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35 Ansichten547 Seitenit is a dictionary of mathematics

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it is a dictionary of mathematics

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35 Ansichten547 Seitenit is a dictionary of mathematics

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subsets of 𝑋.

α-CUT OF A FUZZY SET: An α-cut of a fuzzy set 𝐴 is a crisp set 𝐴, that contains all the

elements in 𝑈 that have membership values in 𝐴 greater than or equal to a, that is,

𝐴𝛼 = {𝒂 ∇ 𝑈; 𝝁𝑨 (𝑥) ≥ 𝛼}

ς-ALGEBRA: Let X be a set. A ς-algebra on 𝑋 is a collection of subsets of 𝑋, say 𝑅 ⊆ 2𝑋 ,

such that

1. 𝑋 ∇ 𝑅;

2. if 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅, then 𝐴 ∖ 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅;

If we drop the first condition from the definition we got a ς-ring. Note, that in the third

condition we admit any countable unions. The empty set belongs to any ς-algebra. For

a 𝜍-algebra 𝑅 and 𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝑅, we have 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝑋\ 𝑋\(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = X ((X\A)⋃(X\B) ) ∇ R .

Note that

The power set 2𝑋 is a 𝜍 −algebra.

Given any collection ⊆ 2𝑋 , there is a 𝜍 −algebra 𝑅 such that 𝐷 ⊆ 𝑅, such that if 𝑆

is any other 𝜍 −algebra, with 𝐷 ⊆ 𝑆, then 𝑅 ⊆ 𝑆. We call R the ς-algebra

generated by 𝐷.

ς-LOCALLY FINITE BASE: A ς-locally finite base is a base which is a union of countably

many locally finite collections of open sets.

Ɛ-Net: A sub set S of a metric space X is called ɛ-net if for any point in X there is a point

in S on the distance ≤ ɛ. This is different from topological nets which oversimplify

limits.

A

A-SET: It is the continuous image of a Borel set. Since any Borel set is a continuous

image of the set of irrational numbers, an A-set can be defined as a continuous image of

the set of irrational numbers.

A countable intersection and a countable union of A-sets is an A-set.

Any A-set is Lebesgue-measurable.

The property of being an A-set is invariant relative to Borel-measurable

mappings, and to A-operations. Moreover, for a set to be an A-set it is necessary

and sufficient that it can be represented as the result of an A-operation applied to

a family of closed sets.

Any uncountable A-set topologically contains a perfect Cantor set.

ABACUS: Abacus is a counting device consisting of rods on which beads can be moved

so as to represent numbers.

abc CONJECTURE: (1) The abc conjecture of Masser and Oesterlé efforts to state as much

as possible about repeated prime factors in an equation a + b = c. For example 3 + 125

= 128 but the prime powers here are special.

(2) 𝑎𝑚 + 𝑏 𝑛 = 𝑐 𝑝 has no solution in integers if a, b, c >2

ABEL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The ordinary differential equation

kind). Abel's differential equations of the first kind represent a natural generalization of

the Riccati equation.

If 𝑓1 ∇ 𝐶(𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑓2 , 𝑓3 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑓3 (𝑥) ≠ 0 for 𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏], then Abel's differential

equation of the first kind can be reduced to the normal form 𝑑𝑧/𝑑𝑡 = 𝑧 3 + 𝛷(𝑡) by

substitution of variables. In the general case, Abel's differential equation of the first kind

cannot be integrated in closed form, though this is possible in special cases.

If 𝑔0 , 𝑔1 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑎, 𝑏) and 𝑔1 (𝑥) ≠ 0, 𝑔0 (𝑥) + 𝑔1 (𝑥)𝑦 ≠ 0, Abel's differential equation of

the second kind can be reduced to Abel's differential equation of the first kind by

substituting

𝑔0 (𝑥) + 𝑔1 (𝑥)𝑦 = 1/𝑧.

ABELIAN CATEGORY: An Abelian category is an abstract mathematical category which

displays some of the characteristic properties of the category of all abelian groups.

ABELIAN DIFFERENTIALS: An Abelian differential on a closed Riemann surface ℛ is, by

definition, a complex differential form 𝑤 = 𝑎(𝑧)𝑑𝑧, where 𝑎(𝑧) is a meromorphic

function of a local parameter 𝑧. Such a differential is said to be of the first kind if 𝑎(𝑧) is

holomorphic, of the second kind if the residue vanishes everywhere, and of the third

kind otherwise.

ABELIAN FUNCTION: An inverse function of an abelian integral. Abelian functions have

two variables and four periods. They are a generalization of elliptic functions, and, are

also called hyper elliptic functions.

𝑎 ∗ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ∗ 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺 i.e. G is commutative under the operation ∗. For example, the set

of real numbers and the set of all rational numbers form an Abelian group with respect

to usual addition, and the set of nonzero real numbers and the set of all nonzero rational

numbers form an Abelian group with respect to usual multiplication. The theory of

Abelian groups has its origins in number theory, and is now extensively applied in many

modern mathematical theories. Thus, the duality theory of characters for finite Abelian

groups has been considerably extended to the duality theory of locally compact Abelian

groups. The development of homological algebra has made it possible to solve a whole

series of problems in Abelian groups, such as classifying the set of all extensions of one

group by another. The theory of modules is closely connected with Abelian groups

regarded as modules over the ring of integers. Many results in the theory of Abelian

groups can be applied to the case of modules over a principal ideal ring. Owing to their

relative simplicity and to the fact that they have been very thoroughly studied (which is

confirmed, for instance, by the solvability of the elementary theory of Abelian groups),

and to the availability of a sufficient variety of objects, Abelian groups serve as a

constant source of examples in various fields of mathematics.

