎 + 2𝑑, …, where 𝑎 and 𝑑 are relatively prime, there are infinitely many
primes. He gave the modern definition of a function. In more advanced work, he was
concerned to see analysis applied to number theory and mathematical physics.
DIRICHLET’S PRIME NUMBER THEOREM: Suppose that 𝑞 ∇ 𝑁 and 𝑎 ∇ 𝑍 satisfy
(𝑎, 𝑞) = 1. Then there are infinitely many primes 𝑝 ≡ 𝑎 𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑞.
DIRICHLET SERIES: A series in the form

𝑎𝑛 𝑒 −𝜆 𝑛 𝑧
𝑛 =1

where 𝑎𝑛 and 𝑧 are complex and {𝜆𝑛 } is a monotonic increasing sequence of real
numbers. When 𝜆𝑛 = log 𝑒 𝑛, the series reduces to

𝑎𝑛 𝑛−𝑧
𝑛=1

known as the Dirichlet L-series.


DIRICHLET’S CONDITIONS: Let 𝑓 𝑥 be a function which satisfies the following
conditions:

(a) 𝑓 𝑥 is defined on some interval say 𝑥𝜖 −𝜆, 𝜆 .


(b) 𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓′ 𝑥 are piecewise continuous in −𝜆, 𝜆 .
(c) 𝑓 𝑥 is periodic whose period is 2𝜆.

The above mentioned conditions are known as Dirichlet’s Conditions.

DIRICHLET’S TEST: A test for convergence of a series. If 𝑎𝑛 is a series which has


bounded partial sums,
i.e.
𝑚

𝑎𝑛 < 𝐾
𝑛=1

for all values of 𝑚, and {𝑏𝑛 } is decreasing sequence converging to zero, then 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛
converges.
DISCONNECTED GRAPH: D is connected graph is a graph in which the vertices are
separated into two or more distinct groups and cannot be linked from a vertex in one
group to a vertex in the other group through a series of edges.
DISCRETE: Discrete refers to a situation where the possibilities are distinct and
separated from each other. For example, the number of people in a city is discrete,
because there is no such thing as a fractional person.
DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE: A discrete random variable is a random variable which
can only take on values from a discrete list. The probability function (or density
function) lists the probability that the variable will take on each of the possible values.
The sum of the probabilities for all of the possible values must be 1. Binomial
distribution, Poisson distribution, Geometric distribution, Hypergeometric distribution
etc are examples of discrete random variable.
DISCRETE TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 be any non-empty set and let 𝑃(𝑋) be the collection of all
subsets of 𝑋. Then 𝑃(𝑋) is called the discrete topology on the set 𝑋. The topological
space (𝑋; 𝑃(𝑋)) is called a discrete space.
DISCRETE VALUATION: Let 𝐾 be a field, and let 𝑍 ∪ {∞} be the set obtained from the
ring 𝑍 of integers by adding a symbol ∞ with the properties that ∞ + ∞ = ∞, 𝑛 +
∞ = ∞ + 𝑛 = ∞, ∞ − 𝑛 = ∞ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∞ > 𝑛 for all integers 𝑛. A discrete valuation on
the field 𝐾 is a function 𝜈: 𝐾 → 𝑍 ∪ {∞} which satisfies the following conditions:
(i) 𝜈(𝑎) = ∞ if and only if 𝑎 = 0𝐾 ;
(ii) 𝜈(𝑎𝑏) = 𝜈(𝑎) + 𝜈(𝑏) for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐾;
(iii) 𝜈(𝑎 + 𝑏) ≥ 𝑚𝑖𝑛(𝜈(𝑎), 𝜈(𝑏)) for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐾.
Let 𝑝 be a prime number. Then, given any non-zero rational number 𝑟, there exist
integers 𝑘, 𝑢 and v such that 𝑟 = 𝑝𝑘 𝑢𝑣 −1 and neither 𝑢 nor 𝑣 is divisible by 𝑝. The
integer 𝑘 is uniquely determined by 𝑟, and we define 𝑣𝑝 (𝑟) = 𝑘. We also define
𝑣𝑝 (0) = ∞. Then the function 𝑣𝑝 ∶ 𝑄 → 𝑍 ∪ {∞} defined in this fashion is a discrete
valuation on the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.
DISCRETE VALUATION RING: A discrete valuation ring is an integral domain 𝑅 with a
unique maximal ideal 𝑀 whose proper ideals are all of the form 𝑀𝑘 for some positive
integer 𝑘. Every discrete valuation ring is a principal ideal domain.
DISCRIMINANT: The discriminant D of a quadratic equation 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 is
𝐷 = 𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑐. If 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 are real numbers, the discriminant allows us to determine
the characteristics of the solution for 𝑥. If 𝐷 is a positive perfect square, then 𝑥 will have
two rational values. If 𝐷 = 0, then 𝑥 will have two real and equal solutions. If 𝐷 is
positive but is not a perfect square, then 𝑥 will have two irrational solutions. If 𝐷 is
negative, then 𝑥 will have two complex solutions. In other words, the equation has two
distinct real roots, equal roots (that is, one root) or no real roots according to whether
the discriminant is positive, zero or negative.
DISJOINT SETS: Two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no elements in common,
that is, if their intersection is the empty set.
DISJOINT UNION: The disjoint union 𝑈 ⊔ 𝑉 is the union of two disjoint sets , 𝑉 ; the
notation 𝑈 ⊔ 𝑉 simply means 𝑈 ∪ 𝑉 together with an assertion (or reminder) that 𝑈
and 𝑉 are disjoint. The disjoint union of any collection of (disjoint) sets is defined and
denoted similarly.
DISJUNCTION: A disjunction is an OR statement of the form: “A OR B.” It is true if either
A or B is true.
DISPERSION: The spread of values of a variable in a distribution. A measure of
dispersion is a way of describing how scattered or spreads out the observations in a
sample are. The term is also applied similarly to a random variable. Common measures
of dispersion are the range, interquartile range, mean absolute deviation, variance and
standard deviation. The range may be unduly affected by odd high and low values. The
mean absolute deviation is difficult to work with because of the absolute value signs.
The standard deviation is in the same units as the data, and it is this that is most often
used. The interquartile range may be appropriate when the median is used as the
measure of location.
DISPLACEMENT VECTOR: A vector that describes a movement from one point to
another, using both direction and magnitude.
DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO CODEWORDS: The distance between two codewords in a
binary code is the number of bits in which the two codewords differ. For example, the
distance between 010110 and 001100 is 3 because they differ in the second, third and
fifth bits. If the distance between any two different codewords in a binary code is at
least 3, the code is an error-correcting code capable of correcting any one error.
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE IN THE PLANE: If a point 𝑃 has coordinates (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 )
and a line 𝑙 has equation 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐 = 0, then the distance from 𝑃 to 𝑙 is equal to
𝑎𝑥1 + 𝑏𝑦1 + 𝑐
𝑎2 + 𝑏 2
DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A PLANE IN 3-DIMENSIONAL SPACE: If a point 𝑃 has
coordinates (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 , 𝑧1 ) and a plane 𝑝 has equation 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0, the
distance from 𝑃 to 𝑝 is equal to
𝑎𝑥1 + 𝑏𝑦1 + 𝑐𝑧1 + 𝑑
𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 + 𝑐 2
DISTANCE OF THE CODE: Let 𝐶 be a code. The distance of the code, denoted 𝑑(𝐶), is
defined by 𝑑(𝐶) = 𝑚𝑖𝑛{𝑑(𝑐1 , 𝑐2 ) | 𝑐1 , 𝑐2 ∇ 𝐶, 𝑐1 , ≠ 𝑐2 }. An (𝑛, 𝑀) −code of distance 𝑑 is
called an (𝑛, 𝑀, 𝑑) −code. The values 𝑛, 𝑀, 𝑑 are called the parameters of the code.
DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY: The distributive property says that
𝑎 𝑏 + 𝑐 = 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑎𝑐 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐.
DIVERGENCE: The divergence of a vector field 𝒇 (written as ∆. 𝒇) is defined to be the
scalar
𝜕𝑓𝑥 𝜕𝑓𝑦 𝜕𝑓𝑧
∆. 𝒇 = + +
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
It can be thought of as the dot product of the operator ∆ (del) with the field f.
DIVERGENCE THEOREM: The divergence theorem states that if E is a three-dimensional
vector field, then the surface integral of E over a closed surface is equal to the triple
integral of the divergence of E over the volume enclosed by that surface:

𝐸. 𝑑𝑆 = (∆. 𝐸)𝑑𝑉

DIVERGENT SERIES: A divergent series is an infinite series with no finite sum.


DIVISION ALGEBRA: A division algebra is an algebra with identity which, as a ring, is a
division ring.

DIVISION ALGORITHM: For integers 𝑎 and 𝑏, with 𝑏 > 0, there exist unique integers 𝑞
and 𝑟 such that 𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞 + 𝑟, where 0 ≤ 𝑟 < 𝑏. In the division of 𝑎 by 𝑏, the number 𝑞
is the quotient and 𝑟 is the remainder.
DIVISOR OF ZERO: If in a ring there are non-zero elements 𝑎 and 𝑏 such that 𝑎𝑏 = 0,
then 𝑎 and 𝑏 are divisors of zero. For example, in the ring of 2 × 2 real matrices,
0 1 0 0 0 0
=
0 0 1 0 0 0
and so each of the matrices on the left-hand side is a divisor of zero. In the ring 𝑍6 ,
consisting of the set 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 with addition and multiplication modulo 6, the
element 4 is a divisor of zero since 4.3 = 0.
DNE: It is the abbreviation for a solution for an expression does not exist, or is
undefined. Generally used with limits and integrals.
DOMAIN: The domain of a function is the set of all possible values for which the function
is well defined.
DOMAIN OF A RELATION: The set of all first coordinates of the ordered pairs.
DOMAIN OF A VARIABLE: The base set of numbers or quantities that can be mapped to a
second set. In elementary algebra, the domain of a function 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is the set of
values that the independent variable 𝑥 can take. For example, if 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑥),
then the domain might be defined as all the numbers whose absolute value is no more
than 1, that is, |𝑥| < 1.
DOMAIN WITH SMOOTH BOUNDARY: Let 𝑀 be an 𝑚-dimensional abstract manifold. A
nonempty open subset 𝐷 ⊂ 𝑀 is said to be a domain with smooth boundary if for each
𝑝 ∇ 𝜕𝐷 there exists an open neighborhood 𝑊 of 𝑝 in 𝑀, and a smooth function
𝑓: 𝑊 → 𝑅 such that 0 is a regular value, 𝑓(𝑝) = 0 and
𝑊 ∩ 𝐷 = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑊 | 𝑓(𝑥) > 0}.
DORN’S CONVERSE DUALITY THEOREM: Let 𝐶 be positive semi- definite. If x, u solves
Quadratic Duality Problem, then some x ∇ Rn (not necessarily equal to x), satisfying
𝐶 x − x = 0 solves Quadratic maximization Problem and the two extremes are equal.

DOT PRODUCT: Let a and b be two n-dimensional vectors, whose components are:

𝒃 = ( 𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , 𝑏3 , − − − 𝑏𝑛 )
𝒂 = ( 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , − − − 𝑎𝑛 )
Then
𝒃. 𝒂 = 𝑏1 𝑎1 + 𝑏2 𝑎2 + 𝑏3 𝑎3 + − − − + 𝑏𝑛 𝑎𝑛
DOUBLE-ANGLE FORMULA: The trigonometric functions of a double-angle that are
expressed in terms of separate functions of the angle.

𝑠𝑖𝑛(2𝑥) = 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥


𝑐𝑜𝑠(2𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝑥) = 2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥/(1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥)

DOUBLE FAMILY OF CURVES: The quadratic differential equation of the form

𝑃𝑑𝑢² + 2𝑄𝑑𝑢𝑑𝑣 + 𝑅𝑑𝑢𝑑𝑣 + 𝑅𝑑𝑣² = 0

Where P,Q, R are continuous functions of 𝑢 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑣 and do not vanish together represents
two families of curves on the surface provided 𝑄 2 − 𝑃𝑅 > 0.

We can write equation (1) in the form


2
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢
𝑃 + 2𝑄 +𝑅 =0
𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑢
Which is quadratic in 𝑑𝑣 and by solving this equation the separate differential equations

for the two families are obtained.

DOUBLE INTEGRAL: The double integral of a two-variable function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) represents


the volume under the surface 𝑧 = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) and above the 𝑥𝑦 plane in a specified region.
For example:
𝑥=𝑏,𝑦=𝑑

𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦
𝑥=𝑎,𝑦=𝑐

represents the volume under the surface 𝑧 = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) over the rectangle from 𝑥 = 𝑎 to
𝑥 = 𝑏 and 𝑦 = 𝑐 to 𝑦 = 𝑑.
DOUBLE-NAPPED CONE: Two identical but opposite cones that share a common vertex.
DOUBLE SERIES: A sequence with the indices, i.e., a mapping from the Cartesian
product 𝑁 × 𝑁 of two copies of the set of natural numbers 𝑁 to a subset of the real or
complex numbers, is called a double sequence and is denoted by 𝑎𝑚𝑛 or 𝑎𝑚 ,𝑛 . If
there exists a number 𝐼 such that for any positive 𝜀, there is a natural number 𝑁(𝜀)
satisfying 𝑎𝑚𝑛 − 1 < 𝜀 for all 𝑚 > 𝑁(𝜀) and 𝑛 > 𝑁(𝜀), then we say that the sequence
𝑎𝑚𝑛 has a limit 𝐼 and write lim𝑚 →∞ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 = 𝛼𝑛 uniformly in 𝑛 and lim𝑚 →∞,𝑛→∞ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 =

𝐼. For a given double sequence 𝑎𝑚𝑛 , the formal series m,n=1 𝑎𝑚𝑛 is called a double
series and is sometimes denoted by 𝑎𝑚𝑛 . In contrast with double series, the ordinary
series discussed previously is called a simple series.

DOUBLING TIME: The time it takes for a population to double itself.


DUAL BASIS: Let 𝑉 be a finite-dimensional real vector space, let 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , . . . , 𝑢𝑛 be a basis of
𝑉 . The corresponding dual basis of the dual space 𝑉 ∗ of 𝑉 consists of the linear
𝑛
functionals 𝜀1 , 𝜀2 , . . . , 𝜀𝑛 on 𝑉 , where ϵi 𝑗 =1 𝜆𝑗 𝑢𝑗 = 𝜆𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛 and for all
real numbers 𝜆1 , 𝜆2 , . . . , 𝜆𝑛 .
DUAL CODE: Let 𝐶 be a linear code over 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . Then
1. The dual code of 𝐶 is 𝐶 ⊥ (the orthogonal complement of 𝐶 in 𝐹𝑞𝑛 ).
2. The dimension of 𝐶 is the dimension of 𝐶 as a vector subspace of 𝐹𝑞𝑛 , and is denoted
dim(C).
DUALITY (FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS): If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are normed linear spaces and
𝑇 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 , then we get a natural map 𝑇 ∗ : 𝑌 ∗ → 𝑋 ∗ by 𝑇 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑇 𝑥) for all
𝑓 ∇ 𝑌 ∗ , 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋. In particular, if 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ), then 𝑇 ∗ ∇ 𝐵(𝑌 ∗ , 𝑋 ∗ ). In fact,
𝑇 ∗ 𝐵(𝑌 ∗ , 𝑋 ∗ ) = 𝑇 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ). To prove this, note that |𝑇 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥)| = |𝑓(𝑇 𝑥)| ≤
𝑓 𝑇 𝑥 . Therefore 𝑇 ∗ 𝑓 ≤ 𝑓 𝑇 , so 𝑇 ∗ is indeed bounded, with 𝑇 ∗ ≤ 𝑇 .
Also, given any 𝑦 ∇ 𝑌 , we can find 𝑔 ∇ 𝑌 ∗ such that |𝑔(𝑦)| = 𝑦 , 𝑔 = 1. Applying
this with 𝑦 = 𝑇 𝑥 (𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 arbitrary), gives 𝑇 𝑘 = |𝑔(𝑇 𝑥)| = |𝑇 ∗ 𝑔𝑥| ≤
𝑇 ∗ 𝑘𝑔𝑘 𝑥 = 𝑇∗ 𝑥 . This shows that 𝑇 ≤ 𝑇 ∗ . Note that if 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ), 𝑈 ∇
𝐵(𝑌, 𝑍), then (𝑈𝑇)∗ = 𝑇 ∗ 𝑈 ∗.

DUALITY IN LINEAR PROGRAMMING: Every linear programming problem is associated


with another linear programming problem called the dual of the problem. The original
problem is called ‘primal’ while the other is called its dual. The solution of the dual
problem leads to the solution of the primal problem and thus efficient computational
techniques can be developed through the concept of duality.

Primal Problem: Find 𝑥𝑗 ≥ 0 (𝑗 = 12, … . , 𝑛) in order to determine

𝑧 = 𝑐1 𝑥2 + 𝑐2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑐𝑛 𝑥𝑛 ≤ 𝑏1

Subject to the constraints

𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 ≤ 𝑏1

𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 ≤ 𝑏2

⋮ ⋮ ⋮

𝑎𝑚1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚𝑛 ≤ 𝑏𝑚

The corresponding dual problem is obtained by transposing the rows and columns of
constraint coefficients, transporting the coefficients of the objectives function and the
right hand side of the constraints, reversing the inequalities and minimizing instead of
maximizing.

DUALITY SPECULATION: Every primal linear programming problem has associated with
it another linear programming problem called the dual linear programming problem.
 Constraint parameters in one are variable coefficients in other.
 Coefficients for the objective function of either are the RHS for other problem.
DUALITY THEOREM:
 Feasible solutions exist and objective function is bounded, then same is true for
other problem.
 Feasible solutions exist and objective function is unbounded, then other problem
is infeasible.
 No feasible solutions exist, then other problem is either infeasible or has
unbounded objective function.
Some properties of this theory are:
Weak duality If 𝒙 is a feasible solution for the primal problem and 𝒚 is a
property feasible solution for the dual problem, then 𝒄𝒙 ≤ 𝒚𝒃.
Strong duality If 𝒙∗ is an optimal solution for the primal problem and 𝒚∗ is an
property optimal solution for the dual, then 𝒄𝒙∗ = 𝒚∗ 𝒃.
Complementary At each iteration, the simplex method simultaneously identifies
solutions property a CPF solution 𝒙 for the primal problem and a complementary
solution 𝒚 for the dual (found in row 0, the coefficient of the
slack variables), where 𝒄𝒙 = 𝒚𝒃.
Complementary At the final iteration, the simplex method simultaneously
optimal solutions identifies an optimal solution 𝒙∗ for the primal problem and a
property complementary optimal solution 𝒚∗ for the dual problem (found
in row 0, the coefficient of the slack variables), where
𝒄𝒙∗ = 𝒚∗ 𝒃.. In this solution, 𝒚∗ gives the shadow prices for the
primal problem.
Symmetry property The dual of the dual is the primal.
Complementary basic Each basic solution in the primal problem has a complementary
solutions property basic solution in the dual, where their respective objective
function values (Z and W) are equal.
Complementary The variables in the primal basic solution and the
slackness property complementary dual basic solution satisfy the complementary
slackness as shown:
Primal variable Dual variable
Basic Non-basic (m variables)
Non-basic Basic (n variables)

Complementary Each optimal basic solution in the primal problem has a


optimal basic complementary optimal basic solution in the dual problem,
solutions property where their respective objective function values (Z and W ) are
equal.

Relationships between Primal Basic solution and Dual Basic Solution:

Primal Basic Soln Feasible Dual Basic Soln Feasible


suboptimal Yes superoptimal no
optimal Yes optimal yes
superoptimal No suboptimal yes
infeasible, not sup No infeasible, not sup no

Shortcut for conversion between primal and dual:

Primal Dual
Maximize Z Minimize W
Constraint i: Variable yi:
≤ form yi ≥ 0
= form unconstrained
≥ form y’i ≤ 0
Variable xj: Constraint j:
xj ≥ 0 ≥ form
unconstrained unconstrained
x’j ≤ 0 ≤ form
DUAL OF A QUOTIENT SPACE: Next, consider the projection map 𝜋 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑋/𝑆 where 𝑆
is a closed subspace. We then have 𝜋 ∗ ∶ (𝑋/𝑆)∗ → 𝑋 ∗ . Since 𝜋 is surjective, this map is
injective. It is easy to see that the range is contained in 𝑆 𝑎 . In fact we now show that 𝜋 ∗
maps (X/S) ∗ onto 𝑆 𝑎 , hence provides a canonical isomorphism of 𝑆 𝑎 with (𝑋/𝑆)∗ .
Indeed, if 𝑓 ∇ 𝑆 𝑎 , then we have a splitting 𝑓 = 𝑔 ∘ 𝜋 with 𝑔 ∇ (𝑋/𝑆)∗ (just define
𝑔(𝑐) = 𝑓(𝑥) where x is any element of the coset c). Thus 𝑓 = 𝜋 ∗ 𝑔 is indeed in the
range of 𝜋 ∗ . This correspondence is again an isometry.

DUAL OF A SUBSPACE: An important case is when 𝑇 is the inclusion map 𝑖 ∶ 𝑆 → 𝑋,


where 𝑆 is a closed subspace of 𝑋. Then 𝑟 = 𝑖 ∗ ∶ 𝑋 ∗ → 𝑆 ∗ is just the restriction map:
𝑟𝑓 (𝑠) = 𝑓(𝑠). Hahn-Banach tells us that 𝑟 is surjective. Obviously 𝑁 (𝑟) = 𝑆 𝑎 . Thus
we have a canonical isomorphism 𝑟 ∶ 𝑋 ∗ /𝑆 𝑎 → 𝑆 ∗ . In fact, the Hahn-Banach theorem
shows that it is an isometry. Via this isometry one often identifies 𝑋 ∗ /𝑆𝑎 with 𝑆 ∗ .

DUAL PROBLEM: Find 𝑦𝑗 ≥ 0 (𝑗 = 1,2, … , 𝑚) in order to minimize

𝑧 = 𝑏1 𝑦1 + 𝑏2 𝑦2 + … + 𝑏𝑚 𝑦𝑚

Subject to the constraints

𝑎11 𝑦1 + 𝑎21 𝑦2 + … . . +𝑎𝑚1 𝑦𝑚 ≥ 𝑐1


𝑎12 𝑦1 + 𝑎22 𝑦2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑦𝑚 ≥ 𝑐2
⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮
𝑎1𝑛 𝑦1 + 𝑎2𝑛 𝑦2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛𝑚 𝑦𝑚 ≥ 𝑐𝑚

DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD: For a L.P.P. (maximization problem) the optimality criterion
of the simplex method 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 = 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑐𝐵 𝐵 −1 . 𝛼𝑗 ≤ 0, for all 𝑗 where 𝐵 is the basis,
depends only on 𝛼𝑗 , and 𝑐𝑗 and is independent of the requirement vector 𝑏. Thus, every
basic solution with all 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 ≤ 0, will not be feasible but any basic feasible solution
with all 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 ≤ 0 will certainly be an optimal solution.

DUAL SPACE (FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS): The dual space X* of a normed space X is the set
𝑠𝑢𝑝
of continuous linear functionals on X. Define a norm on it by 𝛼 = 𝑥 ≤ 1 𝛼(𝑥)

DUAL SPACE (LINEAR ALGEBRA): For fixed vector spaces 𝑈 and 𝑉 over 𝐾, the
operations of addition and scalar multiplication on the set 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) of all linear
maps from 𝑈 to 𝑉 makes 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) into a vector space over 𝐾.

Given a vector space 𝑈 over a field 𝐾, the vector space 𝑈 ∗ = 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) plays a
special role.It is often called the dual space or the space of convectors of 𝑈. One can
think of coordinates as elements of 𝑈 ∗ .Indeed,let 𝑒𝑖 be a basis of U. Every x 𝜖 𝑈 can be
uniquely written as x =𝛼1 𝑒1 + 𝛼2 𝑒2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑒𝑛 , 𝛼𝑖 𝜖 𝐾
The elements 𝛼𝑖 depends on 𝑥 as well as on a choice of the basis, so for each I one can
write the coordinate function 𝑒 𝑖 : 𝑈 → 𝐾 , 𝑒 𝑖 𝑥 = 𝛼𝑖

It is easy to check that 𝑒 𝑖 is a linear map, and indeed the function 𝑒 𝑖 form a basis of the
dual space 𝑈 ∗ .

DUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES: Let ∆ be a spherical triangle with angles 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾 and side
lengths 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐. Then the dual triangle ∆∗ has sides of length 𝑎∗ = 𝜋 − 𝛼, 𝑏 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝛽, 𝑐 ∗ =
𝜋 − 𝛾 and angles 𝛼 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑎, 𝛽 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑏, 𝛾 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑐.
DYADIC TENSOR: A dyadic tensor has order two, and may be represented as a square
matrix. The conventions aij, aij, and aij, do have different meanings (the position of the
index determines its valence (variance), in that the first may represent a quadratic
form, the second a linear transformation, and the differention is significant in contexts
that require tensors that aren't orthogonal. A dyad is a tensor such as aibj, product
component-by-component of rank-one tensors. In this case it represents a linear
transformation, of rank one in the sense of linear algebra - a clashing terminology that
can cause confusion.
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: The area of mathematics relating to the study of
optimization problems where a step-wise decision making approach is employed. This
is often done iteratively.

E
ECCENTRICITY: The ratio of the distances between a point on a conic and a fixed point
(the focus) and between the point and a fixed line (the directrix). For 𝑒 = 0 a circle is
produced, for 0 < 𝑒 < 1 an ellipse is produced, for 𝑒 = 1 a parabola is produced and
for 𝑒 > 1 the conic produced is a hyperbola.
ECHELON FORM OF A MATRIX: A matrix is in echelon form if
 All the zero rows come below the non-zero rows.
 The first non-zero entry in each non-zero row is 1 and occurs in a column to the
right of the leading 1 in the row above.
EDGE: The edge of a polyhedron is a line segment where two faces intersect.
𝑎. 𝑒
EGOROV THEOREM: If 𝑓𝑛 𝑓 on a finite measure set 𝑋 then for any 𝜍 > 0 there is

𝐸𝜍 ⊂ 𝑋 with µ(𝐸𝜍 ) < 𝜍 and 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 on 𝑋 ∖ 𝐸𝜍 .
𝜇 𝑎. 𝑒
If 𝑓𝑛 𝑓 then there is a subsequence (𝑛𝑘 ) such that 𝑓𝑛 𝑘 𝑓 for 𝑘 → ∞.
→ →

Indicator function: For 𝐴 ⊆ 𝑋, we define 𝜒𝐴 to be the indicator function of 𝐴, by

1: 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴
𝜒𝐴 𝑥 = . Then, if 𝜒𝐴 is measurable, then 𝜒𝐴 −1 ( (1/2,3/2) ) = 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿;
0: 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴
conversely, if 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿, then 𝑋 ∖ 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿, and we see that for any 𝑈 ⊆ ℝ open, 𝜒𝐴 −1 (𝑈) is
either ∅, 𝐴, 𝑋 ∖ 𝐴, or 𝑋, all of which are in 𝐿. So 𝜒𝐴 is measurable if and only if 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿.

Ei: It is the abbreviation for exponential integral function.


EIGENVALUE: Suppose that a square matrix 𝑨 multiplies a vector 𝒙, and the resulting
vector is proportional to 𝒙:
𝐴𝑥 = 𝜆𝑥
In this case, l is said to be an eigenvalue of the matrix A, and x is the corresponding
eigenvector. In order to find the eigenvalues, rewrite the equation like this:
𝐴 − 𝜆𝐼 𝑥 = 𝑂
where 𝑰 is the appropriate identity matrix.
EIGENVALUE OF OPERATOR: An eigenvalue of operator 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝐻) is a complex number
𝜆 such that there exists a nonzero 𝑥 ∇ 𝐻, called eigenvector with property 𝑇𝑥 = 𝜆 𝑥, in
other words 𝑥 ∇ 𝑘𝑒𝑟(𝑇 − 𝜆 𝐼).

 In finite dimensions 𝑇 − 𝜆 𝐼 is invertible if and only if 𝜆 is not an eigenvalue.


 In infinite dimensions it is not the same: the right shift operator S is not
invertible but 0 is not its eigenvalue because 𝑆𝑥 = 0 implies 𝑥 = 0.
EINSTEIN, ALBERT (1879–1955): Albert Einstein was an outstanding mathematician.
Born in Ulm in Germany, he lived in Switzerland and Germany before moving to the
United States in 1933. He was responsible in 1905 for the Special Theory of Relativity
and in 1916 for the General Theory. He made a fundamental contribution to the birth of
quantum theory and had an important influence on thermodynamics. He regarded
himself as a physicist rather than as a mathematician, but his work has triggered off
many developments in modern mathematics.
EISENSTEIN’S IRREDUCIBILITY CRITERION: Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑎2 𝑥 2 + · · · + 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛
be a polynomial of degree 𝑛 with integer coefficients, and let 𝑝 be a prime number.
Suppose that
• 𝑝 does not divide 𝑎𝑛 ,
• 𝑝 divides 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑛−1 ,
• 𝑝2 does not divide 𝑎0 .
Then the polynomial 𝑓 is irreducible over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.
EINSTEIN NOTATION: This notation is based on the understanding that in a product of
two indexed arrays, if an index letter in the first is repeated in the second, then the
interpretation is that the product is summed over all values of the index. For example if
aij is a matrix, then under this convention aii is its trace. The Einstein convention is
generally used in physics and engineering texts, to the extent that if summation is not to
be applied it is normal to note that explicitly.
EINSTEIN’S SUMMATION CONVENTION: Einstein proposed that if the same index letter
appears twice in a term, then it will automatically be assumed to be summed over. For
example, 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 means the summation 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 .
ELEMENTARY ABELIAN GROUP: An Abelian group all non-trivial elements of which have
the same prime order p.
ELEMENTARY AXIOM SYSTEM: An axiom system written in the language of restricted
predicate calculus. Examples of elementary axiom systems are those of formal
arithmetic, the Zermelo–Fraenkel system of set theory and the system of the theory of
types.
ELEMENTARY COLUMN OPERATION: Elementary column operations are the following
operations on the columns of a matrix:
 Interchange two columns,
 Multiply a column by a non-zero scalar,
 Add a multiple of one column to another column.
An elementary column operation can be produced by post-multiplication by the
appropriate elementary matrix.
ELEMENTARY DIVISORS OF A MATRIX OVER A POLYNOMIAL RING: Powers of the monic
irreducible polynomials over the field 𝐾 into which the invariant factors of 𝐹[𝑥] split.
Two 𝑚 × 𝑛-matrices over 𝐾[𝑥] having the same rank are equivalent (that is, can be
obtained from one another by means of elementary operations) if and only if they have
the same system of elementary divisors.
ELEMENTARY FUNCTION: following real functions are called elementary functions:
The rational functions, the trigonometric functions, the logarithmic and exponential
functions, the functions 𝑓 defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 𝑚 /𝑛 (where m and n are non-zero
integers), and all those functions that can be obtained from these by using addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division, composition and the taking of inverse functions.
ELEMENTARY INTERVAL OF A PARTIALLY ORDERED SET: A subset consisting of two
elements 𝒂 ≤ 𝒃 such that there are no other elements in the partially ordered
set between them, i.e.
𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏 ⇒ 𝑎 = 𝑥 𝑜𝑟 𝑎 = 𝑏.

ELEMENTARY MATRIX: Elementary matrix is a square matrix obtained from the identity
matrix 𝐼 by an elementary row operation. A matrix obtained from a unit matrix by a
single elementary transformation is called an elementary matrix (or 𝐸- matrix). For
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0
example 0 1 0 , 0 4 0 , 0 1 0 are the elementary matrices obtained from
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Is by subjecting it to the elementary operations C1 ⟷ C3 , R 2 → 4R 2 , R1 → R1 + R 2
respectively.

The elementary matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R i ⟷ R j is its own inverse.

The inverse of the 𝐸- matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R1 → kR i , (k ≠ 0), is


the 𝐸- matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R i → k −1 R1 .

The inverse of the 𝐸- matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R i → R i + kR j is the 𝐸-


matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R1 → R i − kR j .
ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY: The branch of number theory that investigates
properties of the integers by elementary methods. These methods include the use of
divisibility properties, various forms of the axiom of induction and combinatorial
arguments. Sometimes the notion of elementary methods is extended by bringing in the
simplest elements of mathematical analysis. Traditionally, proofs are deemed to be non-
elementary if they involve complex numbers. Usually, one refers to elementary number
theory the problems that arise in branches of number theory such as the theory of
divisibility, of congruences, of arithmetic functions, of indefinite equations, of partitions,
of additive representations, of the approximation by rational numbers, and of continued
fractions. Quite often, the solution of such problems leads to the need to go beyond the
framework of elementary methods. Occasionally, following the discovery of a non-
elementary solution of some problem, one also finds an elementary solution of it.
ELEMENTARY OPERATION: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and finding
integer roots are the elementary operations.
ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION: Much type of calculations with matrices can be carried
out in a computationally efficient manner by the use of certain type of operations on
rows and columns. These are really the same as the operations used in solving sets of
simultaneous linear equations.

Let 𝐴 be an 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix over 𝐾 with rows 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 ,⋯ ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑟𝑚 𝜖 𝐾 1,𝑛 . The three types of


elementary row operations on A are defined as follows:

(R1) for some i≠ 𝑗 ,add a multiple of 𝑅𝑗 𝑡𝑜 𝑅𝑖

3 1 9 𝑅3 →𝑅3 −3𝑅1 3 1 9
Example: 4 6 7 4 6 7
2 5 8 −7 2 −19

(R2) Interchange two rows.

(R3) Multiply a row by a non-zero scalar

2 0 5 𝑅2 →2𝑅2 2 0 5
Example: 1 −2 3 2 −4 6
5 1 2 5 1 2

An elementary row operation can be produced by post-multiplication by the


appropriate elementary matrix.
ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS OF A MATRIX: An elementary transformation (or an
𝐸- Transformation) is an operation of any one of the following types:

1. The interchange of any two rows (or columns).


2. The multiplication of the elements of any row (or column) be any non-zero
number.
3. The addition to the elements of any other row (or column) the corresponding
elements of any other row (or column) multiplied by any number.

An elementary transformation is called a row transformation or a column


transformation according as it applies to rows or columns.

ELEMENT OF BEST APPROXIMATION: An element 𝒖𝟎 in a given set 𝑭 that is a best


approximation to a given element 𝒙 in a metric space 𝑿, i.e. is such that
𝜌(𝒖𝟎 , 𝑥) = 𝑖𝑛𝑓{𝜌(𝑢, 𝑥): 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹} .

This is a generalization of the classical concept of a polynomial of best approximation.


The main questions concerning elements of best approximation are: their existence and
uniqueness, their characteristic properties, the properties of the operator that
associates with each element 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set of elements of best approximation and
numerical methods for the construction of elements of best approximation.

ELLIPSE: An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances
to two fixed points is a constant. Each of these two fixed points is known as a focus or
focal point. The plural of focus is foci. The longest distance across the ellipse is known as
the major axis. The shortest distance across is the minor axis. The center of the ellipse
is the midpoint of the segment that joins the two foci. The equation of an ellipse with
center at the origin is
𝑥2 𝑦2
+ =1
𝑎2 𝑏 2
where 2𝑎 is the length of the major axis, and 2𝑏 is the length of the minor axis. Area of
this ellipse is 𝜋𝑎𝑏.
ELLIPSOID: A quadric whose equation in a suitable coordinate system is
𝑥2 𝑦2 𝑧2
+ + =1
𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝑐 2
The three axial planes are planes of symmetry. All non-empty plane sections are
ellipses. If the ellipse has major axis 2𝑎 and minor axis 2𝑏, then the ellipsoid formed by
4
rotating the ellipse about its major axis will have the volume 𝜋𝑎𝑏 2 .
3

ELLIPSOIDAL COORDINATES: The numbers 𝜆, 𝜇 and 𝜈 connected with Cartesian


rectangular coordinates 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 by the formulas

2
𝜆 + 𝑎2 𝜇 + 𝑎2 𝜈 + 𝑎2
𝑥 =
𝑏 2 − 𝑎2 𝑐 2 − 𝑎2

2
𝜆 + 𝑏2 𝜇 + 𝑏2 𝜈 + 𝑏2
𝑦 =
𝑎2 − 𝑏 2 𝑐 2 − 𝑏 2

𝜆 + 𝑐2 𝜇 + 𝑐2 𝜈 + 𝑐2
𝑧2 =
𝑎2 − 𝑐 2 𝑏 2 − 𝑐 2

where −𝑎2 < 𝜈 < −𝑏 2 < 𝜇 < −𝑐 2 < 𝜆 < ∞ .

ELLIPTIC COORDINATES: Two numbers 𝜍 and 𝜏 connected with rectangular Cartesian


coordinates by the formulas

𝜍 + 𝑎2 𝜏 + 𝑎2
𝑥2 =
𝑎2 − 𝑏 2

𝜍 + 𝑏2 𝜏 + 𝑏2
𝑦2 =
𝑏 2 − 𝑎2
where −𝑎2 < 𝜏 < −𝑏 2 < 𝜍 < ∞ .

ELLIPTIC CYLINDER: Elliptic cylinder is a cylinder in which the fixed curve is an ellipse
and the fixed line to which the generators are parallel is perpendicular to the plane of
the ellipse. It is a quadric, and in a suitable coordinate system has equation
ELLIPTIC FUNCTION: A function defined on the complex plane for which 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑓(𝑧 +
𝑎) = 𝑓(𝑧 + 𝑏) where 𝑎/𝑏 is not real. From this it follows that 𝑓(𝑧 + 𝑚𝑎 + 𝑛𝑏) =
𝑓(𝑧) for all integers 𝑚, 𝑛 and that the function is periodic in two distinct directions on
the complex plane.

A doubly-periodic analytic function 𝑓 𝑧 is said to be an elliptic function if its only


possible singular points in the finite part of the plane are poles.

All the meromorphic functions which have two distinct periods are called elliptic
functions.

Primitive period parallelogram, Mess and cell: Let 𝑓 𝑧 be an elliptic function with 2ω1
and 2ω2 as a pair of primitive periods.

ω2
Supposing that imaginary part of which is not zero to be positive, we see that the
ω1

points 0, 2ω1 , 2ω1 + 2ω2 , 2ω1 taken in order are the vertices of a parallelogram
described in the positive sense. This is called the primitive period-parallelogram of the
elliptic function 𝑓 𝑧 . There are the unlimited number of such primitive period
parallelograms. Now the only periods of 𝑓 𝑧 (double periodic function) are of the form
2mω1 + 2nω2 , where m and n are integers. Therefore the vertices are the only points
within or on a primitive period- parallelogram. Whose affixes are periods in the Argand
plane the points of affix 2mω1 + 2nω2 where m = 0, ±1, ±2, … , n = 0, ±1, ±2…. Are
denoted by Ωm,n

i.e. Ωm,n = 2mω1 + 2nω2

Thus, the four points Ωm,n, Ωm+1,n Ωm+1,n+1 are the vertices of a parallelogram. This
parallelogram may be obtained from the primitive period-parallelogram by a
translation without rotation. This parallelogram with vertices
Ωm′n′ Ωm+1′n Ωm+1,n+1′ Ωm ′ n+1 is called a period parallelogram or a mesh. The Argand
plane may be covered by this system of non overlapping meshes. In each mesh (within
and on the boundary) there are only a finite number of poles and zeros, and hence we
can translate the mesh without rotation until no pole or zero lies on its boundary. The
parallelogram thus obtained is called a cell.

The set of poles (or zeros) in a given cell is called an irreducible set.

ELLIPTIC GEOMETRY: A geometry in a space with a Riemannian curvature that is


constant and positive in any two-dimensional direction. Elliptic geometry is a higher-
dimensional generalization of the Riemann geometry.
ELLIPTIC INTEGRALS: The integrals

𝜔 𝑑𝑡
𝑧 = ∫0 𝑘 <1 ……. i
1−𝑡 2 1−𝑘 2 𝑡 2

is called an elliptic integral of the first kind. The integral exists if ω is real and such that
ω < 1. By analytical continuation it can be extended to other values of ω.

If 𝑡 = sin 𝜃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ω = sin ∅, the integral (i) assumes an equivalent form

∅ 𝑑𝑡
𝑧 = ∫0 ………. ii
1−𝑘 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃

Where we often write ∅ = 𝑎𝑚 𝑧.

Now if 𝑘 = 0, from (i), we have

𝜔
𝑑𝑡
= 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 𝜔
0 1− 𝑡2

∴ 𝜔 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑍.

∴ when 𝑘 ≠ 0, the integral (i) is deputed by Sn −1 (𝜔/𝑘) or briefly Sn −1 (𝜔), when k doe
not change during a given discussion.

Thus we have

𝜔 𝑑𝑡
𝑧 = Sn −1 𝜔 = ∫0 1−𝑡 2 1−𝑘 2 𝑡 2

This gives the function Sn (z), which is called a Jacobi’s elliptic function.

ELLIPTIC PARABOLOID: A quadric whose equation in a suitable coordinate system is


𝑥 2 𝑦 2 2𝑧
+ =
𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝑐
Here the 𝑦𝑧-plane and the 𝑧𝑥-plane are planes of symmetry. Sections by planes 𝑧 = 𝑘,
where 𝑘 ≥ 0, are ellipses (circles if 𝑎 = 𝑏); planes 𝑧 = 𝑘, where 𝑘 < 0, have no
points of intersection with the paraboloid. Sections by planes parallel to the 𝑦𝑧-plane
and to the 𝑧𝑥-plane are parabolas. Planes through the 𝑧-axis cut the paraboloid in
parabolas with vertex at the origin.
ELLIPTIC POINTS (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): The points on the surface at which the
principal curvatures 𝜅𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜅𝑏 have the same sign. i.e. the Gaussian curvature 𝜅 is
positive are called elliptic points.