All cyclic groups are Abelian, in particular, the additive group of integers.

All direct sums of cyclic groups are Abelian. Also the additive group of rational

numbers Q is Abelian; it is moreover a locally cyclic group, i.e. a group in which

all finitely generated subgroups are cyclic.

The free composition in the variety of Abelian groups coincides with the direct

sum. A free Abelian group is a direct sum of infinite cyclic groups.

Every subgroup of a free Abelian group is free Abelian.

The set of all elements of finite order in an Abelian group forms a subgroup,

which is called the torsion subgroup of the Abelian group.

The quotient group of an Abelian group by its torsion subgroup is a group

without torsion.

Every Abelian group is an extension of a torsion-free group by a torsion group.

This extension does not always split, i.e. the torsion group is usually not a direct

summand.

An Abelian torsion group in which the order of every element is a power of a

fixed prime number p is said to be primary with respect to p (the term p-group is

used in general group theory).

Every torsion group splits uniquely into a direct sum of primary groups that

correspond to distinct prime numbers.

A complete classification is known for finitely generated Abelian groups. This is given by

the fundamental theorem of finitely generated Abelian groups:

Every finitely generated Abelian group is a direct sum of finitely many non-split cyclic

subgroups some of which are finite and primary, while the others are infinite. In

particular, finite Abelian groups split into a direct sum of primary cyclic groups. Such

splittings are, in general, not unique, but any two splitting of a finitely generated Abelian

group into direct sums of non-split cyclic groups are isomorphic, so that the number of

infinite cyclic summands and the collection of the orders of the primary cyclic

summands do not depend on the splitting chosen. These numbers are called invariants

of the finitely generated Abelian group.

Two finitely generated Abelian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the

same invariants.

Not every Abelian group is a direct sum of (even infinitely many) cyclic groups.

Any subgroup of an Abelian group that is a direct sum of cyclic groups itself is

such a direct sum.

A finite set of elements 𝑔1 , … , 𝑔𝑘 in an Abelian group is called linearly dependent if there

𝑘

exist integers 𝑛1 , … , 𝑛𝑘 , not all equal to zero, such that 𝑖=1 𝑛𝑖 𝑔𝑖 = 0. If such numbers do

not exist, the set is said to be linearly independent. An arbitrary collection of elements

of A is said to be linearly dependent if there exists a finite linearly dependent sub

collection. An Abelian group that is not a torsion group has maximal linearly

independent sets. The cardinality of all maximal linearly independent collections of

elements is the same and is called the rank of the given Abelian group. The rank of a

torsion group is considered to be zero. The rank of a free Abelian group coincides with

the cardinality of a set of free generators of it.

ABEL’S IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM: In general, polynomial equations higher than

fourth degree are incapable of algebraic solution in terms of a finite number of

additions, multiplications, and root extractions.

ABEL’S INEQUALITY: If ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ and ⌌𝑏𝑛 ⌍ are sequences such that for some 𝑚 ∇ 𝑁, and

𝑛

𝛼 ∇ 𝑅 +, 𝑏1 ≥ 𝑏2 ≥ 𝑏3 ≥ . . . ≥ 𝑏𝑚 −1 ≥ 𝑏𝑚 ≥ 0 and |𝑠𝑛 | ≅ 𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 ≤𝛼 for

𝑛

𝑛 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑚, then 𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 𝑏𝑖 ≤ 𝛼𝑏1 .

ABEL’S IRREDUCIBILITY THEOREM: If one root of the equation 𝑓(𝑥) = 0, which is

irreducible over a field K, is also a root of the equation 𝐹(𝑥) = 0 in K, then all the roots

of the irreducible equation 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 are roots of 𝐹(𝑥) = 0. Equivalently, 𝐹(𝑥) can be

divided by 𝑓(𝑥) without a remainder, 𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥)𝑔(𝑥), where 𝑔(𝑥) is also a polynomial

over K.

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK (1802–29): Norwegian mathematician who, at the age of 19,

proved that the general equation of degree greater than 4 cannot be solved

algebraically. He was also responsible for fundamental developments in the theory of

algebraic functions. He died in some poverty at the age of 26, just a few days before he

would have received a letter announcing his appointment to a professorship in Berlin.

∞

𝑘

𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏

𝑘=0

continuous function in any closed triangle with vertices 𝑧0 , 𝑧1, 𝑧2 , where 𝑧1, 𝑧2 are

located inside the disc of convergence. In particular

lim 𝑠 𝑧 = 𝑠(𝑧0 )

𝑧→𝑧0

This limit always exists along the radius: The series

∞

𝑘

𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏

𝑘=0

converges uniformly along any radius of the disc of convergence joining the

points 𝑏 and 𝑧0 . This theorem is used, in particular, to calculate the sum of a power

series which converges at the boundary points of the disc of convergence.

∞ 𝑛 ∞ 𝑛

𝑛=1 𝑢𝑛 𝑟 is ≥ 1 and 𝑛=0 𝑢𝑛 𝑟 → 𝑠 𝑎s 𝑟 → 1, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by

Abel’s method or A-summable) to 𝑠, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐴). The transformation

matrix is denoted by 𝐴, and the transformation is called Abel’s method of summation.

sequences, and put 𝐴𝑛 = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 for 𝑛 ≥ 0. Then the following formula

of Abel’s partial summation holds;

n+k n+k

v=n+1 v=n+1

For any n ≥ 0 and any k ≥ 1; this formula also holds for n = −1 if we put 𝐴−1 = 0.

series of the form 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 . In particular, the following criteria are easy to apply:

and bounded Abel’s test .

(2) 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is convergent if the sequence 𝑠𝑛 of partial sums of 𝑎𝑛 is bounded and

if 𝑏𝑛 is monotone and converges to zero Dirichlet’s test .

(3) 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is convergent if (𝑏𝑛 − (𝑏𝑛+1 ) is absolutely convergent and if 𝑎𝑛 is (at

least conditionally) convergent (test of du Bois- Reymond and Dedekind).

ABEL’S TEST: Abel’s test is a test for the convergence of an infinite series which states

that if 𝛴𝑎𝑛 is a convergent series, and {𝑏𝑛 } is monotonically decreasing, then 𝛴𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛 is

also convergent.

ABEL’S THEOREM (ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS): Formulas expressing the solution of an

arbitrary equation of degree in terms of its coefficients using radicals do not exist for

any 𝑛 ≥ 5 . The theorem was proved by N.H. Abel in 1824. Abel's theorem may also be

obtained as a corollary of Galois Theory, from which a more general theorem follows:

For any 𝑛 ≥ 5 there exist algebraic equations with integer coefficients whose roots

cannot be expressed in terms of radicals of rational numbers.

∞

𝑘

𝑆 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 − 𝑏 (∗)

𝑘=0

and uniformly within any disc 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝜌 of radius 𝜌 ≤ 𝑧0 − 𝑏 and with centre at 𝑏.

The theorem was established by N.H. Abel. It follows from the theorem that there exists

a number 𝑅 ∇ [0, ∞) such that if 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 the series is convergent, while

if 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 the series is divergent. The number 𝑅 is called the radius of convergence

of the series (*), while the disc 𝑧 − 𝑏 ≤ 𝑅 is known as the disc of convergence of the

series (*).

ABOVE (GREATER THAN): The limit of a function at 𝑎 from above is the limit of 𝑓(𝑥) as

𝑥 → 𝑎 for values of 𝑥 > 𝑎. It is of particular importance when 𝑓(𝑥) has a discontinuity

at 𝑎, i.e. where the limits from above and from below do not coincide. It can be written

as 𝑓(𝑎+) or lim𝑥→𝑎+ 𝑓(𝑥).

ABRIDGED MULTIPLICATION: A method of multiplication where digits may be dropped

in each step of the calculation, in order to simplify the calculations, while maintaining

the desired level of accuracy, usually expressed in terms of decimal places.

ABSCISSA: Abscissa in two dimensional plane means x-coordinate. The abscissa of the

point (a, b) in Cartesian coordinates is a.

ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY OF LEBESGUE INTEGRAL: Let 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋). Then for any 𝜀 > 0

there is a 𝛿 > 0 such that

∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ < 𝜀 𝑖𝑓 µ 𝐴 < 𝛿.

𝐴

Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be spaces, and let 𝑆 and 𝑇 be semirings on 𝑋 and 𝑌 respectively and µ and 𝜈

be measures on 𝑆 and 𝑇 respectively. If µ and 𝜈 are 𝜍 −additive, then the product

measure 𝜈 × µ is 𝜍 −additive as well.

Let 𝐶 ∇ 𝐿(𝑋 × 𝑌). For almost every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set 𝐶𝑥 = {𝑦 ∇ 𝑌: (𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝐶} is

𝜈 −measurable and 𝜈(𝐶𝑥 ) = 𝑓𝐶 (𝑥).

Any measurable set is up to a set of zero measure can be received from elementary sets

by two monotonic limits.

𝐶𝑥 = {𝑦 ∇ 𝑌: (𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝐶}. Then for µ −almost every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set 𝐶𝑥 is 𝜈 −measurable,

function 𝑓𝐶 (𝑥) = 𝜈(𝐶𝑥 ) is µ −measurable and (µ × ν)(C) = ∫ fc dμ, where both parts may

have the value +∞.

converges when all the terms are replaced by the corresponding absolute values. The

series 1 − (1/2)2 + (1/3)3 − (1/4)4 + . ..is an example of absolute convergence. This

is because 1 − (1/2)2 + (1/3)3 − (1/4)4 + . .. is also convergent.

ABSOLUTE ERROR: The difference between the measured value or the approximation of

a quantity and the true value. When 0.7 is used as an approximation for 0.709, the error

equals (0.7-0.709), which is -0.009. In this case, the absolute error is |0.7-0.709|, which

is 0.009.

ABSOLUTE EXTREMUM: It is also known as an absolute maximum or an absolute

minimum.

ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY: Absolute frequency is the number of occurrences of an event.