𝐿𝑁−𝑀² 𝐿𝑁−𝑀²
Again 𝐾 = 𝜅𝑎 𝜅𝑏 = =
𝐸𝐺−𝐹² 𝐻²

Thus, a point is an elliptic point if 𝐿𝑁 − 𝑀² > 0

EMBEDDED PARAMETRIZED MANIFOLD: A regular parametrized manifold 𝜍: 𝑈 → 𝑅 𝑛


which is a homeomorphism 𝑈 → 𝜍(𝑈), is called an embedded parametrized manifold.
In particular this definition applies to curves and surfaces, and thus we can speak of
embedded parametrized curves and embedded parametrized surfaces. In addition to
being smooth and regular, the condition on 𝜍 is thus that it is injective and that the
inverse map 𝜍(𝑥) → 𝑥 is continuous 𝜍(𝑈) → 𝑈.
EMPIRICAL STATEMENT: A statement that is based upon observation and experimental
evidence.
EMPTY SET: Empty set also called void set or null set is the set, denoted by 𝜑 with no
elements in it. Consequently, its cardinality, 𝑛(𝜑), is zero. The Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms
of set theory postulate that there exists an empty set.
ENCRYPT: To encrypt means to transform information or data into a coded form.
END: It is the abbreviation for categories of endomorphisms.

ENDOMORPHISM RING: The associative ring 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 = 𝑯𝒐𝒎 (𝑨, 𝑨) consisting of all
morphisms of into itself, where is an object in some additive category. The
multiplication in 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 is composition of morphisms, and addition is the addition of
morphisms defined by the axioms of the additive category. The identity morphism 𝟏𝑨 is
the unit element of the ring 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨. An element 𝝋 in 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 is invertible if and only
if 𝝋 is an automorphism of the object 𝑨. If 𝑨 and 𝑩 are objects of an additive category 𝑪,
then the group 𝑯𝒐𝒎 (𝑨, 𝑩) has the natural structure of a right module over 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 and
of a left module over 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑩. Let 𝑻: 𝑪 → 𝑪𝟏 be a covariant (or contravariant) additive
functor from an additive category 𝑪 into an additive category 𝑪𝟏 . Then for any
object 𝑨 in 𝑪 the functor 𝑻 induces a natural homomorphism (or anti-
homomorphism) 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 → 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑻(𝑨).
END-POINT: End point of an interval is a number defining one end of an interval on the
real line. Each of the finite intervals [𝑎, 𝑏], (𝑎, 𝑏), [𝑎, 𝑏) and (𝑎, 𝑏] has two end-points, 𝑎
and 𝑏. Each of the infinite intervals [𝑎, ∞), (𝑎, ∞), (– ∞, 𝑎] and (– ∞, 𝑎) has one end-
point, 𝑎.
ENERGY EQUATION: The principle of energy enunciates that the change in the total
energy (Kinetic 𝑇, Potential 𝑊 and Intrinsic 𝐼) is equal to work done by the extraneous
forces. The potential due to external forces is supposed to the independent of time.

∂q 1
The Euler’s equation of motion is = −∆Ω − ρ ∆ρ, where the extraneous forces are
∂t

conservative.

∂q
ρ = −ρ ∆Ω − ∆ρ
∂t
Multiplying the above equation scalarly by q, we get

∂q 1 d
ρq ∂t = −ρq ∆Ω − q∆ρ or ρ dt q2 + ρq. ∆Ω = −q. ∆ρ
2

1 d dΩ d 1
or ρ dt q2 + ρ dt = −q. ∆ρ or ρ dt q2 + Ω − q. ∆ρ .
2 2

Integrating the relation (2) over 𝑉, we have

d 1 2
ρ q + Ω dv = − q. ∆ρ dv
V dt 2 V

Or
𝑑 1 2
ρq dv + ρΩ dv = − q. ∆ρ dv
𝑑𝑡 V2 V V

𝑑
Or 𝑇 + 𝑊 = − ∫V ∆. ρq dv + ∫V ρ ∆. q dv
𝑑𝑡

𝑑 ρ dρ
𝑇 + 𝑊 = − ∫V ∆. ρq dv − ∫V dv.
𝑑𝑡 ρ dt
By virtue of divergence theorem and the equation of continuity,

The R.H.S. may be expressed as

𝑑 dI
𝑇+𝑊 =− ρq ∙ n ds −
𝑑𝑡 s dt

𝑑
Or 𝑇 + 𝑊 + 𝐼 †= − ∫s ρq ∙ n ds,
𝑑𝑡

which is known as energy equation.

ENERGY PRINCIPLE: Denote by 𝐸 the class of all measures of finite energy. A symmetric
kernel is called positive definite (or of positive type) if 𝜇 − 𝑣, 𝜇 − 𝑣 = 𝜇, 𝜇 + 𝑣, 𝑣 −
2(𝜇, 𝑣) ≥ 0 for any 𝜇, 𝑣𝜖 𝐸. If the equality (𝜇 − 𝑣, 𝜇 − 𝑣) = 0 always implies 𝜇 = 𝑣, then
the kernel is said to satisfy the energy principle.

ENTIRE FUNCTION: A function which has no singularity in the finite part of plane is
called an entire function.

ENUMERATION PROBLEM: An algorithmic problem in which one has to construct an


algorithm that enumerates 𝑨 for a given set 𝑨, i.e. an algorithm 𝕳 that is applicable to
any natural number, that converts it to an element of 𝑨 and such that any element
of 𝑨 is obtained by applying 𝕳 to some natural number; in other words, 𝑨 =
𝕳 𝒊 : 𝒊 ∇ 𝚴 . The enumeration problem for a set 𝑨 is solvable if and only if 𝑨 is a non-
empty enumerable set.
ENVELOPE: A curve or surface that is tangential to every curve or surface in a family.
For example, if a family of circles has radius 𝑎 and centre at a distance 𝑟 > 𝑎 from a
fixed point 𝐶, the envelope will be an annulus with the two circles having radii 𝑟 + 𝑎
and 𝑟 – 𝑎.
ENVELOPING SERIES FOR A NUMBER A: A series

𝑎𝑛
𝑛=𝑜

such that

|𝐴 − (𝑎0 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 )| < |𝑎𝑛+1 |

for all 𝑛 = 0,1, …. An enveloping series may converge or diverge; if it converges, then its
sum is equal to 𝐴.
EPICYCLOID: The curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle rolling
round the outside of a fixed circle. When the two circles have the same radius, the curve
is a cardioid. A planar curve given by the trajectory of a point on a circle rolling on the
exterior side of another circle. The parametric equations are:
𝜃
𝑥 = (𝑟 + 𝑅)𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 − 𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠[(𝑟 + 𝑅) ],
𝑟

𝜃
𝑦 = (𝑟 + 𝑅)𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛[(𝑟 + 𝑅) ],
𝑟

where r is the radius of the rolling and 𝑅 that of the fixed circle, and 𝜃 is the angle
between the radius vector of the point of contact of the circles and the x-axis.

EPIMORPHISM: Epimorphism is a type of morphism 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 with the property that


for all morphisms g between 𝑌 and 𝑍, 𝑔1 ∘ 𝑓 = 𝑔2 ∘ 𝑓 ⇒ 𝑔1 = 𝑔2 .
EPSILON: The Greek letter 𝑒, written ∇, commonly used to represent a small, strictly
positive quantity.
EPSILON–DELTA NOTATION: The standard notation used to define the concepts of
limits and continuity of functions, sequences, series, nets, filters etc.
EQUALITY (FUNCTIONS): Functions 𝑓 and 𝑔 are said to be equal if they have the same
domains and for every 𝑥 in their common domain, 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑥 .
EQUALITY (FUZZY SETS): Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 are fuzzy subsets of a classical set 𝑋. 𝐴 and 𝐵 are
said to be equal, denoted 𝐴 = 𝐵, if 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐴 in the sense of Fuzzy
subsethood. Note that 𝐴 = 𝐵 if and only if 𝜇𝐴 (𝑥) = 𝜇𝐵 (𝑥) ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋.
EQUALITY (MATRICES): Matrices 𝑨 and 𝑩, where 𝑨 = [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] and 𝑩 = [𝑏𝑖𝑗 ], are said to
be equal if and only if they have the same order and 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 𝑏𝑖𝑗 for all 𝑖 and 𝑗.
EQUALITY (SETS): Sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are said to be equal if they consist of the same elements.
In order to establish that 𝐴 = 𝐵, a technique that can be useful is to show, instead, that
both 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴.
EQUALITY OF POLYNOMIALS: Two matric polynomials are equal iff (if and only if), the
coefficients of the power of λ are the same. Every square whose elements are ordinary
polynomials in λ, can essentially be expressed as a matrix polynomial in λ of degree m is
the highest power of λ occurring in any element of the matrix.

EQUAL VECTORS: Two vectors are said to be equal if, and only if, they are parallel, have
the same sense of direction and the same magnitude. The starting points of the vectors
are immaterial. It is the direction and magnitude which are important. To denote the
equality of vectors, the usual equality sign (=) is used. Thus, if 𝒂 and 𝒃 are equal
vectors, we write 𝒂 = 𝒃.

EQUATING COEFFICIENTS: Let 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) be polynomials, and let


𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 𝑥 + … + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛 −1 + 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 ,
𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑏0 + 𝑏1 𝑥 + … + 𝑏𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛−1 + 𝑏𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 ,
where it is not necessarily assumed that 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0 and 𝑏𝑛 ≠ 0. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑥) for all
values of 𝑥, then 𝑎0 = 𝑏0 , 𝑎1 = 𝑏1 , … , 𝑎𝑛−1 = 𝑎𝑛−1 , 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎𝑛 . Using this fact is known
as equating coefficients.
EQUATING REAL AND IMAGINARY PARTS: Complex numbers 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖 and 𝑐 + 𝑑𝑖 are
equal if and only if 𝑎 = 𝑐 and 𝑏 = 𝑑. Using this fact is called equating real and
imaginary parts. For example, if (𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖)2 = 3 + 22𝑖, then 𝑎2 – 𝑏 2 = 3 and
2𝑎𝑏 = 22.
EQUATION: An equation is a statement that asserts that two mathematical expressions
are equal in value. We can also say that an equation is a statement that says that two
mathematical expressions have the same value. If this is true for all values of the
variables involved then it is called an identity, for example 2(𝑥 – 3) = 2𝑥 – 6, and
where it is only true for some values it is called a conditional equation; for example
𝑥 2 – 2𝑥 – 3 = 0 is only true when 𝑥 = – 1 𝑜𝑟 3, which are known as the roots of the
equation. An equation that can be put in the general form 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 = 0, where 𝑥 is
unknown and 𝑎 and 𝑏 are known, is called a linear equation. Any one-unknown equation
can be written in this form provided that it contains no terms with 𝑥 2 , 1/𝑥, or any term
with 𝑥 raised any power other than 1. An equation involving 𝑥 2 and 𝑥 is called a
quadratic equation, and can be written in the form 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0.
EQUATION OF A CIRCLE: The equation of a circle in the Argand plane can be put in the
form

zz + bz + bz + 𝑐 = 0

where 𝑐 is real and 𝑏 is complex constant.

EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL: Equiangular spiral is a curve whose equation in polar


coordinates is 𝑟 = 𝑎𝑒 𝑘𝜃 , where 𝑎 (> 0), 𝑘 are constants. Let 𝑂 be the origin and 𝑃 be
any point on the curve. The curve derives its name from the property that the angle 𝛼
between 𝑂𝑃 and the tangent at 𝑃 is constant. In fact, 𝑘 = 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝛼. The equation can be
written 𝑟 = 𝑘𝜃 + 𝑏, and the curve is also called the logarithmic spiral.

EQUICONTINUITY OF A SET OF FUNCTIONS: An idea closely connected with the concept


of compactness of a set of continuous functions. Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be compact metric spaces
and let 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) be the set of continuous mappings of 𝑋 into 𝑌. A set 𝐷 ⊂ 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) is called
equicontinuous if for any 𝜖 > 0 there is a 𝛿 > 0 such that 𝜌𝑋 (𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ) ≤ 𝛿 implies
𝜌𝑌 𝑓 𝑥1 , 𝑓 𝑥2 ≤ 𝜖 ∀ 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑋, 𝑓 ∇ 𝐷. Equicontinuity of 𝐷 is equivalent to the
relative compactness of 𝐷 in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌), equipped with the metric
𝜌(𝑓, 𝑔) = max 𝜌𝑌 (𝑓(𝑥), 𝑔(𝑥)) ;
𝑥∇𝑋

this is the content of the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem. The idea of equicontinuity can be
transferred to uniform spaces.

EQUICONVERGENT SERIES: Convergent or divergent series 𝑎𝑛 and 𝑏𝑛 whose


difference is a convergent series with zero sum: 𝑎𝑛 − 𝑏𝑛 . If their difference is only a
convergent series, then the series are called equiconvergent in the wide sense.
EQUIVALENCE CLASS: For an equivalence relation ~ on a set S, an equivalence class [𝑎]
is the set of elements of 𝑆 equivalent to 𝑎; that is to say, [𝑎] = {𝑥 |𝑥 ∇ 𝑆 and a ~ x}. It
can be shown that if two equivalence classes have an element in common, then the two
classes are, as sets, equal. The collection of distinct equivalence classes having the
property that every element of 𝑆 belongs to exactly one of them is a partition of 𝑆.
EQUIVALENCE OF CODES: Two (𝑛, 𝑀)-codes are equivalent if one can be derived from
the other by a permutation of the coordinates and multiplication of any specific
coordinate by a non-zero scalar. Note that permuting the coordinates or multiplying by
a non-zero scalar makes no difference to the parameters of the code. In this sense, the
codes are therefore equivalent. Every linear code C is equivalent to a linear code C′ with
a generator matrix in standard form.
EQUIVALENCE OF REAL QUADRATIC FORMS: Two real quadratic forms X T AX and Y T BY
are said to be real equivalent, orthogonally equivalent, or complex equivalent according
as there exists a non-singular real, orthogonal, or a non-singular complex matrix P such
that 𝐵 = 𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃.

EQUIVALENCE RELATION: A binary relation ~ on a set 𝑆 that is reflexive, symmetric and


transitive. For an equivalence relation ~, 𝑎 is said to be equivalent to 𝑏 when 𝑎 ~ 𝑏. It is
an important fact that, from an equivalence relation on 𝑆, equivalence classes can be
defined to obtain a partition of 𝑆. equivalence relation. The equivalence class of an
element 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 is the set of all elements 𝑏 such that 𝑎 ∼ 𝑏. An equivalence relation on
𝐴 partitions 𝐴 into a disjoint union of equivalence classes.
EQUIVALENT MATRICES A AND B OVER A RING R: Matrices such that 𝑨 can be
transformed into 𝑩 by a sequence of elementary row-and-column transformations, that
is, transformations of the following three types:
a) permutation of the rows (or columns);
b) addition to one row (or column) of another row (or column) multiplied by an
element of R
c) multiplication of a row (or column) by an invertible element of 𝑹. Equivalently, 𝑩 is
obtained from 𝑨 by multiplication on left or right by a sequence of matrices each of
which is either a) a permutation matrix; b) an elementary matrix; c) an
invertible diagonal matrix.
EQUIVALENT NORMS: Let 𝑁 be a normed linear space. Suppose that ∥ 1 and ∥ 2 are
two different norms 𝑁. The norms ∥ 1 is said to be equivalent to ∥ 2 written as
∥ 1 ~∥ 2, if there exist positive number 𝑎 and 𝑏 such that

𝑎 𝑓 1 ≤ 𝑓 2 ≤ 𝑏 𝑓 1 , for all 𝑓 𝜖 𝑁.

ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE (275–195 BC): Eratosthenes was a Greek astronomer and


mathematician who was the first to calculate the size of the Earth by making
measurements of the angle of the Sun at two different places a known distance apart.
His other achievements include measuring the tilt of the Earth’s axis. He is also credited
with the method known as the sieve of Eratosthenes.
ERDOS AND TURAN CONJECTURE: Every set 𝐴 of natural numbers with positive upper
asymptotic density contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progrssions. This is equivalent
to the statement that if there is a natural number 𝑡 such that the set 𝐴 contains no
arithmetic progression of 𝑡 terms, then 𝑑(𝐴) = 0.
ERDOS, PAUL (1913–96): Paul Erdos was a Hungarian mathematician who was prolific
in his output, publishing more than 1500 papers, many of them jointly as he
collaborated with a wide range of other mathematicians. He sought elegant and simple
solutions to complex problems, which requires insight into the essential nature of the
problem, as well as the technical mathematics to extract the solution. He can be
regarded as the founder of discrete mathematics and was awarded the Wolf Prize in
1983 for contributions to number theory, combinatorics, probability, set theory and
mathematical analysis.
erf: It is the abbreviation for error function.
erfc: It is the abbreviation for complementary error function.
ERROR-CORRECTING AND ERROR-DETECTING CODE: A code is said to be error-
detecting if any one error in a codeword results in a word that is not a codeword, so that
the receiver knows that an error has occurred. A code is error-correcting if, when any
one error occurs in a codeword, it is possible to decide which codeword was intended.
Certain error-correcting codes may not be able to detect errors if more than one error
occurs in a codeword; other error-correcting codes can be constructed that can detect
and correct more than one error in a codeword.
ESSENTIAL SINGULARITIES: These singularities are due to the nature (geometrical
features) of the surface and are independent of the choice of parametric representation
of the surface, e.g., the vertex of the cone is an essential singularity.
ESTIMATOR: A statistic used to estimate the value of a population parameter. An
estimator 𝑋 of a parameter 𝜃 is consistent if the probability of the difference between
the two exceeding an arbitrarily small fixed number tends to zero as the sample size
increases indefinitely. An estimator 𝑋 is an unbiased estimator of the parameter 𝜃 if
𝐸(𝑋) = 𝜃, and it is a biased estimator if not. The best unbiased estimator is the
unbiased estimator with the minimum variance. The relative efficiency of two unbiased
estimators 𝑋 and 𝑌 is the ratio 𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑌)/𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑋) of their variances. Estimators may be
found in different ways, including the method of maximum likelihood, and the method
of moments.
EUCLID (ABOUT 300 BC): Euclid was an outstanding mathematician of Alexandria,
author of what may well be the second most influential book in Western Culture: the
Elements. Little is known about Euclid himself, and it is not clear to what extent the
book describes original work and to what extent it is a textbook. The Elements develops
a large section of elementary geometry by rigorous logic starting from ‘undeniable’
axioms. It includes his proof that there are infinitely many primes, the Euclidean
algorithm, the derivation of the five Platonic solids, and much more.
EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM: It is a process, based on the Division Algorithm, for finding the
greatest common divisor (𝑎, 𝑏) of two positive integers 𝑎 and 𝑏. Assuming that 𝑎 > 𝑏,
write 𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞1 + 𝑟1 , where 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < 𝑏. If 𝑟1 ≠ 0, the g.c.d. (𝑎, 𝑏) is equal to
𝑏; 𝑖𝑓 𝑟1 ≠ 0, then (𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝑏, 𝑟1 ), so the step is repeated with 𝑏 and 𝑟1 in place of 𝑎 and
𝑏. After further repetitions, the last non-zero remainder obtained is the required g.c.d.
For example, for 𝑎 = 927 and 𝑏 = 643, write
927 = 1 × 643 + 274,
643 = 2 × 274 + 95,
274 = 2 × 95 + 84,
95 = 1 × 84 + 11,
84 = 7 × 11 + 7,
11 = 1 × 7 + 4,
7 = 1 × 4 + 3,
4 = 1 × 3 + 1,
3 = 3 × 1,
and then 927, 643 = 643, 274 = 274, 95 = 95, 84 = 84, 11 = 11, 7 =
7, 4 = 4, 3 = 3,1 = 1.
EUCLIDEAN DOMAINS: Let 𝑹 be an integral domain, and let 𝑹∗ denote the set 𝑹\{𝟎} of
non-zero elements of 𝑹. An integer-valued function 𝝓: 𝑹∗ → 𝒁 defined on 𝑹∗ is said to
be a Euclidean function if it satisfies the following properties:—
(iv) 𝝓(𝒓) ≥ 𝟎 for all 𝒓 ∇ 𝑹∗ ;
(v) if 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑹∗ satisfy 𝒙|𝒚 then 𝝓(𝒙) ≤ 𝝓(𝒚);
(vi) given 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑹∗ , there exist 𝒒, 𝒓 ∇ 𝑹 such that
𝒙 = 𝒒𝒚 + 𝒓, where either 𝒓 = 𝟎 or 𝝓(𝒓) < 𝜙(𝑦).
A Euclidean domain is an integral domain on which is defined a Euclidean function.
EUCLIDEAN FIELD: An ordered field in which every positive element is a square. For
example, the field 𝑹 of real numbers is a Euclidean field. The field 𝑸 of rational numbers
is not a Euclidean field.
EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY: The area of mathematics relating to the study of geometry
based on the definitions and axioms set out in Euclid’s book, the Elements. The
geometry of space described by the system of axioms first stated systematically in
the Elements of Euclid. The space of Euclidean geometry is usually described as a set of
objects of three kinds, called "points" , "lines" and "planes" ; the relations between them
are incidence, order, congruence and continuity. The parallel axiom (fifth postulate)
occupies a special place in the axiomatics of Euclidean geometry. The first sufficiently
precise axiomatization of Euclidean geometry was given by D. Hilbert. There are
modifications of Hilbert's axiom system as well as other versions of the axiomatics of
Euclidean geometry.
EUCLIDEAN ISOMETRIES: An isometry of 𝑬𝑵 is a map 𝑻 ∶ 𝑬𝑵 → 𝑬𝑵 that preserves the
Euclidean metric: 𝒅(𝑻(𝒙), 𝑻(𝒚) = 𝒅(𝒙, 𝒚) for all 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑬𝑵 .
EUCLIDEAN PRIME NUMBER THEOREM: The set of prime numbers is infinite.
The Chebyshev theorems on prime numbers and the asymptotic law of the distribution
of prime numbers provide more precise information on the set of prime numbers in the
series of natural numbers.
EUCLIDEAN RING: An integral domain with an identity such that to each non-zero
element a of it corresponds a non-negative integer 𝒏(𝒂) satisfying the following
requirement: For any two elements 𝒂 and 𝒃 with 𝒃 ≠ 𝟎 one can find
elements 𝒒 and 𝒓 such that
𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞 + 𝑟,

where either 𝑟 = 0 or 𝑛(𝑟) < 𝑛(𝑏).


Every Euclidean ring is a principal ideal ring and hence a factorial ring; however, there
exist principal ideal rings that are not Euclidean. Euclidean rings include the ring of
integers (the absolute value |𝑎| plays the part of 𝑛(𝑎)), and also the ring of polynomials
in one variable over a field (𝑛(𝑎) is the degree of the polynomial). In any Euclidean ring
the Euclidean algorithm can be used to find the greatest common divisor of two
elements.
EUCLIDEAN SPACE (CARTESIAN SPACE): The number line 𝑹, plane 𝑹𝟐 and 3-
dimensional space 𝑹𝟑 can be generalized to n-dimensional space 𝑹𝒏 with co-ordinates
(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 ) on which the operations of addition and multiplication by a scalar have
been extended in the obvious way. While 𝑹𝒏 is hard to visualize for 𝑛 > 3 it provides a
very powerful framework for multivariable analysis.

EUCLID–EULER THEOREM: Euclid–Euler theorem is a theorem in mathematics that


relates perfect numbers to Mersenne primes. An even positive integer is a perfect
number, that is, equals the sum of its proper divisors, if and only if it has the form
2p−1Mp where Mp is a Mersenne prime (i.e. a prime number of the form Mp = 2p − 1).

Suppose that 𝑚 ∇ 𝑁. If 2𝑚 − 1 is a prime, then the number 2𝑚 −1 (2𝑚 − 1) is an even


perfect number. Furthermore, there are no other even perfect numbers.
EUCLID NUMBERS: The perfect numbers which are even, for example 6 and 28 are
known as Euclid numbers.
EUCLID’S AXIOMS: The axioms Euclid set out in his famous text, the Elements, are:
 A straight line may be drawn from any point to any other point,
 A straight line segment can be extended indefinitely at either end,
 A circle may be described with any centre and any radius,
 Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another.
 The whole is greater than the part.
EUCLIDEAN SPACE OVER A FIELD: Let be a (commutative) field of characteristic not
two. A Euclidean space is a vector space 𝑿 over 𝑭 equipped with a symmetric bilinear
form 𝝈: 𝑿 × 𝑿 → 𝑭 satisfying 𝝈(𝒙, 𝒙) ≠ 𝟎 for all 𝒙 ∇ 𝑿, 𝒙 ≠ 𝟎. The elements of 𝑿 are
called points, and a set of points 𝒑 + 𝑭. 𝒗 (𝒑, 𝒗 ∇∇ 𝑿, 𝒗 ≠ 𝟎) is called a line. Let
𝑸 𝒙 = 𝝈(𝒙, 𝒙). Two points 𝒂, 𝒃 , (𝒄, 𝒅) are said to be congruent if and only if
𝑸 𝒂 − 𝒃 = 𝑸(𝒄 − 𝒅).

EULER ANGLES: The angles 𝜙, 𝜓 and 𝜃 that determine the position of one Cartesian
rectangular coordinate system 0𝑥𝑦𝑧 relative to another one 0𝑥′𝑦′𝑧′ with the same origin
and orientation. The Euler angles are regarded as the angles through which the former
must be successively rotated about the axes of the latter so that in the end the two
systems coincide.
EULER EQUATION: A linear ordinary differential equation of order 𝑛 of the form
𝑛
𝑑𝑖 𝑦
𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 𝑖
𝑖=0

where 𝑎𝑖 are constants and 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0.

EULER FORMULAS: Formulas connecting the exponential and trigonometric functions:


𝑒 𝑖𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑧 + 𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑧,

𝑒 𝑖𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑖𝑧 𝑒 𝑖𝑧 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝑧
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑧 = , 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑧 = .
2 2𝑖

These hold for all values of the complex variable 𝑧. In particular, for a real value 𝑧 =
𝑥 the Euler formulas become
𝑒 𝑖𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑖𝑥 𝑒 𝑖𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 = , 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 = .
2 2𝑖

These formulas were published by L. Euler.

EULER-FROBENIUS POLYNOMIALS: The Euler–Frobenius polynomials 𝒑𝒎 (𝒙)


of degree 𝒎 − 𝟏 ≥ 𝟎 are characterized by the Frobenius reciprocal identity
𝟏
𝒙𝒎−𝟏 𝒑𝒎 = 𝒑𝒎 (𝒙)
𝒙
Thus, 𝒑𝒎 (𝒙) is invariant under the reflection of the indeterminate 𝑥.

EULER INTEGRALS: The integral


1

𝐵(𝑝, 𝑞) = 𝑥 𝑝−1 (1 − 𝑥)𝑞−1 𝑑𝑥 , 𝑝, 𝑞 > 0,


0

called the Euler integral of the first kind, or the beta-function, and

𝑥 𝑠−1 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥
0

called the Euler integral of the second kind. (The latter converges for 𝑠 > 0 and is a
representation of the gamma-function.)

EULER, LEONHARD (1707–83): Leonord Euler was the most prolific of famous
mathematicians. He was born in Switzerland. He worked in a highly productive period
when the newly developed calculus was being extended in all directions at once, and he
made contributions to most areas of mathematics, pure and applied. Euler, more than
any other individual, was responsible for notation that is standard today. Among his
contributions to the language are the basic symbols, 𝜋, 𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖, the summation notation
𝛴 and the standard function notation 𝑓(𝑥). His Introduction in analysis in infinitorum
was the most important mathematics text of the late eighteenth century.
EULER NUMBERS: The coefficients in the expansion

The recurrence formula for the Euler numbers ( in symbolic notation) has the
form
Thus, , the are positive and the are negative integers for
all ; , , , , and . The
Euler numbers are connected with the Bernoulli numbers by the formulas

EULERIAN CIRCUIT: An Eulerian circuit in a graph is a circuit that traverses every edge
of the graph. It follows from these definitions that any closed Eulerian trail is an
Eulerian circuit.
EULERIAN GRAPH: One area of graph theory is concerned with the possibility of
travelling around a graph, going along edges in such a way as to use every edge exactly
once. A connected graph is called Eulerian graph if there is a sequence 𝑣0 , 𝑒1 , 𝑣1 , … , 𝑒𝑘 , 𝑣𝑘
of alternately vertices and edges (where 𝑒𝑖 is an edge joining 𝑣𝑖−1 and 𝑣𝑖 ), with 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑘
and with every edge of the graph occurring exactly once.
EULERIAN TRAIL: An Eulerian trail in a graph is a trail that traverses every edge of the
graph. Note that an Eulerian trail in a graph must traverse every edge of the graph
exactly once, since a trail traverses an edge of the graph at most once.

EULAR’S METHOD OF SUMMATION: In the series 𝑢𝑛 , if

𝑘+1 𝑘+1 𝑘+1


𝑠0 + 𝑠1 + ⋯ + 𝑠 2− 𝑘+1
1 2 𝑘+1 𝑘

𝑛
𝑠𝑛 = 𝑘=0 𝑢𝑘 converges to 𝑠 as 𝑘 → ∞, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by Eular’s
method, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐸). The transformation thus obtained is called Eular’s
method of summation.

EULER PRODUCT: The infinite product


1
1− − 1,
𝑝𝑠
𝑝

where 𝑠 is a real number and 𝑝 runs through all prime numbers. This product converges
absolutely for all 𝑠 > 1. The analogous product for complex numbers 𝑠 = 𝜍 + 𝑖𝑡
converges absolutely for 𝜍 > 1 and defines in this domain the Riemann zeta-function
1
𝜁(𝑠) = 1− − 1,
𝑝𝑠
𝑝


1
= .
𝑛𝑠
𝑛=1

EULER STRAIGHT LINE: The straight line passing through the point 𝐻 of intersection of
the altitudes of a triangle, the point 𝑆 of intersection of its medians, and the centre 𝑂 of
the circle circumscribed to it. If the Euler line passes through a vertex of the triangle,
then the triangle is either isosceles or right-angled, or both right-angled and isosceles.
The segments of the Euler line satisfy the relation
𝑂𝐻: 𝑆𝐻 = 1: 2

1 1 1
EULER’S CONSTANT: Let 𝑎𝑛 = 1 + 2 + 3 + − − − + 𝑛 − ln 𝑛. This sequence has a limit

whose value is known as Euler’s constant, 𝛾; that is, 𝑎𝑛 → 𝛾. The value equals 0.577
215 66 to 8 decimal places. It is not known whether 𝛾 is rational or irrational.
𝑥
EULER’S EQUATIONS: The necessary condition for ∫𝑥 2 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 to be an extremum
1

is that
𝜕𝑓 𝑑 𝜕𝑓
− =0
𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑦′
This is called Euler’s equation
EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION ALONG A STREAMLINE: Consider an elementary
section of a stream tube. Let 𝛿𝑠 be the length of the stream tube element. Mass of the
fluid particle moving along a streamline in the positive direction is 𝜌 𝛿𝐴 𝛿𝑠. The force
acting on the element are of two types: (i) Body force and (ii) Surface force exerted due
to hydrostatics pressure on the end areas of the particle.

The body force is (𝜌𝐹𝑠 ) 𝛿𝐴𝛿𝑠. On the upstream face the pressure force is 𝜌𝛿𝐴 in the (+𝑠)
𝜕𝑝
direction face it is 𝜌 + 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝐴 , 𝛿𝐴 acting in the (−𝑠) direction. The total force along the

path 𝛿𝑠 with tangential unit vector is given by

𝜕𝑝
𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 + 𝜌𝛿𝐴 − 𝜌 + 𝛿𝐴
𝜕𝑠

𝜕𝐴
= 𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 − 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴.
dq
The acceleration of the fluid flowing along 𝛿𝑠 is . By using Newton’s second law of
dt

motion the equation of momentum along the path is given by

dq 𝜕𝜌
𝜌𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 = 𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 − 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴
dt

dq 1 𝜕𝑝
Or = 𝐹𝑠 − 𝜌 𝜕𝑠 ,
dt

𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑝 1 𝜕𝑝
Or + 𝑞 𝜕𝑠 = 𝐹𝑠 − 𝜌 𝜕𝑠 ,
𝜕𝑠

known as the Euler’s equation of motion for one- dimensional flow.

EULER’S FORMULA: The name given to the equation 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 , a special
case of which gives 𝑒 𝑖𝜋 + 1 = 0.
EULER FORMULA ( DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A formula expressing the normal
curvature of a surface in a given direction l in terms of the principal
curvatures 𝑘1 and 𝑘2 :
𝑘𝑙 = 𝑘1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜙 + 𝑘2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜙,

where ϕ is the angle between the direction 𝑙 and the principal direction corresponding
to the principal curvature 𝑘1 . This formula was established by L. Euler (1760).

EULER’S FUNCTION: For a positive integer 𝑛, let 𝜑(𝑛) be the number of positive integers
less than 𝑛 that are relatively prime to 𝑛. For example, 𝜑(12) = 4, since four numbers,
1, 5, 7 and 11, are relatively prime to 12. This function 𝜑, defined on the set of positive
integers, is Euler’s function. The arithmetic function 𝜙 whose value at 𝑛 is equal to the
number of positive integers not exceeding 𝑛 and relatively prime to 𝑛 . The Euler
function is a multiplicative arithmetic function, that is 𝜙(1) = 1 and 𝜙(𝑚𝑛) =
𝜙(𝑚)𝜙(𝑛) for (𝑚, 𝑛) = 1. The function 𝜙(𝑛) satisfies the relations

𝜙(𝑑) = 𝑛,
𝑑|𝑛

𝜙(𝑛) = 3𝜋 2 𝑥 2 + 𝑂(𝑥𝑙𝑛𝑥).
𝑛≤𝑥

EULER’S IDENTITY: The relation


∞ −1
1 1
= 1−
𝑛𝑠 𝑝𝑠
𝑛 =1 𝑝

where 𝑠 > 1 is an arbitrary real number and the product extends over all prime
numbers 𝑝. The Euler identity also holds for all complex numbers 𝑠 = 𝜍 + 𝑖𝑡 with 𝜍 > 1.

The Euler identity can be generalized in the form


∞ −1
1
𝑓(𝑛) = 1−
𝑓(𝑝)
𝑛=1 𝑝

which holds for every totally-multiplicative arithmetic function 𝑓(𝑛) > 0 for which the

series 𝑛=1 𝑓(𝑛) is absolutely convergent.

EULER’S INTEGRALS- BATA AND GAMMA FUNCTIONS: We define the first and second
Eulerian integrals as

1
𝐵 𝐼, 𝑚 = 𝑥 𝑏−1 1 − 𝑥 𝑚 −1
𝑑 𝑥
0

and

𝑇 𝑛 = 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑥 𝑛−1 𝑑 𝑥
0

and refer to them as the Beta and Gamma Functions respectively. These integrals
occupy a very important place in definite integrals and have got wide application in
Mechanics, Physics, Statistics and many other applied sciences.

We shall assume that all the quantities 𝐼, 𝑚, 𝑛 are positive but not necessarily integrals.

It will be noted that Beta Function is symmetrical in 𝐼 and 𝑚,

i.e.,
𝐵 𝐼, 𝑚 = 𝐵 𝑚, 𝑙

EULER’S METHOD: The simplest numerical method for solving differential equations. If
and an initial condition is known, 𝑦 = 𝑦0 when 𝑥 = 𝑥0 , then Euler’s method generates
a succession of approximations 𝑦𝑛+1 = 𝑦𝑛 + 𝑕𝑓 (𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ) where 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑥0 + 𝑛𝑕, 𝑛 =
1, 2, 3, …. This takes the known starting point, and moves along a straight line segment
with horizontal distance h in the direction of the tangent at (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 ). The process is
repeated from the new point (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ) etc. If the step length 𝑕 is small enough, the
tangents are good approximations to the curve. The method provides a reasonably
accurate estimate.
EULER SERIES: The expression
1
,
𝑝
𝑝

where the sum extends over all prime number 𝑝. L. Euler (1748) showed that this series
diverges, thus providing another proof of the fact that the set of prime numbers is
infinite. The partial sums of the Euler series satisfy the asymptotic relation
1 1
= ln⁡
(ln 𝑥) + 𝐶 + 𝑂
𝑝 ln 𝑥
𝑝≤𝑥

where C=0.261497….
EULER’S THEOREM: Let 𝐺 be a connected planar graph drawn in the plane. If there are 𝑣
vertices, 𝑒 edges and 𝑓 faces, then 𝑣 – 𝑒 + 𝑓 = 2.
EVEN FUNCTION: The real function 𝑓 is an even function if 𝑓(– 𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥) for all 𝑥 in the
domain of the function 𝑓. Thus the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) of an even function has the 𝑦-axis as
a line of symmetry. For example, 𝑓 is an even function when 𝑓(𝑥) is defined as any of the
2
following: 3, 𝑥 4 , 𝑥 6 + 4, 𝑥 4 + 1, 1/(𝑥 5 ), 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝑥.
EVEN PERMUTATION: A rearrangement of the original ordering which can be obtained
by an even number of exchanges of pairs of elements.
EVENT: A subset of the sample space relating to an experiment. It is a set of outcomes of
an experiment; a subset of a sample space. For example, suppose that the sample space
for an experiment in which a coin is tossed three times is {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH,
THT, TTH, TTT}, and let A = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}. Then A is the event in which at
least two ‘heads’ are obtained. If, when the experiment is performed, the outcome is one
that belongs to A, then A is said to have occurred. The intersection A ∩ B of two events is
the event that can be described by saying that ‘both A and B occur’. The union A ∪ B of
two events is the event that ‘either A or B occurs’. Taking the sample space as the
universal set, the complement A′ of A is the event that ‘A does not occur’. The
probability Pr(A) of an event A is often of interest. The following laws hold:
 𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵) – 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵).
 When 𝐴 and 𝐵 are mutually exclusive events, 𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵).
 When 𝐴 and 𝐵 are independent events, 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) 𝑃(𝐵).
 𝑃(𝐴′) = 1 – 𝑃(𝐴).
EVOLVENT: An evolvent is a region in the plane that is isometric to a given region on a
developable surface. Example: The evolvent of the side surface of a cone cut along a
generator is a planar sector. The approximate construction of an evolvent can be
achieved graphically by means of descriptive geometry.
EXACT DIFFERENTIAL: If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is a function of two independent variables then
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
𝑑𝑧 = 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
is the exact differential. For a function of more than two variables the exact differential
will have similar partial derivative terms for each of its independent variables.
EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: An equation in which the exact differential of a
function is equal to zero. If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) then
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
is an exact differential equation.
EXACT DIVISOR: An exact divisor of a number is a factor of a given number. e.g. 7 is an
exact divisor of 35.
EXACT HOMOMORPHISM: Let 𝑹 be a unital ring, let 𝑭, 𝑮 and 𝑯 be 𝑹-modules, and let
𝒑: 𝑭 → 𝑮 and 𝒒: 𝑮 → 𝑯 be 𝑹-module homomorphisms. The sequence 𝑭(𝒑) −→
𝑮(𝒒) −→ 𝑯 of modules and homomorphisms is said to be exact at 𝑮 if and only if
𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 (𝒑: 𝑭 → 𝑮) = 𝒌𝒆𝒓(𝒒: 𝑮 → 𝑯). A sequence of modules and homomorphisms is
said to be exact if it is exact at each module occurring in the sequence (so that the image
of each homomorphism is the kernel of the succeeding homomorphism). A
monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. An epimorphism is a surjective
homomorphism. An isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism.
EXAMPLE: A particular instance of a generalized statement. A counter-example will
disprove a generalized claim, but examples do not provide proof. EXCELLENT RING: A
commutative Noetherian ring satisfying the three axioms stated below. It is known that
a geometric ring possesses several qualitative properties not inherent in arbitrary
Noetherian rings. The concept of an excellent ring makes it possible to take the most
important properties of geometric rings axiomatically into account.

Axioms of an excellent ring 𝐴.

A1: The ring 𝐴 is a universal chain ring. (A ring 𝐴 is said to be a chain ring if for any two
prime ideals 𝑃 ≠ 𝑃′ of it the lengths of any two saturated chains 𝑃 = 𝑃0 ⊆ 𝑃1 ⊆
𝑃2 … … … ⊆ 𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃′ of prime ideals are the same. A ring 𝐴 is said to be a universal
chain ring if any polynomial ring 𝐴[𝑇1 , 𝑇2 , … … … , 𝑇𝑘 ] is a chain ring.)

A2: The formal fibres of 𝐴 are geometrically regular, i.e. for any prime ideal 𝑃 ⊂ 𝐴 and
any homomorphism from 𝐴 into a field 𝐾, the ring 𝐴𝑝 ⨂𝑘 𝐾 is regular. Here 𝐴𝑝 is the
completion of the local ring 𝐴𝑝 .

A3: For any integral finite 𝐴 -algebra there is a non-zero element 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵 such that the
ring of fractions, 𝐵[𝑏 −1 ], is regular.

Excellent rings possess the following properties:

1) For an excellent ring 𝐴, the set of regular (normal) points of the scheme 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐 𝐴 is
open.

2) If an excellent local ring 𝐴 is reduced (normal or equi-dimensional), then so is the


completion 𝐴.

3) The integral closure of an excellent ring 𝐴 in a finite extension of the field of fractions
of 𝐴 is a finite 𝐴 -algebra.

4) If a ring 𝐴 is excellent, then any 𝐴 -algebra of finite type is also an excellent ring.