For example, if a die is rolled 50 times and 8 sixes are observed, the absolute frequency

of sixes is 8 and the relative frequency is 8/50.

ABSOLUTE GEOMETRY: The term Absolute Geometry had been introduced by J. Bolyai

in 1832. Absolute Geometry is derived from the first four of Euclid's postulates. The first

28 Propositions from Elements, I belong to Absolute Geometry. Euclid apparently made

a conscientious effort to see how far he can reach without invoking his Fifth postulate.

All theorems of Absolute Geometry are automatically true in the geometries of Euclid,

Lobachevsky and Riemann since those three only differ in their treatment of the Fifth

postulate.

ABSOLUTE INEQUALITY: It is an inequality that contains absolute value(s). Example: |7x

- 6| < 1.

ABSOLUTELY CONTINUOUS CHARGE: Let 𝑋 be a set with 𝜍 −algebra 𝑅 and 𝜍 −finite

measure µ and finite charge 𝜈 on 𝑅. The charge 𝜈 is absolutely continuous with respect

to µ if µ(𝐴) = 0 for 𝐴 ∇ 𝑅 implies 𝜈(𝐴) = 0. Two charges 𝜈1 and 𝜈2 are equivalent if two

conditions | 𝜈1 |(𝐴) = 0 and | 𝜈2 |(𝐴) = 0 are equivalent.

the series 𝑢𝑛 is convergent.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM: The absolute maximum point for a function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is the

point where 𝑦 has the largest value on an interval 𝐼. If the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is

differentiable, the absolute maximum of the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) will either be a point

where there is a horizontal tangent so the derivative is zero, or a point at one of the

ends of the interval.

ABSOLUTE MINIMUM: The absolute minimum point for a function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is the point

where 𝑦 has the smallest value on an interval 𝐼. If the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) is

differentiable, then the absolute minimum of the function 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) will either be a

point where there is a horizontal tangent so the derivative is zero, or a point at one of

the ends of the interval.

ABSOLUTE NUMBER: A real value with its sign ignored - the result of applying

the modulus function to a value.

𝑎; 𝑖𝑓 𝑎 ≥ 0

𝑎 =

−𝑎; 𝑖𝑓 𝑎 ≤ 0

The following properties hold:

(i) |𝑎𝑏| = |𝑎||𝑏|.

(ii) |𝑎 + 𝑏| ≤ |𝑎| + |𝑏|.

(iii) |𝑎 − 𝑏| ≥ ||𝑎| − |𝑏||.

(iv) For 𝑎 > 0, |𝑥| ≤ 𝑎 if and only if −𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑎.

Figure given below illustrates the absolute value function in nbd of zero.

Absolute value of a real number is always positive or zero. If we represent all the real

numbers on a number line, we can think of the absolute value of a number 𝑎 as being

the distance from origin (zero) to that number 𝑎. The absolute value of a complex

number 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 is denoted and defined as

𝑧 = 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 .

It is to be noted that absolute value of a complex number 𝑧 is again the distance from

origin (zero) to that number 𝑧.

In a similar fashion, we can define the absolute value of a number 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 as

𝑎 = 𝑎1 2 + 𝑎2 2 + − − − − +𝑎𝑛 2 , where 𝑎 = 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , − − −𝑎𝑛 .

It is to be noted that absolute value of a number 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 is again the distance from origin

(zero) to that number 𝑎 in n dimensional space.

ABSORPTION LAWS: For all sets A and B, we have

𝐴 ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴 ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝐴.

These are said to be the absorption laws.

ABSTRACT ALGEBRA: It is the area of mathematics concerned with algebraic structures

involving sets of elements with particular operations satisfying certain axioms such as

groups, rings and fields.

ABSTRACTION: Abstraction is the process of making a general statement which

summarizes what can be observed in particular instances. For example, we can say that

𝑥 3 < 𝑥 for 0 < 𝑥 < 1 and 𝑥 3 > 𝑥 for 𝑥 < 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 > 1. Mathematical theorems are

essentially abstraction of concepts to a higher level.

ABSTRACT MANIFOLD: An abstract manifold (or just a manifold) of dimension m, is a

Hausdorff topological space 𝑀, equipped with an m-dimensional smooth atlas.

Compatible atlases are regarded as belonging to the same manifold (the precise

definition is thus that a manifold is a Hausdorff topological space equipped with a

smooth structure). A chart on 𝑀 is a chart from any atlas compatible with the structure.

It is often required of an abstract manifold that it should have a countable atlas.

ABSTRACT SUBMANIFOLD: Let 𝑀 be an abstract manifold. An abstract submanifold of 𝑀

is a subset 𝑁 ⊂ 𝑀 which is an abstract manifold on its own such that:

(i) the topology of 𝑁 is induced from 𝑀,

(ii) the inclusion map 𝑖: 𝑁 → 𝑀 is smooth, and

(iii) the differential 𝑑𝑖𝑝 : 𝑇𝑝 𝑁 → 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 is injective for each 𝑝 ∇ 𝑁.

In this case, the manifold 𝑀 is said to be ambient to 𝑁. In particular, since 𝑑𝑖𝑝 is injective,

the dimension of 𝑁 must be smaller than or equal to that of 𝑀.

ABUNDANCE: The abundance of a number 𝑛 is the quantity

𝐴 𝑛 = 𝜍(𝑛) 2𝑛,

where 𝑜(𝑛) is the divisor function. Kravitz has conjectured that no numbers exist whose

abundance is an odd square.

The following table lists special classifications given to a number n based on the value of

A(n).

A(n) Number

<0 deficient number

-1 almost perfect number

0 perfect number

1 Quasi-perfect number

>1 abundant number

ABUNDANT NUMBER: Abundant number is a positive integer that is smaller than the

sum of its positive divisors, not including itself, For example, 12 is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4

and 6, and 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 16 > 12.

AC: It is the abbreviation for Axiom of Choice.

ACCELERATION: The acceleration of a moving object measures the rate of change in its

velocity with respect to time. For example, if a car increases its velocity from 20 to 45

45−20

meters/ second in 8 seconds, its acceleration would be = 3.125 meters/ second2

8

If 𝑦(𝑡) represents the position of the moving object as a function of time, then the

𝑑𝑦

derivative represents the velocity of the object, and the second derivative

𝑑𝑡

𝑑2𝑦

represents the acceleration.

𝑑𝑡 2

Newton obtained that, if F represents the force acting on a moving object and m

represents its mass, the acceleration 𝑎 of the moving object is determined by the

formula 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎.

ACCEPTANCE REGION: The set of values for a random variable in hypothesis

testing such that the null hypothesis is not rejected.

from some probability distribution, 𝑓(𝑥), by first generating a random number from

some other distribution, 𝑔(𝑥), where 𝑓 and 𝑔 are related by 𝑓(𝑥) ≤ 𝑔(𝑥) for all 𝑥 with 𝑘

a constant. The algorithm works as follows:

2. let 𝑠 be a random number from a uniform distribution on the interval (0,1);

3. calculate 𝑐 = 𝑘𝑠𝑔(𝑟);

4. if 𝑐 > 𝑓 (𝑟) reject 𝑟 and return to the first step; if 𝑐 ≤ 𝑓 (𝑟) accept 𝑟 as a random

number from 𝑓.

taken from a collection or batch of items, and the decision to accept the batch as

satisfactory, or reject them as unsatisfactory, is based on the proportion of defective

items in the sample. It is a method of quality control where a sample is taken and a

decision whether to accept the population is made on the basis of the quality of the

sample. The simplest method is to have a straight accept/reject criterion, but a more

classy approach is to take another sample if the evidence from the existing sample, or a

set of samples, is not evidently indicating whether the group should be accepted or

rejected. One of the main benefits of this approach is reducing the cost of taking samples

to satisfy quality control criteria.

sequence, also called a limit point. For some maps, periodic orbits give way to chaotic

ones beyond a point known as the accumulation point.

ACCURACY: Accuracy is defined as a measure of the exactness of a numerical quantity,

frequently given to n significant figures (where the proportional accuracy is the

significant aspect) or n decimal places (where the absolute accuracy is more

significant).

ACCURATE (CORRECT) TO n DECIMAL PLACES: Rounding a number with the accuracy

specified by the number of decimal places given in the rounded value. So e = 2.71828 …

= 2.718 to three decimal places and = 2.72 to two decimal places.

ACTIVE CONSTRAINT: An inequality such as 3𝑦 + 5𝑥 ≥ 21 is said to be active at a

point on the boundary, i.e. where equality holds, for example (2, 3) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (7, 0).

ACUTE ANGLE: An angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees.

ACYCLIC AND CYCLIC MOTION: When the region occupied by the fluid moving

irrotationally is simply connected, the velocity potential will be single-valued. Thus the

velocity potential becomes

∅B = − rdr

OAB

For all paths from O to B. Thus the motion in which the velocity potential is single

valued is called acyclic. In simply connected region the only possible irrotational motion

is acylic. When the velocity potential is not single- valued, the motion is said to be cyclic

i.e., it is not possible to assign to every point of the original region a unique and definite

value of ∅.

ADAPTIVE CLUSTER SAMPLING: A procedure in which an initial set of subjects is

selected by some sampling procedure and, whenever the variable of interest of a

selected subject satisfies a given criterion, additional subjects in the neighbourhood of

that subject are added to the sample.

the expression 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑐, 𝑎, 𝑏, and 𝑐 are all addends. The first of several addends, or “the

one to which the others are added” a in this example , is sometimes called the augend.

One of the numbers that are being added together in a sum. For example, when we write

4 + 5 = 9, 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 5 are called the addends.

ADDITION: The operation, or process, of calculating the sum of two numbers or

quantities.

ADDITION (OF COMPLEX NUMBERS): Let the complex numbers 𝑧1 and 𝑧2 , where

𝑧1 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 and 𝑧2 = 𝑐 + 𝑖𝑑 be represented by the points 𝑃 and 𝑄 in the complex plane.

Then 𝑧1 + 𝑧2 = (𝑎 + 𝑐) + 𝑖(𝑏 + 𝑑), and 𝑧1 + 𝑧2 is represented in the complex plane

by the point 𝑅 such that 𝑂𝑃𝑅𝑄 is a parallelogram.