Two important examples of excellent rings are the complete local rings (or analytic
rings) and the Dedekind rings with field of fractions of characteristic zero. Therefore,
the class of excellent rings is sufficiently large and contains, in particular, all algebras of
finite type over a field or over the ring 𝑍 of integers.

The excellence of a ring 𝐴 is closely connected with the possibility of resolution of


singularities of the scheme 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐 𝐴.

EXCEPTIONAL ANALYTIC SET: An analytic set in a complex space 𝑿 for which there
exists an analytic mapping 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 such that 𝒇(𝑨) → 𝒀 is a point in the complex
space 𝒀, while 𝒇: 𝑿 − 𝑨 → 𝒀 − 𝒚 is an analytic isomorphism. The modification 𝒇 is
called a contraction of 𝑨 to 𝒚.
EXCLUSIVE DISJUNCTION: The proposition 𝐴 ∨ ˙𝐵, obtained from two
propositions 𝐴 and 𝐵 using the exclusive disjunction ∨ ˙, is taken to be true if 𝐴 is true
and 𝐵 is false, or if 𝐴 is false and 𝐵 is true. In the remaining cases it is taken to be false.
Thus, the exclusive disjunction can be expressed in terms of the ordinary (non-
exclusive) disjunction by the formula
𝐴 ∨ ˙𝐵 ⇔ (𝐴 ∨ 𝐵)&¬(𝐴 ∧ 𝐵).

EXISTENCE THEOREM: If 𝑘 𝑠 and 𝜏(𝑠) are continuous functions of a real variable


𝑠(𝑠 ≥ 0) then there exists a space curve for which 𝑘 is the curvature, 𝜏 is the torsion,
and 𝑠 is the arc length measured from some suitable base point.
EXHAUSTIVE EVENTS: A set of events in statistics whose union is the whole probability
space, or a set of sets whose union is the universal set under consideration.
exp: It is the abbreviation for exponential function. (exp x is also written as ex).
EXPANSION OF SOME BASIC FUNCTIONS:
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑒𝑥 = 1 + 𝑥 + + +−−−−
2! 3!
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑒 −𝑥 = 1 − 𝑥 + − +−−−−
2! 3!
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑎 𝑥 = 1 + 𝑥 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎 + (𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)2 + (𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)3 + − − − −
2! 3!
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑎−𝑥 = 1 − 𝑥 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎 + 2!
(𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)2 − 3!
(𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)3 + − − − −
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑙𝑜𝑔 1 + 𝑥 = 𝑥 − + −−−−−
2! 3!
𝑥2 𝑥3
 𝑙𝑜𝑔 1 − 𝑥 = − 𝑥 + + +−−−−
2! 3!

EXPECTED VALUE: The expected value 𝐸(𝑋) of a random variable 𝑋 is a value that gives
the mean value of the distribution, and is defined as follows. For a discrete random
variable 𝑋, 𝐸(𝑋) = 𝛴 𝑝𝑖 𝑥𝑖 , where 𝑝𝑖 = 𝑃 (𝑋 = 𝑥𝑖 ). For a continuous random variable
𝑋,

𝐸 𝑥 = 𝑥𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
−∞

where 𝑓 is the probability density function of 𝑋. The following laws hold:


 𝐸(𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌) = 𝑎𝐸(𝑋) + 𝑏𝐸(𝑌).
 When 𝑋 and 𝑌 are independent, 𝐸(𝑋𝑌) = 𝐸(𝑋) 𝐸(𝑌).
EXPERIMENT: An action that has measurable or quantifiable results.
EXPLICIT FORMULA: A formula for the nth term of a sequence, written as an expression
of n.
EXPLICIT FUNCTION: If the dependent variable y is expressed in the form 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥)
then 𝑦 is an explicit function of 𝑥. So 𝑦 = 6𝑥 + 15 is explicit but 6𝑥 – 𝑦 + 15 = 0 is
not, though it can be rearranged to be explicit.
EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: The continuous probability distribution with probability
density function 𝑓 given by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝜆 𝑒𝑥𝑝(– 𝜆 𝑥), where 𝜆 is a positive parameter, and
𝑥 ≥ 0. It has mean 1/𝜆 and variance 1/𝜆2 . The time between events that occur
randomly but at a constant rate has an exponential distribution. The distribution is
skewed to the right.
EXPONENTIAL EQUATION: An equation in which the variable occurs in an exponent.
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION: The function 𝑓 such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 𝑥 , or 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑥, for all 𝑥 in 𝑅.
The two notations arise from different approaches described below, but are used
interchangeably. A function of the form y = Abx, where A is a non-zero constant and b >
0 and b ≠ 1, is also called exponential function.
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH: Growth that can be modelled by an exponential function

EXPONENTIAL LAW: A term with a variety of meanings

 A process which changes by a fixed factor over a fixed time period: exponential
growth or decay.

 A property of the exponential function, such as 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑥 + 𝑦) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑥)𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑦) or of


a power, such as 𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
= 𝑥 𝑦𝑧 .
 A property of sets of maps between sets, such
as 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑋 × 𝑌, 𝑍) ↔ 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑋, 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑌, 𝑍)).
 A property of sets of continuous maps between topological spaces.
Ext: It is the abbreviation for Ext functor.

ext: It is the abbreviation for exterior.


EXTENDABLE FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is extendable, 𝑓 ∇ 𝐸𝑥𝑡(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided
there exists a connectivity function 𝐹 ∶ 𝑋 × [0, 1] → 𝑌 such that 𝑓 (𝑥) = 𝐹 (𝑥, 0) for
every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋. It is easy to see that 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐸𝑥𝑡(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑛(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐷(𝑋, 𝑌 ) for
arbitrary topological spaces, where 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ) stands for the class of all continuous
functions from 𝑋 into 𝑌.
EXTENDED COMPLEX PLANE: It is the set of complex numbers with a point at infinity.
The set can be denoted by 𝑪∞ and can be thought of as a Riemann sphere by means of a
stereographic projection. If a sphere is placed so that a point 𝑆 on the sphere is touching
the complex plane at the origin, then 𝑆 corresponds to the point (0,0) on the complex
plane, which is the complex number 𝑧 = 0. All other points on the sphere, except 𝑁
which is diametrically opposite to 𝑆 on the sphere, are in a one-to-one correspondence
with points on the complex plane through the stereographic projection, and therefore
with a unique complex number. The point 𝑁 is identified with the point at infinity, with
corresponding complex number ∞.
EXTENDED REAL NUMBERS: It is the set of real numbers, with the positive and negative
infinite cardinals.
EXTENSION OF A FIELD: A field extension 𝑲 is a field containing a given field k as a
subfield. The notation 𝑲/𝒌 means that 𝑲 is an extension of the field 𝒌. In this case, 𝑲 is
sometimes called an overfield of the field 𝒌.
Let 𝐾/𝑘 and 𝐿/𝑘 be two extensions of a field 𝑘. An isomorphism of fields 𝜑: 𝐾 → 𝐿 is
called an isomorphism of extensions if 𝜑 is the identity on 𝑘. If an isomorphism of
extensions exists, then the extensions are said to be isomorphic. If 𝐾 = 𝐿, φ is called an
automorphism of the extension 𝐾/𝑘. The set of all automorphisms of an extension
forms a group, 𝐴𝑢𝑡(𝐾/𝑘). If 𝐾/𝑘 is a Galois extension, this group is denoted
by 𝐺𝑎𝑙(𝐾/𝑘) and is called the Galois group of the field 𝐾 over 𝑘, or the Galois group of
the extension 𝐾/𝑘. An extension is called Abelian if its Galois group is Abelian.
EXTENSION OF A MODULE: Any module 𝑿 containing the given module 𝑨 as a
submodule. Usually one fixes a quotient module 𝑿/𝑨, that is, an extension of the
module by the module is an exact sequence
𝟎→𝑨→𝑿→𝑩→𝟎

Such a module 𝑋 always exists (for example, the direct sum of 𝐴 and 𝐵), but need not be
uniquely determined by 𝐴 and 𝐵.

EXTENSION OF AN OPERATOR: A linear operator whose graph contains the graph of the
given linear operator. When the operator 𝑩 is an extension of a given operator 𝑨, one
writes 𝑨 ⊂ 𝑩. The usual problems in the theory of extensions are as follows: extend an
operator maximally while preserving a specific property, or study extensions of an
operator having various additional properties.

For example, let 𝐴 be a given isometric operator on a Hilbert space 𝐻 with domain of
definition 𝐷(𝐴) ⊂ 𝐻 and range of values 𝑅(𝐴) ⊂ 𝐻; then the isometric extensions
of 𝐴 are in one-to-one correspondence with the isometric mappings from 𝐻+ =
𝐷(𝐴)⊥ to 𝐻− = 𝑅(𝐴)⊥ . In particular, 𝐴 has unitary extensions if the dimensions
of 𝐻+and 𝐻− coincide.

EXTENSION OF CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL FORMULA TO MULTIPLY CONNECTED REGIONS:


If 𝑓(𝑧) is a analytic in a ring shaped region bounded by two closed curves 𝐶1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶2 and
a is a point in the region between 𝐶1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶2 .

1 𝑓(𝑧) 1 𝑓(𝑧)
𝑓 𝑎 = ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 − ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧
2𝜋𝑖 2 𝑧 − 𝑎 2𝜋𝑖 1 𝑧 − 𝑎

Where 𝐶2 is outer curve.

EXTENSION OF CAUCHY’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in


a simply connected domain 𝐷. Then the integral along any rectifiable curve in 𝐷 joining
any given points of 𝐷 is the same i.e., it does not depend upon the curve joining the two
points.

EXTENSION OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACE: A topological space 𝒀 in which the given


topological space 𝑿 is an everywhere-dense set. If 𝒀 is a compact space, then it is called
a compact extension, and if 𝒀 is a Hausdorff space, it is called a Hausdorff extension.
EXTERIOR NORMAL TO A CONVEX SURFACE: A vector perpendicular to a supporting
hyperplane and directed towards that half-space defined by the supporting hyperplane
which does not contain the points of the surface.
EXTRAPOLATION: An extension of the function beyond the boundary of its domain of
definition, in which the extended (as a rule) function belongs to a given class. The
extrapolation of functions is usually performed by means of formulas using information
about the behaviour of the function at a finite collection of points (interpolation nodes)
in its domain of definition. The concept of interpolation of functions is used as the
opposite concept to that of extrapolation and consists in constructively (possibly,
approximately) re-establishing the values of functions in their domains of definition.
EXTREMAL FIELD: A domain in the (𝑛 + 1) −dimensional space of the variables
𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 covered without intersections by an 𝑛-parameter family of extremals
of the functional
⌌𝐵⌍

𝐽= 𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 , 𝑦 ′ , … … … , 𝑦𝑛′ 𝑑𝑥
⌌𝐴⌍

where 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the initial and final points through which the extremals of the family
pass. One must distinguish between proper (or general) and central extremal fields. A
proper extremal field corresponds to the case when the extremals of the family are
transversal to some surface

𝜑 𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 = 0.

For a proper extremal field the point 𝐴 (or 𝐵) in (1) belongs to the surface (2) and the
condition (3) is satisfied at it.

A central extremal field corresponds to the case when the extremals of the family
emanate from one point lying outside the field, for example, from a common initial
point 𝐴. The slope of an extremal field is the vector-function
𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 = (𝑢1 𝑥, 𝑦 , … … … , 𝑢𝑛 𝑥, 𝑦 associating with every point
𝑥, 𝑦 = (𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 ) of the field the vector 𝑦 𝑥 = (𝑦1′ 𝑥 , … … … . 𝑦𝑛′ 𝑥 ).

EXTREMALLY-DISCONNECTED SPACE: A space in which the closure of every open set is


open. In a regular extremally-disconnected space there are no convergent sequences
without repeated terms. Therefore, among the metric spaces only the discrete ones are
extremally disconnected. Nevertheless, extremally-disconnected spaces are fairly
widespread: Every Tikonov space can be represented as the image under a perfect
irreducible mapping of some extremally-disconnected Tikonov space. This means that
extremal disconnectedness is not preserved by perfect mappings. However, the image
of an extremally-disconnected space under a continuous open mapping is an
extremally-disconnected space.
EXTREMAL METRIC, METHOD OF THE: One of the fundamental methods in geometric
function theory, closely connected with differential geometry and topology. The method
of the extremal metric is based on the relations between the length of curves belonging
to specific homotopy classes and the areas of the domains filled out by them. Here these
curves and areas are computed in a special metric corresponding to the peculiarities of
the extremal problem under investigation.

The method of the extremal metric has various forms. The original one is Grötzsch's
strip method, which is an essential refinement of the arguments connecting length and
area, operating with the characteristic conformal invariants of doubly-connected
domains and quadrangles. Using his strip method, H. Grötzsch obtained a number of
classical results in the theory of conformal and quasi-conformal mappings

EXTREMAL PROBLEM: The problem of finding the extrema of functions or functionals


by choosing parameters or functions (controls) from various classes defined by various
conditions (phase, differential, integral, etc.) imposed on the classes over which the
specific value, function or functional is to attain a minimum or maximum.
EXTREMAL PROPERTIES OF FUNCTIONS: Properties of individual functions that
distinguish them as solutions of some extremal problems. The majority of the special
functions arising in mathematical analysis can be characterized by some extremal
property. This applies, for example, to extremal properties of polynomials: the
classical Laguerre polynomials, the Legendre polynomials, the Chebychev polynomials,
the Hermite polynomials. The classical polynomials are usually solutions of various
extremal problems arising not infrequently in remote domains of analysis. For example,
the Chebychev polynomials are extremal in the problem of an inequality for the
derivatives of polynomials. The same can also be said of other special functions. Many of
them are eigen functions of differential operators, that is, they are solutions of
some isoperimetric problem. In this context the best known special functions are
connected in some way with the existence of an invariant structure, when they are eigen
functions of the Laplace–Beltrami equation, which is shift-invariant. This holds for the
trigonometric polynomials, the spherical functions, the cylinder functions, etc. The
majority of extremal properties of functions can be stated in the form of some exact
inequality.
EXTREME POINT OF A CONVEX SET: A point x in a convex set C is called an extreme
point if x cannot be expressed as a convex combination of any two distinct points 𝑥1 and
𝑥2 in C.

Mathematically, a point is a extreme point of a convex set if there do not exist other
points 𝑥1 ,𝑥2 (𝑥1 ≠ 𝑥2 ) in the set , such that
𝑥 = 𝜆𝑐1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑥2 , 0 ≤ 𝜆 ≤ 1

We say that 𝑥 is an extreme point of a convex set 𝑆 if whenever 𝑥 = 𝜃𝑦 + (1 − 𝜃)𝑧,


for 𝑦, 𝑧 ∇ 𝑆, 0 < 𝜃 < 1, then 𝑥 = 𝑦 = 𝑧.

EXTREME VALUE OF A FUNCTION: It is the maximum or minimum value of a function. A


function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 is numeric if 𝐵 is a set of numbers. For a numeric function, it's
possible to compare its values at different points 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴. Extreme is a value which, in
some sense is either maximum or minimum. If 𝑓(𝑎) exceeds all other values of 𝑓 then
we say it's a global extreme, maximum. If it's only larger than values of 𝑓 for points
near 𝑎, the maximum is local.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM : Extreme value theorem states that if a real-valued


function 𝑓 is continuous in the closed and bounded interval [𝑎, 𝑏], then 𝑓 must attain
a maximum and a minimum, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers 𝑐 and 𝑑 in
[𝑎, 𝑏] such that:

A related theorem is the boundedness theorem which states that a continuous


function 𝑓 in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is bounded on that interval. That is, there exist
real numbers 𝑚 and 𝑀 such that:

EXTREMUM: A point at which a function has a turning point, i.e. at least a local
maximum or minimum. An extremum is a point where a function attains a maximum or
minimum. This article will consider only functions that are continuous and
differentiable. A global maximum is the point where a function attains its highest value.
A local maximum is a point where the value of the function is higher than the
surrounding points. Similar definitions apply to minimum points. Both local maximum
and local minimum points can be found by determining where the curve has a
horizontal tangent, which means that the derivative is zero at that point. If the first
derivative is zero and the second derivative is positive, then the curve is concave up,
and the point is a minimum.
F
FACTORIAL NOTATION: The notation, 𝑛!, used to represent the product of the first n
natural numbers.

FACTORIAL RING: A ring with unique decomposition into factors. More precisely, a
factorial ring 𝑨 is an integral domain in which one can find a system of irreducible
elements 𝑷 such that every non-zero element 𝒂 ∇ 𝑨 admits a unique representation

𝒂=𝒖 𝒑𝒏(𝒑)
𝒑∇𝑷

where 𝑢 is invertible and the non-negative integral exponents 𝑛(𝑝) are non-zero for
only a finite number of elements 𝑝 ∇ 𝑃. Here an element is called irreducible
in 𝐴 if 𝑝 = 𝑢𝑣 implies that either 𝑢 or 𝑣 is invertible in 𝐴, and 𝑝 is not invertible in 𝐴.
FACTOR THEOREM: Suppose that 𝑓(𝑥) represents a polynomial in 𝑥. The factor theorem
says that, if 𝑓 𝑎 = 0, then (𝑥 − 𝑎) is one of the factors of 𝑓(𝑥).
FACTOR SPACE: If 𝑋 is a vector space and 𝑀 is a subspace of 𝑋, then 𝑋/𝑀 is a vector
space, called the factor space (or the quotient space) of 𝑋 with respect to 𝑀.

F-ALGEBRA: A real vector space that is simultaneously a lattice is called a vector


lattice (or Riesz space) whenever 𝒙 ≤ 𝒚 ( ≤ is the lattice order) implies 𝒙 + 𝒛 ≤ 𝒚 +
𝒛 for all 𝒛 ∇ 𝑨 and 𝜶𝒙 ≤ 𝜶𝒚 for all positive real numbers 𝜶. If 𝑨 is also
an algebra and 𝒛𝒙 ≤ 𝒛𝒚 and 𝒙𝒛 ≤ 𝒚𝒛 for all 𝒛 ∇ 𝑨+, the positive cone of 𝑨, then 𝑨 is
called an 𝒍-algebra (a lattice-ordered algebra, Riesz algebra). A Riesz algebra 𝑨 is called
an 𝒇-algebra whenever
𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝟎 ⇒ 𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒛𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒙𝒛, 𝒚 = 𝟎∀𝒛 ∇ 𝑨+

This notion was introduced by G. Birkhoff and R.S. Pierce in 1956.

An important example of an 𝑓-algebra is 𝐴 = 𝐶(𝑋), the space of continuous functions on


some topological space 𝑋. Other examples are spaces of Baire functions, measurable
functions and essentially bounded functions.

FAMILY OF CURVES: A set of similar curves which are of the same form and
distinguished by the values taken by one or more parameters in their general equation.
In particular, where the solution of a differential equation is obtained, the general
solution will involve one or more constants of integration, giving rise to a family of
curves. A particular member of the family may be identified as the required solution if
boundary conditions are known.

FAMILY OF SURFACE: An equation of the form


𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑎 = 0
Where ‘𝑎’ is a constant represents a family of surface. If ‘𝑎’ can take all real values i.e. if
‘𝑎’ is parameter, then equation represents one parameter family of surface having ‘𝑎’ as
parameter. By assigning different values to ‘𝑎’ we shall get different surface of this
family of surface.
Similarly the equation of the form 𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑎, 𝑏 =0, where ‘𝑎’ and ‘𝑏’ are parameters
represents the family of surface having ‘𝑎’ and ‘𝑏’ as two parameters.
FARKAS’ LEMMA: Let 𝐶 be a closed convex cone in 𝑅 𝑚 and let 𝑏 be a vector in 𝑅 𝑚 .
Suppose that 𝑏 ∈ 𝐶. Then there exists a linear functional 𝜙: 𝑅 𝑚 → 𝑅 such that
𝜙(𝑣) ≥ 0 for all 𝑣 ∇ 𝐶 and 𝜙(𝑏) < 0.
FATOU LEMMA: If a sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) of µ −summable non-negative functions is such that:

 ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ ≤ 𝐶 for all 𝑛;
𝑎. 𝑒
 𝑓𝑛 𝑓.,

then 𝑓 is µ-summable and ∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ ≤ 𝐶. 𝐿1 (𝑋) is a Banach space.


F-DISTRIBUTION: The F-distribution is a continuous random variable distribution that
is frequently used in statistical inference. It is used to test the hypothesis that two
normally distributed random variables have the same variance, and in regression to test
the relationship between an explanatory variable and the dependent variable. The
distribution is skewed to the right. Tables relating to the distribution are available.
FEASIBLE SOLUTION OF AN LPP: The feasible solution if a LPP is that set of values
which satisfies both the constraints and the non – negative restrictions of a LPP. A
feasible solution is a set of values for the choice variables in a linear programming
problem that satisfies the constraints of the problem. Some properties of CPF Solutions
are:

Property 1 If there is exactly one optimal solution, it must be a corner-point


feasible (CPF) solution.
Property 2 If there are multiple optimal solutions ≥ 2 and a bounded feasible
region, optimal solutions must be adjacent corner-point feasible (CPF)
solution.
Property 3 There are a finite number of corner-point feasible (CPF) solutions.
Property 4 If a corner-point feasible (CPF) solution. has no adjacent corner-point
feasible (CPF) solution. that are better, then such a corner-point
feasible (CPF) solution. is guaranteed to be an optimal solution.

 Properties also hold for Basic feasible solution.


 Each Basic feasible solution has m basic variables, and the rest are non-basic.
 The number of non-basic variables equals n + m, where m is number of surplus
variables.
 The basic solution is the augmented corner-point solution whose n defining
equations are indicated by the non-basic variables.
 A Basic feasible solution is a basic solution where all m basic variables are non-
negative.
 A Basic feasible solution is said to be degenerate if any of the m variables equals
zero.

FEJÉR’S THEOREM: Let 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶𝑃[−𝜋, 𝜋]. Then


1 𝜋 1 𝑛 𝑘
𝐹𝑛 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−𝜋 𝑓 𝑡 𝐾𝑛 𝑥 − 𝑡 𝑑𝑡, 𝑤𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐾𝑛 𝑡 = 𝑛 +1 𝑘=0 𝑚 =−𝑘 𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑡 is the Fejér

kernel.

FEKETE–SZEGŐ INEQUALITY : Fekete–Szegő inequality is an inequality for the


coefficients of univalent analytic functions found byFekete and Szegő (1933), related to
the Bieberbach conjecture. Finding similar estimates for other classes of functions is
called the Fekete–Szegő problem.

The Fekete–Szegő inequality states that if

is a univalent analytic function on the unit disk and 0 ≤ λ < 1, then

FERMAT, PIERRE DE FERMAT: Pierre de Fermat (1601 to 1665) was French


mathematician who developed number theory, worked on ideas that later became
known as calculus, and corresponded with Pascal on probability theory. He is
remembered chiefly for his work in the theory of numbers, including Fermat’s Little
Theorem and what is known as Fermat’s Last Theorem. His work on tangents was an
acknowledged inspiration to Newton in the latter’s development of the calculus. Fermat
introduced coordinates as a means of studying curves. Professionally he was a judge in
Toulouse, and to mathematicians he is the ‘Prince of Amateurs’.
𝑟
FERMAT PRIME: A prime of the form 22 + 1 is called as a Fermat prime as were
informed by Fermat. At present, the only known primes of this form are those given by r
= 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM: Fermat’s last theorem states that there is no solution to the
equation 𝑎𝑛 + 𝑏 𝑛 = 𝑐 𝑛 where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, and 𝑛 are all positive integers, and 𝑛 > 2. Fermat
wrote in the margin of a book that he had a proof of this, but as he never repeated the
claim it is likely that he realized the incompleteness of his supposed proof. Much
research was done over centuries until a proof was completed in 1995 by Andrew
Wiles.
FERMAT’S LITTLE THEOREM: Let 𝑝 be a prime, and let 𝑎 be an integer not divisible by
𝑝. Then 𝑎𝑝 – 1 ≡ 1 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑝).

FERMAT'S THEOREM ON SUMS OF TWO SQUARES: An odd prime 𝑝 is expressible as


with 𝑥 and 𝑦 integers, if and only if

For example, the primes 5, 13, 17, 29 and 37 are all congruent to 1 modulo 4,

and they can be expressed as sums of two squares in the following ways:

FERRARI METHOD: The Ferrari method is a method for reducing the solution of an
equation of degree 4 over the complex numbers to the solution of one cubic and two
quadratic equations; it was discovered by L. Ferrari.

The Ferrari method for the equation

𝑦 4 + 𝑎𝑦 3 + 𝑏𝑦 2 + 𝑐𝑦 + 𝑑 = 0

consists in the following. By the substitution 𝑦 = 𝑥 − 𝑎/4 the given equation can be
reduced to

𝑥 4 + 𝑝𝑥 2 + 𝑞𝑥 + 𝑟 = 0, (1)

which contains no term in 𝑥 3 . If one introduces an auxiliary parameter 𝛼, the left-hand


side of (1) can be written as

𝑝2
𝑥 4 + 𝑝𝑥 2 + 𝑞𝑥 + 𝑟 = (𝑥 2 + 𝑝2 + 𝛼)2 − [2𝛼𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑥 + (𝛼 2 + 𝑝𝛼 + − 𝑟)]. (2)
4

One then chooses a value of α such that the quadratic trinomial in square brackets is a
perfect square. For this the discriminant of the quadratic trinomial must vanish. This
gives a cubic equation for 𝛼,

𝑝2
𝑞 2 − 4 ⋅ 2𝛼(𝛼 2 + 𝑝𝛼 + − 𝑟) = 0.
4

Let α0 be one of the roots of this equation. For 𝛼 = 𝛼0 the polynomial in square brackets
in (2) has one double root,

𝑞
𝑥0 = ,
4𝛼0
which leads to the equation

(𝑥 2 + 𝑝2 + 𝛼0 )2 − 2𝛼0 (𝑥 − 𝑥0 )2 = 0.

This equation of degree 4 splits into two quadratic equations. The roots of these
equations are also the roots of (1).

FIBONACCI (1170–1250): An Italian merchant by the name of Leonardo of Pisa, he was


one of those who introduced the Hindu–Arabic number system to
Europe. He strongly advocated this system in Liber abaci, published in 1202, which also
contained problems including one that gives rise to the Fibonacci numbers.
FIBONACCI SEQUENCE: The first two numbers of the Fibonacci sequence are 1; every
other number is the sum of the two numbers that immediately precede it. Therefore, the
first 14 numbers in the sequence are: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,
610, 987, 1597,….. This sequence has many interesting properties. For instance, the
sequence consisting of the ratios of one Fibonacci number to the previous one, , has the
limit τ, the golden ratio.
FIELD: A field is a set of elements having two binary operations defined on it with
following properties:
—It is an Abelian group with respect to one operation called addition (with an identity
element designated 0).
—It is also an Abelian group with respect to another operation called multiplication.
—The distributive property holds: 𝑎 𝑏 + 𝑐 = 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑎𝑐.
Roughly speaking, S is a field if addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (except
by zero) are all possible in S. We normally use the letter K for a general field. For
example, the real numbers are an example of a field, with addition and multiplication
defined in the traditional manner. The concept can also be generalized to other types of
objects.
There are many other fields, including some finite fields. For example, for each prime
number p, there is a field 𝔽𝑝 = 0,1,2, ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑝 − 1 with 𝑝 elements, where addition and
multiplication are carried out modulo 𝑝. Thus, in 𝔽7 , we have 5 + 4 = 2 ,5 × 4 =
6 𝑎𝑛𝑑 5−1 = 3 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 5 × 3 = 1.The smallest such field 𝔽2 has just two elements 0 and
1 where 1 + 1 = 0.

Various other familiar properties of numbers, such as


0𝛼 = 0, −𝛼 𝛽 = − 𝛼𝛽 , −𝛼 −𝛽 = 𝛼𝛽, −1 𝛼 = −𝛼 , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝛼, 𝛽 𝜖 𝑆

can be proved from the axioms.

However, occasionally you need to be very careful. For example in 𝔽2 we have 1+1=0,
and so it is not possible to divide by 2 in this field.

FIELD EXTENSIONS : Let 𝐾 be a field. An extension 𝐿: 𝐾 of 𝐾 is an embedding of 𝐾 in


some larger field 𝐿.
FIELD OF EXTREMALS: A central field (Proper) is called a field of extremals, if it is
formed by a family of extremals.
FILTERS: A filter on a set 𝑀 is a non-empty family 𝐹 ∇ 𝑃(𝑀) such that:
 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹 ⇒ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹;
 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 ⇒ 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹;
 𝜑 ∈ 𝐹.
A filter is called free if ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑.
FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS: An Abelian group 𝐺 of order 𝑝, where 𝑝 is a prime number, is
a direct product of cyclic subgroups 𝑍1 , . . . , 𝑍𝑟 , : 𝐺 = 𝑍1 × … × 𝑍𝑟 . If 𝑍𝑖 is of order 𝑝𝑛 𝑖 ,
then 𝑛 = 𝑛1 + − − − + 𝑛𝑟 , and we can assume that 𝑛𝑖 ≥ 𝑛𝑖+1 . A direct product
decomposition of 𝐺, as above, is not unique, but 𝑛1 , − − −, 𝑛𝑟 are determined uniquely
by 𝐺. The system {𝑝𝑛 1 , − − −, 𝑝𝑛 𝑟 } or {𝑛1 , − − −, 𝑛𝑟 } is called the system of invariants
(or type) of 𝐺, and a system of generators {𝑧1 , , − − −, 𝑧𝑟 } of 𝑍1 × … × 𝑍𝑟 is called a basis
of 𝐺. An Abelian group of type (𝑝, 𝑝, − − −, 𝑝) is called an elementary Abelian group.
FINITE AND 𝝈 −FINITE MEASURES: A measure µ is finite if µ(𝐴) < ∞ for all 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋. A
measure µ is 𝜍 −finite if 𝑋 is a union of countable number of sets 𝑋𝑘 , such that the
restriction of µ to each 𝑋𝑘 is finite.
For a measure µ on a 𝜍 −algebra R, we have the following results

1. If 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅 with 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵, then µ(𝐴) ≤ µ(𝐵)

2. If 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅 with 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and µ(𝐵) < ∞, then µ(𝐵 ∖ 𝐴) = µ(𝐵) − µ(𝐴);

3. If (𝐴𝑛 ) is a sequence in R, with 𝐴1 ⊆ 𝐴2 ⊆ 𝐴3 ⊆ ⋯. Then lim𝑛→∞ µ 𝐴𝑛 =


µ(⋃𝑛 𝐴𝑛 )

4. If (𝐴𝑛 ) is a sequence in R, with 𝐴1 ⊇ 𝐴2 ⊇ 𝐴3 ⊇ ⋯.If µ 𝐴𝑛 < ∞ for some 𝑚,


then
lim𝑛→∞ µ 𝐴𝑛 = µ(⋂𝑛 𝐴𝑛 ).

Any measure µ′ on a semiring 𝑆 is uniquely extended to a measure µ on the generated


ring 𝑅(𝑆). If the initial measure was 𝜍 −additive, then the extension is 𝜍 −additive as
well.

FINITE DEFORMATION: The deformation in which displacements 𝓊 together with their


derivatives are no longer small is called finite deformation.

FINITE-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR SPACE: A vector space is said to be finite-dimensional if


every element of it can be expressed as a linear combination of a finite set of linearly
independent vectors.
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD: A numerical method of solving partial differential equations
with boundary conditions by considering a series of approximations which satisfy the
differential equation and boundary conditions within a small region
FINITE FOURIER COSINE TRANSFORM: Let f(t) be a function defined on 0, ℓ and
satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier cosine transform of
𝑓 𝑡 , 𝑜 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠

𝓵
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜋𝑆𝑡
𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁
𝟎 ℓ

FINITE FOURIER SINE TRANSFORM: Let 𝑓(𝑡) be a function defined on 0, ℓ and


satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier sine transform of
𝑓 𝑡 , 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 is defined as

𝓵
𝜋𝑆𝑡
𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁
𝟎 ℓ

FINITE INTERSECTION PROPERTY: A space has the finite intersection property when
every family of closed subsets such that all finite sub collections have non-empty
intersections means that the entire family also has a non-empty intersection. It can be
shown that this property is equivalent to the space being compact.
FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS: The theory of finitely generated Abelian
groups, i.e., Abelian groups generated by a finite number of elements, is as old as that of
finite Abelian groups. The direct product of infinite cyclic groups is called a free Abelian
group. A finitely generated Abelian group G is the direct product of a finite Abelian
group and a free Abelian group. The finite factor is the torsion subgroup of G. The free
factor of the group G is not necessarily unique; however, the number of infinite cyclic
factors of the free factor is uniquely determined and is called the rank of G. Two finitely
generated Abelian groups are isomorphic if they have isomorphic maximal torsion
subgroups and the same rank.
FINITELY GENERATED IDEAL: An ideal 𝑰 of the ring 𝑹 is said to be finitely generated if
there exists a finite subset of 𝑹 which generates the ideal 𝑰. Every ideal of the ring 𝒁 of
integers is generated by some non-negative integer 𝒏.
FINITE MATHEMATICS: The branch of mathematics concerned with the study of
properties of structures of finite character, that arise both within mathematics and in
applications. Among these structures one has, e.g., finite groups, finite graphs, and also
certain mathematical models of information processing, finite automata, Turing
machines, etc.. Sometimes the subject of finite mathematics is assumed to extend to
arbitrary discrete structures, and this leads to discrete mathematics, identifying the
latter with finite mathematics. Certain algebraic systems, infinite graphs, definite forms
of computing schemes, cellular automata, etc., can be regarded as belonging to this area.
The term discrete analysis sometimes serves as a synonym for the concepts of "finite
mathematics" and "discrete mathematics" .
FINITE RANK OPERATOR: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be normed spaces, 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵 𝑋, 𝑌 is a finite rank
operator if 𝐼𝑚 𝑇 is a finite dimensional subspace of 𝑌.
FINITE SEQUENCE: A sequence that has a last term.

FINSLER MANIFOLD: A Finsler manifold allows the definition of distance but does not
require the concept of angle; it is an analytic manifold in which each tangent space is
equipped with a norm, || · ||, in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point.
This norm can be extended to a metric, defining the length of a curve; but it cannot in
general be used to define an inner product. Any Riemannian manifold is a Finsler
manifold.

FIRST-COUNTABLE SPACES: The space (𝑋, 𝑇) is first countable if each point has a
countable base of neighborhoods, i.e., for each point 𝑝 in 𝑋 there is a countable
collection of open sets such that each neighborhood of 𝑝 contains at least one of them,
for all 𝑝 ∇ 𝑋 : ∃ {𝑂𝑛 | 𝑛 ∇ 𝐍, 𝑂𝑛 ∇ 𝑇 for all 𝑛}, such that for all 𝑈, 𝑝 ∇ 𝑈 ∇
𝑇 : ∃ 𝑂𝑛 ⊂ 𝑈 . All metric spaces are first countable (the countable bases of
neighborhoods are the balls of radius 1/𝑛).

FIRST FUNDAMENTAL FORM OR METRIC: First fundamental form for an embedding or


immersion is the pullback of the metric tensor. Let 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝑢, 𝑣) be the equation of a
surface and let 𝐸 = 𝑟12 = 𝑟1 . 𝑟1 , 𝐹 = 𝑟1 . 𝑟2 and 𝐺 = 𝑟22 = 𝑟2 . 𝑟2 . The quadratic
differential form

𝐸𝑑𝑢² + 2 𝐹𝑑𝑢𝑑𝑣 + 𝐺𝑑𝑣²

is 𝑑𝑢, 𝑑𝑣 is called metric or first fundamental form of the surface and the quantities
𝐸, 𝐹, 𝐺 are called first fundamental coefficients or first order fundamental magnitudes.
Since 𝐸, 𝐹 and 𝐺 are functions of 𝑢, 𝑣 the quantities will generally vary form point to
point on the surface.

FIRST ISOMORPHISM THEOREM: Let 𝐺 be a group, let 𝐻 be a subgroup of 𝐺, and let 𝑁 be


a normal subgroup of 𝐺. Then 𝐻𝑁/ 𝑁 ≅ 𝐻 /𝑁 ∩ 𝐻 .
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation containing only the
differential coefficients of the first order. For example,
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
= 7𝑦, 𝑦 + 3𝑥 = 0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
etc are first-order differential equations.
FISHER, RONALD AYLMER (1890–1962): Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British statistician
who established methods of designing experiments and analysing results that have been
extensively used ever since. He developed the t-test and the use of contingency tables,
and is responsible for the method known as ANOVA.
FIXED FIELD OF A GROUP: Let 𝐿 be a field, and let 𝐺 be a group of automorphisms of 𝐿.
The fixed field of 𝐺 is the subfield 𝐾 of 𝐿 defined by 𝐾 = {𝑎 ∇ 𝐿 ∶ 𝜍(𝑎) = 𝑎 for
all 𝜍 ∇ 𝐺}.

FIXED POINTS: The points which coincide with their transformation are called invariant
or fixed points of the transformation that is to say, fixed points of a transformation
𝑤 = 𝑓(𝑧) are obtained by the equation 𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑧 .
FIXED POINT THEOREM: Any theorem which gives conditions, under which a mapping
must have a fixed point, is known as Fixed point theorem. They have been important in
the development of mathematical economics.
FLOOR: For a real number 𝑟, its floor value [𝑟] is defined as the largest integer not
greater than 𝑟. Thus [5] = [5.1] = 5 and [−5] = −5 while [−5.1] = −6. A more recent
notation ⌊𝑟⌋ allows to distinguish with another frequently used function - ceiling -
⌈𝑟⌉ which is defined as the smallest integer not less than 𝑟.
𝑑𝑥
FLOQUET'S THEOREM: Let 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑥 be a linear first order differential equation,

where 𝑥(𝑡) is a column vector of length 𝑛 and 𝐴 𝑡 an 𝑛 × 𝑛 periodic matrix with


period 𝑇. Let 𝜑(𝑡) be a fundamental matrix solution of this differential equation. Then,
for all 𝑡 ∇ ℝ,

FLOQUET THEORY: A theory concerning the structure of the space of solutions, and the
properties of solutions, of a linear system of differential equations with periodic
coefficients
𝒙′ = 𝑨 𝒕 𝒙; 𝒕 ∇ 𝑹, 𝒙 ∇ 𝑹𝒏 (𝟏)

the matrix 𝐴(𝑡) is periodic in 𝑡 with period 𝜔 > 0 and is summable on every compact
interval in 𝑅.

Every fundamental matrix 𝑋 of the system (1) has a representation

𝑋 𝑡 = 𝐹 𝑡 exp⁡
(𝑡𝐾)

called the Floquet representation, where 𝐹 𝑡 is some 𝜔-periodic matrix and 𝐾 is some
constant matrix. There is a basis 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … … … , 𝑥𝑛 of the space of solutions of (1) such
that 𝐾 has Jordan form in this basis; this basis can be represented in the form

𝑥𝑖 = 𝜓1𝑖 exp( 𝛼𝑖 𝑡 , … … … , 𝜓𝑛𝑖 exp( 𝛼𝑖 𝑡))

where 𝜓𝑘𝑖 are polynomials in 𝑡 with 𝜔-periodic coefficients, and the 𝛼𝑖 are the
characteristic exponents of the system (1). Every component of a solution of (1) is a
linear combination of functions of the form (of the Floquet solutions) 𝜓𝑘𝑖 exp( 𝛼𝑖 𝑡). In
the case when all the characteristic exponents are distinct, the 𝜓𝑘𝑖 are simply 𝜔-
periodic functions. The matrices 𝐹(𝑡) and 𝐾 in the representation (2) are, generally
speaking, complex valued. If one restricts oneself just to the real case, then 𝐹(𝑡) does
not have to be 𝜔-periodic, but must be 2𝜔-periodic.

FLUID: By definition, a fluid cannot withstand any tendency for applied forces to deform
it in such a way that volume is left unchanged. Such deformation may be resisted, but
not prevented, by a fluid. Ordinary gases and liquids are fluids.
FOCI “Foci” is the plural of “focus.”
FOCUS (1) A parabola is the set of points that are the same distance from a fixed point
(the focus) and a fixed line (the directrix). The focus, or focal point, is important
because starlight striking a parabolically shaped telescope mirror will be reflected back
to the focus.
(2) An ellipse is the set points such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is a
constant. The two points are called foci. Planetary orbits are shaped like ellipses, with
the sun at one focus.
FOCUS OF A CURVE :A point 𝑭 lying in the plane of the second-order curve such that the
ratio of the distance of any point of the curve from 𝑭 to its distance from a given line
(the directrix) is equal to a constant (the eccentricity). The foci of a second-order curve
can be defined as the points of intersection of the tangents to that curve from
the circular points of the plane. This definition can also be extended to algebraic curves
of order 𝒏.
FOL: It is the abbreviation for first-order logic.
FOREST: A forest is an acyclic graph.
FORT’S THEOREM: If f is discontinuous at the points of a dense set, show that the set of
points x, where f′(x) exists, is of the first category.
FORWARD DIFFERENCE: If {(𝑥𝑖 , 𝑓𝑖 )}, 𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, … is a given set of function values with
𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑕, 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the forward difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by 𝑓𝑖+1 – 𝑓𝑖 =
𝑓 𝑥𝑖+1 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ).
FOURIER INTEGRAL FORMULA: Let 𝑓 𝑥 be a function satisfying Dirichlet’s Conditions

and is absolutely integrable in −∞ ∞ i.e. ∫−∞ f x dx converges,


Then 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫0 𝐹 𝑠 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠

∞ ∞
Where 𝜋 𝐹 𝑠 = ∫−∞ f w cos s w dw, π G s = ∫−∞ f w sin s w dw
Also then 𝑓 𝑥 can be re-written as

∞ ∞ ∞
1 1
𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠
0 𝜋 −∞ 𝜋 −∞
𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞
1
= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + sin 𝑠 𝑤 sin 𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠
𝜋 𝑠=0 𝑤=−∞

𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞
1
= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠
𝜋 𝑠=0 𝑤=−∞

𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞
1
= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠
2𝜋 𝑠= −∞ 𝑤=−∞

The representation of 𝑓 𝑥 in Fourier integral formula hold if 𝑓 𝑥 is continuous at 𝑥 .


𝑓 𝑥+0 + 𝑓 𝑥−𝑜
However if 𝑥 is a point of discontinuity, then 𝑓 𝑥 is replaced by as in case
2

of Fourier series. As for Fourier series, the above conditions are necessary but not
sufficient.


Also ∫0 𝐹 𝑠 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier integral expansion of 𝑓 𝑥
or simply Fourier integral.

Different forms of Fourier integral formula:

1 ∞ ∞
(A) 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫−∞ 𝑓 𝑤 ∫0 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑤 is known as General Form
𝜋
2 ∞ ∞
(B) 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫0 sin 𝑠 𝑥 ∫0 𝑓 𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier sine
𝜋

integral formula if 𝑓 𝑥 is an odd function.


2 ∞ ∞
(C) 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝜋 ∫0 cos 𝑠 𝑥 ∫0 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier cosine

Integral formula if 𝑓 𝑥 is an even function


1 ∞ ∞
(D)𝑓 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−∞ e𝒊 𝒔 𝒙 ∫−∞ f w e−i s w dw ds or
1 ∞ ∞
𝑓 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−∞ e−𝒊 𝒔 𝒙 ∫−∞ f w ei s w dw ds is known as Complex or

exponential Form of Fourier integral formula.

FOURIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE JOSEPH (1768 TO 1830): Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier was a


French mathematician who studied differential equations of heat conduction, and
developed the concept now known as Fourier series. These so-called Fourier series are
of immense importance in physics, engineering and other disciplines, as well as being of
great mathematical interest.
FOURIER SERIES: Any periodic function can be expressed as a series involving sines and
cosines, known as a Fourier series. Assume that units are chosen so that the period of
the function is 2𝜋. Then:
𝑎0
𝑓 𝑥 = + 𝑎1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 + 𝑏1 sin 𝑥 + 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2𝑥 + 𝑏2 sin 2𝑥 + 𝑎3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3𝑥 + 𝑏3 sin 3𝑥 + −
2
−−−
where the Fourier coefficients are found from these integrals:
𝜋 𝜋
1 1
𝑎𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑥 cos 𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 , 𝑏𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑥 sin 𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝜋 𝜋
−𝜋 −𝜋

The derivation of theses coefficients requires some knowledge about the orthogonality
properties of the trigonometric functions. The main properties that we need are given
by the following integrals,

𝐿 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0

𝐿 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑚 ≠ 0

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳
𝒙𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑚 ≠ 𝑛

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳
𝒙𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑚 ≠ 𝑛

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳
𝒙𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0,

𝐿 𝒏𝝅 𝐿 𝒏𝝅
∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = ∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑳
𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 𝐿

FOURIER TRANSFORM: The integral transform


𝐹 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥)𝑒 𝑖𝑦𝑥 𝑑𝑥
−∞

is called the Fourier transformation. The function 𝐹 is said to be the Fourier transform
of the function 𝑓. Let 𝑓 𝑡 be a function defined and piecewise continuous on −∞ ∞

and is absolutely convergent on −∞ ∞ i.e. ∫−∞ 𝒇 t dt converges. Then Fourier
transform of 𝑓 𝑡 , denoted by

𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 and is defined as 𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 = ∫−∞ 𝒇 𝒕 ei s t dt = G s say

and the function 𝒇 𝒕 is inverse Fourier transform of 𝐺 𝑠 written as

𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹 −1 𝐺 𝑠 ,

and defined as


1
𝑓 𝑡 = G s
2𝜋 −∞

This is also known as Inversion formula for Fourier transform.

Relation between Laplace and Fourier transform:

Let 𝑓 𝑡 be a function defined as

𝑒 −𝑎 𝑡 𝑔 𝑡 , 𝑡 > 0
𝑓 𝑡 =
0, 𝑡<0

The Fourier transform of 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹 𝑓 𝑡


= 𝒇 𝒕 ei b t dt
−∞

𝟎 ∞
ibt
= 𝒇 𝒕 e dt + 𝒇 𝒕 ei b t dt
−∞ −∞

𝟎 ∞
= 𝟎. ei b t dt + e−at g t ei b t dt
−∞ 𝟎


= 0+ e− −a−i b t g t dt
𝟎


= 𝑒 −𝑠 𝑡 g t dt, where s = a − i b
𝟎

=𝐿 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝐿𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑔 𝑡 .
FOUR SQUARES THEOREM: Any positive integer can be expressed as the sum of not
more than four positive integers.
FOUR-VERTEX THEOREM: Four-vertex theorem states that the curvature function of a
simple, closed, smooth plane curve has at least four local extrema (specifically, at least
two local maxima and at least two local minima). The name of the theorem derives from
the convention of calling an extreme point of the curvature function a vertex.
FRACTION: A fraction is a rational number expressed in the form 𝑛/𝑑, where 𝑛 is
designated the numerator and 𝑑 the denominator. The slash between them is known as
a solidus when the fraction is expressed as 𝑛/𝑑. If 𝑛/𝑑 < 1, then 𝑛/𝑑 is known as a
proper fraction. Otherwise, it is an improper fraction. If 𝑛 and 𝑑 are relatively prime,
then 𝑛/𝑑 is said to be in lowest terms. To get a fraction in lowest terms, simply divide
the numerator and the denominator by their greatest common divisor.
FRACTIONAL IDEAL: A fractional ideal of 𝑅 is a subset of the field 𝐾 of fractions of 𝑅 that
is of the form 𝑐𝐼, where 𝑐 is a non-zero element of 𝐾 and 𝐼 is an ideal of 𝑅. A fractional
ideal of 𝑅 is not an ideal of 𝑅 unless it is contained in 𝑅. If 𝑅 is not itself a field, then the
field 𝐾 of fractions of 𝐾 will contain fractional ideals of 𝑅 that are not ideals of 𝑅. Indeed,
given any element 𝑐 of 𝐾 \ 𝑅, the subset 𝑐𝑅 of 𝐾 is a fractional ideal of 𝐾, where
𝑐𝑅 = {𝑐𝑟 ∶ 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅}, but it is not an ideal of 𝑅. However any fractional ideal of 𝑅 that is
contained in 𝑅 is an ideal of 𝑅.
FREDHOLM EQUATION, NUMERICAL METHODS: Approximation methods for solving
Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, amounting to performing a finite
number of operations on numbers.

Let

𝜑 𝑥 − 𝜆 ∫ 𝐾 𝑥, 𝑠 𝜙 𝑠 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑓(𝑥) (1)

be a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, where 𝜆 is a complex


number, 𝑓(𝑥) is a known vector function, 𝜙(𝑥) is an unknown vector function, 𝐾(𝑥, 𝑠) is
the kernel of equation (1), and 𝐷 is a domain in some 𝑚-dimensional Euclidean space.
Below it is assumed that 𝜆 does not belong to the spectrum of the integral operator with
kernel 𝐾 (that is, for the given 𝜆 equation (1) has a unique solution in some class of
functions corresponding to the degree of smoothness of 𝐾). The expression (1)
naturally includes the case of a system of Fredholm equations.
FREDHOLM OPERATOR: A linear normally-solvable operator 𝑩 acting on a Banach
space 𝑬 with index 𝝌𝑩 equal to zero. The classic example of a Fredholm operator is an
operator of the form
𝑩=𝑰+𝑻

where is the identity and is a completely-continuous operator on .

FREDHOLM'S THEOREM: If 𝑀 is a matrix, then the orthogonal complement of the row


space of 𝑀 is the null space of 𝑀:

Similarly, the orthogonal complement of the column space of 𝑀 is the null space of the
adjoint:

FREE AND BOUND VARIABLES: Any function whose values are propositions is called a
propositional function. ∀𝑥 and ∃𝑥 can be regarded as operators that transform any
propositional function 𝐹(𝑥) into the propositions ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) and ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥), respectively.
∀𝑥 and ∃𝑥 are called quantifiers; the former is called the universal quantifier and the
latter the existential quantifier. F(x) is transformed into ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) or ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) just as a
1
function 𝑓(𝑥) is transformed into the definite integral ∫0 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥; the resultant
propositions ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) and ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) are no longer functions of 𝑥. The variable 𝑥 in∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥)
and in ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) is called a bound variable, and the variable 𝑥 in 𝐹(𝑥), when it is not
bound by ∀𝑥 or ∃𝑥, is called a free variable.
FREE BASIS OF A MODULE: Let 𝑴 be a module over a unital commutative ring 𝑹.
Elements 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , . . . , 𝒙𝒌 of 𝑴 are said to constitute a free basis of 𝑴 if these elements are
distinct, and if the 𝑹-module 𝑴 is freely generated by the set {𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , . . . , 𝒙𝒌 }.
FREE BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: A Boolean algebra with a system of generators such that
every mapping from this system into a Boolean algebra can be extended to a
homomorphism. Every Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a quotient algebra of some free
Boolean algebra.

For any cardinal number 𝛼 there is a unique (up to an isomorphism) free Boolean
algebra with 𝛼 generators. A finite Boolean algebra is free if and only if its number of
𝑛
elements is of the form 2𝑛 , where 𝑛 is the number of generators. Such a free Boolean
algebra is realized as the algebra of Boolean functions of 𝑛 variables. A countable free
Boolean algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of open-closed subsets of the Cantor set.
Every set of pairwise-disjoint elements of a free Boolean algebra is finite or countable.

An infinite free Boolean algebra cannot be complete. On the other hand, the cardinality
of any infinite complete Boolean algebra is the least upper bound of the cardinalities of
its free subalgebras.

FREE GROUP: A group 𝐹 with a system 𝑋 of generating elements such that any mapping
from 𝑋 into an arbitrary group 𝐺 can be extended to a homomorphism from 𝐹 into 𝐺.
Such a system 𝑋 is called a system of free generators; its cardinality is called the rank
of . The set 𝑋 is also called an alphabet. The elements of 𝐹 are words over the
alphabet 𝑋.
In other terms, Groups have generators, such elements that all other elements of a
group could be obtained from generators and their inverses using the group operation.
A group is said to be free if no relation exists between its generators other than between
an element and its inverse. The additive group of integers is free with a single generator
1. The multiplicative group of all positive rational numbers has prime numbers as its
generators. From the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic representation of integers in
the form 𝑝𝑎 𝑞 𝑏 . . . 𝑟 𝑐 where 𝑝, 𝑞, . . . , 𝑟 are all different primes, is unique. Therefore the
group is free.
FREE MODULE: A module over a unital commutative ring is said to be free if there exists
some subset of the module which freely generates the module.

FREE MODULE OF FINITE RANK: A module 𝑀 over an integral domain 𝑅 is said to be a


free module of finite rank if there exist elements 𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , . . . , 𝑏𝑘 ∇ 𝑀 that constitute a free
basis for 𝑀. These elements constitute a free basis if and only if, given any element 𝑚 of
𝑀, there exist uniquely-determined elements 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , . . . , 𝑟𝑘 of R such that 𝑚 = 𝑟1 𝑏1 +
𝑟2 𝑏2 + · · · + 𝑟𝑘 𝑏𝑘 .

FREELY GENERATED MODULE: Let 𝑀 be a module over a unital commutative ring 𝑅,


and let 𝑋 be a subset of 𝑀. The module 𝑀 is said to be freely generated by the set 𝑋 if
the following conditions are satisfied:

(i) the elements of 𝑋 are linearly independent over the ring 𝑅;


(ii) the module 𝑀 is generated by the subset 𝑋.
FRITZ JOHN STATIONARY-POINT NECESSARY OPTIMALITY THEOREM: Let x be a local
solution of the problem: Minimize 𝜃 x , subject to x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0, where X 0 is open set
in Rn and 𝜃𝑖 : X 0 → R, g: X 0 → Rm are differentiable at x. Then there exists an r0 ∇ R and
an r0 ∇ Rm such that x, r0 , r solves the problem r0 ∆θ x) + r ∆g(x = 0 subject to
g(x) ≤ 0, r g x = 0,(r0 , rw ) ≥ 0 where

W = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x

FRITZ JOHN STATIONARY- POINT PROBLEM (FJP): The Fritz John stationary- point
problem means to find x ∇ X 0 , r0 ∇ Rm if they exist, such that ∆x ∅ x, r0 , r = 0,
∆r ∅ x, r0 , r ≤ 0, r∆r ∅ x, r0 , r = 0, r0 , r ≥ 0 and ∅ x, r0 , r = r0 ∅ x) + rg(x or
equivalently, r0 ∆θ x) + r ∆g(x = 0, g(x) ≤ 0, r g x = 0, (r0 , r) ≥ 0.

Frob: It is the abbreviation for Frobenius endomorphism.


FRONTIER (BOUNDARY) POINTS: The set of points which are members of the closure of
a set and also of the closure of its complement. For example, for an open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)
or closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏], the values 𝑎 and 𝑏 are the frontier or boundary points.
FRUSTUM: A frustum is a portion of a cone or a pyramid bounded by two parallel
planes. A frustum of a right-circular cone is the part between two parallel planes
perpendicular to the axis. Suppose that the planes are a distance 𝑕 apart and that the
circles that form the top and bottom of the frustum have radii 𝑎 and 𝑏. Then the volume
1
of the frustum equals 3 𝜋𝑕 𝑎2 + 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2 . Let 𝑙 be the slant height of the frustum; that is,

the length of the part of a generator between the top and bottom of the frustum. Then
the area of the curved surface of the frustum equals 𝜋 (𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑙.

F-SIGMA: In a topological space 𝑿, a subset which is the countable union of closed sets.

FUBINI'S THEOREM: Suppose 𝑋 and 𝑌 are measure spaces, and suppose that 𝑋 × 𝑌 is
given the maximal product measure (which is the only product measure if 𝑋 and 𝑌 are
𝜍-finite). Fubini's theorem states that if 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is 𝑋 × 𝑌 integrable, meaning that it is
measurable and

then

The first two integrals are iterated integrals with respect to two measures, respectively,
and the third is an integral with respect to the maximal product of these two measures.

FULLY-CLOSED MAPPING: A continuous mapping 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 with the following property:


For any point 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀 and for any finite family 𝑶𝟏 , 𝑶𝟐 , … … … , 𝑶𝒔 of open subsets of the
𝒔
space 𝑿 such that 𝒇−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝒊=𝟏 𝑶𝒊 , the set {𝒚} ∪ ⋃𝒔𝒊=𝟏 𝒇# 𝑶𝒊 is open.
Here 𝒇# 𝑶𝒊 denotes the small image of the set 𝑶𝒊 under the mapping 𝒇. Any fully-closed
mapping is closed. The inequality 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝑿 ≤ 𝐦𝐚𝐱{𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒀, 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒇} is valid for any fully-
closed mapping 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 of a normal space 𝑿. For this reason, fully-closed mappings can
be employed to isolate fairly wide classes of compacta with non-coinciding dimensions
𝒅𝒊𝒎 and 𝒊𝒏𝒅. Moreover, 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒀 ≤ 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝑿 + 𝟏 irrespective of the multiplicity of the
mapping 𝒇. Let 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀, let 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 be a fully-closed mapping and let 𝑹(𝒇, 𝒀) be the
decomposition of 𝑿 the elements of which are all pre-images 𝒇−𝟏 (𝒚′ ) of the points, and
all points of 𝒇−𝟏 (𝒚). Then, for a regular space 𝑿, the quotient space 𝑿𝒀𝒇 of 𝑿 with respect
to the decomposition 𝑹(𝒇, 𝒀) is also regular; this property is characteristic of fully-
closed mappings in the class of closed mappings.
FUNCTION: A function is a rule that associates each member of one set with a unique
member of another set. The input number to the function is called the independent
variable, or argument. The set of all possible values for the independent variable is
called the domain. The output number is called the dependent variable. The set of all
possible values for the dependent variable is called the range. An important property of
functions is that for each value of the independent variable there is one and only one
value of the dependent variable. The notation 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇, read as ‘𝑓 from 𝑆 to 𝑇′, is used.
If 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆, then 𝑓(𝑥) is the image of 𝑥 under 𝑓. The subset of 𝑇 consisting of those
elements that are images of elements of 𝑆 under 𝑓, that is, the set {𝑦 | 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), for
some 𝑥 in 𝑆}, is the range of 𝑓. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑦, it is said that 𝑓 maps 𝑥 to 𝑦, written
𝑓: 𝑥 → 𝑦. If the graph of 𝑓 is then taken to be 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), it may be said that 𝑦 is a
function of 𝑥.
FUNCTIONAL: The functional Φ is an assignment of a scalar Φ (𝑓) to every vector 𝑓 in a
certain subset 𝐷Φ of the normed linear space 𝑁. 𝐷Φ is the domain of Φ.

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS: The part of modern mathematical analysis in which the basic
purpose is to study functions 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) for which at least one of the
variables 𝒙 or 𝒚 varies over an infinite-dimensional space. In its most general form such
a study falls into three parts:
1) the introduction and study of infinite-dimensional spaces as such;
2) the study of the simplest functions, namely, when takes values in an infinite-
dimensional space and in a one-dimensional space (these are called functionals,
whence the name "functional analysis" ); and
3) the study of general functions of the type indicated — operators.
Linear functions 𝒙 ∇ 𝑿 ⇒ 𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀 , i.e. linear operators, have been most
completely studied. Their theory is essentially a generalization of linear algebra to the
infinite-dimensional case. A combination of the approaches of classical analysis and
algebra is characteristic for the methods of functional analysis, and this leads to
relations between what are at first glance very distant branches of mathematics.
FUNCTIONAL EQUATION: An equation (linear or non-linear) in which the unknown is
an element of some specific (function) or abstract Banach space, that is, an equation of
the form
𝑃 𝑥 =𝑦

where 𝑃 𝑥 is some, generally speaking non-linear, operator transforming elements of


a 𝐵-space 𝑋 into elements of a space 𝑌 of the same type. If the functional equation
contains another numerical (or, in general, functional) parameter 𝜆, then instead of (1)
one writes

𝑃 𝑥, 𝜆 = 𝑦

where𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑌, 𝜆 ∇ Λ and Λ is the parameter space.

FUNCTIONAL OF A BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM: Consider the problem of finding a


curve through two points 𝑥1 , 𝑦1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑦2 whose length is minimum.
In general ,we wish to find a curve C joining the points 𝑥1 , 𝑦1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑦2 and having
equation 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥 ,where 𝑦 𝑥1 = 𝑦1 and 𝑦 𝑥2 = 𝑦2 such that for a given function
𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ .
𝑥2
∫𝑥 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 is a stationary value or an extremum.
1

An integral such as above, which assume a definite value for functions of the type
𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥 is called a functional.
FUNCTIONAL RELATION: A binary relation 𝑹 on a set 𝑨 satisfying 𝑹−𝟏 ∘ 𝑹 ⊆ 𝜟,
where 𝜟 is the diagonal of 𝑨. This means that (𝒂, 𝒃) ∇ 𝑹 and (𝒂, 𝒄) ∇ 𝑹 imply that 𝒃 = 𝒄,
that is, for each 𝒂 ∇ 𝑨 there is at most one 𝒃 ∇ 𝑨 such that (𝒂, 𝒃) ∇ 𝑹.
Thus, 𝑹 determines a function on 𝑨. When it satisfies 𝑹−𝟏 ∘ 𝑹 = 𝜟, this function is well-
defined everywhere and is one-to-one.
FUNCTION ELEMENT: An analytic function 𝑓 with domain 𝐷 is called a function element
and is denoted by 𝑓, 𝐷 .

FUNCTION FIELD ANALOGY: It was realized in the nineteenth century that the ring of
integers of a number field has analogies with the affine coordinate ring of an algebraic
curve or compact Riemann surface, with a point or more removed corresponding to the
'infinite places' of a number field. This thought is more precisely encoded in the theory
that global fields should all be treated on the same basis. The scheme goes further. Thus
elliptic surfaces over the complex numbers, also, have some quite strict analogies with
elliptic curves over number fields.
FUNCTION F SUMMABLE BY A MEASURE: A function 𝑓 is summable by a measure µ if
there is sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) ⊂ 𝑆(𝑋) such that

1. the sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) is a Cauchy sequence in 𝑆(𝑋);


𝑎. 𝑒
2. 𝑓𝑛 𝑓.

Note that

 Clear if a function is summable, then any equivalent function is summable as


well. Set of equivalent classes will be denoted by L1(X).
 If the measure µ is finite then any bounded measurable function is summable.
 This Lemma can be extended to the space of essentially bounded functions
𝐿∞ (𝑋), in other words 𝐿∞ (𝑋) ⊂ 𝐿1 (𝑋) for finite measures.
 If the measure µ is finite and 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 then 𝑑1 (𝑓𝑛 , 𝑓) → 0.
 Let (𝑓𝑛 ) and (𝑔𝑛 ) be Cauchy sequences in 𝑆(𝑋) with the same limit a.e., then
𝑑1 (𝑓𝑛 , 𝑔𝑛 ) → 0.

FUNCTIONS OF CLASS 𝒎: Let 𝐼 denote a real interval and let 𝑚 be a positive integer.
Then we say that a real-valued function 𝑓 defined on 𝐼is of class 𝑚 (or simple a Cm
function) if 𝑓 has a continuous derivative of 𝑚𝑡𝑕 order at every point 𝐼. In case 𝑓 is
differentiable an infinitely many number of times, it is said to be of class ∞ or a 𝐶 ∞ -
function. Also, the function 𝑓 is said to be analytic over 𝐼 if 𝑓 is single-valued and
possesses continuous derivatives of all orders at every point of 𝐼. An analytic function is
said to be of class ω or simply a 𝐶 ∞ - function.
FUNCTION THEORY: A branch of mathematics in which one studies the general
properties of functions. Function theory splits into two parts: the theory of functions of
a real variable and the theory of functions of a complex variable.
FUNDAMENTAL AXIOM OF ANALYSIS: If 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , . ..is an increasing sequence in 𝑅 and
there exists an 𝐴 ∇ 𝑅 such that 𝑎𝑛 ≤ 𝐴 for all 𝑛, then there exists an 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 such that
𝑎𝑛 → 𝑎 𝑎𝑠 𝑛 → ∞.
FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE: It is defined as the law for determining the
number of ways two or more operations can be performed together. If one operation
can be performed in 𝑚 ways and a second in 𝑛 ways, together they can be performed in
𝑚𝑛 ways.
FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX: The transition matrix 𝑋(𝑡) of solutions of a system of linear
ordinary differential equations
𝑥 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑥; 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛

normalized at the point 𝑡0 . The fundamental matrix is the unique continuous solution of
the matrix initial value problem

𝑋 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑋; 𝑋 𝑡0 = 1

(𝐼 denotes the identity matrix) if the matrix-valued function 𝐴 𝑡 is locally summable


over some interval 𝐽 ⊂ 𝑅, 𝑡 ∇ 𝐽.

Every matrix 𝑀(𝑡) built of column-solutions 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … … … , 𝑥𝑚 of the system, where 𝑚 is


a natural number, is expressible as 𝑀 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑡 𝑀(𝑡0 ) . In particular, every
solution 𝑥(𝑡) of system can be written in the form 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑡 𝑥0 .
FUNDAMENTAL PLANES: The three planes, osculating plane, normal plane and
rectifying plane associated with each point of a curve are called as fundamental planes.
These planes are mutually perpendicular and are determined by moving trihedral 𝑡, 𝑛, 𝑏
at the point.
The equations of fundamental planes are:
Osculating plane: it contains 𝑡 and 𝑛 is normal to 𝑏, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑏 = 0.
Normal plane: It contains 𝑛 and 𝑏 and is normal to 𝑡, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑡 = 0.
Rectifying plane: It contains 𝑏 and 𝑡 and is normal to 𝑛, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛 = 0.
FUNDAMENTAL SEQUENCE: A sequence 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , … of vectors of a normed linear space 𝑁
is said to be fundamental if given any real number 𝜀 > 0, a natural number 𝑁 (𝜀) can be
indicated such that

𝑓𝑛 − 𝑓𝑛 +𝑚 < 𝜀, 𝑚 ≥ 0.

Whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 𝜀 .

FUNDAMENTAL SET OF SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION 𝐀𝐗 = 𝐎: Suppose the rank r of


the coefficient matrix 𝐴 is less than the number of unknowns 𝑛. In this case the given
equations have a set of 𝑛 − 𝑟 linearly independent solutions and every possible solution
is a linear combination of these 𝑛 − r solutions . This set of 𝑛 − r solutions is called a
fundamental set of solutions of the equation 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂.

A set of linearly independent solutions 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑘 of the system of homogeneous


equations 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂 is called the fundamental system solution of 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂, if every solution
𝑋 of 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂 can be written as a linear combination of these vectors i.e., in the form
X=c1 x1 + c2 x2 + ⋯ + ck xk , where c1 , c2 , … , ck are suitable numbers.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA: The fundamental theorem of algebra says that


an nth-degree polynomial equation has at least one root among the complex numbers. It
has exactly n roots when you include complex roots and you realize that a root may
occur more than once.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC: The fundamental theorem of arithmetic
says that any natural number can be expressed as a unique product of prime numbers.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS ALONG CURVES: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a domain and
let 𝛾 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑈 be a 𝐶1 curve. If 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑈), then
𝑏
𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝛾1 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝛾2
𝑓(𝛾(𝑏)) − 𝑓(𝛾(𝑎)) = (𝛾(𝑡)) · + (𝛾(𝑡)) · 𝑑𝑡.
𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑡
𝑎

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF INTEGRAL CALCULUS: Let 𝑓 be a continuous function on


[𝑎, 𝑏]. Let 𝜑 be a differentiable function on [𝑎, 𝑏] such that 𝜑 ′ 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 .
Then
𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝜑 𝑏 − 𝜑(𝑎)
𝑎

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF GAME THEORY: Suppose that, in a matrix game, E(x, y) is


the expectation, where x and y are mixed strategies for the two players. Then
max min 𝐸(𝒙, 𝒚) = min max 𝐸(𝒙, 𝒚) .
𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥

This theorem is also known as the ‘Minimax Theorem’.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM ON HOMOMORPHISMS (FUNDAMENTAL HOMOMORPHISM


THEOREM): Given two groups 𝐺 and 𝐻 and a group homomorphism 𝑓 : 𝐺 → 𝐻, let 𝐾 be
a normal subgroup in 𝐺 and 𝜑 the natural surjective homomorphism 𝐺 → 𝐺/𝐾. If 𝐾 is a
subset of 𝑘𝑒𝑟(𝑓) then there exists a unique homomorphism 𝑕: 𝐺/𝐾 → 𝐻 such
that 𝑓 = 𝑕 𝜑.

The situation is described by the following commutative diagram:

By setting 𝐾 = 𝑘𝑒𝑟 𝑓 , we immediately get the first isomorphism theorem.

FUZZY COMPLEMENT: The fuzzy complement of A is a fuzzy set 𝐴 in 𝑈 whose


membership function is defined as
𝝁𝑨 𝑥 = 1 − 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴.
FUZZY EQUAL SETS: We say fuzzy sets A and B are equal if and only if 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 =
𝝁𝑩 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑈.
FUZZY NUMBER: A fuzzy number 𝑀 is a convex normalized fuzzy set ˜M of the real line R
such that
 it exists exactly one 𝑥0 ∇ 𝑅, 𝜇𝑀 (𝑥0 ) = 1 (𝑥0 is called the mean value of 𝑀 ).
 𝜇𝑀 (𝑥) is piecewise continuous.
In other words, A fuzzy number 𝐴 is a fuzzy set of the real line with a normal, (fuzzy)
convex and continuous membership function of bounded support. The family of fuzzy
numbers will be denoted by 𝐹.
FUZZY NUMBER OF LR-TYPE: A fuzzy number 𝑀 is of LR-type if there exist reference
functions L (for left) and R (for right), and scalars 𝛼 > 0, 𝛽 > 0, with
𝑚−𝑥
𝐿 ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 𝑚
𝛼
𝜇𝑀 𝑥 = 𝑥−𝑚
𝑅 ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≥ 𝑚
𝛽
FUZZY POINT: Let 𝐴 be a fuzzy number. If 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝(𝐴) = {𝑥0 } then A is called a fuzzy point
and we use the notation 𝐴 = 𝑥0 .
FUZZY SET: A fuzzy set in a universe of discourse U is characterized by a membership
function 𝝁𝑨 (𝑥) that takes values in the interval 0, 1 . Therefore, a fuzzy set is a
generalization of a classical set by allowing the membership function to take any values
in the interval 0, 1 . In other words, the membership function of a classical set can only
take two values-zero and one, whereas the membership function of a fuzzy set is a
continuous function with range [0, 1]. A fuzzy set A in U may be represented as a set of
ordered pairs of a generic element x and its membership value, that is,
𝑨 = (𝑥, 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ; 𝑥 ∇ 𝑼
FUZZY SUBSET: We say in fuzzy theory, 𝐵 contains 𝐴, denoted by 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵, if and only if
𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ≤ 𝝁𝑩 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑈.
G
Gal: It is the abbreviation for Galois group. (Also written as Γ .
GALOIS CORRESPONDENCE: Let 𝐾, 𝐿 and 𝑀 be fields satisfying 𝐾 ⊂ 𝑀 ⊂ 𝐿. Suppose
that 𝐿: 𝐾 is a Galois extension. Then so is 𝐿: 𝑀 . If in addition 𝑀: 𝐾 is normal, then
𝑀: 𝐾 is a Galois extension.
GALOIS, EVARISTE: Evariste Galois (1811 to 1832) was French mathematician who
made crucial contributions to group theory and applied this to the study of the
solvability of polynomial equations. He made major contributions to the theory of
equations before he died at the age of 20, shot in a duel. His work developed the
necessary group theory to deal with the question of whether an equation can be solved
algebraically.
GALOIS EXTENSIONOF A FIELD: A Galois extension is an algebraic extension of a
field that is normal and separable. The study of the automorphism group of such an
extension forms part of Galois theory.
GALOIS FIELD: A field with a finite number of elements. First considered by E. Galois.
GALOIS GROUP OF A FIELD EXTENSION: The Galois group 𝜞(𝑳: 𝑲) of a field extension
𝑳: 𝑲 is the group of all automorphisms of the field 𝑳 that fix all elements of the subfield
𝑲.
GALOIS GROUP OF A POLYNOMIAL: Let f be a polynomial with coefficients in some field
𝑲. The Galois group 𝜞𝑲(𝒇) of 𝒇 over 𝑲 is defined to be the Galois group 𝜞(𝑳: 𝑲) of the
extension 𝑳: 𝑲 , where 𝑳 is some splitting field for the polynomial 𝒇 over 𝑲.
GALOIS THEORY: In the most general sense, Galois theory is a theory dealing with
mathematical objects on the basis of their automorphism groups. For instance, Galois
theories of fields, rings, topological spaces, etc., are possible. In a narrower sense Galois
theory is the Galois theory of fields. The theory originated in the context of finding roots
of algebraic equations of high degrees. The familiar formula for solving equations of
degree two dates back to early Antiquity. Methods for solving cubic and quartic
equations were discovered in the 16th century. Unsuccessful attempts to find formulas
for solving quintic and higher-degree equations were made during the three centuries
which followed. It was finally proved by N.H. Abel in 1824 that there are no solutions in
radicals of the general equation of degree ≥ 𝟓. The next problem was to find necessary
and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by the coefficients of an equation for the latter
to be solvable in radicals, i.e. for it to be reducible to a chain of two-term equations of
the form 𝒙𝒏 − 𝒂 = 𝟎. This problem was solved by E. Galois; his results were exposed in
a letter on the eve of his death (1832), and published in 1846.
GAME THEORY: Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy games whose results
can be represented by a matrix showing the decisions of each player. Games may be
used to investigate problems in business, personal relationships, military manoeuvres
and other areas involving decision-making. One particular kind of game for which the
theory has been well developed is the matrix game.
GAMMA DISTRIBUTION: If 𝑥 is a random variable with p.d.f. given by
𝜆𝑣 𝑥 𝑣−1 𝑒 −𝜆𝑥
𝑓 𝑥 =
Γ(𝑣)
where 𝛤(𝑛) is a gamma function and 𝜆, 𝜈, 𝑥 > 0, then we say that X has a gamma
distribution with parameters 𝜆, 𝜈.
When 𝜈 = 1, 𝑥 𝜈−1 = 1, and 𝛤(𝜈) = 𝛤(1) = 1, so 𝑓(𝑥) reduces to 𝜆𝑒 −𝜆𝑥 which is the
exponential distribution.

GAMMA FUNCTION: The function defined by 𝛤 𝑥 = ∫0 𝑡 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑑𝑡 for 𝑥 > 0.
Integration by parts yields 𝛤(𝑥 + 1) = 𝑥𝛤(𝑥), and 𝛤(1) = 1 so if 𝑛 is an integer
𝛤(𝑛) = (𝑛 − 1)!
GAUSS BONNET THEOREM: (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Let a simply connected
region R be enclosed by a closed curve Γ composed of n smooth arcs
𝐴0 𝐴1 , 𝐴1 𝐴2, … , 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐴𝑛 𝐴𝑛 = 𝐴0 , making at the vertices exterior angles 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , … , 𝛼𝑛 ;
then the excess of Γ defined as

𝑒𝑥. Γ = ∫2 𝐾𝑑𝑠 − 2𝜋 − 𝛼𝑟 − ∫𝑟 𝜅𝑔 𝑑𝑠,


𝑟=1

Where 𝜅 is some function of 𝑢, 𝑣 called the Gaussian Curvature and 𝜅𝑔 is the geodesic
curvature of the arcs.

GAUSS, CARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS: Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 to 1855), perhaps the
greatest pure mathematician of all time, was a German mathematician who studied
errors of measurement (so the normal curve is sometimes called the Gaussian error
curve); developed a way to construct a 17-sided regular polygon with geometric
construction; developed a law that says the electric flux over a closed surface is
proportional to the charge inside the surface and studied the theory of complex
numbers. By the age of 24, he was ready to publish his Disquisitiones arithmeticae, a
book that was to have a profound influence on the theory of numbers. In this, he proved
the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. In
later work, he developed the theory of curved surfaces using methods now known as
differential geometry. His work on complex functions was fundamental but, like his
discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, it was not published at the time. He introduced
what is now known to statisticians as the Gaussian distribution.
GAUSSIAN CURVATURE OF A SURFACE: The product of the principal curvatures of a
regular surface at a given point. If
𝒅𝒔𝟐 = 𝑬𝒅𝒖𝟐 + 𝟐𝑭𝒅𝒖𝒅𝒗 + 𝑮𝒅𝒗𝟐
is the first fundamental form of the surface and

𝑳𝒅𝒖𝟐 + 𝟐𝑴𝒅𝒖𝒅𝒗 + 𝑵𝒅𝒗𝟐

is the second fundamental form of the surface, then the Gaussian curvature can be
computed by the formula

𝐿𝑁 − 𝑀2
𝐾=
𝐸𝐺 − 𝐹 2
2
GAUSSIAN FUNCTION: The function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 –𝑥 which has the property which is the
function underlying the normal distribution.
GAUSSIAN INTEGER: A complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both
integers, so 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 is known as a Gaussian integer if 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑍.
GAUSSIAN RING: The ring of Gaussian integers or Gauss numbers, Z[i].
GAUSS HYPERGEOMETRIC EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy
𝑥 1−𝑥 2
+ 𝑐− 𝑎+𝑏+1 𝑥 − aby = 0
dx dx

is known as Gauss’ hypergeometric equation or simple hypergeometric equation or


Gauss’a equation.

GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION: Gauss-Jordan elimination is a method for solving a


system of linear equations. The method involves transforming the system so that the
last equation contains only one variable, the next-to- last equation contains only two
variables, and so on.. The result of this systematic method is that the augmented matrix
is transformed into reduced echelon form. As a method for solving simultaneous linear
equations, Gauss–Jordan elimination in fact requires more work than Gaussian
elimination followed by back-substitution, and so it is not in general recommended.

GAUSS–LUCAS THEOREM: If 𝑃 is a (non constant) polynomial with complex coefficients,


all zeros of 𝑃′ belong to the convex hull of the set of zeros of 𝑃.

GAUSS–MARKOV THEOREM: In a linear regression model in which the errors have zero
mean, are uncorrelated, and have equal variances the best linear unbiased estimators of
the coefficients are the least squares estimators. Here, ‘best’ means that it has minimum
variance amongst all linear unbiased estimators.
GAUSS MEAN VALUE THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in a domain 𝐷
and if the circular domain 𝑧 − 𝑧0 ≤ 𝜌 is contained in 𝐷, then

2𝜋
1
𝑓 𝑧0 = 𝑓 𝑧0 + 𝜌𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃
2𝜋 0

That is to say, the value of 𝑓 𝑧 𝑎𝑡 𝑧0 is equal to the average of its value of the boundary
of the circle 𝑧 − 𝑧0 = 𝜌

GAUSS NUMBER: A complex integer 𝒂 + 𝒃𝒊, where 𝒂 and 𝒃 are arbitrary rational
integers. Geometrically, the Gauss numbers form the lattice of all points with integral
rational coordinates on the plane. Such numbers were first considered in 1832 by C.F.
Gauss in his work on biquadratic residues. He also discovered the properties of the
set 𝜞 of complex integers.
𝛤 is an integral domain; its units (i.e. divisors of the unit element) are 1, −1, 𝑖, −𝑖 and
there are no other units. One kind of primes (i.e. numbers that cannot be decomposed
into a non-trivial product) of 𝛤 (the Gaussian primes) are the numbers of the form
𝛼 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖, the norms (moduli) 𝑁(𝛼) = 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 = 𝑝 of which are rational prime
numbers 𝑝 of the form 4𝑛 + 1 or 𝑝 = 2; the other kind are rational prime numbers of
the form 4𝑛 + 3. Examples of Gaussian primes are 1 + 𝑖, 1 + 2𝑖, 3 + 4𝑖, 3, 7, etc.
Any number in 𝛤 can be uniquely decomposed into a product of primes in 𝛤, up to units
and ordering. Domains with this property are called unique factorization domains or
Gaussian rings.

In the theory of biquadratic residues the Gaussian numbers were the first simple and
important instance of an extension of the field of rational numbers.

GAUSS PRINCIPLE(PRINCIPLE OF LEAST FORCING): One of the fundamental and most


general differential variational principles of classical mechanics, established by C.F.
Gauss and expressing an extremum property of a real motion of a system in the class of
admissible motions, corresponding to the ideal constraints imposed on the system and
to the conditions of constancy of positions and velocities of the points in the system at a
given moment of time.

According to the Gauss principle, "the motion of a system of material points, constrained
in an arbitrary manner, and subjected to arbitrary forces at any moment of time, takes
place in a manner which is as similar as possible to the motion that would be performed
by these points if they were free, i.e. with least-possible forcing — the measure of
forcing during the time dt being defined as the sum of the products of the mass of each
point and the square of the distance of the point from the position which it would
occupy if it were free".

The Gauss principle is equivalent with the d'Alembert–Lagrange principle and is


applicable both to holonomic and to non-holonomic systems. It has been generalized in
various ways such as to systems subject to non-ideal constraints, as well as to the case
of continuous media.

GAUSS RECIPROCITY LAW: A relation connecting the values of the Legendre symbols
(𝒑/𝒒) and (𝒒/𝒑) for different odd prime numbers 𝒑 and 𝒒 . In addition to the principal
reciprocity law of Gauss for quadratic residues, which may be expressed as the relation
(𝑝𝑞)(𝑞𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝−1)/2⋅(𝑞−1)/2 ,

there are two more additions to this law, viz.:


2 −1)/8
(−1/𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝−1)/2 𝑎𝑛𝑑(2/𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝 .

The reciprocity law for quadratic residues was first stated in 1772 by L. Euler. A.
Legendre in 1785 formulated the law in modern form and proved a part of it. C.F. Gauss
in 1801 was the first to give a complete proof of the law ; he also gave no less than eight
different proofs of the reciprocity law, based on various principles, during his lifetime.

Attempts to establish the reciprocity law for cubic and biquadratic residues led Gauss to
introduce the ring of Gaussian integers.