𝑩 = [𝑏𝑖𝑗 ]. The operation of addition is defined by taking the sum 𝑨 + 𝑩 to be the

𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑪, where 𝑪 = [𝑐𝑖𝑗 ] and 𝑐𝑖𝑗 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 + 𝑏𝑖𝑗 . The sum 𝑨 + 𝑩 is not defined if

𝑨 and 𝑩 are not of the same order. This operation + of addition on the set of all m × n

matrices is associative and commutative. Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be two matrices of the same type

𝑚 × 𝑛. The their sum (to be denoted by 𝐴 + 𝐵) is defined to be the matrix of the type

𝑚 × 𝑛 obtained by the adding the corresponding elements of 𝐴 and 𝐵. Thus if

𝑚 ×𝑛 𝑚 ×𝑛 𝑚 ×𝑛

Note that A + B is also a matrix of the type 𝑚 × 𝑛. More clearly we can say that:

a21 a22 … a2n b21 b22 … b2n

A= … … … … and B =

… … … …

am1 am2 … amn m×n b m1 bm2 … bmn m×n

Then

a11 + b11 a12 + b12 … a1n + b1n

a + b21 a22 + b22 … a2n + b2n

A + B = 21

……… ……… … ……

am1 + bm1 am2 + bm2 … amn + bmn m×n.

For example, if

3 2 −1 1 −2 7

A= and B = ; then

4 −3 1 2×3 3 2 −1 2×3

3+1 2 − 2 −1 + 7 4 0 6

A+B= =

4+3 −3 + 2 1 − 1 7 −1 0 2×3.

It should be noted that addition is defined only for matrices which are of the same size.

If two matrices A and B are of the same size, they are said to be conformable for

addition. If the matrices A and BA are not of the same size, we cannot find their sum.

ADDITION (OF VECTORS): Given vectors 𝒂 and 𝒃, let 𝑂𝐴 and 𝑂𝐵 be directed line-

segments that represent 𝒂 and 𝒃, with the same initial point O. The sum of 𝑂𝐴 and 𝑂𝐵 is

the directed line-segment 𝑂𝐶 , where OACB is a parallelogram, and the sum 𝒂 + 𝒃 is

defined to be the vector c represented by 𝑂𝐶 .

This is called the parallelogram law. Alternatively, the sum of vectors 𝒂 and 𝒃 can be

defined by representing a by a directed line-segment 𝑂𝑃 and 𝒃 by 𝑃𝑄 where the final

point of the first directed line-segment is the initial point of the second. Then 𝒂 + 𝒃 is

the vector represented by 𝑂𝑄. This is called the triangle law. Addition of vectors has the

following properties, which hold for all a, b and c:

(i) 𝒂 + 𝒃 = 𝒃 + 𝒂, the commutative law.

(ii) 𝒂 + (𝒃 + 𝒄) = (𝒂 + 𝒃) + 𝒄, the associative law.

(iii) 𝒂 + 𝟎 = 𝟎 + 𝒂 = 𝒂, where 0 is the zero vector.

(iv) 𝒂 + (−𝒂) = (−𝒂) + 𝒂 = 𝟎, where −𝒂 is the negative of 𝒂.

ADDITION LAW: In the theory of probability, If A and B are two events then the addition

law states that the

𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵) − 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵).

In the special case, where A and B are mutually exclusive events this reduces to

𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵).

ADDITIVE FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑥) over a domain 𝐷 is said to be an additive

functiuon if

𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑦 ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐷.

For example, 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑛𝑥 is an additive function since

𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑛 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑛𝑥 + 𝑛𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑓(𝑦)

ADDITIVE GROUP: A group G with the operation + (addition) may be called an additive

group.

ADDITIVE IDENTITY: The number zero is known as the additive identity element,

because it satisfies the property that the addition of zero does not change a number:

𝑎 + 0 = 𝑎 = 0 + 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅..

ADDITIVE INVERSE: The sum of a number and its additive inverse is zero. The additive

inverse of 𝑎 (written as −𝑎) is also called the negative or the opposite of 𝑎: 𝑎 + −𝑎 =

0 = −𝑎 + 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅. For example, -6 is the additive inverse of 6 and -7 is the additive

inverse of 7.

ADHERENT POINT: Adherent point of a set A is a point of the set A in a topological space

that belongs to the closure of a set A. In other words, a point 𝑝 ∇ 𝑆 is said to be an

adherent point of 𝑆 if every nbd of 𝑝 contains a point of 𝑆. The set of all adherent points

of the set 𝑆 is called adherence of 𝑆 and is denoted by 𝐴𝑑 𝐴.

ADHERENT POINT OF A FILTER: Let (𝐸, 𝑇) be a topological space and 𝐹 a filter on 𝐸. A

point 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 is said to be adherent point of 𝐹 if it is adherent to every 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹, i.e. if every

𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥) meets every 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. Consider in 𝑅 the set of points 1/𝑛, 1 − 1/𝑛 (where

𝑛 ∇ 𝑁) and the point 2. Let 𝐹 be the filter consisting of the complements of finite

subsets of this set. 𝐹 has the points 0 and 1 as adherent points.

AD INFINITUM: Literally meaning "to infinity" in Latin. It is a phrase used in

mathematics (and other fields) as a more elegant way of what is more commonly

expressed as "... and so on and so forth".