GAUSS–SEIDEL ITERATIVE METHOD: A technique for solving a set of 𝑛 linear equations


in 𝑛 unknowns. If the system is summarized by 𝑨𝒙 = 𝒃, then taking initial values as
(1) 𝑏
𝑥𝑖 = 𝑎 𝑖 , it uses the iterative relation
𝑖𝑖

(𝑘) (𝑘−1)
(𝑘)
𝑏𝑖 − 𝑗 <𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑗 − 𝑗 >𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑗
𝑥𝑖 =
𝑎𝑖𝑗
so it uses the new values immediately they are available, unlike the Jacobi method.
GAUSS’S LEMMA: (a) Let p(x) be a polynomial with integer coefficients. Then if p(x) can
be factorized using rational numbers, p(x) can be factorized using only integers.
(b) Let 𝑔 and 𝑕 be polynomials with integer coefficients. If 𝑔 and 𝑕 are both primitive
then so is 𝑔𝑕.
GAUSS TEST: Let 𝑢𝑛 be a series of positive terms such that
𝑢𝑛 𝑎 𝑏
= 1+ +
𝑢𝑛 +1 𝑛 𝑜(𝑛2 )
Then
1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑎 > 1 or 𝑎 = 1 and 𝑏 > 1.
2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑎 < 1 or 𝑎 = 1 and 𝑏 ≤ 1.
G-DELTA SET: In a topological space 𝑿 a subset which is the countable intersection of
open sets.
GELFAND–MAZUR LEMMA: If 𝑋 is a complex Banach division algebra, then 𝑋 is
isometrically isomorphic to 𝐶.
GENERAL ABELIAN GROUPS: An Abelian group is, in general, an extension of a torsion
group by a torsion-free group. A torsion group T is called bounded if there is an integer
𝑛 such that 𝑡 𝑛 = 1 for all 𝑡 ∇ 𝑇. Suppose there is a torsion group T. Then T is a direct
summand of an Abelian group G which contains T as its maximal torsion subgroup if
and only if T is the direct product of a divisible group and a bounded group.
GENERAL ASSOCIATIVE LAW: Let 𝑨,∗ be a semigroup, and let 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 and w be elements
of A. We can use the associative property of ∗ to show that the value of a product
involving 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛, 𝒘 is independent of the manner in which that product is bracketed,
though it generally depends on the order in which 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 and 𝒘 occur in that product
(unless that binary operation is also commutative). For example,
(𝒙 ∗ (𝒚 ∗ 𝒛)) ∗ 𝒘 = ((𝒙 ∗ 𝒚) ∗ 𝒛) ∗ 𝒘 = (𝒙 ∗ 𝒚) ∗ (𝒛 ∗ 𝒘)
= 𝒙 ∗ (𝒚 ∗ (𝒛 ∗ 𝒘)) = 𝒙 ∗ ((𝒚 ∗ 𝒛) ∗ 𝒘)
GENERALIZED ANALYTIC FUNCTION: A function 𝒘 𝒛 = 𝒖 𝒙, 𝒚 + 𝒊𝒗(𝒙, 𝒚) satisfying a
system
𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒗 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒚
− + 𝒂𝒖 + 𝒃𝒗 = 𝟎, + + 𝒄𝒖 + 𝒅𝒗 = 𝟎
𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒙

with real coefficients 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 that are functions of the real variables 𝑥 and 𝑦.

GENERALIZED HAHN-BANACH THEOREM (FOR REAL VECTOR SPACES): Let 𝑞 be a


convex functional on a real linear space 𝑆, and Φ be a linear functional defined on a
subspace 𝑀 of 𝑆, such that

Φ 𝑓 ≤𝑞 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 𝜖 𝑀.
Then Φ can be extended to a linear functional Ψ defined on the whole of 𝑆, much that
Ψ 𝑕 ≤ 𝑞 𝑕 , for every 𝑕 ∇ 𝑀.

GENERALIZED NILPOTENT GROUP: A group in one of the generalized nilpotent classes


of groups. A class of groups is called generalized nilpotent if it contains all nilpotent
groups and if its intersection with the class of finite groups is the class of all finite
nilpotent groups. Quite a number of classes of generalized nilpotent groups have been
considered; principally, the connections between them have been studied. The most
important classes of generalized nilpotent groups are the class of locally nilpotent
groups, the classes of nil groups and groups with a normalizer condition. The majority
of classes of generalized nilpotent groups were introduced in studying various
properties of central or normal series and systems of subgroups.
GENERALIZED SOLVABLE GROUP: A group from one of the generalized solvable classes
of groups. A class of groups is called generalized solvable if it contains all solvable
groups and if its intersection with the class of finite groups is the class of all finite
solvable groups. Quite a number of classes of generalized solvable groups have been
considered; principally, the connections between them have been studied. The most
important class of generalized solvable groups is the class of locally solvable. Other
classes have been introduced in the study of various properties of normal and
subnormal series.
GENERAL LINEAR GROUP: The general linear group of degree 𝒏 is the group of
all (𝒏 × 𝒏) invertible matrices over an associative ring 𝑲 with a unit; the usual symbols
are 𝑮𝑳𝒏 (𝑲) 𝒐𝒓 𝑮𝑳(𝒏, 𝑲).
GENERAL SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A function containing 𝑛 distinct
arbitrary constants which satisfies an 𝑛-th order differential equation is said to be a
general solution. It is obtained as the sum of the complementary function and a
particular integral.
GENERATING FUNCTION OF AN INFINITE SEQUENCE: The power series 𝐹(𝑥), where
𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑓0 + 𝑓1 𝑥 + 𝑓2 𝑥 2 + 𝑓3 𝑥 3 + …, is the generating function for the infinite
sequence ⌌𝑓𝑛 ⌍. Note that the generating function for this sequence is 1/(1 − 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 ). The
use of generating functions enables sequences to be handled concisely and algebraically.
A difference equation for a sequence can lead to an equation for the corresponding
generating function, and the use of partial fractions, for example, may then lead to a
formula for the n-th term of the sequence.
GENERATOR MATRIX (CODING THEORY): A generator matrix G for a linear code 𝐶 is a
matrix whose rows form a basis for 𝐶. A generator matrix is said to be in standard form
if it is of the form (𝐼𝑘 | 𝑋), where 𝐼𝑘 denotes the 𝑘 × 𝑘 identity matrix.
GENUS: Genus is the maximum number of times a surface can be cut along simple closed
curves without the surface separating into disconnected parts.
Genus of an entire function: The integer equal to the larger of the two
numbers 𝒑 and 𝒒 in the representation of the entire function 𝒇(𝒛) in the form

𝝀 𝑸(𝒛)
𝒛 𝒛 𝒛𝟐 𝒛𝒑
𝒇 𝒛 =𝒛 𝒆 𝟏− 𝒆𝒙𝒑 + 𝟐 + ⋯+ 𝒑
𝜶𝒌 𝜶𝒌 𝟐𝜶𝒌 𝒑𝜶𝒌
𝒌=𝟏

where 𝑞 is the degree of the polynomial 𝑸(𝒛) and 𝑝 is the least integer satisfying the
condition

1
𝑝+1
<∞
𝛼𝑘
𝑘=1

The number 𝑝 is called the genus of the product appearing in formula.

GEODESIC CIRCLE: The set of points on a metric two-dimensional manifold whose


distance from a fixed point 𝑶 is a constant 𝒓. A special case is a circle in the Euclidean
plane.

If 𝑟 is small, a geodesic circle on a regular surface and, in general, in a two-dimensional


Riemannian space is a simple closed curve (not necessarily of a constant geodesic
curvature); each one of its points may be connected with 𝑂 by a unique shortest line
(the radius or radial geodesic), forming a right angle with the geodesic circle; a geodesic
circle bounds a convex region. If 𝑟 → 0, the length 𝑙 of a geodesic circle is connected with
the Gaussian curvature 𝐾 at the point 𝑂 by the relation

2𝜋𝑟 − 𝑙 𝜋𝐾

𝑟3 3

If 𝑟 is large, more than one radial geodesic may lead to the same point on the geodesic
circle, the circle may bound a non-convex region and may consist of several
components. A geodesic circle is frequently employed in studies in global geometry. A
geodesic circle in the sense of Darboux is a closed curve of constant geodesic curvature.
It is a stationary curve for the isoperimetric problem. It coincides with an ordinary
geodesic circle on surfaces of constant curvature.

GEODESIC CO-ORDINATES: If the parametric curves are orthogonal and one of the
families of parametric curves is geodesic then the co-ordinates of the any point on the
surface are called a set of geodesic co-ordinates. Since one of the parametric curves is
assumed to be geodesic and other is arbitrary therefore the geodesic co-ordinate can be
introduced in an arbitrary number of ways.

GEODESIC CURVATURE AT A POINT OF A CURVE 𝜸 = 𝒓(𝒕) ON A SURFACE : The rate of


rotation of the tangent to 𝛾 around the normal 𝒏 to 𝐹, i.e. the projection on 𝒏 of the
vector of the angular rate of rotation of the tangent moving along 𝛾. It is assumed
that 𝛾 and 𝐹 are regular and oriented, and that the velocity is taken relative to the arc
length 𝑠 along 𝛾. The geodesic curvature can be defined as the curvature of the
projection of 𝛾 on the plane tangent to 𝐹 at the point under consideration. The geodesic
curvature is
𝒓′ , 𝒓′′ , 𝒏
𝒌𝒈 =
𝒓′ 𝟑

where a prime denotes differentiation with respect to 𝜏.

GEODESIC (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A geodesic curve follows the shortest distance


between two points through a particular space. For example, in Euclidian space a
straight line is the geodesic between two points. Along the surface of the Earth, a great
circle route is the geodesic. Therefore, a curve on a surface, joining two given points,
that is the shortest curve between the two points is called a geodesic. On a sphere, a
geodesic is an arc of a great circle through the two given points. This arc is unique
unless the two points are antipodal.

GEODESIC FLOW (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A Geodesic flow is a flow on a tangent


bundle TM of a manifold M, generated by a vector field whose trajectories are of the

form where is a geodesic.

GEODESIC LINE: The notion of a geodesic line is a geometric concept which is a


generalization of the concept of a straight line in Euclidean geometry to spaces of a
more general type. The definitions of geodesic lines in various spaces depend on the
particular structure (metric, line element, linear connection) on which the geometry of
the particular space is based. In the geometry of spaces in which the metric is
considered to be specified in advance, geodesic lines are defined as locally shortest. In
spaces with a connection, a geodesic line is defined as a curve for which the tangent
vector field is parallel along this curve. In Riemannian geometry, where a metric in the
tangent space at each point of the considered manifold is given, while the lengths of
lines are obtained by subsequent integration, geodesic lines are defined as extremals of
the length functional.
GEODESIC MANIFOLD AT A POINT x: A submanifold 𝑴𝒌 of a smooth
manifold 𝑴𝒏 (Riemannian or with an affine connection) such that the geodesic lines
of 𝑴𝒏 that are tangent to 𝑴𝒌 at x have a contact of at least the second order with 𝑴𝒌 .
This requirement is fulfilled at all points if any geodesic in 𝑴𝒌 is also a geodesic in 𝑴𝒏 .
Such geodesic manifolds 𝑴𝒌 are called totally geodesic manifolds.
GEODESIC MAPPING (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A surface S is said to be mapped
geodesically onto a surface S* if there is a differentiable homemorphism of S onto S*
such that geodesic on S go over into geodesic on S*.

GEODESIC TANGENT (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Let 𝑃 be a point on the curve 𝐶.


Then geodesic tangent of curve 𝐶 at point 𝑃 is the geodesic which touches the curve at
𝑃. Thus geodesic tangent at any point on a curve is the geodesic which touches the curve
at the point.

GEODESIC (TENSORS): We have ds 2 = g ij dx i dx j . The length of are from the point P0(t0)
to the point P1(t1) is given by

1/2
t dx i dx j
s = ∫t 1 g ij dt.
0 dt dt

Consider all the curves passing through two fixed point P0 and P1. If any of these curves
for which the distance P0P1 measured along the curve is stationary, then that curve is
called geodesic.

GEODESIC TRIANGLE: A figure consisting of three different points together with the
pairwise-connecting geodesic lines. The points are known as the vertices, while the
geodesic lines are known as the sides of the triangle. A geodesic triangle can be
considered in any space in which geodesics exist. If the sides of a geodesic triangle
situated in a region homeomorphic to an open disc constitute a simply-closed contour,
then the interior domain is added to the geodesic triangle. On a regular surface the sum
of the angles of a geodesic triangle minus π (the excess of the triangle) is equal to the
total curvature of the interior region.

Given a geodesic triangle in a metric space, a plane triangle with the same side lengths is
often considered. This makes it possible to introduce various concepts of an angle
between two shortest lines in metric spaces. In the two-dimensional case, after an angle
measurement has been introduced, it is possible to introduce the total curvature as a set
function expressed in terms of the excess of geodesic triangles. Nets of geodesic
triangles serve as a source of the approximation of metrics by the polyhedral metrics.

Estimates are available of the difference between the angle of a geodesic triangle in the
space under consideration and the respective angle in a triangle with the same side
lengths in a plane or on a surface of constant curvature

GEOMETRIC DISTRIBUTION: It is the discrete probability distribution for the number of


experiments required to achieve the first success in a sequence of independent
experiments, all with the same probability p of success. Consider a random experiment
where the probability of success on each trial is 𝑝. We will keep conducting the
experiment until you see the first success; let 𝑋 be the number of failures that occur
before the first success. Then 𝑋 is a discrete random variable with the geometric
distribution. Its probability function is:
𝑃 𝑋 = 𝑖 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑖
The expectation of 𝑋 is (1 − 𝑝)/𝑝, and the variance is (1 − 𝑝)/𝑝2 .
GEOMETRIC MEAN: The geometric mean of a group of 𝑛 numbers (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , . . . 𝑎𝑛 ) is
equal to 𝑛 (𝑎1 𝑎2 𝑎3 . . . 𝑎𝑛 )
GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers of the form
𝑎, 𝑎𝑟, 𝑎𝑟 2 , 𝑎𝑟 3 , . . . 𝑎𝑟 𝑛
The ratio between any two consecutive terms is a constant.
GEOMETRIC SERIES A geometric series is a sum of a geometric sequence:
𝑆 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑟 + 𝑎𝑟 2 + 𝑎𝑟 3 + . . . +𝑎𝑟 𝑛
In a geometric series the ratio of any two consecutive terms is a constant (𝑟). The sum
of the 𝑛 terms of the geometric series above is
𝑎 1 − 𝑟𝑛
𝑆𝑛 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑟 + 𝑎𝑟 2 + 𝑎𝑟 3 + . . . +𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1 =
1−𝑟
GEOMETRY: Geometry is the area of mathematics related to the study of points and
figures, and their properties. Geometry is the study of shape and size. Euclidian
geometry has a rigorously developed logical structure. Three basic undefined terms are
point, line, and plane. A point is like a tiny dot: it has zero height, zero width, and zero
thickness. A line goes off straight in both directions. A plane is a flat surface, like a
tabletop, extending off to infinity. Euclid developed some basic postulates and then
proved theorems based on these. Examples of postulates used in modern versions of
Euclidian geometry are “Two distinct points are contained in one and only one line” and
“Three distinct points not on the same line are contained in one and only one plane.”
The geometry of flat figures is called plane geometry, because a flat figure is contained
in a plane. The geometry of figures in three dimensional space is called solid geometry.
Geometry of numbers

GEOMETRIC NUMBER THEORY: The branch of number theory that studies number-
theoretical problems by the use of geometric methods. Geometry of numbers in its
proper sense was formulated by H. Minkowski in 1896 in his fundamental monograph.
The starting point of this science, which subsequently became an independent branch of
number theory, is the fact that certain assertions which seem evident in the context of
figures in an 𝑛-dimensional Euclidean space have far-reaching consequences in number
theory.

GF: It is the abbreviation for Galois field.


GL: It is the abbreviation for general linear group.
glb: It is the abbreviation for greatest lower bound. (Also written as inf).
GÖDEL, KURT (1906–78): Kurt Gödel was born in Brno, was at the University of Vienna
from 1930 until he immigrated to the United States in 1940. Kurt Gödel was a
mathematician who showed that the consistency of elementary arithmetic could not be
proved from within the system itself. This result followed from his proof that any formal
axiomatic system contains undecidable propositions. It undermined the hopes of those
who had been attempting to determine axioms from which all mathematics could be
deduced.
GOLAY CODES: Let 𝐺 be a 12 × 24 matrix 𝐺 = (𝐼12 | 𝐴) where 𝐴 is a special 12 × 12
matrix containing only 0’s and 1’s. Then a linear binary code with generator matrix 𝐺 is
called an extended binary Golay code and is denoted as 𝐺24 . Let 𝐺 be the 12 × 23
matrix defined by 𝐺 = (𝐼12 | 𝐴) where 𝐴 is obtained from 𝐴 by deleting the last column
of 𝐴. The binary linear code with generator 𝐺 is called the binary Golay code and is
denoted as 𝐺23 .
GOLDBACH, CHRISTIAN (1690–1764): Christian Goldbach was a Mathematician born in
Prussia, who later became professor in St Petersburg. Goldbach’s conjecture, for which
he is remembered, was proposed in 1742 in a letter to Euler.
GOLDBACH CONJECTURE: The conjecture that every even integer greater than 2 is the
sum of two primes. Till now, it is neither proved nor disproved, Goldbach’s conjecture
remains one of the most famous unsolved problems in number theory.
GOLDBACH PROBLEM: One of the well-known problems in number theory: To give a
proof that every odd integer equal to or larger than 7 can be written as the sum of three
prime numbers. It was posed in 1742 by Goldbach in a communication to L. Euler. Euler
replied by pointing out that in order to solve this problem it is sufficient to prove that
every even number greater than 4 is the sum of two prime numbers. All attempts to
solve the problem remained unsuccessful for a long time. G.H. Hardy and J.E. Littlewood
in 1923 succeeded in showing that if certain theorems concerning Dirichlet L-
functions (which have not been proved till now) are valid, then any sufficiently large
odd number is the sum of three prime numbers. I.M. Vinogradov in 1937 discovered a
new method in analytic number theory — the method of estimating trigonometric sums
involving prime numbers — and applied this method to prove an asymptotic formula
for the number of representations of odd numbers as sums of three prime numbers.
This formula implies that each sufficiently large odd number is the sum of three prime
numbers. This is one of the major achievements of modern mathematics. Vinogradov's
method offers a way for solving several problems of a much more general nature.

GOLDEN RATIO: The division of a line segment 𝒂 into two parts the greater of which, 𝒙,
is the mean proportional between the whole segment a and the smaller part 𝒂 − 𝒙, i.e.
𝑎: 𝑥 = 𝑥: (𝑎 − 𝑥).

To find 𝑥, one has to solve a quadratic equation,


𝑥 2 + 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎2 = 0,

the positive solution of which is


−1 + 5𝑎
𝑥= ≈ 0.62𝑎.
2

Condition (1) may also be written as


𝑥 𝑥 𝑎
1+ = 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑥
𝑎 𝑎 1+𝑎

or

1
𝑥=𝑎 ,
1
1+ 1
1+1+⋯

i.e. representing x as a continued fraction, the convergents of which are


1 1 2 3 5 8 13
, , , , ,
1 2 3 5 8 13 21
, , …,where 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21, …, are the Fibonacci numbers.

GOLDEN–THOMPSON INEQUALITY: This inequality was proved independently


by Golden (1965) and Thompson (1965), says that for Hermitian matrices A and B,

where 𝑡𝑟 is the trace, and 𝑒 𝐴 is the matrix exponential.

GOLDSTINE THEOREM: Let 𝑋 be a Banach space, then the image of the closed unit
ball 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑋 under the canonical imbedding into the closed unit ball 𝐵′′ of the bidual
space 𝑋 ′′ is weakly-dense.
GOOGOL: A fanciful name for the number 10100, written in decimal notation as a 1
followed by 100 zeros.
GOSSET, WILLIAM SEALY (1876–1937): William Sealy Gosset was a British statistician
best known for his discovery of the t-distribution.
GOURSET LEMMA (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Give 𝜀 > 0 it is possible to divide the region
inside 𝐶 into finite number of meshes either complete square 𝐶𝑛 or partial square 𝐷𝑛
such that within each mesh there exists a point 𝑧0 for which

𝑓 𝑧 −(𝑧0 )
− 𝑓 ′ (𝑧0 ) < 𝜀 ∀𝑧 in the mesh.
𝑧−𝑧0

GRADIENT: The gradient of a curve at a point 𝑃 may be defined as equal to the gradient
of the tangent to the curve at 𝑃. The gradient of a multivariable function is a vector
consisting of the partial derivatives of that function. If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is a function of three
variables, then the gradient of 𝑓, written as ∆𝑓, is the vector
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
∆𝑓 = , ,
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
GRADIENT METHOD: A method for the minimization of a function of several variables. It
is based on the fact that each successive approximation of the function 𝐹 is obtained
from the preceding one by a shift in the direction of the gradient of the function:
𝑥 𝑛 +1 = 𝑥 𝑛 − 𝛿𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐹 𝑥 𝑛

The parameter 𝛿𝑛 can be obtained, e.g., from the condition of the magnitude
𝐹 𝑥 𝑛 − 𝛿𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐹 𝑥 𝑛 being minimal.

GRAM’S DETERMINANT: If 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … . . , 𝑔𝑛 are n vectors of a Hilbert space 𝐻, then their


Gram’s determinant ℸ (𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 ), is

𝑔1 , 𝑔1 𝑔2 , 𝑔1 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔1
𝑔1 , 𝑔2 𝑔2 , 𝑔2 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔2
⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮
𝑔1 , 𝑔𝑛 𝑔2 , 𝑔𝑛 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔𝑛

GRAM’S DETERMINANT PRINCIPLE: Vectors 𝑔1 , 𝑔2,…, 𝑔𝑛 of a Hillbert space 𝐻 are linearly


dependent, if and only if

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 = 0.

They are linearly independent if and only if

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 ≠ 0,

and, in this case

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 > 0.

GRAM – SCHMIDT ORTHONORMALISATION PROCESS: If 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , …. is a (possibly finite)


sequence of linearly independent vectors in a linear inner product space, than an
equivalent orthonormal sequence 𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , 𝑒3 , …, can be formed.

GRAM–SCHMIDT THEOREM: Let (𝑥𝑖 ) be a sequence of linearly independent vectors in an


inner product space 𝑉. Then there exists orthonormal sequence ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍1∞ such that
𝐿{𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 } = 𝐿{𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , … , 𝑒𝑛 } for all n. A separable Hilbert space can be identified
with either 𝑙2𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑙2 , in other words it has an orthonormal basis ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍ (finite or infinite)
such that
∞ ⌌𝑥, 2 ∞ ⌌𝑥, 𝑒𝑛 ⌍ 2 .
𝑥= 𝑛=1 𝑒𝑛 ⌍𝑒𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥 = 𝑛=1

GRAPH: A number of vertices (nodes), some of which are joined by edges. The edge
joining the vertex 𝑈 and the vertex 𝑉 may be denoted by (𝑈, 𝑉) or (𝑉, 𝑈). The vertex-set,
that is, the set of vertices, of a graph 𝐺 may be denoted by 𝑉(𝐺) and the edge-set by
𝐸(𝐺). For example, the graph shown here on the left has 𝑉(𝐺) = {𝑈, 𝑉, 𝑊, 𝑋} and
𝐸(𝐺) = {(𝑈, 𝑉), (𝑈, 𝑊), (𝑉, 𝑊), (𝑊, 𝑋)}. In general, a graph may have more than one
edge joining a pair of vertices; when this occurs, these edges are called multiple edges.
Also, a graph may have loops—a loop is an edge that joins a vertex to itself.
GRAPH HOMEOMORPHISM: An equivalence relation on the set of graphs, characterizing
their geometric properties. The notion of a graph homeomorphism is defined as follows.
Subdivision of an edge (𝑎, 𝑏) of a graph 𝐺 is an operation involving the addition of a new
vertex 𝑣, the removal of (𝑎, 𝑏), and the addition of two new edges (𝑎, 𝑣) and (𝑣, 𝑏).
Geometrically, this operation consists in addition of some (interior) point 𝑣 on the
line (𝑎, 𝑏); this point then becomes a new vertex. A graph 𝐺′ is called a subdivision of a
graph 𝐺 if it can be obtained from 𝐺 by repeating the operation of edge subdivision
several times. Two graphs 𝐺1 and 𝐺2 are said to be homeomorphic if they have
isomorphic subdivisions.
GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF AN LPP: The solution of a LPP obtained by graphical method
is called the graphical solution of LPP.

GRAPH ISOMORPHISM: An equivalence relation on the set of graphs. An isomorphic


mapping of a non-oriented graph to another one is a one-to-one mapping of the vertices
and the edges of one graph onto the vertices and the edges, respectively, of the other,
the incidence relation being preserved. Two graphs are said to be isomorphic if there
exists an isomorphic mapping of one of these graphs to the other. Isomorphic graphs
are usually not distinguished from one another. The number of pairwise non-
isomorphic graphs with a given number of vertices and a given number of edges is
finite. Isomorphism of oriented graphs, hypergraphs and networks can be defined in a
similar manner.
GRAPH OF A FUNCTION: For a real function 𝑓, the graph of 𝑓 is the set of all pairs (𝑥, 𝑦)
in 𝑹 × 𝑹 such that 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑥 is in the domain of the function. For many real
functions of interest, this gives a set of points that form a curve of some sort, possibly in
a number of parts that can be drawn in the plane. Such a curve defined by 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is
also called the graph of 𝑓 .
GRAPH OF A RELATION: Let 𝑅 be a binary relation on a set 𝑆, so that, when 𝑎 is related
to 𝑏, this is written 𝑎 𝑅 𝑏. The graph of 𝑅 is the corresponding subset of the Cartesian
product 𝑆 × 𝑆, namely, the set of all pairs (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑎 𝑅 𝑏.
GRAPH THEORY: A branch of discrete mathematics, distinguished by its geometric
approach to the study of various objects. The principal object of the theory is a graph
and its generalizations. The first problems in the theory of graphs were solutions of
mathematical puzzles (the problem of the bridges of Königsberg, the disposition of
queens on a chessboard, transportation problems, the travelling-salesman problem,
etc.). One of the first results in graph theory was a criterion on the possibility of
traversing all edges of a graph without passing through any edge more than once; it was
obtained by L. Euler in 1736 in solving the problem of the bridges of Königsberg.
The four-colour problem, formulated in the mid-19th century, though a mere
amusement puzzle at first sight, led to studies of graphs of both theoretical and applied
interest. Certain studies in the mid-19th century contain results of importance to graph
theory, obtained by solving practical problems. In the 20th century, problems involving
graphs began to arise not only in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, biology,
economics, sociology, etc., but also in mathematics itself — in topology, algebra,
probability theory, and number theory. At the beginning of the 20th century, graphs
were used to represent certain mathematical objects and to formally state various
discrete problems; besides the term "graph" , other terms such as map, complex,
diagram, network, labyrinth, were also employed. The first results, concerning
connectivity properties, planarity, and graph symmetry, which paved the way for a
number of novel directions of study in graph theory, appeared in the 1920s and 1930s.
The scope of research in graph theory was considerably extended in the late 1940s and
early 1950s, mainly as a result of the development of cybernetics and calculation
techniques. Interest in graph theory increased, and the range of problems dealt with by
the theory was considerably extended. It was shown, for individual classes of graphs
(trees, planar graphs, etc.), which had been studied before, that the solution of certain
problems was simpler for such graphs than for arbitrary graphs (finding conditions for
the existence of graphs with certain properties, establishment of graph isomorphism,
etc.).
GREAT CIRCLE: A great circle is a circle that is formed by the intersection of a sphere
and a plane passing through the center. A great circle is the largest circle that can be
drawn on a given sphere, and the shortest path along the sphere between two points is
a great circle. This great circle is unique unless the two points are antipodal.
GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR: The greatest common divisor of two natural numbers a
and b is the largest natural number that divides both a and b evenly (that is, with no
remainder) and is usually denoted as (𝑎, 𝑏). The greatest common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑏 has
the property of being divisible by every other common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑏. It is an
important theorem that there are integers 𝑠 and 𝑡 such that the greatest common
divisor can be expressed as 𝑠𝑎 + 𝑡𝑏. If the prime decompositions of 𝑎 and 𝑏 are known,
the greatest common divisor is easily found.
GREAT PICARD'S THEOREM: If an analytic function 𝑓 has an essential singularity at a
point 𝑤, then on any punctured neighborhood of 𝑤, 𝑓(𝑧) takes on all possible complex
values, with at most a single exception, infinitely often.
GREAT MEROMORPHIC PICARD'S THEOREM: If 𝑀 is a Riemann surface, 𝑤 a point
on 𝑀, 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) = 𝑪 ∪ {∞} denotes the Riemann sphere and 𝑓 : 𝑀\{𝑤} → 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) is a
holomorphic function with essential singularity at 𝑤, then on any open subset
of 𝑀 containing 𝑤, the function 𝑓(𝑧) attains all but at most two points of 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) infinitely
often.
GREEDY ALGORITHM FOR THE MINIMAL SPANNING TREE PROBLEM:
 Select any node randomly, then connect it to the nearby distinct node.
 Recognize the unconnected node that is nearby to a connected node, put in this
arc to the network.
 Ties can be broken randomly. Such ties may point towards multiple optimal
solutions.
GREEN, GEORGE (1793–1841): George Green was a British mathematician who
developed the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism. He had worked as a
baker, and was self-taught in mathematics; he published other notable mathematical
papers before beginning to study for a degree at Cambridge at the age of 40.
GREEN’S THEOREM:
1. Let 𝒇 𝑥, 𝑦 = [u(𝑥, 𝑦), 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦)] be a two-dimensional vector field, and let 𝐶 be a
closed path in the 𝑥, 𝑦 plane. Green’s theorem states that the line integral of 𝑓
around this path is equal to the following integral over the interior of the path 𝐶:
𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣
𝒇 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝐶 = − 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
𝐶 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝐶
2. If ∅, ∅′ are both single-valued and continuously differentiable scalar point
function such that ∆∅ and ∆∅’ are also continuously differentiable,
Then
∂∅
∆∅ . ∆∅′ dv = − ∅∆2 ∅′ dv − ∅ dS
V V S ∂n
∂∅
=− ∅′ ∆2 ∅ dv − ∅′ dS
V S ∂n
where S is closed surface bounding any simple- connected region, δn is an
element of the normal at any point on the boundary drawn into the region
considered, and V is the volume enclosed by 𝑆.

GREGORY, JAMES (1638–75): James Gregory was a Scottish mathematician who studied
in Italy. He obtained infinite series for certain trigonometric functions and was one of
the first to appreciate the difference between convergent and divergent series. He died
at the age of 36.

GROMOV-HAUSDORFF CONVERGENCE: Geodesic metric space is a metric space where


any two points are the endpoints of a minimizing geodesic.
GRONWALL'S INEQUALITY : Gronwall's inequality also called Grönwall's lemma
or Gronwall–Bellman inequality allows one to bound a function that is known to satisfy
a certain differential or integral inequality by the solution of the corresponding
differential or integral equation.

Let 𝐼 denote an interval of the real line of the form [𝑎,  ∞) or [𝑎, 𝑏] or [𝑎, 𝑏)
with 𝑎 < 𝑏. Let 𝛽 and 𝑢 be real-valued continuous functions defined on 𝐼.
If 𝑢 is differentiable in the interior 𝐼 and satisfies the differential inequality
then 𝑢 is bounded by the solution of the corresponding differential equation
𝑦 ′(𝑡) = 𝛽(𝑡) 𝑦(𝑡):

for all t ∇ I.

GRONWALL LEMMA: The Gronwall lemma is a fundamental estimate for (nonnegative)


functions on one real variable satisfying a certain differential inequality. The lemma is
extensively used in several areas of mathematics where evolution problems are studied
(e.g. partial and ordinary differential equations, continuous dynamical systems) to
bound quantities which depend on time. The most elementary version of the inequality
is stated in the following:
Let 𝜙: [0, 𝑇] → 𝑅 be a nonnegative differentiable function for which there exists a
constant 𝐶 such that 𝜙′(𝑡) ≤ 𝐶𝜙(𝑡)for all 𝑡 ∇ [0, 𝑇].
Then 𝜙(𝑡) ≤ 𝑒𝐶𝑡𝜙(0)for all 𝑡 ∇ [0, 𝑇].

GROUP: A group is a set 𝐺 of elements for which an operation ⊚ is defined that meets
the following properties:
(1) 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺 ⇒ 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺. (Closure Axiom)
(2) The associative property holds:
𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑐 = 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑐 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 ∇ 𝐺
(3) There is an identity element 𝑒 ∇ 𝐺 such that
𝑎⊚𝑒 =𝑎 = 𝑒⊚𝑎∀𝑎 ∇𝐺
(4) Each element 𝑎 ∇ 𝐺 has an inverse 𝑎 −1 ∇ 𝐺 such that
𝑎 ⊚ 𝑎−1 = 𝑒 = 𝑎−1 ⊚ 𝑎
If ⊚ is also commutative (that is, 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺), then the group is called an
Abelian group.
For example, the real numbers form an Abelian group with respect to addition, and the
nonzero real numbers form an Abelian group with respect to multiplication.
The theory of groups can be applied to many sets other than numbers, and to operations
other than conventional multiplication.
GROUP ACTION OF A GROUP G ON A SET X: A map from 𝑿 × 𝑮 → 𝑿, written (𝒙, 𝒈) or 𝒙𝒈
satisfying
(𝑥, 1𝐺 ) = 𝑥

(𝑥, 𝑔𝑕) = ((𝑥, 𝑔), 𝑕) .

For given 𝑔, the map 𝜌𝑔 : 𝑥 ↦ (𝑥, 𝑔) is a permutation of 𝑋, the inverse

mapping being 𝜌𝑔 −1 . The map 𝑔 ↦ 𝜌𝑔 is a homomorphism 𝜌: 𝐺 → 𝑆𝑋 where 𝑆𝑋 is the


symmetric group on 𝑋: conversely, every such homomorphism gives rise to an
action (𝑥, 𝑔) ↦ (𝑥)𝜌𝑔 . If the homomorphism 𝜌 is injective the action is faithful: 𝐺 may be
regarded as a subgroup of 𝑆𝑋 . In any case, the image of ρ is a permutation group on X.

If 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, the orbit of 𝑥 is the set of points {(𝑥, 𝑔): 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺}. An action


is transitive if 𝑋 consists of a single orbit. An action is 𝑘 −fold transitive if for any
two 𝑘 −tuples of distinct elements (𝑥1 , … , 𝑥𝑘 ) and (𝑦1 , … , 𝑦𝑘 ) there is 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺 such
that 𝑦𝑖 = (𝑥𝑖 , 𝑔), 𝑖 = 1, … , 𝑘. An action is primitive if there is no non-trivial partition
of 𝑋 preserved by 𝐺. A doubly transitive action is primitive, and a primitive action is
transitive, but neither converse holds. 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, the stabiliser of 𝑥 is the subgroup 𝐺𝑥 =
{𝑔 ∇ 𝐺: (𝑥, 𝑔) = 𝑥}.
Burnside's Lemma states that the number 𝑘 of orbits is the average number of fixed
points of elements of 𝐺, that is, 𝑘 = |𝐺|−1 𝑔∇𝐺 |𝐹𝑖𝑥(𝑔)|, where 𝐹𝑖𝑥(𝑔) = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑥𝑔 =
𝑥} and the sum is over all 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.
GROUPED DATA: Grouped data is a set of data is said to be grouped when certain groups
or categories are defined and the observations in each group are counted to give the
frequencies. For numerical data, groups are often defined by means of class intervals.
GROUPOID: A universal algebra with one binary operation. An important concept in the
theory of groupoids is that of isotopy of operations. On a set 𝑮, let there be defined two
binary operations, denoted by (⋅) and (∘); they are isotopic if there exist three one-to-
one mappings 𝜶, 𝜷 and 𝜸 of 𝑮 onto itself such that 𝒂 ⋅ 𝒃 = 𝜸 − 𝟏(𝜶𝒂 ∘ 𝜷𝒃) for
all 𝒂, 𝒃 ∇ 𝑮. A groupoid that is isotopic to a quasi-group is itself a quasi-group; a
groupoid with a unit element that is isotopic to a group, is also isomorphic to this group.
For this reason, in group theory the concept of isotopy is not used: For groups isotopy
and isomorphism coincide.
A groupoid with cancellation is a groupoid in which either of the equations 𝑎𝑏 =
𝑎𝑐, 𝑏𝑎 = 𝑐𝑎 implies 𝑏 = 𝑐, where 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 are elements of the groupoid. Any groupoid
with cancellation is imbeddable into a quasi-group. A homomorphic image of a quasi-
group is a groupoid with division, that is, a groupoid in which the equations 𝑎𝑥 =
𝑏 and 𝑦𝑎 = 𝑏 are solvable.
GROUP WITH UNIQUE DIVISION (R-GROUP): A group in which the equality 𝒙𝒏 =
𝒚𝒏 implies 𝒙 = 𝒚, where 𝒙, 𝒚 are any elements in the group and 𝒏 is any natural number.
A group 𝑮 is an R-group if and only if it is torsion-free and is such that 𝒙𝒏 𝒚 =
𝒚𝒙𝒏 implies 𝒙𝒚 = 𝒚𝒙 for any 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑮 and any natural number 𝒏. An R-group splits into
the set-theoretic union of Abelian groups of rank 1 intersecting at the unit element. A
group is an R-group if and only if it is torsion-free and if its quotient group by the centre
is an R-group. Subgroups of an R-group, as well as direct and complete direct products
of R-groups, are R-groups. The following local theorem is valid for the class of R-groups:
If all finitely-generated subgroups of a group 𝑮 are R-groups, then 𝑮 itself is an R-group.
Free groups, free solvable groups and torsion-free locally nilpotent groups are R-
groups.

GRUNSKY'S THEOREM: Let 𝑓 be a univalent holomorphic function on the unit


disc 𝐷 such that 𝑓(0) = 0. Then for all 𝑟 ≤ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑕 𝜋/4, the image of the disc |𝑧| <
𝑟 is starlike with respect to 0, , i.e. it is invariant under multiplication by real numbers
in (0,1).
H
HADAMARD CODE: Let 𝐻𝑛 be a Hadamard matrix. A Hadamard code of length 𝑛, denoted
𝐻𝑎𝑑𝑛 , is the binary code derived from 𝐻𝑛 by replacing all −1 values with 0 in 𝐻𝑛 and
then taking all the rows of 𝐻𝑛 and their complements as codewords.
HADMARD FACTORIZATION THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is an entire
function of infinite order 𝜌, then

𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑧 𝑚 𝑒 𝑔(𝑧) 𝑃 (𝑧)

Where 𝑚 is the order of the (possible) zeroes of 𝑎𝑡 𝑧 = 0, 𝑔 is a polynomial of degree


not exceeding 𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃(𝑧) is the canonical product associated with the sequence of non-
zeros of 𝑓 𝑧 .

HADAMARD MATRIX: A square matrix 𝐻𝑛 of dimension 𝑛 × 𝑛 is called a Hadamard


matrix if all of its entries are in {−1, 1} and it holds that 𝐻𝑛 · 𝐻𝑛𝑇 = 𝑛𝐼𝑛 .
HADAMARD MULTIPLICATION: The Hadamard product, or Schur product, of two 𝒎 ×
𝒏 matrices 𝑨 and 𝑩 is the 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix 𝑨𝑩 with

(𝐴 ∘ 𝐵)𝑖𝑗 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑏𝑖𝑗 , 𝑖 = 1, … , 𝑚; 𝑗 = 1, … , 𝑛.

HADAMARD SPACE: Hadamard space is a complete simply connected space with


nonpositive curvature.

HADAMARD THEOREM: The function 𝜁(𝑠) has infinitely many zeros in the critical strip.

HADAMARD THREE CIRCLES PRINCIPLE (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is


analytic in the closed ring 𝑟1 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 𝑟3.

Let 𝑟1 < 𝑟2 < 𝑟3 and 𝑀𝑖 be the maximum value of 𝑓(𝑧) on the circles 𝑧 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑖 =
1,2,3 . Then

𝑟 𝑟 𝑟
log ( 3 ) log ( 3 ) log ( 2 )
𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟1
𝑀2 ≤ 𝑀1 . 𝑀3
The three circles theorem as a convexity theorem: Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in the closed
ring 𝑟1 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 𝑟2 . Let 𝑟1 < 𝑟2 < 𝑟3 and 𝑀 (𝑟𝑖 ) be the maximum value of 𝑓(𝑧) on the
circles 𝑧 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2,3 . Then

log 𝑟3 − log 𝑟2 log 𝑟2 − log 𝑟1


log 𝑀 𝑟2 ≤ log 𝑀 𝑟1 + log 𝑀 𝑟3
log 𝑟3 − log 𝑟1 log 𝑟3 − log 𝑟1

HAHN–BANACH THEOREM: Let 𝐸 be a normed vector space, and let 𝐹 ⊆ 𝐸 be a


subspace. Let 𝜑 ∇ 𝐹 ∗ . Then there exists 𝜓 ∇ 𝐸 ∗ with ||𝜓|| ≤ ||𝜑|| and 𝜓(𝑥) = 𝜑(𝑥) for
each 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹.

Let 𝐸 be a normed vector space, and let 𝐹 be a subspace of 𝐸. For 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸, the following
are equivalent:

1. 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹 the closure of 𝐹;

2. for each 𝜑 ∇ 𝐸 ∗ with 𝜑(𝑦) = 0 for each 𝑦 ∇ 𝐹, we have that 𝜑(𝑥) = 0.

In simple words, let 𝑀 be a linear subspace of a normed linear space 𝑁 and let Φ be a
functional defined on 𝑀. Then Φ can be extended to a functional Φ0 defined on the
whole space 𝑁 such that Φ0 = Φ .

HAHN DECOMPOSITION: Let 𝜈 be a charge. There exist 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝐿, called a Hahn


decomposition of (𝑋, 𝜈), with 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = ∅, 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑋 and s.t. for any 𝐸 ∇ 𝐿, 𝜈 (𝐴⋂ 𝐸) ≥
0, 𝜈(𝐵⋂ 𝐸) ≤ 0. This need not be unique.

HAHN DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: Given a measurable space (𝑋, 𝛴) and a signed


measure 𝜇 defined on the ς-algebra 𝛴, there exist two measurable sets 𝑃 and 𝑁 in 𝛴
such that:

1. 𝑃 ∪ 𝑁 = 𝑋 and 𝑃 ∩ 𝑁 = ∅.

2. For each 𝐸 in 𝛴 such that 𝐸 ⊆ 𝑃 one has 𝜇(𝐸) ≥ 0; that is, 𝑃 is a positive
set for 𝜇.

3. For each 𝐸 in 𝛴 such that 𝐸 ⊆ 𝑁 one has 𝜇(𝐸) ≤ 0; that is, 𝑁 is a negative set
for 𝜇.
HALF-LIFE: The time it takes for a radioactive substance to decay to one-half its original
amount.
HALF PLANE: A half plane is the set of all points in a plane that lie on one side of an axis.
HALF-RANGE EXPANSIONS: In many physical problems, the function 𝑓(𝑥) is only known
over a finite interval, say 0 < 𝑥 < 𝐿. To express 𝑓(𝑥) as a Fourier series means that we
need to extend the function to be valid over all 𝑥. We can also extend the function in an
even manner to get a cosine series or as an odd function to get a sine series.

Figures:

(a) A function defined on a interval 0 < 𝑥 < 𝐿, where 𝐿 = 1.

(b) The even extension of the function onto the interval 0 < 𝑥 < 𝐿 is shown as a solid
curve and the periodic extension of period 2𝐿 is shown as a dot-dash curve.

(c) The odd extension of the function, solid curve, and the periodic extension of period
2𝐿, dot-dash curve.

The odd extension of 𝑓(𝑥) will generate a Fourier series that only involves sine terms
and is called the sine half-range expansion. It is given by

∞ 𝒏𝝅
𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒏=𝟏 𝒃𝒏 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑳 𝒙

2 𝐿 𝒏𝝅
where 𝑏𝑛 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝒙𝑑𝑥 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.
𝑳
On the other hand, the even extension generates the cosine half-range expansion

∞ 𝒏𝝅
𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒂𝟎 + 𝒏=𝟏 𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑳 𝒙

1 𝐿 2 𝐿 𝒏𝝅
where 𝑎0 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 and 𝑎𝑛 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙𝑑𝑥 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.
𝑳

HALL'S MARRIAGE THEOREM: Let 𝑆 be a family of finite sets, where the family may
contain an infinite number of sets and the individual sets may be repeated multiple
times.

A transversal for 𝑆 is a set T and a bijection 𝑓 from 𝑇 to 𝑆 such that for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, 𝑡 is a
member of 𝑓(𝑡). An alternative term for transversal is system of distinct
representatives or "SDR".

The collection 𝑆 satisfies the marriage condition (MC) if and only if for each
subcollection , we have

In other words, the number of sets in each subcollection 𝑊 is less than or equal to the
number of distinct elements in the union over the subcollection 𝑊. Hall's theorem states
that 𝑆 has a transversal (SDR) if and only if 𝑆 satisfies the marriage condition.

HAMEL BASE: A subject 𝐵 of 𝑆 is called a Hamel base (or simply base) for 𝑆 if and only if
𝐵 is a linealy independent set and 𝐿𝑀 𝐵 = 𝑆.

A linear space 𝑆 is called finite-dimensional if an only if 𝑆 has a finite base B, i.e. B is a


finite set which is a Hamel base. If 𝑆 is not finite dimensional it is called infinite
dimensional. 𝐿𝑀 (𝐵) means linear manifold spanned by B.

HAMILTONIAN CIRCUIT: A Hamiltonian circuit in a graph is a simple circuit that passes


through every vertex of the graph. Thus a circuit 𝒗𝟎 𝒗𝟏 𝒗𝟐 . . . 𝒗𝒏−𝟏 𝒗𝟎 in a graph (𝑽, 𝑬) is a
Hamiltonian circuit if and only if every vertex of the graph occurs exactly once in the list
𝒗𝟎 , 𝒗𝟏 , 𝒗𝟐 , . . . 𝒗𝒏−𝟏 .
HAMILTONIAN PATH: A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path that passes (exactly once)
through every vertex of the graph. Thus a path 𝒗𝟎 𝒗𝟏 𝒗𝟐 . . . 𝒗𝒏 in a graph (𝑽, 𝑬) is a
Hamiltonian path if and only if 𝑽 = {𝒗𝟎 , 𝒗𝟏 , 𝒗𝟐 , . . . 𝒗𝒏 }. A Hamiltonian path passes can
have no repeated vertices (since it is a path) and therefore passes through each vertex
of the graph exactly once.

HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM: A system of ordinary differential equations in


unknowns and 𝒒 = 𝒒𝟏 , 𝒒𝟐 , … , 𝒒𝒏 , of the form
𝒅𝒑𝒍 𝝏𝑯 𝒅𝒒𝒍 𝝏𝑯
=− , = : 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … . , 𝒏
𝒅𝒕 𝝏𝒒𝒊 𝒅𝒕 𝝏𝒑𝒊
where 𝑯 is some function of (𝒑, 𝒒, 𝒕), known as the Hamilton function, or Hamiltonian,
of the system (1). A Hamiltonian system is also said to be a canonical system and in the
autonomous case it may be referred to as a conservative system, since in this case the
function 𝑯 (which often has the meaning of energy) is a first integral (i.e. the energy is
conserved during motion).
HAMILTON-JACOBI THEORY:A branch of classical variational calculus and analytical
mechanics in which the task of finding extremals (or the task of integrating a
Hamiltonian system of equations) is reduced to the integration of a first-order partial
differential equation — the so-called Hamilton–Jacobi equation. The fundamentals of
the Hamilton–Jacobi theory were developed by W. Hamilton in the 1820s for problems
in wave optics and geometrical optics. In 1834 Hamilton extended his ideas to problems
in dynamics, and C.G.J. Jacobi (1837) applied the method to the general problems of
classical variational calculus.
HAMILTON OPERATOR: A symbolic first-order differential operator, used for the
notation of one of the principal differential operations of vector analysis. In a
rectangular Cartesian coordinate system 𝒙 = 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , … … … , 𝒙𝒏 with unit
vectors 𝒆𝟏 , 𝒆𝟐 , … … … , 𝒆𝒏 , the Hamilton operator has the form
𝒏
𝝏
𝛁= 𝒆𝒋
𝝏𝒙𝒋
𝒋=𝟏

The application of the Hamilton operator to a scalar function 𝑓, which is understood as


multiplication of the "vector" ∆ by the scalar 𝑓(𝑥), yields the gradient of 𝑓:
𝑛
𝜕𝑓
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑓 = ∆𝑓 = 𝒆𝒋
𝜕𝑥𝒋
𝑗 =1

HAMILTON-OSTROGRADSKI PRINCIPLE: A general integral variational principle of


classical mechanics, established by 𝑊. Hamilton for holonomic systems restricted by
ideal stationary constraints, and generalized by M.V. Ostrogradski to non-stationary
geometrical constraints. According to this principle, in a real motion of the system acted
upon by potential forces,
𝑡1 𝑡1

𝑆= (𝑇 − 𝑈)𝑑𝑡 = 𝐿𝑑𝑡
𝑡0 𝑡0

has a stationary value as compared with near, kinetically-possible, motions, with initial
and final positions of the system and times of motion identical with those for the real
motion. Here, 𝑇 is the kinetic energy, 𝑈 is the potential energy and 𝐿 = 𝑇 − 𝑈 is the
Lagrange function of the system.
HAMILTON’S PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION: A particle moves in a conservative field in
𝑡
such a way that ∫𝑡 2 𝑇 − 𝑉 𝑑𝑡 is a minimum, where T is the total Kinetic energy and V is
1

the potential energy of the particle.


HAMMING CODE WEIGHT: Let 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . The Hamming weight of 𝑥, denoted 𝑤𝑡(𝑥) is
defined to be the number of coordinates that are not zero. That is, 𝑤𝑡(𝑥) = 𝑑(𝑥, 0).
HAMMING DISTANCE: Let 𝑥 = 𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 and 𝑦 = 𝑦1 , . . . , 𝑦𝑛 . Then, for every 𝑖, we
define
1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑖 ≠ 𝑦𝑖
𝑑 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖 =
0 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖
and we define

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑑 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖

This distance is called Hamming distance. Note that that the Hamming distance is not
dependent on the actual values of 𝑥𝑖 and 𝑦𝑖 but only if they are equal to each other or
not equal.
HANKEL MATRIX: A matrix whose entries along a parallel to the main anti-diagonal are
equal, for each parallel. Equivalently, 𝑯 = (𝒉𝒊,𝒋 ) is a Hankel matrix if and only if there
exists a sequence 𝒔𝟏 , 𝒔𝟐 , … , such that 𝒉𝒊,𝒋 = 𝒔𝒊+𝒋−𝟏 . If 𝒔𝒌 are square matrices, then 𝑯 is
referred to as a block Hankel matrix. Infinite Hankel matrices are associated with the
representation of Hankel operators acting on the Hilbert space of square summable
complex sequences.
HANSON- HUARD STRICT CONVERSE DUALITY THEOREM: Let X 0 be an open set in Rn
and let 𝜃 and 𝑔 be differentiable on X 0 . Let x, u be a solution of the dual
(maximization) problem and let 𝜃 and 𝑔 be convex at 𝑥 if either.

 Ψ(x, u) is twice continuously differentiable at 𝑥 and the 𝑛 × 𝑛 Hessian matrix


∆2x Ψ(x, u) is non singular, or
 There exists an open set ⋀ ⊂ 𝑅 𝑚 containing 𝑢 and an 𝑛-dimensional
differentiable vector function 𝑒(𝑢) on ⋀ such that x = 𝑒(u) and 𝑒 u ∇
X 0 , ∆x Ψ(x, u) 𝑥=𝑒(𝑢) = 0 for 𝑢 ∇ ⋀

then 𝑥 solves the (primal) minimization problem (MP) and θ x = Ψ(x, u).

HARDY INEQUALITY: If 𝑝 > 1, 𝑎𝑛 ≥ 0 and 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + − − +𝑎𝑛 , then


∞ ∞
𝑥𝑛 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝
< 𝑎𝑛𝑝
𝑛 𝑝−1
𝑛=1 𝑛=1

𝑝 𝑝
except when all the 𝑎𝑛 are zero. The constant in this inequality is best possible.
𝑝−1

HARDY–LITTLEWOOD INEQUALITY: It states that if 𝑓 and 𝑔 are nonnegative


measurable real functions vanishing at infinity that are defined on 𝑛-
dimensional Euclidean space 𝑹𝒏 then

where 𝑓 * and 𝑔∗ are the symmetric decreasing rearrangements of 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥),
respectively.

HARDY-RAMANUJAN THEOREM: For any integer 𝒏 ≥ 𝟐 , let 𝝎(𝒏) denote the number of
distinct prime factors of 𝒏. The Hardy–Ramanujan theorem states that the
function 𝝎(𝒏) has normal order 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝒏 in the sense that, given any 𝜺 > 0, almost all
positive integers 𝒏 satisfy
𝝎 𝒏 − 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝒏 ≤ 𝜺 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝒏

Here, "almost all" means that the number of positive integers 𝑛 ≤ 𝑥 for which the
indicated property holds is asymptotically equal to 𝑥 as 𝑥 → ∞. A stronger, and best-
possible, version of this result shows that, given any real-valued function 𝜑(𝑛) tending
to infinity as 𝑛 → ∞, almost all positive integers 𝑛 satisfy
𝜔 𝑛 − log log 𝑛 ≤ 𝜑(𝑛) 𝑙𝑜𝑔⁡𝑙𝑜𝑔⁡𝑛

HARDY'S INEQUALITY: Hardy's inequality is an inequality in mathematics, named


after G. H. Hardy. It states that if is a sequence of non-negative real
numbers which is not identically zero, then for every real number p > 1 one has

HARDY'S THEOREM: Let 𝑓 be a holomorphic function on the open ball centered at zero
and radius 𝑅 in the complex plane, and assume that 𝑓 is not a constant function. If one
defines

for 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑅 then this function is strictly increasing and logarithmically convex.

HARMONIC ANALYSIS: A name given to a branch of mathematics and to a mathematical


method. Harmonic analysis as a branch of mathematics is usually understood to include
the theory of trigonometric series; Fourier transforms; almost-periodic
functions; Dirichlet series; approximation theory; abstract harmonic analysis; and
certain other related mathematical disciplines. The method consists in reducing certain
problems from various fields of mathematics to problems in harmonic analysis, which
are then solved.
HARMONIC COORDINATES: Coordinates in which the metric tensor 𝒈𝒊𝒌 satisfies the
condition
𝜕
(|𝑔| − − 𝒈𝒊𝒌 ) = 0,
𝜕𝑥𝑘

where 𝑔 is the determinant defined by the components of the tensor 𝒈𝒊𝒌 In several cases
use of harmonic coordinates leads to a considerable simplification of the calculations:
an example is the derivation of the equations of motion in general relativity.
HARMONIC FUNCTION: A function 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 is called harmonic function if first and second
order partial derivatives of 𝑢 are continuous and 𝑢 satisfies Laplace’s equations ∆2 V =
0.
HARMONIC SEQUENCE: A sequence of numbers is a harmonic sequence if the
reciprocals of the terms form an arithmetic sequence.
HCF: It is the abbreviation for highest common factor of two numbers. (Also written as
gcd).
HEAVISIDE UNIT FUNCTIONS (OR THE UNIT STEP FUNCTION): The Heaviside unit step
function by H(x) is defined as

1 if x ≥ 𝑎
H x =
0 if x < 𝑎

If 𝑎 > 0, then

1 if x ≥ 𝑎
H x−𝑎 =
0 if x < 𝑎

HEIGHT OF A FUZZY SET: The height of a fuzzy set is the largest membership value
attained by any point.
HELICOID: A surface generated by a curve which is simultaneously rotated about a fixed
axis and translate in the direction of the axis with a velocity proportional to the velocity
of rotation, is called helicoids.

HELMHOLTZ THEOREM OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS: Let

be the Hamiltonian of a one-dimensional system, where

is the kinetic energy and

is a "𝑈-shaped" potential energy profile which depends on a parameter 𝑉. Let


denote the time average. Let
Then

HEREDITARY PROPERTY: A property of a space is hereditary if each of its subspaces


possesses this property. Being countable is a hereditary property.

HERMITE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy
2
− 2𝑥 + 2λy = 0
dx dx

where λ is a constant, is called Hermite’s differential equation.

HERMITE–HADAMARD INEQUALITY: It is also called Hadamard's inequality, states that


if a function ƒ : [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑹 is convex, then the following chain of inequalities hold:

th
HERMITIAN MATRIX: A square matrix A = aij is said to be Hermitian if the i, j
th
element A is equal to the conjugate complex of the j, i element A i.e., if aij = aji for all
i and j.

1 2 − 3i 3 + 4i
a b + ic
For example, , 2 + 3i 0 4 − 5i are Hermitian matrices. If A is a
b − ic d
3 − 4i 4 + 5i 2
Hermitian matrix, then

aii = aii (by definition).

∴ aii is real for all i.

Thus every diagonal element of a Hermitian matrix must be real.

A Hermitian matrix over the field of real number is nothing but a real symmetric matrix.
Obviously, a necessary and sufficient condition for a matrix A to be Hermitian is that A
= A°.
HERMITIAN OPERATOR OR SELF-ADJOINT OPERATOR: An operator 𝑇: 𝐻 → 𝐻 is a
Hermitian operator or self-adjoint operator if
𝑇 = 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑖. 𝑒. ⟨ 𝑇𝑥, 𝑦 ⟩ = ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑇𝑦 ⟩ 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐻.

For any bounded operator 𝑇 operators 𝑇1 = 1/2(𝑇 ± 𝑇 ∗ ), 𝑇 ∗ 𝑇 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇𝑇 ∗ are Hermitians.

HESSIAN MATRIX: The Hess or Hessian matrix of a multivariable function is the


symmetric matrix of second partial derivatives. If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is a function of three
variables, its Hessian matrix is
𝑓𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑥𝑦 𝑓𝑥𝑧
𝑓𝑦𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑦 𝑓𝑦𝑧
𝑓𝑧𝑥 𝑓𝑧𝑦 𝑓𝑧𝑧
HEWITT- SAVAGE ZERO-ONE LAW: Every symmetric event concerning a sequence of
independent and identically distributed random variables has probability 0 or 1.

HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVES: If a function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on a closed


contour 𝐶 and a is any point within 𝐶 then derivatives of all orders are analytic and are
given by

𝑛! 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧
𝑓 (𝑛) 𝑎 = ∫𝐶
2𝜋𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑎)𝑛+1

HILBERT, DAVID: David Hilbert (1862 to 1943) was a mathematician whose work
included a modern, rigorous, axiomatic development of geometry.
HILBERT'S BASIS THEOREM: If is a Noetherian ring, then 𝑅[𝑋] is a Noetherian ring.

HILBERT–SCHMIDT NORM: We define Hilbert–Schmidt norm of a Hilbert–Schmidt


2 ∞ 2
operator 𝐴 by 𝐴 𝐻𝑆 = 𝑛=1 𝐴𝑒𝑛 . The set of Hilbert–Schmidt operators with this
norm is a Hilbert space.

HILBERT–SCHMIDT OPERATOR: Let 𝑇: 𝐻 → 𝐾 be a bounded linear map between two


Hilbert spaces. Then 𝑇 is said to be Hilbert–Schmidt operator if there exists an
∞ 2
orthonormal basis in 𝐻 such that the series 𝑘=1 ||𝑇 𝑒𝑘 || is convergent.

Note that

 Let 𝑇: 𝑙2 → 𝑙2 be a diagonal operator defined by 𝑇𝑒𝑛 = 𝑒𝑛 /𝑛, for all 𝑛 ≥ 1.


2
Then 𝑇𝑒𝑛 2
= 𝑛−2 = 𝜋 6 is finite.
 The identity operator 𝐼𝐻 is not a Hilbert–Schmidt operator, unless 𝐻 is finite
dimensional.
 All Hilbert–Schmidt operators are compact.
 Integral operator is Hilbert–Schmidt.

HILBERT SPACE: An (abstract) Hilbert space is a linear inner product space which is
complete with respect to the norm generated by its inner product.

HINGE THEOREM: It states that if two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of
another triangle, and the included angle of the first is larger than the included angle of
the second, then the third side of the first triangle is longer than the third side of the
second triangle.
HISTOGRAM: A histogram is a bar diagram where the horizontal axis shows different
categories of values and the height of each bar is related to the number of observations
in the corresponding category. If all categories are the same width, then the height of
each bar is proportional to the number of observations in the category. If the categories
are of unequal width, then the height of the bar is proportional to the number of
observations in the category divided by the width of the category
HÖLDER’S INEQUALITY: For 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, let 𝑞 ∇ (1, ∞) be such that
1 1
+ = 1.
𝑝 𝑞
For 𝑛 ≥ 1 and 𝑢, 𝑣 ∇ 𝐾 𝑛 , we have that
1 1
𝑛 𝑛 𝑝 𝑛 𝑞
𝑝 𝑞
𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖 ≤ 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖
𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1

HÖLDER’S INEQUALITY FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS): Let 𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞 be real numbers greater


than 1, with the added property that

1 1
+ =1
𝑝 𝑞

Then for any 𝑓 = 𝑓 1 , 𝑓 2 , … ∇ 𝑙 𝑃

And = 𝑔 1 , 𝑔 2 , … ∇ 𝑙 𝑞 ,
∞ ∞ 1/𝑝 ∞ 1/𝑝
𝑃 𝑞
𝑓 𝑘 𝑔(𝑘) ≤ 𝑓(𝑘) . 𝑔(𝑘)
𝑘=1 𝑘=1 𝑘=1

HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION: Functions f that satisfy (𝜕/𝜕𝑧)𝑓 ≡ 0 are the main concern
of complex analysis. A continuously differentiable function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑈 → 𝐶 defined on an
open subset 𝑈 of 𝐶 is said to be holomorphic if 𝜕𝑓/ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 at every point of 𝑈. Note
that this last equation is just a reformulation of the Cauchy-Riemann equations.
HOMEOMORPHISM: (a) A continuous bijective map 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌, such that 𝑓 −1 ∶ 𝑌 → 𝑋
is also continuous is called a homeomorphism (or a bicontinuous bijection) and denoted
by 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 . Two spaces 𝑋, 𝑌 are homeomorphic, written 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 , if there is a
homeomorphism 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 .
(b) Let (𝐴,∗) and (𝐵,∗) be semigroups, monoids or groups. A function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 from 𝐴
to 𝐵 is said to be a homomorphism if 𝑓(𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) = 𝑓(𝑥) ∗ 𝑓(𝑦) for all elements 𝑥 and 𝑦
of 𝐴. Let 𝑞 be an integer, and let 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑍 be a the function from the set of integers to
itself defined by 𝑓(𝑛) = 𝑞 𝑛 for all integers 𝑛. Then 𝑓 is a homomorphism from the
group (𝑍, +) to itself, since 𝑓(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑞(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑞 𝑚 + 𝑞 𝑛 = 𝑓(𝑚) + 𝑓(𝑛) for
all integers 𝑚 and 𝑛. Example Let 𝑅 ∗ denote the set of non-zero real numbers, let 𝑎 be a
nonzero real number, and let 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑅 ∗ be the function defined by 𝑓(𝑛) = 𝑎𝑛 for all
integers 𝑚 and 𝑛. Then 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑅 ∗ is a homomorphism from the group (𝑍, +) of integers
under addition to the group (𝑅 ∗ ,×) of non-zero real numbers under multiplication,
since 𝑓(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑎 𝑚 +𝑛 = 𝑎𝑚 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑓(𝑚)𝑓(𝑛) for all integers 𝑚 and 𝑛.
HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS: Suppose

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ⋯ + a1n xn = 0,


a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ⋯ + a2n xn = 0,
…………………………………… …1
……………………………………
am1 x1 + am2 x2 + ⋯ + amn xn = 0

is a system of m homogeneous equation in 𝑛 unknowns 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 . Let A=


𝑥1 0
a11 a12 … a1n 𝑥2 0
a21 a22 … a2n 𝑥
X= ⋯ 3 0
O= ⋯ where A, X, O are m × n, n × 1, m × 1
… … … …
am1 am2 … amn m×n, ⋯ ⋯
𝑥𝑛 n×1, 0 m×1,
matrices respectively. Then obviously we can write the system of equations (1) in the
form of a single matrix equation
𝐴𝑋 = 0. … 2

The matrix 𝐴 is called the coefficient matrix of the system of equation (1).

Obviously x1 = 0, x2 = 0, … , xn = 0 i.e., X = 0 is a solution of (1). It is a trivial (self-


obvious) solution of (1).

Again suppose x1 and x2 are two solutions of (2). Then their linear combination,
k1 x1 + k 2 x2 , where k1 and k 2 are any arbitrary numbers, is also a solution of (2).

We have

𝐴 k1 x1 + k 2 x2 = k1 (AX1 ) + k 2 (AX2 ) = k1 0 + k 2 = O[∴ AX1 = O and AX 2 = O]

Hence k1 X1 + k 2 X2 is also a solution of (2).

Therefore the collection of all solution of the system of equation AX = O forms a sub-
space of the n variable, AX = O, is n − r , where r is the rank of the matrix A.

HOMOLOGY GROUP: The 𝑖th homology group 𝐻𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ) of the complex 𝐶 ∗ is defined to be


the quotient group 𝑍𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ )/𝐵𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ), where 𝑍𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ) is the kernel of 𝜕𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐶𝑖−1 and
𝐵𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ) is the image of 𝜕𝑖+1 ∶ 𝐶𝑖+1 → 𝐶𝑖 . Note that if the modules 𝐶 ∗ occuring in a chain
complex 𝐶 ∗ are modules over some unital ring 𝑅 then the homology groups of the
complex are also modules over this ring 𝑅.
HOMOMORPHISMS OF LIE GROUPS: Let 𝐺, 𝐻 be Lie groups. A map 𝜑: 𝐺 → 𝐻 which is
smooth and a homomorphism in the group theoretical sense, that is, which satisfies
𝜑(𝑥𝑦) = 𝜑(𝑥)𝜑(𝑦) ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐺,

is called a homomorphism of Lie groups.

HOOKE’s LAW: Theory of elasticity deals with a study of the behavior of those
substances that possess the property of recovering their size and shape, when the forces
producing deformations are removed. The elastic response of a body to an applied load
is analyzed best through the introduction of the stress tensor. Deformations produced
are naturally relate to the applied loads and therefore to the stress tensor. These
relations are the stress- strain relations or the constitutive equations of the material.
In 1676, Robert Hooke, who as a result of his experiments with metallic rods under
axially applied tensile loads, concluded that “the extension is proportional to the force”,
a relation known as Hooke’s Law.

Mathematically it is expresses as T=𝐸ℯ, until the stress reaches the proportional limit.
The proportional limit means the stress at which the linear relationship between stress
and strains ceases. Its value, however, is not easily measured. The constant of
proportionality E is known as Young’s modulus of elasticity.

The stress T is assumed to vanish when ℯ vanishes. Since T and ℯ uniquely related, there
cannot be energy dissipation by the stress component during a loading and unloading
cycle. Such a solid, which allows linear stress-strain law for deformation without any
dissipation of energy, is called a linear elastic solid or Hookean solid.
HOROSPHERE: Horosphere is a level set of Busemann function.
HURWITZ'S THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Let {𝑓𝑘 } be a sequence of holomorphic
functions on a connected open set 𝐺 that converge uniformly on compact subsets of 𝐺 to
a holomorphic function 𝑓. If 𝑓 has a zero of order 𝑚 at 𝑧0 then for every small enough
𝜌 > 0 and for sufficiently large 𝑘 ∇ 𝑵 (depending on 𝜌), 𝑓𝑘 has precisely 𝑚 zeroes in
the disk defined by |𝑧 − 𝑧0 | < 𝜌, including multiplicity. Furthermore, these zeroes
converge to 𝑧0 as 𝑘 → ∞.

HURWITZ'S THEOREM (NUMBER THEORY): For every irrational number 𝜉 there are
infinitely many relatively prime integers 𝑚, 𝑛 such that

The hypothesis that 𝜉 is irrational cannot be omitted. Moreover the constant 5 is the
1+ 5
best possible; if we replace 5 by any number 𝐴 > 5 and we let 𝜉 = (the golden
2

ratio) then there exist only finitely many relatively prime integers 𝑚, 𝑛 such that the
formula above holds.

HYPERBOLA: A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane such that the difference
between the distances to two fixed points is a constant. A hyperbola has two branches
that are mirror images of each other. Each branch looks like a misshaped parabola. The
general equation for a hyperbola with center at the origin is
𝑥2 𝑦2
− =1
𝑎2 𝑏 2
The two diagonal lines are called asymptotes, which are determined by the equations
𝑏𝑦 + 𝑎𝑥 = 0 = 𝑏𝑦 − 𝑎𝑥.

HYPERBOLIC POINTS (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): The points on the surface at which


the Gaussian curvature 𝜅 is negative i.e, 𝐿𝑁 − 𝑀² < 0 are called hyperbolic points. In
this case principal curvatures at the points are of opposite signs.

HYPERGEMETRIC FUNCTION: The symbol α r is defind by

𝑇 α+r
α r = α α + 1 (α + 2)……….. α + r − 1 = (where r is a+ve integer)
𝑇 α

and α 0 = 1.

The general hypergeometric function mFn (α1 , α2 …………..αm ; β1 , β2 ………,βn ; x) is defined


by

∞ α 1 r α 2 r … α m r xT
mFn (α1 , α2 …………..αm ; β1 , β2 ………,βn ; x)= r=0 β
1 r β2 r … βn r r !

Another notation often used for general hypergeometric function is

α1 , α2 … αm ;
mFn = β , β … β 𝑥
1 2 n

HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES: The series

ab a a + 1 b(b + 1) 2 a a + 1 a + 2 b b + 1 (b + 2) 3
1+ x+ x + x +
1! c 2! c(c + 1) 3! c c + 1 (c + 2)
is called the hypergeometric series.

It can be shown that the series converges absolutely if x < 1 and if x = 1, and series
converges absolutely if c − a − b > 0 or c > 𝑎 + 𝑏. Hypergeometric series is frequently
used in connection with the theory of Spherical Harmonics.

HYPERPLANE: A hyperplane is defined as the set of points satisfying

𝐶1 𝑥1 + 𝐶2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝐶𝑛 𝑥𝑛 =Z (not all 𝐶𝑖 = 0)

or Cx=Z for prescribing values of 𝐶1 , 𝐶2 , … , 𝐶𝑛 and Z.

𝐶
The vector C is called vector normal to hyperplane and ± are called unit normals.
𝐶

A hyper plane divides the whole space 𝐸 𝑛 into three mutually disjoint sets given by

𝑋1 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 > 𝑍
𝑋2 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 = 𝑍

𝑋3 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 < 𝑍

The sets 𝑋1 and 𝑋3 are called open spaces.

The sets 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 ≤ 𝑍 and 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 ≥ 𝑍 are called closed half spaces.

HYPER SPHERE: A hyper sphere in 𝐸 𝑛 with the centre at a and radius 𝜀 > 0 is defined to
be the set of points

𝑋 = 𝑥: 𝑥 − 𝑎 = 𝜀

i.e., the equation of hypersphere is 𝐸 𝑛 is

2 2 2
𝑥1 − 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 − 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 = 𝜀2

where 𝑎 = 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑋 = 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛

HYPOTHESIS: A hypothesis is a proposition that is being investigated; it has yet to be


proved.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING: A situation often arises in which a researcher needs to test a
hypothesis about the nature of the world. Frequently it is necessary to use a statistical
technique known as hypothesis testing for this purpose. The hypothesis that is being
tested is termed the null hypothesis. The other possible hypothesis, which says “The
null hypothesis is wrong,” is called the alternative hypothesis.

I
IDEA: IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption
algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. It uses a block cipher with a 128-
bit key, and is generally considered to be very secure. It is considered among the best
publicly known algorithms. In the several years that it has been in use, no practical
attacks on it have been published despite of a number of attempts to find some.

IDEAL CLASS: Suppose that 𝐾 is an algebraic number field. Two fractional ideals 𝐴 and 𝐵
in 𝐾 are said to be equivalent, denoted by 𝐴 ∼ 𝐵, if there is a principal fractional ideal
⌌𝑤⌍ ≠ ⌌0⌍ such that 𝐴 = ⌌𝑤⌍𝐵. The equivalence of non-zero fractional ideals in an
algebraic number field is an equivalence relation. The equivalence classes are called the
ideal classes. Furthermore, all non-zero principal fractional ideals are equivalent to each
other. They form the principal class.

IDEAL FLUID OR PERFECT FLUID (FRICTIONLESS, HOMOGENEOUS AND


INCOMPRESSIBLE): The ideal fluid is one which is incapable of sustaining any tangential
stress or action in the form of a shear but the normal force (pressure) acts between the
adjoining layers of fluid. The pressure at every point of an ideal fluid is equal in all
directions, whether the fluid is at rest or in motion. This theory defines some concepts
of the flow such as wave motion. The lift and the induced drag of an airfoil etc., but it
fails to define the phenomena such as skin friction, drag of a body etc.

IDEALS: A subset of a ring 𝐴 is called a left (right) ideal of 𝐴 it is submodule of the left
(right) 𝐴- module of 𝐴. In otherwords, a left (right) ideal 𝐽 of 𝐴 is an additive subgroup
of 𝐴 such that 𝐴𝐽 ⊂ 𝐽(𝐽𝐴 ⊂ 𝐽). Under the operations induced from 𝐴, 𝐽 is a ring
(however, 𝐽 is not necessarily unitary). A subset if 𝐴 is called a two sided ideal or simple
an ideal of 𝐴 if it is a left and right ideal.

For an ideal 𝐽 of a ring 𝐴, we define a relation 𝑅 in 𝐴 by 𝑎𝑅𝑏 ⟺ 𝑎 − 𝑏 ∇ 𝐽. Then 𝑅 is an


equivalence relation that is compatible with the operations of 𝐴. Each equivalence class
is called a residue class modulo 𝐽, and the quotient ring 𝐴/𝑅 is denoted by 𝐴/𝐽 and
called the residue (class) rise (or factor ring) modulo 𝐽. If it is a field, it is called a
residue (class) field. conversely, given an equivalence relation 𝑅 that is compatible with
the operations of 𝐴, the equivalence class of 0 forms an ideal 𝐽 of 𝐴 and the equivalence
relation defined by 𝐽 coincides with 𝑅.

A left (right) ideal of a ring 𝐴 is said to be maximal if it is not equal to 𝐴 and is properly
contained in no left (right) ideal of 𝐴 other than 𝐴. Similarly, a left (right) ideal of 𝐴 is
said to be minimal if it is nonzero left (right) ideal of 𝐴.

If 𝑒 is an idempotent element of a unitary ring 𝐴, then 1 − 𝑒 and 𝑒 are orthogonal


idempotent elements, and 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑒 + 𝐴(1 − 𝑒) is the direct sum of left ideals. This is
called Peirce’s left decomposition. Peirce’s right decomposition is defined similarly.

IDEALS IN AN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELD: Let 𝐾 be an algebraic number field, with ring
of integers 𝑂. A subset 𝐴 of 𝑂 is an ideal in 𝐾 if the following condition is satisfied:
If 𝛼, 𝛽 ∇ 𝐴, then 𝜆𝛼 + µ𝛽 ∇ 𝐴 for every 𝜆, µ ∇ 𝑂.
We denote by {0}, the zero ideal.
IDENTITY ELEMENT: If ⟪ stands for an operation (such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication), then the identity element (called 𝑒) for the operation is the number
such that 𝑒 ⟪ 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all a. For example, zero is the identity element for addition,
because 0 + 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 . 1 is the identity element for multiplication, because
1 × 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅.
IDENTITY MATRIX: An identity matrix is a square matrix with ones along the diagonal
and zeros everywhere else and is denoted 𝐼𝑛 as where n is the order of the matrix 𝐼𝑛 .
For example:
1 0 0
1 0
𝐼2 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐼3 = 0 1 0
0 1
0 0 1
IDENTITY THEOREM: If 𝑓, 𝑔 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 are holomorphic near 𝑝, and there is a sequence
𝑝 ≠ 𝑧𝑛 → 𝑝 with 𝑓(𝑧𝑛 ) = 𝑔(𝑧𝑛 ), then 𝑓 = 𝑔 near 𝑝.
IMAGE OF A FILTER: If f is a mapping of a set 𝐸 into a set 𝐸0 :
1. The image by 𝑓 of a filter on 𝐸 is a filter on 𝐸0 ,
2. The inverse image by 𝑓 of a filter 𝐹0 on 𝐸0 is a filter on 𝐸 if every set of 𝐹0 meets 𝑓(𝐸).
In particular, if 𝑓 is a mapping of 𝐸 onto 𝐸0 the direct and inverse images of filters are
again filters.
IMAGE OF A POINT: The image of a point is the point that results after the original point
has been subjected to a transformation.
IMMERSED SUBMANIFOLD: Let 𝑀 be an abstract smooth manifold. An immersed
submanifold is a subset 𝑁 ⊂ 𝑀 equipped as a topological space (but not necessarily
with the topology induced from 𝑀) and a smooth structure such that the inclusion map
𝑖: 𝑁 → 𝑀 is smooth with a differential 𝑑𝑖𝑝 : 𝑇𝑝 𝑁 → 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 which is injective for each
𝑝 ∇ 𝑁.
IMMERSION: Let 𝑀 and 𝑁 be abstract manifolds, and let 𝑓: 𝑁 → 𝑀 be a map. Then 𝑓 is
called an embedding/immersion if its image 𝑓(𝑁) can be given the structure of an
embedded/immersed submanifold of 𝑀 onto which 𝑓 is a diffeomorphism.
IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION: Implicit differentiation provides a method for finding
derivatives if the relationship between two variables is not expressed as an explicit
function. For example, consider the equation 𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎. This equation defines a
relationship between 𝑥 and 𝑦, but it does not express that relationship as an explicit
function. To find the derivative 𝑑𝑦/𝑑𝑥, take the derivative of 𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎
𝑑 2 𝑑
𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
⇒ 2𝑥 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 2𝑦 =0
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦 2𝑥 + 𝑦
⇒ =−
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 + 2𝑦
IMPOSSIBILITY OF CIRCLE SQUARING: We cannot construct a square of area equal to a
given circle by a ruler and compass construction.
IMPUTATION: Imputation, in statistics, is the insertion of a value to stand in for missing
data. Analytics programs and methods don't function properly with missing data.
Statistical packages, for example, commonly delete any case with data missing.
INCENTER: The incenter of a triangle is the center of the circle inscribed inside the
triangle. It is the intersection of the three angle bisectors of the triangle.
INCIDENT EDGE: If 𝑣 is a vertex of some graph, if 𝑒 is an edge of the graph, and if
𝑒 = 𝑣 𝑣 ′ for some vertex 𝑣 ′ of the graph, then the vertex 𝑣 is said to be incident to the
edge 𝑒, and the edge e is said to be incident to the vertex 𝑣.
INCIRCLE: The incircle of a triangle is the circle that can be inscribed within the triangle.
INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM: The Incompleteness Theorem is a pair of logical proofs
that revolutionized mathematics. The first result was published by Kurt Gödel (1906-
1978) in 1931 when he was 24 years old. The First Incompleteness Theorem states that
any contradiction-free rendition of number theory contains propositions that cannot be
proven either true or false on the basis of its own postulates. The Second
Incompleteness Theorem states that if a theory of numbers is contradiction-free, then
this fact cannot be proven with common reasoning methods.

INCONSISTENT EQUATIONS: Two equations are inconsistent if they contradict each


other and therefore cannot be solved simultaneously.
INCREASING FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑥) is an monotonically increasing function if
𝑓 (𝑎) ≤ 𝑓 (𝑏) when 𝑎 ≤ 𝑏. A function 𝑓(𝑥) is an strictly increasing function if
𝑓 𝑎 < 𝑓 (𝑏) when 𝑎 < 𝑏 .
INDECOMPOSABLE MODULE: A non-trivial module over a ring 𝑅 is called
indecomposable if whenever 𝑀 = 𝑀1 ⊕ 𝑀2 with 𝑀1 , 𝑀2 submodules then either
𝑀1 = {0} or 𝑀2 = {0}.
INDEPENDENT EVENTS: Two events are independent if they do not affect each other.
For example, the probability that a new baby will be a boy is not affected by the fact that
a previous baby was a girl. Therefore, these two events are independent. If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are
two independent events, the conditional probability that 𝐴 will occur, given that 𝐵 has
occurred, is just the same as the unconditional probability that 𝐴 will occur:
𝑃 𝐴 ∕ 𝐵 = 𝑃(𝐴)
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: The independent variable is the input number to a function.
In the equation 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑥 is the independent variable and 𝑦 is the dependent
variable. An independent variable is a variable that is manipulated to determine the
value of a dependent variable s. The dependent variable is what is being measured in an
experiment or evaluated in a mathematical equation and the independent variables are
the inputs to that measurement. In a simple mathematical equation, for example:
𝑎 = 𝑏/𝑐 the independent variables, 𝑏 and 𝑐 , determine the value of a . Here's a simple
example: A teacher wishes to compare the number of tardy students wearing black with
the number of tardy students wearing pink. In this scenario, clothing color is the
independent variable and the difference in the number of students, categorized by
clothing color, is the dependent variable.
INDISCRETE TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 be any non-empty set and ℐ = 𝑋; 𝜑 . Then ℐ is called
the indiscrete topology and (𝑋; ℐ) is said to be an indiscrete space.
INDUCTIVE REASONING: Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple
premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a
specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning is often used in applications that involve
prediction, forecasting, or behavior.

Inductive reasoning is, unlike deductive reasoning, not logically rigorous. Imperfection
can exist and inaccurate conclusions can occur, however rare; in deductive reasoning
the conclusions are mathematically certain. Inductive reasoning is sometimes confused
with mathematical induction, an entirely different process. Mathematical induction is a
form of deductive reasoning, in which logical certainties are "daisy chained" to derive a
general conclusion about an infinite number of objects or situations.

INFINITE FOURIER COSINE TRANSFORM: Let 𝑓 𝑡 be a function defined and piecewise



continuous on 0, ∞ and is absolutely convergent on 0, ∞ i.e. ∫𝟎 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠.

Then Fourier cosine transform of 𝑓 𝑡 ,denoted by 𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 and is defined as


𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 cos 𝑠 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐺𝑐 𝒔
𝟎

and the function 𝒇 𝒕 is inverse fourier cosine transform of 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 and


defined as


2
𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐺𝑐 𝒔 cos s t ds
𝜋 𝟎

(2) is also known as Inversion Formula for Fourier sine transform.

INFINTE FOURIER SINE TRANSFORM: Let 𝑓 𝑡 be a function defined and piecewise



continuous on 0, ∞ and is absolutely convergent on 0, ∞ i.e. ∫𝟎 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 converges

Then Fourier sine transform of 𝑓 𝑡 , denoted by 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 and is defined as


𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 sin 𝑠 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐺𝑠 𝒔
𝟎
and the function 𝒇 𝒕 is inverse fourier sine transform of 𝐺𝑠 𝑠 or 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 and defined
as


2
𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐺𝑠 𝒔 sin s t ds
𝜋 𝟎

The second is also known as Inversion Formula for Fourier sine transform.

INFINITE PRODUCT: Let 𝑎𝑛 be a given sequence with terms 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0(𝑛 = 1,2, … 1). The

dormal infinite product 𝑎1 . 𝑎2 . 𝑎3 … is denoted by n=1 𝑎𝑛 . We call 𝑝𝑛 = 𝑎1 . 𝑎2 … … 𝑎𝑛 its
𝑛𝑡𝑕 partial product. If the sequence 𝑝𝑛 is convergent to a nonzero limit 𝑝, then this
infinite product is said to converge to 𝑝, and 𝑝 is called the value of the infinite product.
We write 𝑎𝑛 = p. if 𝑝𝑛 is not convergent or is convergent to 0, then the infinite
product is called divergent.

INFINITESIMAL: An infinitesimal is a variable quantity that approaches very close to


zero. In calculus ∆𝑥 is usually used to represent an infinitesimal change in 𝑥.
INFINITESIMAL AFFINE DEFORMATION: A transformation of the type

𝑥𝑖′ = 𝛼𝑖0 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 + 𝛼𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑗 , 𝑖, 𝑗 = 1,2,3

In which the co-efficient are so small that their products can be neglected in comparison
with the linear terms is called an infinitesimal affine transformations.