ADJACENCY MATRIX: For a simple graph G, with n vertices 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 , the adjacency

matrix A is the 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] with 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 1, if 𝑣𝑖 is joined to 𝑣𝑗 , and 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0,

otherwise. The matrix A is symmetric and the diagonal entries are zero. The number of

ones in any row (or column) is equal to the degree of the corresponding vertex. An

example of a graph and its adjacency matrix A is shown below.

ADJACENCY RELATION: The set E of edges of a graph (V, E), being a set of unordered

pairs of elements of V, constitutes a relation on V. Formally, an adjacency relation is any

relation which is irreflexive and symmetric.

ADJACENT ANGLES: Two angles that share a ray, thereby being directly next to each

other

ADJACENT EDGES: Adjacent edges are a pair of edges in a graph joined by a common

vertex.

ADJACENT FRACTION: Two fractions are said to be adjacent if their difference has a

unit numerator. For example, I/3 and 1/4 are adjacent since l/3 - l/4 = l/12, but l/2 and

l/5 are not since l/2 - l/5 = 3/10. Adjacent fractions can be adjacent in a Farey sequence.

common edge.

ADJOINT CURVE: A curve which has at least multiplicity 𝑝𝑖 − 1 at each point where a

given curve (having only ordinary singular points and cusps) has a multiplicity Q is

called the adjoint to the given curve. When the adjoint curve is of order 𝑛 − 3, it is

called a special adjoint curve.

n×n

of the matrix B = Aij , where Aij denotes the cofactor of the element aij in the

n×n

determinant A , is called the adjoint of the matrix A and is denoted by ht symbol Adj. A.

If A be any n-rowed square matrix, then Adj A A = A Adj A = A In , where 𝐼𝑛 is the n-

rowed unit matrix.

ADJOINT OPERATOR: Let 𝐻 and 𝐾 be Hilbert Spaces and 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝐻, 𝐾). Then there exists

operator 𝑇 ∗∇ 𝐵(𝐾, 𝐻) such that ⟨ 𝑇, 𝑘 ⟩𝐾 = ⟨ , 𝑇 ∗ 𝑘 ⟩𝐻 for all ∇ 𝐻, 𝑘 ∇ 𝐾. Such

𝑇 ∗ is called the adjoint operator of 𝑇. Also 𝑇 ∗∗ = 𝑇 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ||𝑇 ∗ || = ||𝑇||.

For operators 𝑇1 and 𝑇2 , (𝑇1 𝑇2 )*= 𝑇2 *𝑇1 *, (𝑇1 +𝑇2 )*= 𝑇1 *+𝑇2 * and λ T)*=λT*.

If A is an operator on a Hilbert space H then (𝑘𝑒𝑟𝐴)⊥ = 𝐼𝑚 𝐴∗ .

ADJUNCTION: If 𝑎 is an element of a field 𝑓 over the prime field 𝑃, then the set of all

rational functions of a with coefficients in 𝑃 is a field derived from 𝑃 by adjunction of 𝑎.

sequence. For example, in the sequence aabaabaabaabaab . . ., a, aa, baab are all

admissible, but bb is inadmissible.

ADMISSIBLE HYPOTHESIS: Any hypothesis that has not been ruled out, that is, a

hypothesis that may possibly be true.

a.e.: It is the abbreviation for almost everywhere

AEROFOIL: The aerofoil has a profile if fish type. It is used in modern airplanes. Such an

aerofoil has a blunt leading edge and a sharp trailing edge. The projection of the profile

on the double tangent is the chord. The ratio of the span to the chord is the aspect ratio.

The locus of the point midway between the points in which an ordinate perpendicular

to the chord meets the profile is known as the camber line of a profile. The camber is the

ratio of the maximum ordinate of the camber line to the chord.

The theory of the flow round such an aerofoil is made on the following assumptions:

2. The aerofoil is as cylinder whose cross section is a curve of the above form and

the flow is two-dimensional irrotational cyclic motion.

of circle, angle and distance. It's a known dictum that in Affine Geometry all triangles are

the same. In this context, the word affine was first used by Euler (affinis). In modern

parlance, Affine Geometry is a study of properties of geometric objects that remain

invariant under affine transformations (mappings). Affine transformations preserve

collinearity of points: if three points belong to the same straight line, their images under

affine transformations also belong to the same line and, in addition, the middle point

remains between the other two points. As further examples, under affine

transformations

concurrent lines remain concurrent (images of intersecting lines intersect),

the ratio of length of line segments of a given line remains constant,

the ratio of areas of two triangles remains constant (and hence the ratio of any

areas remain constant),

ellipses remain ellipses and the same is true for parabolas and hyperbolas.

barycenters of triangles (and other shapes) map into the corresponding

barycenters.

over a field 𝐾, and let 𝐴 be a nonempty set. For any vector 𝑎 ∇ 𝑉 and any element 𝑝 of 𝐴,

suppose that an addition 𝑝 + 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 is defined so as to satisfy the following three

conditions:

(i) 𝑝 + 0 = 𝑝 (0 being a zero vector);

(ii) (𝑝 + 𝑎) + 𝑏 = 𝑝 + (𝑎 + 𝑏) (𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑉); and

(iii) for any 𝑞 ∇ 𝐴 there exists a unique vector 𝑎 ∇ 𝑉 such that 𝑞 = 𝑝 + 𝑎.