INFLECTION POINT: An inflection point on a curve is a point such that the curve is
oriented concave-upward on one side of the point and concave-downward on the other
side of the point. If the curve represents the function 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), then the second
derivative is equal to zero at the inflection point.
INITIAL-BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS: This time the infinite 𝒙 plane is replace by the
semi-infinite plane, with a boundary condition imposed on 𝒙 = 𝟎.
𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
𝒄 + = 𝟎, 𝒙 > 0, 𝑡 > 0
𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒕
𝒖 𝒙, 𝟎 = 𝒇(𝒙)
𝒖 𝟎, 𝒕 = 𝒈(𝒕)
.

Consider the case c>0, so that the waves are travelling from small 𝑥 to large 𝑥. The
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡
characteristics are again given by = 𝑐, = 1 ⇒ 𝑥 = 𝑐𝑡 + 𝑥0 . The characteristic
𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑟

through the origin, splits the 𝑥 − 𝑡 plane into two regions.

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
Example: 2 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with
𝝏𝒕

1 − 𝑥, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 1
𝑢 𝑥, 0 = , 𝑢 0, 𝑡 = 𝑒 −𝑡 , 𝑡 > 0.
0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 1

The characteristics are given by 𝑥0 = 𝑥 − 2𝑡

Therefore the plane is split into three regions and the solution is

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 − 2𝑡 > 1,
𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 1 − 𝑥 − 2𝑡 , 𝑖𝑓 0 < 𝑥 − 2𝑡 ≤ 1,
𝑥
𝑒− 𝑡− ,
2 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 − 2𝑡 < 0

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
Example: 2𝑥𝑡 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝑢, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition 𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 𝑥.
𝝏𝒕

The characteristic equations are

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡
= 2𝑥𝑡 ⇒ = 2𝑡𝑑𝑡 ⇒ log 𝑥 = 𝑡 2 + 𝑐 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟.
𝑑𝑟 𝑥

2 2 2
and rearranging we obtain 𝑥 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑡 ⇒ 𝑥 = 𝑥0 𝑒 𝑡 . Thus, 𝑥0 = 𝑥𝑒 −𝑡

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑢 𝑑𝑢
On using = 𝑑𝑟 + 𝑑𝑟 , we can write = 𝑢 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑟 , where the constant 𝐴 is
𝑑𝑟 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡 𝑑𝑟

actually constant along the characteristic defined by the value of 𝑥0 . Thus, 𝑥0 is really a
function of 𝑥0 and we write 𝑢 = 𝐹(𝑥0 )𝑒 𝑡 , since 𝑡 = 𝑟 and the function 𝐹 is determined
by the initial conditions. At 𝑡 = 0 , we have 𝑥 = 𝑥0 and 𝑢 𝑥0 , 0 = 𝑥0 so that 𝐹 𝑥0 = 𝑥0 .
Replacing 𝑥0 by the above expression involving 𝑥 and 𝑡, we obtain the final solution

2 2
𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑥0 𝑒 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑒 𝑡−𝑡

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
Example: Consider the initial-boundary-value problem 𝑢2 𝝏𝒙 + = 0, 𝒙 > 0, 𝒕 > 0 with
𝝏𝒕

𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 𝑥, 𝑥 > 0, 𝑢 0, 𝑡 = 0, 𝑡 > 0.

Characteristic equations are

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑢
= 𝑢2 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟 and 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 =constant on characteristic = 𝐹 𝑥0 .
𝑑𝑟

Hence, 𝑥 = 𝑢2 𝑟 + 𝑥0 = 𝑢2 𝑡 + 𝑥0 since 𝑢 is constant along the characteristic and 𝑑𝑥/𝑑𝑟 is


the derivative of 𝑥 along the characteristic curve.

Therefore, we have 𝑥0 = 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡.

Thus, substituting for 𝑥0 into 𝐹(𝑥0 ) we obtain the implicit solution 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝐹(𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡),
where 𝐹 is determined by the initial condition, namely, 𝑡 = 0, 𝑥 = 𝑥0 , and 𝑢 = 𝑥0 .

Thus, 𝐹 𝑥0 = 𝑥0 and so 𝑢 = 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡, 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡 > 0.

Squaring both sides, we can manipulate this solution into an explicit solution for 𝑢 in
terms of 𝑥 and 𝑡.

𝑥 𝑥
𝑢2 = 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡, 𝑢2 1 + 𝑡 = 𝑥, 𝑢2 = 1+𝑡 and so the final solution is 𝑢 = , 𝑥 > 0, 𝑡 >
1+𝑡

0.

Some examples of important linear partial differential equations are:

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢
= 𝑐 2 𝜕𝑥 2 (one dimensional wave equation),
𝜕𝑡 2
𝜕𝑢 𝜕2𝑢
= 𝑘 2 𝜕𝑦 2 one dimensional heat or diffusion equation ,
𝜕𝑡

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢
+ 𝜕𝑦 2 = 0 two dimensional Laplace equation .
𝜕𝑥 2

They are all examples of homogeneous, linear partial differential equations.


An example of an inhomogeneous equation is the two dimensional Poisson equation,
namely

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢
+ 𝜕𝑦 2 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 .
𝜕𝑥 2

If 𝑢1 (𝑥, 𝑦) and 𝑢2 (𝑥, 𝑦) are both solutions to a partial differential equation, then

𝑢 = 𝑐1 𝑢1 𝑥, 𝑦 + 𝑐2 𝑢2 (𝑥, 𝑦) is also a solution if 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 are constants. However, unlike


second order ordinary differential equations where there are two linearly independent
solutions and two arbitrary constants, linear partial differential equations may well
have an infinite number of linearly independent solutions and we may have to add
together solutions involving an infinite number of constants.

INFORMATION THEORY: Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps


into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.
The theory is devoted to the discovery and exploration of mathematical laws that
govern the behavior of data as it is transferred, stored, or retrieved.

INITIAL-VALUE PROBLEMS: Here the problem is defined over an infinite range in 𝒙. The
general statement of the problem is

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
𝒄 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0. (1)
𝝏𝒕

𝒖 𝒙, 𝟎 = 𝒇 𝒙 . (2)
The initial value problem (IVP) defined in Equations (1) and (2), is also referred to as a
Cauchy problem and the solution is determined uniquely by the single condition at
𝑡 = 0. Also, we have

𝝏𝒖
𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 = 𝑓(𝑥0 ). If 𝑓 is continuously differentiable, then 𝝏𝒙 = 𝑓 ′′ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡) and
𝝏𝒖
= −𝑐𝑓 ′ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡) are continuous. Thus, 𝑢 = 𝐹 𝑥0 = 𝐹 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 is a classical solution of
𝝏𝒕

characteristic curves. If 𝑓 is only piecewise continuous (derivatives are not continuous),


e.g.

1 − (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 , 𝑖𝑓 0 ≤ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 ≤ 1
𝑢= , then 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 is called a weak
0, 𝑖𝑓 (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 > 1
solution.
𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖 1
Example: 2 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition 𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 1+𝑥 2 .
𝝏𝒕

The characteristic curves are given by the solutions to

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡
= 2 ⇒ 𝑥 = 2𝑟 + 𝑥0 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟. Hence, 𝑥 = 2𝑡 + 𝑥0 ⇒ 𝑥0 = 𝑥 − 2𝑡.
𝑑𝑟

𝑑𝑢
The partial differential equation becomes 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝑢(𝑥0 ).

1 1
At 𝑡 = 0, 𝑥 = 𝑥0 and 𝑢 = 1+𝑥 2 . Therefore, 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 1+(𝑥−2𝑡)2 .
0

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖
Example: − 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition
𝝏𝒕

1 − 𝑥 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 1
𝑢 𝑥, 0 = .
0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 1

The characteristic curves are given by the solutions to

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡
= −1 ⇒ 𝑥 = −𝑟 + 𝑥0 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟.
𝑑𝑟

Thus, eliminating 𝑟 and re-writing 𝑥0 in terms of 𝑥 and 𝑡, we obtain 𝑥0 = 𝑥 + 𝑡.

𝑑𝑢
The partial differential equation reduces to the ODE 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥0 .

Using the initial condition, 𝑡 = 0, 𝑥 = 𝑥0 , , we have

1 − 𝑥0 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥0 ≤ 1 1 − 𝑥 + 𝑡 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑡 ≤ 1
𝑢(𝑥0 , 0) = and so 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = .
0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥0 > 1 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑡 > 1

INJECTIVE FUNCTION: We say that a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is injective or one-to-one if


𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑦) implies 𝑥 = 𝑦, or equivalently, whenever 𝑥 ≠ 𝑦, then 𝑓(𝑥) ≠ 𝑓(𝑦).
INNER PRODUCT: An inner product (or scalar product) is an assignment of a scalar
(𝑓, 𝑔) to every two vectors 𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 of a linear space 𝑆, in such a way that

𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑔, 𝑓 ,

(𝑓1 + 𝑓2 , g) = (𝑓1 , 𝑔) + 𝑓2 , 𝑔 ,

𝑎𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑎 𝑓, 𝑔 ,

𝑓, 𝑓 > 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑓 ≠ 0
INNER PRODUCT SPACE: The linear space 𝑆 in which an inner product has been defined
is called an inner product space.

INTEGRAL CLOSURE OF A RING: Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, let 𝑅 be a unital


subring of 𝑇. The integral closure 𝑅 of 𝑅 in 𝑇 is the subring of 𝑅 consisting of all
elements of 𝑇 that are integral over 𝑅.

INTEGRAL DOMAIN: A unital commutative ring 𝑅 is said to be an integral domain if the


product of any two non-zero elements of 𝑅 is itself non-zero. A field is an integral
domain.

INTEGRAL ELEMENT OVER R: Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, and let 𝑅 be a unital
subring of 𝑇. An element 𝛼 of 𝑇 is said to be integral over 𝑅 if 𝛼 is the root of some
monic polynomial with coefficients in 𝑅.

INTEGRAL HÖLDER INEQUALITY: Let 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, let 𝑞 ∇ (1, ∞) be such that
1/𝑝 + 1/𝑞 = 1. For 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿𝑝 (µ) and 𝑔 ∇ 𝐿𝑞 (µ), we have that 𝑓𝑔 is integrable, and
∫𝑋 𝑓𝑔 𝑑𝜇 ≤ 𝑓 𝑝 𝑔 𝑞

Let 𝑓, 𝑔 ∇ 𝐿𝑝 (µ) and let 𝑎 ∇ 𝐾. Then:

1. ||𝑎𝑓||𝑝 = | 𝑎 | ||𝑓||𝑝 ;

2. || 𝑓 + 𝑔 ||𝑝 ≤ ||𝑓||𝑝 + ||𝑔||𝑝 .

In particular, 𝐿𝑝 is a vector space.

For 1 ≤ 𝑝 < ∞, the collection of equivalence classes 𝐿𝑝 (µ) / ∼ is a vector space, and
|| · ||𝑝 is a well-defined norm on 𝐿𝑝 (µ) / ∼.

INTEGRALLY CLOSED SUBRING: Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, and let 𝑅 be a unital
subring of 𝑇. The subring 𝑅 of 𝑇 is said to be integrally closed in 𝑇 if every element of 𝑇
that is integal over 𝑅 is an element of 𝑅. Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, let 𝑅 be a
unital subring of 𝑇, and let 𝑅 be the integral closure of 𝑅 in 𝑇. R is an integrally-closed
subring of 𝑇. Moreover 𝑅 is integrally closed in 𝑇 if and only if 𝑅 = 𝑅 . An integral
domain is said to be integrally closed if it is integrally closed in its field of fractions.

INTEGRAL OF A SIMPLE FUNCTION: For any summable function 𝑓, we define the

integral of a simple function 𝑓: 𝑋 → ℝ over a measurable set 𝐴 by setting ∫ 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 =


𝐴

𝑘=1 𝑡𝑘 𝜇 𝐴𝑘 ∩ 𝐴 . The value of integral of a summable function is independent from
its representation by the sum of indicators over pair-wise disjoint sets.

Let 𝑓, 𝑔: 𝑋 → ℝ be simple summable function, let 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ ℝ and 𝐴 is a measurable. Then:

1. ∫(𝑎𝑓 + 𝑏𝑔) 𝑑𝜇 = 𝑎 ∫ 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 + 𝑏∫ 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 , that is 𝑆(𝑋) is a linear space;


𝐴 𝐴 𝐴

2. The correspondence 𝑓 → ∫ 𝑓 𝑑𝜇is a linear functional on 𝑆(𝑋);


𝐴

3. The correspondence 𝐴 → ∫ 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 is a charge;


𝐴

4. The function 𝑑1 𝑓, 𝑔 = ∫ 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑔 𝑥 𝑑𝜇(𝑥) has all properties of the distance


on 𝑆(𝑋) probably except separation.

5. For all 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋: ∫ 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝜇 𝑥 − ∫ 𝑔 𝑥 𝑑𝜇 𝑥 ≤ 𝑑1 (𝑓, 𝑔)

6. If 𝑓 ≤ 𝑔 then ∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ ≤ ∫ 𝑔 𝑑µ, that is integral is monotonic;

7. For 𝑓 ≥ 0 we have ∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ = 0 iff µ( { 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 ∶ 𝑓(𝑥) ≠ 0 } ) = 0.

INTEGRAND: The integrand is a function that is to be integrated. In the expression


2𝑥+3 2𝑥+3
∫ 𝑑𝑥, the function is the integrand.
𝑥+21 𝑥+21

INTERCEPT: The 𝑥- intercept is the value of 𝑥 where the curve crosses the 𝑥-axis and 𝑦-
intercept of a curve is the value of 𝑦 where it crosses the 𝑦-axis. For the line
𝑐
𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐, the 𝑥- intercept is − 𝑚 and the 𝑦-intercept is 𝑐.

INTERIOR POINT OF A SET: Let 𝑆 be a subset of 𝑅. A point 𝑝 ∇ 𝑆 is said to be an interior


point of 𝑆 if there exists a nbd (𝑝−∇, 𝑝+∇) of 𝑝 which is entirely contained in 𝑆.

INTERMEDIATE VALUE THEOREM: The intermediate value theorem states the


following: Consider an interval 𝐼 = [𝑎, 𝑏] in the real numbers ℝ and a continuous
function 𝑓 : 𝐼 → ℝ. Then,

𝑓 𝑎 < 𝑢 < 𝑓 𝑏 𝑜𝑟 𝑓 𝑎 > 𝑢 > 𝑓 𝑏 ⇒ ∃ 𝑐 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑓(𝑐) = 𝑢.


INTERPOLATION: Interpolation provides a means of estimating the value of a function
for a particular number if we know the value of the function for two other numbers
above and below that number. The general formula of interpolation is
𝑐−𝑎
𝑓 𝑐 =𝑓 𝑎 + 𝑓 𝑏 − 𝑓(𝑎)
𝑏−𝑎
For example, if 𝑓(26) = 655 and 𝑓(29) = 733, then
28 − 26
𝑓 28 = 𝑓 26 + 𝑓 29 − 𝑓(26)
29 − 26
2 2
= 655 + (733 − 655) = 655 + 78 = 655 + 52 = 707
3 3
INTERSECTION OF FUZZY SETS: The intersection of fuzzy sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is a fuzzy set
𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 in 𝑈 with membership function
𝜇𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 (𝑥) = 𝑚𝑖𝑛[𝜇𝐴 (𝑥), 𝜇𝐵 (𝑥)]
INTERSECTION OF SETS: The intersection of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of all elements
contained in both sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 and is denoted as 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵. For example, the intersection of
the sets 𝐴 = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and 𝐵 = {3,6,9,12,15,18,21} is the set 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = {3,6,9}.
INTERSECTION OF SUBSPACES: If 𝑆 and 𝑇 be two subspaces of 𝑉𝑛 , then the vectors
common to both 𝑆 and 𝑇 also constitute a subspace. This subspace is called the
intersection of the subspaces 𝑆 and 𝑇.

INTERVAL: The interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is the set of points between 𝑎 and 𝑏 including both
endpoints 𝑎 and 𝑏 themselves and is called a closed interval. The interval (𝑎, 𝑏) is the set
of points between 𝑎 and 𝑏 excluding both endpoints 𝑎 and 𝑏 themselves and is called an
open interval.
ij ….k
INTRISIC DERIVATIVE (TENSORS): Consider a tensor 𝐴 ab ….p
defined along a curve

𝑥 𝑖 = 𝑥 𝑖 (t) of parameter 𝑡. The intrinsic derivative is defined by the equation


ij ….k
δA ab ….p dx P
= A abij….k
….,p
. It means that the intrinsic derivative of a tensor is a tensor of the
δt dt

same rank and similar character as the original tensor.

δ∅ 𝜕∅ dx i dx i 𝜕∅ d∅
Similarly intrinsic derivative of ∅ is = = ∅, i . Also = . Thus intrinsic
δt 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 dt dt 𝜕𝑡 dt

derivative of ∅ is its total derivative.

INVARIANT: An invariant quantity doesn’t change under specified conditions. For


example, the distance between two points in Euclidian space is invariant if we rotate or
translate the coordinate system used to express those points.
INVENTORY: The inventory can be defined as a stock of goods which is kept for the
future purpose.

TYPES OF INVENTORY:
(i) RAW MATERIALS: The material used in manufacture of the products such as
fuels etc. is called raw material
(ii) PARTLY FINISHED ITEMS: The material which held between manufacturing stage
is called partly finished items.
(iii) FINISHED GOODS: The products which are ready for sale or distribution called
finished goods.
(iv) SPARE PARTS: The spare parts used in the production process but do not become
part of the product.

INVENTORY CONTROL: Inventory control is the process of deciding what and how much
of various terms are to be kept in stock. It also use to determines the time and quantity
of various items to be procured. It is useful to reduce investment in inventories and
ensuring that production process does not suffer at the same time.

INVERSE: If ⟪ represents an operation (such as addition, multiplication, subtraction


etc), and 𝑒 represents the identity element of that operation, then the inverse of a
number 𝑎 is denoted as 𝑎−1 and is the number that satisfies 𝑎 ⟪ 𝑎−1 = 𝑒. For example,
the additive inverse of a number 𝑥 is −𝑥 (also called the negative of x) because
𝑥 + −𝑥 = 0. The multiplicative inverse of 𝑥 is 1/𝑥 (also called the reciprocal of 𝑥)
1
because 𝑥 × 𝑥 = 1(assuming 𝑥 ≠ 0).

INVERSE FINITE FOURIER COSINE TRANSFORM: The above function 𝑓 𝑡 is known as


inverse finite Fourier cosine transform of 𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 𝑜𝑟𝐹𝑐 𝑠 and is defined as


1 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜋 𝑠 𝑡
𝐹𝐶−1 𝐹𝐶 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹𝑐 0 + 𝐹𝑐 𝑠
ℓ ℓ ℓ
𝑠=1

This formula is obtained from Fourier cosine series


𝑎0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡
𝑓 𝑡 = + 𝑎𝑛 .
2 ℓ
𝑛=1

It is also known as inversion formula for finite Fourier cosine transform.

INVERSE FINITE FOURIER SINE TRANSFORM: Let f(t) be a function defined on 0, ℓ and
satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier sine transform of
𝑓 𝑡 , 𝑜 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠
𝓵
𝜋𝑆𝑡
𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁
𝟎 ℓ

The above function 𝑓 𝑡 is known as inverse finite Fourier sine transform of 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡


and is defined as


2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡
𝐹𝑆−1 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 =𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡
ℓ ℓ
𝑠=1

∞ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡
𝑇𝑕𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑜𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑛=1 𝑏𝑠 .

It is also known as inversion formula.

∞ 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑠𝑡
Hence 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑠=1 ℓ 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 ℓ


2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑠𝑡
𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡
ℓ ℓ
𝑠=1

INVERSE FUNCTION: An inverse function of a function is a function that does exactly the
opposite of the original function. If the function 𝑔 is the inverse of the function 𝑓 , and if
𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), then 𝑥 = 𝑔(𝑦). It is to be noted that
1. The inverse function of a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 exists if and only if 𝑓 is a bijection, that
is, 𝑓 is an injection and a surjection.
2. When an inverse function exists, it is unique.
3. The inverse function and the inverse image of a set coincide in the following sense.
Suppose 𝑓 −1 (𝐴) is the inverse image of a set 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑌 under a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌. If 𝑓 is
a bijection, then 𝑓 −1 (𝑦) = 𝑓 −1 ({𝑦}).
INVERSE FUNCTION THEOREM: For a holomorphic function 𝑓 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 defined near 𝑝,
if 𝑓 ′ (𝑝) ≠ 0 then 𝑓 is a local biholomorphism near 𝑝. The theorem hands us a unique
holomorphic function 𝑔 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 defined near 𝑓(𝑝) such that 𝑓(𝑔(𝑤)) = 𝑤 and
𝑔(𝑓(𝑧)) = 𝑧 (for all 𝑧, 𝑤 close enough to 𝑝, 𝑓(𝑝) respectively).
INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL: If the variables 𝑦 and 𝑥 are related by the equation
𝑦 = 𝑘/𝑥, where 𝑘 is a constant, then 𝑦 is said to be inversely proportional to 𝑥.
INVERSE MATRIX: The inverse of a square matrix 𝑨 is the square matrix of same order
that, when multiplied by 𝑨, gives the identity matrix 𝑰. Inverse of the matrix 𝑨 is written
as 𝑨−𝟏 . Note that 𝑨𝑨−𝟏 = 𝑰 = 𝑨−𝟏 𝑨. 𝑨−𝟏 exists if 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 ≠ 0.
The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix can be found from the formula:
𝑎 𝑏 1 𝑑 −𝑏
=
𝑐 𝑑 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 −𝑐 𝑎
INVERSE OF A FUNCTION: Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be sets, and let 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 be a function from 𝐴 to
𝐵. A function 𝑔: 𝐵 → 𝐴 from 𝐵 to 𝐴 is said to be the inverse of the function 𝑓 if
𝑔(𝑓(𝑎)) = 𝑎 for all elements 𝑎 of 𝐴 and 𝑓(𝑔(𝑏)) = 𝑏 for all elements 𝑏 of 𝐵. If there
exists a function 𝑔: 𝐵 → 𝐴 that is the inverse of 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵, then the function 𝑓 is said to
be invertible and the inverse of a function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 is denoted by 𝑓 −1 ∶ 𝐵 → 𝐴.

INVERSE POINTS W.R.T. A CIRCLE: Two points 𝐴(𝑧 = 𝑎) and 𝐵(𝑧 = 𝑏)are said to be
inverse points of a circle with centre 𝑂(𝑧 = 𝑧0 ) and radius 𝑟 if 𝑂. 𝐴, 𝐵 are collinear and
𝑂𝐴. 𝑂𝐵 = 𝑟 2

So that a − z0 ∙ b − z0 = r 2

Then arg a − z0 = arg b − z0 = −are b − z0

This gives arg a − z0 + arg b − z0 = 0

⇒ a − z0 b − z0 is real and equal to r 2 .

Hence a − z0 b − z0 = r 2 is the required equation.

INVERSE RULE: Suppose 𝑓 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑅 is differentiable on [𝑎, 𝑏] and 𝑓 ′ (𝑥) > 0 for all
𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]. Let 𝑓(𝑎) = 𝑐 and 𝑓(𝑏) = 𝑑. Then the map 𝑓 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → [𝑐, 𝑑] is bijective
1
and 𝑓 −1 is differentiable on [𝑐, 𝑑] with 𝑓 −1 ′ (𝑥) = .
𝑓 ′ (𝑓 −1 (𝑥))

INVERSION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): By means of the transformation 𝑤 = 1/𝑧, figure in


𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 are mapped upon the reciprocal figures in 𝑤 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒.

INVERTIBLE MATRICES: Let A be any n-rowed square matrix. Then a matraix 𝐵, if


exists, such that A= 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐼𝑛 is called inverse of A.

Every invertible matrix possesses a unique inverse.


IRRATIONAL NUMBER: An irrational number is a real number that is not a rational
number (i.e., it cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers). Irrational numbers can
be represented by decimal fractions in which the digits go on forever without ever
repeating a pattern. Some of the most common irrational numbers are square roots of
positive integers, such as 3 = 1.732505 . . .. 𝜋 and 𝑒 are also irrational.
IRREDUCIBLE POLYNOMIALS: Let 𝑘 be a field. A polynomial 𝑓 𝑋 𝜖𝑘[𝑋] of degree 𝑛 is
said to be reducible over 𝑘 𝑖𝑓 𝑓 is divisible by a polynomial of degree 𝑣 < 𝑛 in
𝑘 𝑋 𝑣 ≠ 0 ; otherwise, it is said to be irreducible over 𝑘. Any polynomial of degree 1 is
irreducible. A polynomial 𝑓 is a prime element of 𝑘 𝑋 if and only if 𝑓 is irreducible over
𝑘. Let 𝐼 be a unique factorization domain. If 𝑓(𝑋) is a polynomial (1) in 𝐼 𝑋 such that for
a prime element 𝑝 in 𝐼, 𝑎𝑛 ≢ 0 (mod 𝑝), 𝑎𝑛−1 ≡ 𝑎𝑛−2 ≡ ⋯ ≡ 𝑎0 ≡ 0 mod 𝑝 but 𝑎0 ≢
0 mod 𝑝2 , then 𝑓(𝑋) is irreducible over the field of quotients of 𝐼 Eisenstein’s
theorem). If a polynomial (2) in 𝑚 variables over an algebraic number field 𝑘 is
irreducible, we can obtain an irreducible polynomial in 𝑋1 , … , 𝑋𝜇 (0 < 𝜇 < 𝑚) from the
polynomial 𝐹(𝑋1 , … , 𝑋𝑚 ) by assigning appropriate values in 𝑘 to 𝑋𝜇 +1 , … , 𝑋𝑚 .

Two lines through a vertex of a triangle are isogonal conjugate if they are
symmetric in the bisector of the triangle's angle at this vertex.

ISOGONAL CONJUGATE: Two lines through a vertex of a triangle are isogonal


conjugate if they are symmetric in the bisector of the triangle's angle at this vertex. If
three cevians in a triangle are concurrent in a point, their isogonal conjugates are also
concurrent in a point that is known as its isogonal conjugate.

ISOLATED POINT: Let 𝑋 be a topological space, let 𝑆 ⊆ 𝑋, and let 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆. The point 𝑥 is
said to be an isolated point of 𝑆 if there exists an open set 𝑈 ⊆ 𝑋 such that 𝑈 ∩ 𝑆 =
{𝑥}.
The set 𝑆 is isolated if every point in 𝑆 is an isolated point.

ISOLATED SINGULARITY: We say that a complex-valued function 𝑓 has an isolated


singularity at 𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 if 𝑓 is analytic in a punctured disc {𝑧 ∶ 0 < |𝑧 − 𝑤| < 𝑠}. If
𝑤 = ∞ we replace this by {𝑧 ∶ 𝑠 < |𝑧| < +∞}. The singularity is then removable/ a
pole/essential according to whether 𝑓 has a finite/infinite/nonexistent limit as 𝑧 → 𝑤.
We also say that a function 𝑓 is analytic apart from isolated singularities in a domain
𝐷 ⊆ 𝐶 if for every 𝑎 ∇ 𝐷 either 𝑓 is analytic at 𝑎 or 𝑎 is an isolated singularity.
ISOMETRY: A one-one mapping Φ from the metric space (𝑋, 𝜌) onto the metric space
(𝑋, 𝜌′) is called an isometry if, for any 𝑓, 𝑔 𝜖 𝑋.

𝜌 𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝜌′ Φ 𝑓 , Φ 𝑔 .

The two spaces are then said to be isometric.

As an example of isometry, take both the metric spaces to be the real number system
with the usual metric (i.e. R with 𝜌 𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑓 − 𝑔 , 𝑓, 𝑔 𝜖 𝑅), under the mapping
𝑓 → 𝑓 + 𝑎, where 𝑎 is a fixed real number.

Another mapping which is also an isometry in this context is the one that takes any real
number 𝑓 𝑡𝑜 − 𝑓. A one-one linear transformation 𝑇 of 𝑁 into 𝑁 ∗∗ is called an isometry if
𝑇𝑓 = 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑁, when 𝑁 ∗ is conjugate space of N.

We also say that the mapping 𝑇 is an isometric isomorphism of 𝑁 into 𝑁 ∗∗ . If such an


isometric isomorphism exists we say that 𝑁 is isometrically isomorphic to 𝑁 ∗∗ .

ISOMORPHIC SPACE: Two normed linear spaces are said to be isomorphic if there exists
a one-one correspondence between them which preserves linearity and the norm.

ISOMORPHISM EXTENSION THEOREM: Given any field 𝐹, an algebraic


extension field 𝐸 of 𝐹 and an isomorphism 𝜑 mapping 𝐹 onto a field 𝐹 ′ then 𝜑 can be
extended to an isomorphism 𝜏 mapping 𝐸 onto an algebraic
extension 𝐸 ′ of 𝐹 ′ (a subfield of the algebraic closure of 𝐹 ′ ).

ISOMORPHISM OF GRAPHS: An isomorphism between two graphs (𝑉, 𝐸) and (𝑉0 , 𝐸0 ) is


a bijective function 𝜙: 𝑉 → 𝑉0 with the following property:
For any two distinct vertices 𝑎 and 𝑏 belonging to 𝑉 , {𝑎, 𝑏} ∇ 𝐸 if and only if
{𝜙(𝑎), 𝜙(𝑏)} ∇ 𝐸0 . If there exists such an isomorphism 𝜙: 𝑉 → 𝑉0 between two graphs
(𝑉, 𝐸) and (𝑉0 , 𝐸0 ) then these graphs are said to be isomorphic.
ISOPERIMETRIC PROBLEMS: It is necessary to make a given integral
𝑥
𝐼 = ∫𝑥 2 𝐼 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 = constant. Such problem involves one or more constraint
1

conditions. This type of problems are called isoperimetric problem.


J
JACKSON THEOREM: Let 𝑈𝑛 be a Chebyshev subspace of 𝐶[𝑎, 𝑏]. Then each 𝑓 ∇
𝐶[𝑎, 𝑏] possesses a unique polynomial of best approximation in𝐿1 -norm.
JACOBIAN: If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦), 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦) are two functions of two variables, then the Jacobian
matrix is the matrix of partial derivatives:
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
The equivalent definition also applies to cases with more than two dimensions. For
three functions 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑔 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑕(𝑥, 𝑦), the Jacobian matrix becomes
𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜕𝑕 𝜕𝑕 𝜕𝑕
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
And so on. The determinant of this matrix is known as the Jacobian determinant.
JACOBIAN OF TRANSORMATION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): In general, the transformation

𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑣 = 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦)

Maps a closed region 𝑅 of z-plane upon a closed region 𝑅′ of 𝜔 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒. Let 𝛿𝐴𝑧 and
𝛿𝐴𝜔 denote respectively areas of these regions. Then it is easy to show that

𝛿𝐴𝜔
lim =𝐽
𝛿𝐴 𝑧 →0 𝛿𝐴𝑧

Provided, 𝑢, 𝑣, are continuously differentiable, where

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑢
𝜕(𝑢, 𝑣) 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
𝒥= =
𝜕(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

The determinant 𝒥 is called the Jacobian of the transformation.


JACOBI’S ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS: The elliptic function with two simple poles and two
simple zeros in a cell are called Jacobi’s elliptic functions.

JACOBSON–BOURBAKI THEOREM: Suppose that 𝐿 is a division ring. The Jacobson–


Bourbaki theorem states that there is a natural 1: 1 correspondence between:

 Division rings 𝐾 in 𝐿 of finite index 𝑛 (in other words 𝐿 is a finite-dimensional left


vector space over 𝐾).
 Unital 𝐾-algebras of finite dimension 𝑛 (as 𝐾-vector spaces) contained in the
ring of endomorphisms of the additive group of 𝐾.

The sub division ring and the corresponding subalgebra are each other's commutants.

JENSEN'S COVERING THEOREM: Jensen's covering theorem states that if 0 does not
exist then every uncountable set of ordinals is contained in a constructible set of the
same cardinality. Informally this conclusion says that the constructible universe is close
to the universe of all sets.

JENSEN’S INEQUALITY COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Let 𝑓(𝑧) be an integral function which


does not vanish at the origin. Also let 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , 𝑟3, … … 𝑟𝑛 be the moduli of zeros 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , … . 𝑧𝑛
of 𝑓 𝑧 , arranged as non-decreasing sequence, multiple zero being repeated. Then

𝑅 𝑛 𝑓(𝑜) ≤ 𝑀 𝑅 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 … , 𝑟𝑛 𝑖𝑓 𝑟𝑛 < 𝑅 < 𝑟𝑛+1.

JENSEN’S FORMULA COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on the circle 𝛾
such that 𝑧 = 𝑅, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑓 (𝑧) has zeros at the points 𝑎𝑗 ≠ 0, (𝑗 = 1,2, … . , 𝑚) and poles at
𝑏𝑗 ≠ 0, (𝑗 = 1,2, … … , 𝑛) inside 𝛾, multiple zeros and poles being repeated, then

2𝜋 𝑚 𝑛
1 𝑅 𝑅
log 𝑓 𝑅𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃 = log 𝑓(0) + log − log
2𝜋 0 𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑠
𝑟=1 𝑠=1

JENSEN’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Let 𝑓(𝑧) be analytic for 𝑓(𝑧) ≤ 𝑅. Let
𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , … 𝑟𝑛 , be moduli of the zeros of 𝑓(𝑧) in 𝑧 < 𝑅 arranged as a non-decreasing
sequence. Then, 𝑖𝑓 𝑟𝑛 ≤ 𝑟 < 𝑟𝑛+1 , prove that

2𝜋
𝑟 𝑛 𝑓(0) 1
log = log 𝑓 𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃
𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , … 𝑟𝑛 2𝜋 0
JOCHIMSTHAL’S THEOREM DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): If the curve of intersection of
two surface is a line of curvature on both the surfaces, then the surface cut a constant
angle. Conversely, if two surfaces cut a constant angle and the curve of intersection is a
line of curvature on one of them, then it is also a line curvature on the other.

JOCKEYING: If there are number of queues, then one may leave one queue to join
another.

JOHNSON’S METHDO For n-jobs 2- machines): Let suppose 𝑛 𝑗𝑜𝑏𝑠 1,2, … 𝑛 are to be
processed on two machines say 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2, … 𝑛 are the respective
processing times of 𝑖 𝑡𝑕 job on 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵 machines respectively.

Assumptions

(i) Each job is processed in order AB.


(ii) 𝐴𝑖 = Processing time of 𝑖 𝑡𝑕 job on machine 𝐴 𝑖 = 1,2 … 𝑛
(iii) 𝐵𝑖 = Processing time of 𝑖 𝑡𝑕 job on machine 𝐵 𝑖 = 1,2 … 𝑛

We want to find the sequence of jobs to be performed on two machines so that the total
time 𝑇 elapsed from the start of the first job to the completion of the last job to be
minimized.

Step1. Select the smallest processing time in the list 𝐴1 , 𝐴2 , … 𝐴𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , … 𝐵𝑛 . If there
is a tie then either of these smallest processing time may be selected or in this case
consider the following cases:

(i) Minimum of all the processing times is 𝐴𝑟 which is also equal to 𝐵𝑠 . Then min
𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐴𝑟 = 𝐵𝑠 . . Then do the 𝑟 𝑡𝑕 job first and 𝑠 𝑡𝑕 job in the end.
(ii) If min 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐴𝑟 but also 𝐴𝑟 = 𝐴𝑘 𝑠𝑎𝑦 then do anyone of these jobs for
which there is a tie, first.
(iii) If there is a tie for minimum among 𝐵𝑖′ 𝑠𝑖. 𝑒. , 𝑀𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐵𝑠 = 𝐵𝑟 𝑠𝑎𝑦 then
do anyone of these jobs in the last.

Step2. If the smallest processing time is 𝐴𝑟 𝑖. 𝑒. , 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝐴1 , … , 𝐴𝑛 then do the 𝑟 𝑡𝑕


job first. On the other hand if it is 𝐵𝑠 𝑖. 𝑒. , 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , … , 𝐵𝑛 . Then do the 𝑠 𝑡𝑕 job
last.
Step 3. Delete the already assigned job from both the list. If 𝑦 𝑡𝑕 job is assigned
previously, then delete 𝐴𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵𝑟 both and if 𝑠 𝑡𝑕 job is assigned previously hen delete
𝐴𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵𝑠 both.

Step4. Repeat step (1) to (3) for remaining jobs.

Step5. Continuing the same process until all the jobs have been ordered and get optimal
sequence of jobs.

JOINT VARIATION: If 𝑧 = 𝑘𝑥𝑦, where k is a constant, then 𝑧 is said to vary jointly with x
and y.
JORDAN ARC: Suppose 𝑥 t and 𝑦 t are continuous real valued functions in the range
𝛼 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝛽, then the set of points 𝑧 in the Argand plane determined by the equation
𝑧 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is called a continuous arc. A point z1 is called multiple point of the arc if
the equation 𝑧 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is called a continuous arc. A point z1 is called multiple
point of the arc if the equation 𝑧1 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is satisfied by more than one value of t
in the given range. A multiple point z1 of the arc is called a double point if the equation
(1) is satisfied by two values of t in the given range. A continuous arc without multiple
points is called a Jordan arc.

If the end points t = α and t = β of the continuous arc are coincident and if the arc has
only one multiple point (which is the double point corresponding to the two terminal
values of t), then the arc is called simple closed Jordan closed curve.

JORDAN-BROUWER THEOREM: Let 𝑀 ⊂ 𝑅 𝑛 be an 𝑛 − 1 –dimensional compact


connected manifold in 𝑅 𝑛 . The complement of 𝑀 in 𝑅 𝑛 consists of precisely two
components, of which one, called the outside is unbounded, and the other, called the
inside is bounded. Each of the two components is a domain with smooth boundary 𝑀.
JORDAN CURVE THEOREM: It states that a simple closed Jordan curve divides the
Argand plane into two open domains which have the curve as the common boundary.

One of these domain is bounded and is called interior domain while the other is
unbounded and is called exterior domain.
JORDAN DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: Let ν be an additive set function on an algebra 𝐴
of subsets of 𝑋, and suppose that 𝜈 has finite total variation. Then, for all 𝐴 ∇ 𝐴, 𝜈(𝐴) =
𝑉 (𝜈, 𝐴) + 𝑉 (𝜈, 𝐴) .
JORDAN–HÖLDER THEOREM: Any two composition series of a given group are
equivalent. That is, they have the same composition length and the same composition
factors, up to permutation and isomorphism.

JORDAN’S INEQUALITY: Jordan’s Inequality states that


2 𝜋
𝑥 ≤ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑥 ≤ 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 0,
𝜋 2
JORDAN’S LEMMA: If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic except at finite number of singularities and if
𝑓 𝑧 ⟶ 0 unformaly as 𝑧 ⟶ ∞, then

lim ∫Γ 𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑧 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧 = 0, 𝑚 > 0


𝑅→∞

where Γ denotes the semi-circle 𝑧 = 𝑅, 𝐼 𝑧 > 0

Here 𝑅 is taken so large that all the singularities of 𝑓(𝑧) lie within the semi circle Γ. (No
singularity lies on the boundary of the semi circle).

JORDAN NORMAL FORM: Let 𝑉 be a finite dimensional vector space over a complete
field 𝐹 and α an endomorphism of 𝑉 . Then there is basis for 𝑉 such that 𝛼 has matrix 𝐴
(relative to this basis) which consists of zeros except for Jordan matrices 𝐽(𝜆𝑖 , 𝑛𝑖 ) [1 ≤
𝑖 ≤ 𝑠] down the diagonal.

JORDAN NORMAL FORM FOR MATRICES: If 𝐴 is a 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix over a complete field


then we can find an invertible 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑃 such that 𝐽𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴𝑃 −1 consists of zeros
except for Jordan matrices 𝐽(𝜆𝑖 , 𝑛𝑖 ) [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠] down the diagonal. The matrix 𝐽𝐴 so
associated with 𝐴 is unique up to reordering the diagonal blocks.

c2
JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORMATION: The transformation ζ = z + is called the Joukowski
z

transformation mapping function from 𝑧- plane on the 𝜁- plane.

JULIA SET: The set of points for a function of the form 𝑧 2 + 𝑐 (where 𝑐 is a complex
parameter), such that a small perturbation can cause drastic changes in the sequence of
iterated function values and iterations will either approach zero, approach infinity or
get trapped in loop.
K

KELVIN’S CIRCULATION THEOREM: Kelvin’s theorem states that the circulation round
any closed material curve is invariant in an inviscid fluid provided that the body force
are conservative and the pressure is single-valued function of density only.

KELVIN’S MINIMUM ENERGY THEOREM: The irrotational motion of a liquid occupying a


simply connected region has less kinetic energy than any other motion consistent with
the same normal velocity of the boundary.

KENDALL’S RANK CORRELATION: Take pairs 𝑅𝑖 , 𝑆𝑖 and 𝑅𝑗 , 𝑆𝑗 . If 𝑅𝑗 − 𝑅𝑖 𝑆𝑗 − 𝑆𝑖 >


𝑛 −1
0, set 𝜑𝑖𝑗 = 1; otherwise, 𝜑𝑖𝑗 = −1. This statistic 𝑟𝑘 = 2
𝜑𝑖𝑗 is called Kendall’s
correlation, where runs over all possible pairs chosen from 𝑅1 , 𝑆1 , … , 𝑅𝑛 , 𝑆𝑛 .

If there is no dependence between 𝑋 and 𝑌, then 𝑟𝑘 = 0 and


𝑉 𝑟𝑘 = 2 2𝑛 + 5 9𝑛 𝑛 − 1 .

KEPLER, JOHANNES: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German astronomer who used
observational data to express the motion of the planets according to three mathematical
laws:
 Planets move along orbits shaped like ellipses, with the sun at one focus;
 A radius vector connecting the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal
times (this means that a planet travels fastest when closest to the sun);
 The square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance
from the planet to the sun.
KERNEL OF LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: The kernel of linear functional 𝛼, write 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼, is the
set all vectors 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 such that 𝛼(𝑥) = 0.

Note that

1. X* is a linear space with natural operations.

2. 𝛼 𝑥 ≤ 𝛼 · 𝑥 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, 𝛼 ∇ 𝑋 ∗.

3. X* is a Banach space with the defined norm (even if X was incomplete).

4. 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼 is a subspace of 𝑋.

5. If 𝛼 ≢ 0 then 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼 is a proper subspace of 𝑋.


6. If 𝛼 is continuous then 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼 is closed.
1
KINETIC ENERGY: We define the kinetic energy 𝑇 as 𝑇 = 𝑚 𝑟 . 𝑟 , where 𝑟 is the
2

velocity of the particle.

KIRCHHOFF VORTEX THEOREM: Kirchhoff vortex theorem states that if


r1 , θ1 , r2 , θ2 , … … are the polar coordinates of number of rectilinear vortices of
strengths k1 , k 2 , …. then 𝑛 k i , k i = A1 , k i yi = A2 , k i ri2 = A3 , k i ri2 θi = A4 , where
A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 are constants.

KNOT THEORY: An area of topology that studies mathematical knots (a knot is a closed
curve in space formed by interlacing a piece of “string” and joining the ends .

KOLMOGOROV THEOREM: Let 𝑈 be a linear subspace of 𝐶(𝐾). An element 𝑝∗ ∇ 𝑈 is a


best approximation to 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝐾) if and only if max 𝑥 ∇ 𝑍 [𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑝∗ (𝑥)] 𝑞(𝑥) ≥
0 ∀𝑞 ∇ 𝑈 , where 𝑍 is the set of all points for which |𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑝∗ (𝑥)| = 𝑘𝑓 − 𝑝∗ 𝑘.

KÖNIG'S THEOREM: In any bipartite graph, the number of edges in a maximum


matching equals the number of vertices in a minimum vertex cover.

KRONECKER THEOREM: Let 𝐾 be a field, and let 𝑓 ∇ 𝐾[𝑥] be a nonconstant polynomial


with coefficients in 𝐾. Then there exists an extension field 𝐿 of 𝐾 and an element 𝛼 of 𝐿
for which 𝑓(𝛼) = 0.

KRULL'S PRINCIPAL IDEAL THEOREM: It gives a bound on the height of a principal


ideal in a Noetherian ring. Formally, if 𝑅 is a Noetherian ring and 𝐼 is a principal, proper
ideal of 𝑅, then 𝐼 has height at most one.

This theorem can be generalized to ideals that are not principal, and the result is often
called Krull's height theorem. This says that if 𝑅 is a Noetherian ring and 𝐼 is a proper
ideal generated by 𝑛 elements of 𝑅, then 𝐼 has height at most 𝑛.

KUHN- TUCKER CONSTRAINT QUALIFICATION: Let X 0 be an open set in r n and let 𝑔 be


an 𝑚- dimensional vector function defined on X 0 . Let

𝑋 = x: x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0
𝑔 is said to satisfy the Kuhn- Tucker constraint qualification at x ∇ X if 𝑔 is differentiable
at x and if there exist an n – dimensional vector function e defined on the interval [0,1]
such that

e 0 = x, e τ ∇ X for 0 ≤ τ ≤ I

𝑑𝑒 (0)
and e is differentiable at 𝜏 = 0 and = 𝜆𝛾 for some 𝜆 > 0 where 𝛾 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 ,
𝑑𝜏

∆g 𝑙 (x)𝛾 ≤ 0 and I = i g i x = 0

KUHN- TUCKER STATIONARY- POINT PROBLEM (KTP): The Kuhn- Tucker stationary-
point problem means to find x ∇ X 0 , u ∇ Rm if they exist, such that ∆x Ψ x, u = 0,
∆u Ψ x, u ≤ 0, u∆u Ψ x, u = 0, u ≥ 0 and Ψ x, u = θ x) + ug(x or equivalently,
∆θ x) + u ∆g(x = 0, g(x) ≤ 0, u g x = 0 and u ≥ 0

KURT GÖDEL: Kurt Gödel was born in the Czech Republic and grew up in Austria (which
was the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Gödel's early childhood). His primary language
was German. Although he is most famous for his contribution to mathematical logic, he
also did much work in set theory . He was a friend of Albert Einstein during the time
they were both at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University

KUTTA- JOUKOWSKI’S THEOREM: When an aerofoil at rest be placed in a uniform wind


of speed 𝑈 with circulation 𝑘 around the aerofoil, if experience a lift of magnitude 𝑝𝑘𝑈
per span perpendicular to the wind. The direction of the lift is obtained by rotating the
wind velocity through a right angle in the sense opposite to that of the circulation.

L
LAGRANGE, JOSEPH-LOUIS: Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) was an Italian-French
mathematician who developed ideas in celestial mechanics, calculus of variations, and
number theory.

LAGRANGE'S FOUR-SQUARE THEOREM: Lagrange's four-square theorem, also known


as Bachet's conjecture, states that any natural number can be represented as the sum of
four integer squares.

where the four numbers are integers. For illustration, 3, 31 and 310 can
be represented as the sum of four squares as follows:

LAGRANGE’S EQUATION: Consider a conservative holomonic dynamical system defined


by n generalized coordinates 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 at time t. The Lagrangian function L=T-V
where T and V are kinetic and potential energies respectively of the system is a function
of 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 at time t.
𝑡
By Hamiltonian’s principal ∫𝑡 1 𝐿 𝑑𝑡 is stationary.
0

Therefore, Euler’s equation must hold good.


i.e.,
𝜕𝐿 𝑑 𝜕𝐿
− = 0, 𝑖 = 1,2 … , 𝑛.
𝜕𝑞𝑖 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑞𝑖
These are called Lagrange’s equation which determine the motion of the system.
Proper field: A family of curves 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥, 𝑐 is said to form a proper field for a domain D
of the 𝑥𝑦- plane if through any point of D, there passes one and only one curve of the
family.
Consider the circle 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = 1 . Inside the circle 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ≤ 1, the family of curve
𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 is a proper field, because there passes one and only one curve of the family
through any point of the given circle.
LAGRANGE’S MEAN VALUE THEOREM: If a real valued function 𝑓(𝑥) is such that
 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]
 𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)
𝑓 𝑏 −𝑓(𝑎)
then there exist at least one value of 𝑥 = 𝑐 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑓 ′ (𝑐) = .
𝑏−𝑎

LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS: The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to find maximum


or minimum values in the presence of constraints. For example, suppose we need to
choose x and y to maximize the function
𝑧 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦
subject to this constraint:
𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 = 0
Create the Lagrangian function 𝐿 as follows:
𝐿 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝜇(𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 )
Notice that the first part of the Lagrangian is the function we are trying to maximize.
The second part consists of a new variable 𝜇 (called the Lagrange multiplier), multiplied
by the left-hand side of the constraint equation. (To do this, arrange the equation so that
the right-hand side is zero.) The method also works with more than one constraint; just
add a new Lagrange multiplier for each one. Now find the partial derivatives of 𝐿 with
respect to 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝜇 , and set them all equal to zero:
𝜕𝐿
= 𝑎 − 2𝜇𝑝𝑥 = 0
𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝐿
= 𝑏 − 2𝜇𝑞𝑦 = 0
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝐿
= 𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 = 0
𝜕𝜇
Now solve this three-equation system.
LAGRANGIAN OF A SYSTEM: Let 𝑇 be the kinetic energy and 𝑉 be the potential energy of
a system then, the expression 𝐿 = 𝑇 − 𝑉 is known as Lagrangian of a system.
LAGRANGIAN SUFFICIENCY THEOREM: Suppose we are given a general optimization
problem, P:

Minimize 𝑓(𝑥) s.t. 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑏, 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, with 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 , 𝑏 ∇ 𝑅 𝑚 (𝑛 variables and 𝑚


constraints).

The Lagrangian is 𝐿(𝑥, 𝜆) = 𝑓(𝑥) − 𝜆 ⊤ (𝑔(𝑥) − 𝑏), with 𝜆 ∇ 𝑅 𝑚 (one component for
each constraint).
Each component of 𝜆 is called a Lagrange multiplier. The following theorem is simple to
prove, and extremely useful in practice. If 𝑥 ∗ and 𝜆∗ exist such that 𝑥 ∗ is feasible for
𝑃 and 𝐿(𝑥 ∗ , 𝜆∗ ) ≤ 𝐿(𝑥, 𝜆∗ ) ∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, then 𝑥 ∗ is optimal for 𝑃.

LAGUERRE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy
𝑥 2 + 1−𝑥 + λy = 0,
dx dx

where λ is a constant, is called Laguerre differential equation.

LAGUERRE POLYNOMIALS: We define the standard solution of Laguerre equation

d2 y dy
𝑥 2 + 1−𝑥 + ny = 0
dx dx

As that for which a0 = 1 and call it the Laguerre polynomial of order 𝑛, denote it by

𝑛
𝑛!
𝐿𝑛 𝑥 , = (−1)𝑟 𝑥′
𝑛 − 𝑟 ! (𝑟!)2
𝑟=0

LAMBERT SERIES: A series of the form

∞ 𝑧𝑛
𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 1−𝑧 𝑛 , 𝑧 ≠ 1, (1)

is called a Lambert series. If 𝑎𝑛 is convergent, (1) converges for any 𝑧 with 𝑧 ≠ 1,


and moreover, it converges uniformly on any compact ser contained in 𝑧 < 1 or 𝑧 >
1. If 𝑎𝑛 is divergent, (1) and the power series 𝑎𝑛 𝑧 𝑛 converge or diverge
simultaneously for 𝑧 ≠ 1.

LAMI'S THEOREM: Lami's theorem is an equation relating the magnitudes of


three coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear forces, which keeps an object in static
equilibrium, with the angles directly opposite to the corresponding forces. According to
the theorem,
where 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 are the magnitudes of three coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear
forces, which keep the object in static equilibrium, and 𝛼, 𝛽 and 𝛾 are the angles
directly opposite to the forces 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 respectively.
LANDAU’S THEOREM: Let 𝐸 = {𝑧 ∶ |𝑧| ≤ 1}. Suppose that 𝑓 is analytic on 𝐸, and that
𝑓 ′ (0) = 1. Then 𝑓(∆) contains a disc of radius 1/24.
LANGUAGE: Let 𝐴 be a finite set. A language over 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐴∗ . A language 𝐿 over 𝐴
is said to be a formal language if there is some finite set of rules or algorithm that will
generate all the words that belong to 𝐿 and no others.
LAPLACE, PIERRE-SIMON: Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749- 1827) was a French astronomer
and mathematician who investigated the motion of the planets of the solar system.
LAPLACE’S FIRST INTEGRAL FOR 𝐏𝐧 (𝐱): If n is a positive integer, then

1 π n
Pn x =π ∫0 x ± x 2 − 1 cos∅ d∅.

LAPLACE’S SECOND INTEGRAL FOR 𝐏𝐧 (𝐱): If n is a positive integer, then

1 π d∅
Pn x =π ∫0 n +1 .
x± x 2 −1 cos∅

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION:
Laplace
Entry Function
Tranformation
unit impulse unit impulse

unit step

slope

parabola

tn
(n is integer)

exponential

time
multiplied
exponential
Asymptotic
exponential
double
exponential
asymptotic
double
exponential
asymptotic
critically
damped
differentiated
critically
damped

sine

cosine

decaying
sine
decaying
cosine
generic
decaying
oscillatory

generic
decaying
oscillatory
(alternate)
Prototype
2nd order
lowpass
step
response
Prototype
2nd order
lowpass
impulse
response
Prototype
2nd order
bandpass
impulse
response
LAPLACIAN: The Laplacian of a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is:

2
∂2 f ∂2 f ∂2 f
∆ = 2+ 2+ 2
∂x ∂y ∂z
It is the divergence of the gradient of 𝑓 .
LATERAL AREA: The lateral area of a solid is the area of its faces other than its bases.
For example, the lateral area of a pyramid is the total area of the triangles forming the
sides of the pyramid.
LATUS RECTUM: The latus rectum of a parabola is the chord through the focus
perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. The latus rectum of an ellipse is one of the
chords through a focus that is perpendicular to the major axis.
LAURENT’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose a function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in the
closed ring bounded by two concentric 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶′ of centre 𝑎 and radii 𝑅 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑅 ′ , 𝑅 ′ <
𝑅 . If 𝑧 is any point of the annulus, then

∞ ∞

𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑛 (𝑧 − 𝑎)𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛 (𝑧 − 𝑎)−𝑛
𝑛=0 𝑛=1

Where

1 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 1 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑎𝑛 = ∫𝐶 , 𝑏𝑛 = ∫ ′
2𝜋𝑖 (𝑡 − 𝑎)𝑛+1 2𝜋𝑖 𝐶 (𝑡 − 𝑎)−𝑛+1
LAW OF AVERAGES: The law of averages is an erroneous generalization of the law of
large numbers, which states that the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of
occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances. The law of averages is usually
mentioned in reference to situations without enough outcomes to bring the law of large
numbers into effect.

A common example of how the law of averages can mislead involves the tossing of a fair
coin (a coin equally likely to come up heads or tails on any given toss). If someone
tosses a fair coin and gets several heads in a row, that person might think that the next
toss is more likely to come up tails than heads in order to "even things out." But the true
probabilities of the two outcomes are still equal for the next coin toss and any coin toss
that might follow. Past results have no effect whatsoever: Each toss is an independent
event. The law of large numbers is often confused with the law of averages, and many
texts use the two terms interchangeably. However, the law of averages, strictly defined,

LAW OF EXCLUDED MIDDLE: One of the two: either a statement is true or it is false.
There's nothing in-between. An axiom of 2-valued logic.

LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS: The law of large numbers states that if a random variable is
observed many times, the average of these observations will tend toward the expected
value (mean) of that random variable. For example, if you roll a die many times and
calculate the average value for all of the rolls, you will find that the average value will
tend to approach 3.5.
LEADER OF A COSET (CODING THEORY): The leader of a coset is defined to be the word
with the smallest hamming weight in the coset.
LEBESGUE'S DOMINATED CONVERGENCE THEOREM: Let {𝑓𝑛 } be a sequence of real-
valued measurable functions on a measure space (𝑆, 𝛴, 𝜇). Suppose that the sequence
converges pointwise to a function 𝑓 and is dominated by some integrable function 𝑔 in
the sense that

for all numbers 𝑛 in the index set of the sequence and all points 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆. Then 𝑓 is
integrable and

which also implies

LEBESGUE INEQUALITY: Let X be a normed linear space, and let 𝑀 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑈 be a linear


projection. Then, for every 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋, the approximation 𝑀(𝑓) has the property

𝑓 − 𝑀(𝑓) ≤ ( 𝑀 + 1) 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡(𝑓, 𝑈).

LEBESGUE INTEGRAL: For an arbitrary summable 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋), we define the Lebesgue


integral

𝑓𝑑𝜇 = lim 𝑓𝑛 𝑑𝜇,


𝑛

where the Cauchy sequence 𝑓𝑛 of summable simple functions converges to 𝑓 a.e.

1. 𝐿1 (𝑋) is a linear space.

2. For any set 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 the correspondence 𝑓 ↦ ∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ is a linear functional on


𝐿1 (𝑋).

3. 𝑑1 (𝑓, 𝑔) = ∫ | 𝑓 − 𝑔 | 𝑑µ is a distance on 𝐿1 (𝑋).

LEBESGUE MEASURABLE SET: Let 𝑆 ⊆ 𝑅, and let 𝑆 ′ be the complement of 𝑆 with


respect to 𝑅. We define 𝑆 to be measurable if, for any 𝐴 ⊆ 𝑅,
𝑚∗ (𝐴) = 𝑚∗ (𝐴 ∩ 𝑆) + 𝑚∗ (𝐴 ∩ 𝑆 ′ )
where 𝑚∗ (𝑆) is the Lebesgue outer measure of 𝑆. If 𝑆 is measurable, then we define the
Lebesgue measure of 𝑆 to be 𝑚(𝑆) = 𝑚∗ (𝑆).
LEBESGUE ON DOMINATED CONVERGENCE: Let (𝑓𝑛 ) be a sequence of µ-summable
functions on 𝑋, and there is 𝜑 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋). such that | 𝑓𝑛 (𝑥) | ≤ 𝜑(𝑥) for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, 𝑛 ∇ ℕ. If
𝑎. 𝑒
𝑓𝑛 𝑓, then 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋) and for any measurable A: limn→∞ ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑𝜇 = ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇

If 𝑔 is measurable and bounded then 𝑓 = 𝜑 𝑔 is µ-summable and for any µ-measurable
set A we have ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇 = 𝜑 ∫ 𝑔𝑑𝜇.

LEFT NULLITY OF A MATRIX: Suppose 𝑋 is an 𝑚-vector written in the form of a row


vector. Then the matrix product 𝑋𝐴 is defined. The subspaces 𝑆 or 𝑉𝑚 generated by the
row vector 𝑋 belonging to 𝑉𝑚 such that 𝑋𝐴 = 0 is called the row null space of the matrix
𝐴. The dimension 𝑠 of 𝑆 is called the left nullity or row nullity of the matrix 𝐴.

LEGENDRE DUPLICATION FORMULA: Legendre duplication formula is 𝑇 𝑚 𝑇 𝑚 + 12 =


𝜋
𝑇(2𝑚), where 𝑚 is an integer.
22𝑚 −1

LEGENDRE EQUATION: The differential equation of the form

d2 y dy
(1 − x 2 ) 2
− 2x + n n + 1 y = 0
dx dx

is called Legendre’s differential equation or Legendre’s equation , where n is a


constant. This equation can also be written as

𝑑 dy
1 − x2 + n n + 1 y = 0.
𝑑𝜇 dx

LEGENDRE EQUATION FROM LAPLACE’S EQUATION: Laplace’s equation in spherical


coordinates is

∂ 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕 ∂V 1 ∂2 V
𝑟 2 𝜕𝑟 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 ∂θ + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 ∂∅2 = 0 ……….. i
∂r

Putting V = r n Un , where Un is a function of θ and ∅ only

∂V ∂V ∂U n ∂ 2 V ∂2 U n
So that ∂r = nr n−1 Un , ∂θ = r n , ∂∅2 = r n .
∂θ ∂∅2

Substituting in (i), we have

∂ 1 𝜕 ∂U n 1 ∂2 U n
𝑛𝑟 𝑛+1 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 r 2 sin 𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 . 𝑟 𝑛 =0
∂r ∂θ ∂∅2
𝑟𝑛 𝜕 ∂U n 𝑟𝑛 ∂2 U n
Or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑟 𝑛 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 . 𝑟 𝑛 =0
∂θ ∂∅2

1 𝜕 ∂U n
Or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 = 0. ………….. ii
∂θ

Supposing 𝑈𝑛 to be independent of ∅.

Putting μ = cos θ and Un = y

∂U n ∂y ∂ y ∂μ ∂y
So that = ∂θ = . = − sin θ ∂μ .
∂θ ∂μ ∂θ

Substituting in (ii), we have

1 𝜕 ∂y
n 𝑛 + 1 𝑦 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 −sin2 𝜃 ∂μ = 0

1 𝜕 ∂y ∂μ
or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑦 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜇 − 1 − μ2 . ∂θ = 0
∂μ

𝜕 ∂y
or − 1 − μ2 + n n + 1 y = 0.
𝜕𝜇 ∂μ

which is Legendre’s equation.

Solution Pn (μ) of Legendre’s equation is the surface spheric harmonic of degree 𝑛, which
is free from ∅.

LEGENDRE FUNCTION OF THE SECOND KIND: We define the Legendre’s function of the
second kind, Qn , such that

n! n + 1 (n + 2) −n−3
Qn x = x −n−1 + ∙x
1 ∙ 3 … (2n + 1) 2 ∙ (2n + 3)
n + 1 n + 2 n + 3 (n + 4) −n−5
+ x
2 ∙ 4 2n + 3 (2n + 5)

2n n! ∞ (n+2r)x −(n +2r +1)


or Qn x = (2n+1)! r=0 r! 2n+3 2n+5 … 2n+2r+1 .

LEGENDRE SYMBOL: Fermat proved that if p is a prime number and a is an integer,

Thus, if p does not divide a,


Legendre lets 𝑎 and 𝐴 represent positive primes congruent to 1 (mod 4)
and 𝑏 and 𝐵 positive primes congruent to 3 (mod 4), and sets out a table of eight
theorems that together are equivalent to quadratic reciprocity:

Theorem When it follows that

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

He says that since expressions of the form

(where 𝑁 and 𝑐 are relatively prime) will come up so often he will abbreviate them as:

This is now known as the Legendre symbol, and an equivalent definition is used today:

For all integers 𝑎 and all odd primes 𝑝

LEIBNIZ: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 to1716) was a German mathematician,


philosopher and political advisor, who was one of the developers of calculus.
LEMMA: A lemma is a theorem that is proved mainly as an aid in proving another
theorem. There is no technical distinction between a lemma and a theorem. A lemma is
a proven statement, typically named a lemma to distinguish it as a truth used as a
stepping stone to a larger result rather than an important statement in and of itself. Of
course, some of the most powerful statements in mathematics are known as lemmas,
including Zorn’s lemma, Bezout’s lemma, Gauss’ lemma, Fatou’s lemma, etc., so one
clearly can’t get too much simply by reading into a proposition’s name.
LEMNISCATES: A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of
two loops that meet at a central point as shown below. The curve is also known as the
lemniscate of Bernoulli.

In the (x, y) plane, the lemniscate can be described in terms of the following general
equation:

(𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ) 2 = 2𝑎2 (𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 )

where 𝑎 represents the greatest distance between the curve and the origin. There are
two points on the curve that meet this criterion; both of them lie on the x axis. In the
above graph, if each division represents one unit, then 𝑎 = 5.

The lemniscate, reduced in size to that of typographical characters, is commonly used as


the symbol for infinity, or for a value that increases without limit.

LIE ALGEBRA: A Lie algebra is a vector space g over R, equipped with a map
[·,·]: 𝑔 × 𝑔 → 𝑔 satisfying the properties
 [𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌, 𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑍] + 𝑏[𝑌, 𝑍], [𝑋, 𝑎𝑌 + 𝑏𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑏[𝑋, 𝑍],
 [𝑋, 𝑌 ] = −[𝑌, 𝑋],
 [[𝑋, 𝑌 ], 𝑍] + [[𝑌, 𝑍], 𝑋] + [[𝑍, 𝑋], 𝑌 ] = 0,
for all 𝑋, 𝑌, 𝑍 ∇ 𝑔 and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑅.
LIE BRACKET: Let 𝑋, 𝑌 ∇ 𝑋(𝑀) be smooth vector fields on 𝑀. The Lie bracket [𝑋, 𝑌 ] is
the linear operator 𝐶 ∞ (Ω) → 𝐶 ∞ (Ω) defined by the equation
[𝑋, 𝑌 ]𝑓 = 𝑋𝑌 𝑓 − 𝑌 𝑋𝑓 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶 ∞ (Ω).
The Lie bracket satisfies
 [𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌, 𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑍] + 𝑏[𝑌, 𝑍], [𝑋, 𝑎𝑌 + 𝑏𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑏[𝑋, 𝑍],
 [𝑋, 𝑌 ] = −[𝑌, 𝑋],
 [[𝑋, 𝑌 ], 𝑍] + [[𝑌, 𝑍], 𝑋] + [[𝑍, 𝑋], 𝑌 ] = 0,
 [𝑓𝑋, 𝑔𝑌 ] = 𝑓𝑔[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑓(𝑋𝑔)𝑌 − 𝑔(𝑌 𝑓)𝑋.
for all 𝑋, 𝑌, 𝑍 ∇ 𝑋(𝑀), and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑅.

LIE GROUPS: Lie groups, named after Sophus Lie, are differentiable manifolds that carry
also the structure of a group which is such that the group operations are defined by
smooth maps. A Euclidean vector space with the group operation of vector addition is
an example of a non-compact Lie group. A simple example of a compact Lie group is the
circle: the group operation is simply rotation. This group, known as 𝑈(1), can be also
characterised as the group of complex numbers of modulus 1 with multiplication as the
group operation. Other examples of Lie groups include special groups of matrices, which
are all subgroups of the general linear group, the group of 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrices with non-zero
determinant. If the matrix entries are real numbers, this will be an 𝑛2 -dimensional
disconnected manifold. The orthogonal groups, the symmetry groups of
the sphere and hyperspheres, are 𝑛(𝑛 − 1)/2 dimensional manifolds, where 𝑛 − 1 is
the dimension of the sphere.

L’HOSPITAL’S RULE: L’ Hospital’s rule tells how to find the limit of the ratio of two
functions in cases where that ratio approaches 0/0 or 𝜘/𝜘. Let

𝑓 𝑥
𝑦=
𝑔 𝑥

Then 1’Hospital’s rule states that

𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑓′ 𝑥
lim 𝑦 =
𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑔′ 𝑥

Where 𝑓′ 𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔′ 𝑥 represent the derivatives of these functions with respect to 𝑥.


LIKE AND UNLIKE VECTORS: Vectors having the same direction are called like vectors
and those having opposite directions are called unlike vectors.

LIKE TERMS: Two terms said to be like terms if all parts of both terms except for the
numerical coefficients are the same. For example. The terms 23𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 and 5𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 are
like terms. If two like terms are added , they can be combined into one tem. For example
, the sum of two terms above is 28𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 .

LIMIT: The limit of a function is the value that the dependent variable approaches as the
independent variable approaches some fixed value. The expression “The limit of 𝑓 𝑥 as
𝑥 approaches 𝑎" is written as

𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑓 𝑥

For example:

𝑥−1 𝑥+3
𝑓 𝑥 =
𝑥−1

Is undefined if 𝑥 = 1 . However the closer that 𝑥 comes to , the closer 𝑓 𝑥 approaches


4.The formal definition of limit is : The limit of 𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 approaches 𝑎 exists and is
equal to 1, if , for any positive number 𝜀 how even small, there exists a positive number
𝛿 such that, if 0 < 𝑥 − 𝑎 < 𝛿. Then 𝑓 𝑥 − 1 < 𝜀.

LIMIT POINT OF A FILTER: Let (𝐸, 𝑇) be a topological space and 𝐹 a filter on 𝐸. We say
that a point 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 is a limit or limit point of 𝐹 if 𝐹 is finer than the filter 𝐵(𝑥) (the basis
of open neighborhoods), i.e. if every 𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥) contains an 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. We then say that 𝐹
converges to 𝑥 or has 𝑥 as a limit or that 𝐹 converges or is convergent.
 A filter does not necessary converge. For example the natural filter on 𝑁 with the
discrete topology.
 A filter may have more than one limit point.
 If 𝑥 is a limit point of 𝐹, 𝑥 may belong to some 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹 or may not belong to any
𝐴 ∇ 𝐹.
 For example the filter 𝐵(𝑥) consisting of the open neighborhoods of 𝑥 converges
to 𝑥, and 𝑥 belongs to every 𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥). On the other hand, the set of open
intervals of 𝑅 all having the same left-hand end point 𝑥 is a filter which
converges to 𝑥, but 𝑥 does not belong to any member of the filter.
LINDELÖF'S THEOREM: Let Ω be a half-strip in the complex plane:

Suppose that ƒ is holomorphic (i.e. analytic on Ω and that there are


constants 𝑀, 𝐴 and 𝐵 such that

and

Then 𝑓 is bounded by 𝑀 on all of Ω:

LINDEMAN THEOREM: The number 𝜋 is transcendental.


LINEAR CODE: A linear code with length 𝑛 over 𝐹𝑞 is a vector subspace of 𝐹𝑞𝑛 .
The repetition code 𝐶 = {(𝑥, . . . , 𝑥) | 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹𝑞 } is a linear code.
LINEAR COMBINATION: A vector , r, is said to be a linear combination of the vectors a, b,
c, ……etc. if there exist scalars x, y, z…etc ,such that r= xa+ yb+ zc+……. Vectors of the
form 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑣𝑛 for 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 𝜖 𝐾 are called linear combination of
𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 .

Example: Let V=ℝ2 , 𝑣1 = 1,3 , 𝑣2 = 2,5

Then 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 = 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 , 3𝛼1 + 5𝛼2 = (0,0) iff 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 = 0 and 3𝛼1 + 5𝛼2 = 0.
Thus we have a pair of simultaneous equations in 𝛼1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛼2 and the only solution is
𝛼1 = 𝛼2 = 0, so 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 are linearly independent. Let V=ℚ2
, 𝑣1 = 1,3 , 𝑣2 = 2,6 here the equations are 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 = 0

And 3𝛼1 + 6𝛼2 = 0 , and there are non-zero solutions such as 𝛼1 = −2 , 𝛼2 = 1 and

So 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 are linearly dependent.

Note: 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 are said to be linearly dependent if and only if either 𝑣1 = 0 or for


some r , 𝑣𝑟 is a linear combination of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟−1 .
LINEAR DEPENDENCE AND INDEPENDENCE: Let V be a vector space over the field K.
The vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 are said to be linearly dependent if there exist scalars
𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 𝜖 𝐾 not all zero, such that

LINEARIZATION LEMMA: Let x be a local solution of the problem. Minimize 𝜃 x subject


to x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0. Where X 0 is an open set in Rn , and 𝜃: X 0 → R, g: X 0 → Rm are
differentiable at x.

Let

V = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x ,

and let

W = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x ,

then the system

∆θ x) + z < 0, 𝛻g 𝑤 (x z < 0,

∆g 𝑣 (x)z ≤ 0

has no solution in Rn .

LINE OF BEST FIT: The line of best fit minimizes the sum of the squares of the deviations
between each point and the line.

LINE SEGMENT: A line segment is like a piece of a line. It consists of two endpoints and
all of the points on the straight line between those two points.

LINEAR EQUATION: A linear equation with unknown 𝑥 is an equation that can be


written in the form 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 = 0.For example 3𝑥 − 40 = 2 can be written as 3𝑥 − 38 = 0.
38
so this is a linear equation with the solution 𝑥 = .
3

LINEAR FACTOR: A linear factor is a factor that includes only the first power of an
unknown. For example, in the expression 𝑦 = 𝑥 − 3 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 + 4 , 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑥 −
3 is a linear factor, but the factor 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 + 4 is a quadratic factor.
LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: A linear functional on a vector space 𝑉 is a linear mapping
𝛼: 𝑉 → ℂ (or 𝛼: 𝑉 → ℝ in the real case), i.e. 𝛼 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 = 𝑎𝛼 𝑥 + 𝑏𝛼 𝑦 for all
𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑉 and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ ℂ. In simple words, A functional Φ is said to be linear if

(i) Its domain 𝐷Φ is a linear manifold, and


(ii) Φ 𝑎𝑓 + 𝑏𝑔 = 𝑎Φ 𝑓 + 𝑏Φ 𝑔 , for all 𝑓, 𝑔, ∇ 𝐷Φ

And for any scalars 𝑎 and 𝑏.

Examples:

 Let 𝑉 = 𝐶 𝑛 and 𝑐𝑘 , 𝑘 = 1, … , 𝑛 be complex numbers. Then 𝛼((𝑥1 , … , 𝑥𝑛 )) =


𝑐1 𝑥1 + ⋯ + 𝑐𝑛 𝑥𝑛 is a linear functional.
1
 On 𝐶[0,1] a functional is given by 𝛼(𝑓) = ∫0 𝑓(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.
 On a Hilbert space 𝐻 for any 𝑥 ∇ 𝐻 a functional 𝛼𝑥 is given by 𝛼𝑥 (𝑦) = ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑥 ⟩.

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: A linear programming problem is a problem for which you


need to choose the optimal sat of values for some variables subject to some constraints.
The goal is to maximize or minimize a function called the objective function. In a linear
programming problem, the objective function and the constraints must all be linear
functions: that is, they cannot involve variables raised to any power (other than 1), and
they cannot involve two variables being multiplied together.

Some examples of problems to which linear programming can be applied include


finding the least –cost method for producing a given product , or finding the revenue-
maximizing product mix for a production facility with several capacity limitations.

Here is an example of a linear programming problem:

Maximize 6𝑥 + 8𝑦 subject:

𝑦 ≤ 10

𝑥 + 𝑦 ≤ 15

2𝑥 + 𝑦 ≤ 25

𝑥≥0

𝑦≥0
This problem has two choice variables: 𝑥 and 𝑦 . The objective function is 6𝑥 + 8𝑦, and
there are three constraints (not counting the two no negativity constraints 𝑥 ≥ 0 and
𝑦 ≥ 0. It is customary to rewrite the
constraints so that thy contain equals sign instead of inequality signs. In order to do this
some new variables called slack variables are added. One slack variable is added for
each constraint. Here is how the problem given above looks when three slack variables
𝑠1 , 𝑠2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠3 are included.

Maximize 6𝑥 + 8𝑦subject to:

𝑦 + 𝑠1 = 10

𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑠2 = 15

2𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑠3 = 25

𝑥 ≥ 0, 𝑦 ≥ 0, 𝑠1 ≥ 0, 𝑠2 ≥ 0, 𝑠3 ≥ 0

Each slack variable represents the excess capacity associated with the corresponding
constraint.

The feasible region consists of all points that satisfy the constraints . A theorem of linear
programming stated that the optimal solution will lie at one of the corner points of the
feasible region. In this case the optimal solution is at the point 𝑥 = 5, 𝑦 = 10.

A linear programming problem with two choice variables can be solved by drawing a
graph of the feasible region, as was done above. I there are more than two variables,
however it is not possible to draw a graph, and he problem must then be solved by an
algebraic procedure, such as the simplex method.

LINEARLY INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF VECTORS: A system of vectors


𝑎1 , 𝑎2,……… 𝑎𝑛 is said to be linearly dependent if there exists a system of sealers 𝑥1 , 𝑥2
,…….𝑥𝑛 not all zero such that

𝑥1 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 𝑎𝑛 = 0 .

A system of vectors which is no linearly dependent is said to be linearly independent.


This 𝜶 set of vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 is said to be linearly independent if every relation of
the type 𝑥1 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 𝑎𝑛 = 0 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡 𝑥1 = 0, 𝑥2 = 0, … . . 𝑥𝑛 = 0.
LINEARLY INDEPENDENT VECTORS: A set of vectors a, b and c is linearly independent if
it is impossible to find three scalars 𝑚, 𝑛, and 𝑝 (not all zero) such that 𝑚𝑎 + 𝑛𝑏 + 𝑝𝑐 =
0. Two vectors clearly are not linearly independent if they are multiples of each other.

LINEARLY ORDERED: An ordering ≤ (or <) of 𝐴 is called linear or total if any two
elements of 𝐴 are comparable. The pair (𝐴, ≤) is then called a linearly ordered set.
LINEAR MANIFOLD (OR SUBSPACE): A subset of 𝑀 of a linear space is called a linear
manifold (or subspace) if

 It contains all the sums of all the vectors contained in it, i.e. if 𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 are in 𝑀
then so is 𝑓 + 𝑔, and
 It contains all the scalar multiples of all its vector, i.e. if 𝑓 is in 𝑀 then so is of for
any scalar 𝑎.

Both (i) and (ii) can be combined into a single condition by saying that if
𝑓 and 𝑔 are in 𝑀, then so is 𝑎𝑓 + 𝑏𝑔, for any scalars 𝑎, 𝑏.

LINEAR OPERATOR: A linear operator T between two normed spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 is a


mapping 𝑇: 𝑋 → 𝑌 such that 𝑇(𝜆 𝑣 + µ 𝑢) = 𝜆 𝑇(𝑣) + µ 𝑇(𝑢). The kernel of linear
operator 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑇 and image are defined by 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑇 = 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑇𝑥 = 0 , Im T = {y ∇ Y: y =

Tx, for some x ∇ X}.

LINEAR PROGRAMMING: Linear programming is the most general technique that is


widely used for the optimization (maximization or minimization ) of a function to
obtain the maximum or minimum value according to certain conditions.

LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM (LPP): The LPP in general is used to optimize


(maximum/minimize) a given linear function of variables called the objective function
which is subjected to a certain set of linear equations /inequations called the constraints
or restrictions.

LINEAR PROPERTY OF FOURIER SINE AND COSINE TRANSFORMS: If 𝐹𝑠 𝑠 and 𝐺𝑠 𝑠 are


Fourier sine transforms and 𝐹𝑐 𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 are Fourier cosine transforms of
𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 respectively,

Then
𝐹𝑠 𝑎 𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝑎 𝐹𝑠 𝑠 + 𝑏 𝐺𝑠 𝑠
and
𝐹𝑐 𝑎 𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝑎 𝐹𝑐 𝑠 + 𝑏 𝐺𝑐 𝑠

LINEAR PROPERTY OF FOURIER TRANSFORMS: If 𝐹 𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺 𝑠 are Fourier transforms


of 𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 respectively,

Then
𝐹 𝑎𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏𝑔 𝑡 =𝑎𝐹 𝑠 +𝑏𝐺 𝑠

where 𝑎 , 𝑏 are constants

LINEAR SPACE: 𝑆 is termed a linear space (or vector space) If:

1. An operation called addition and denoted by + is defined is 𝑆, which assigns to every


two vectors f, g of 𝑆, a vecot f+g of 𝑆, called the sum of 𝑓 and g, satisfying the following
properties : for any vector 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕 of 𝑆,

𝑓 + 𝑔 = 𝑔 + 𝑓, (commutativity)

𝑓+𝑔 + 𝑕 =𝑓+ 𝑔+𝑕 , (associativity)

The equation 𝑔 + 𝑥 = 𝑓 has at least one solution 𝑥 in 𝑆. (possibility of subtraction)

2. A certain scalar system having been prescribed which is either the complex number
system, or the real number system (the elements of the scalar defined, i.e. to every
scalar a and every vector 𝑓, a vector of called the scalar multiple of 𝑓 by a (occasionally
also denoted 𝑓𝑎) is assigned, satisfying the properties: for any scalars 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 and any
vector 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝑕,

𝑎 𝑏𝑓 = 𝑎𝑏 𝑓, (Associativity w.r.t scalar multiplication to scalars)

𝑎 𝑓 + 𝑔 = 𝑎𝑓 + 𝑎𝑔, (Distributivity of multiplication over addition)

1𝑓 = 𝑓 (property of multiplication by unity)

The linear space is called a complex linear space or a real linear space according as the
prescribed scalar system is the complex number system or the real number system.

LINEAR SPAN: Let 𝐴 be a subset (finite or infinite) of a normed space 𝑉. The linear span
of 𝐴, write 𝐿(𝐴), is the intersection of all linear subspaces of 𝑉 containing 𝐴, i.e. the
smallest subspace containing 𝐴, equivalently the set of all finite linear combination of
elements of 𝐴. The closed linear span of 𝐴 write 𝐶𝐿(𝐴) is the intersection of all closed
linear subspaces of 𝑉 containing 𝐴, i.e. the smallest closed subspace containing 𝐴.

 If A is a subset of finite dimension space then 𝐿(𝐴) = 𝐶𝐿(𝐴).


 For an infinite A spaces L(A) and CL(A) could be different.
 If H is an inner product space and sequences 𝑥𝑛 and 𝑦𝑛 have limits x and y
correspondingly. Then ⟨ 𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ⟩ → ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑦 ⟩.

LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS: It is important to study special classes of functions as it is


to study special classes of objects. Often these are functions special classes of certain
properties or structures. For example, continuous functions preserves which points are
close to which other points. In linear algebra, the functions, which preserve the vector
space structures, are called linear transformations.

Let U and V be two vector spaces over the field K. A linear transformation or linear map
T from U to V is a function T: U→ 𝑉 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑕 𝑡𝑕𝑎𝑡

(i) 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑢2 = 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑇 𝑢2 for all 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 𝜖 𝑈


(ii) T(𝛼𝑢) = 𝛼𝑇 𝑢 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝛼 𝜖 𝐾, 𝑢 𝜖 𝑈
The above two conditions for linearity are equivalent to a single condition

𝑇 𝛼𝑢1 + 𝛽𝑢2 = 𝛼𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝛽𝑇 𝑢2 for all 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 𝜖 𝑈, 𝛼, 𝛽 𝜖 𝐾

Let 𝑇: 𝑈 → 𝑉 be a linear map.Then

(i) 𝑇(0𝑣) = 0𝑣
(ii) 𝑇(−𝑢) = −𝑇(𝑢) for all u 𝜖 𝑈
Examples: Many familiar geometrical transformations, such as projections, rotations,
reflections and magnifications are linear maps. Note, however, that a nontrivial
translation is not a linear map, because it does not satisfy 𝑇(0𝑣) = 0𝑣.

1. Let 𝑈 = ℝ3 , 𝑉 = ℝ2 and define 𝑇: 𝑈 → 𝑉 by 𝑇((𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾)) = (𝛼, 𝛽).Then T is a linear


map. This type of mapping is known as projection.

2. U = V = ℝ2 .we interpret v in ℝ2 as a directed line vector from 0 to 𝑣 and let 𝑇(𝑣) be


the vector obtained by rotating 𝑣 through an angle 𝜃 anticlockwise about the origin.It is
easy to see that 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑢2 = 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑇 𝑢2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 T(𝛼𝑢) = 𝛼𝑇 𝑢 and so T is a linear
map.By considering the unit vectors, we have 𝑇(1,0) = (𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃, 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇(0,1) =
(−𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃, 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃) and hence

𝑇(𝛼, 𝛽) = 𝛼 𝑇(1,0) + 𝛽𝑇 0,1 = (𝛼 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − 𝛽 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃, 𝛼 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 + 𝛽 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃)

3. Let us take U = V = ℝ2 . Let 𝑇(𝑣) be the vector obtained by resulting from reflecting
𝜃
𝑣 through a line through the origin that