Condition (i) follows from (ii) and (iii). Then we call 𝐴 an affine space, 𝑉 the standard

vector space of 𝐴, and 𝐾 the coefficient field of 𝐴. Each element of 𝐴 is called a point.

AFFINE TRANSFORMATION: A transformation which involves any combination

of translations, reflections, stretches, shrinks, or rotations. Collinearity and concurrency

are invariant under affine transformations.

AGGREGATION: The process of representing the sum of mathematical terms as a single

(mathematical) term.

AGREE: If 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) are two functions defined on a set S, and 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑥) for all

𝑥 ∇ 𝑆, then we say that 𝑓 and 𝑔 agree on the set 𝑆.

Ai: It is the abbreviation for Airy function.

AHLFORS-BERS THEOREM: The Riemann’s moduli space gives the solution to

Riemann’s moduli problem, which requires an analytic parameterization of the compact

Riemann surfaces in a fixed homeomorphism.

the cities satisfying the following conditions. For each city there are direct flights to and

from exactly the same number of other cities. Between any two cities there is exactly

one flight with at most one stopover. For what values of n do such networks exist?

be used to solve an equation, Aitken’s method of accelerating convergence uses the

initial value. This can then be used as a new starting point from which to repeat the

process until the required accuracy has been reached. Let us suppose that 𝑥0 , 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 are

the initial value and the first two iterations and

𝛥𝑥𝑟 = 𝑥𝑟+1 − 𝑥𝑟 , 𝛥2 𝑥𝑟 = 𝛥𝑥𝑟+1 − 𝛥𝑥𝑟

are the forward differences then

𝛥𝑥 2 2

𝑥4 = 𝑥3 − .

𝛥2 𝑥 1

𝛥𝑥𝑟−1 2

𝑥𝑟+1 = 𝑥𝑟 − .

𝛥2 𝑥𝑟−2

ALAOGLU THEOREM: The unit ball in 𝑋 ∗ is weak compact.

ALEPH: Aleph is a symbol that is used to denote any infinite cardinal number and

usually denoted by the Hebrew letter א.

ALEPH-NULL: Aleph-null is the smallest infinite cardinal number. It is the cardinality of

any set which can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the set of natural numbers.

Such sets are also known as countable or denumerable sets. One of the apparent

paradoxes in number theory is that the set of rational numbers between 0 and 1, the set

of all rational numbers, and the set of natural numbers all have the same cardinality.

The symbol א0 is used.

ALEXANDROFF COMPACTIFICATION: The collection consisting of all open subsets of 𝑋

and all complements in 𝑋 ∞ of closed compact subsets of 𝑋 is the finest topology on 𝑋 ∞

such that 𝑋 ∞ is compact and contains 𝑋 as a subspace. If 𝑋 is not compact then 𝑋 is

dense in 𝑋 ∞ , and 𝑋 ∞ is called the Alexandroff compactification of 𝑋.

integral curvature bounds (the last one works only in dimension 2)

ALEXANDROV TOPOLOGY: The topology of a space 𝑋 is an Alexandrov topology (or

is finitely generated) if arbitrary intersections of open sets in 𝑋 are open, or

equivalently, if arbitrary unions of closed sets are closed, or, again equivalently, if the

open sets are the upper sets of a poset.

ALGEBRA: Algebra is the branch of Mathematics that studies the properties of

operations carried out on sets of numbers. It started with Alkwarizmi’s 820 Al Gebr

W’ali Muquabala, the origin of the word “algebra.” It was the first mathematical book

written in Arabic. Its content was essentially a variety of methods of solving algebraic

equations. Al gebr means “transposition of negative terms on one side of the equation to

the other side and changing their signs.” and W’ali muquabala means “simplification of

the equation by gathering similar terms.” Algebra is a generalization of arithmetic in

which symbols, usually letters, are used to stand for numbers. It is the area of

mathematics related to the general properties of arithmetic. Relationships can be

summarized by using variables, usually denoted by letters x, y, n, … to stand for

unknown quantities, whose value(s) may be determined by solving the resulting

equations. The structure of algebra is based upon axioms (or postulates), which are

statements that are assumed to be true. Some algebraic axioms include the transitive

axiom and the associative axiom of addition i.e.:

𝑎 = 𝑏 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏 = 𝑐 ⇒ 𝑎 = 𝑐.

𝑎+ 𝑏 + 𝑐= 𝑎+ 𝑏+ 𝑐 .

These axioms are used to prove theorems about the properties of operations on real

numbers.

ALGEBRAICALLY CLOSED: A field 𝐹 is said to be algebraically closed if every polynomial

with coefficients in 𝐹 has a solution in 𝐹. Equivalently, every polynomial with

coefficients in 𝐹 can be written as a product of linear polynomials.

ALGEBRAIC CLOSURE: It is the procedure of the extension of a given set to include all

the roots of polynomials with coefficients in the given set. The smallest algebraically

closed set of numbers is C, the set of complex numbers, since the very simple equation

𝑥 2 + 1 = 0 has a complex solution.

ALGEBRAIC FIELD EXTENSION: Let 𝐿: 𝐾 be a field extension, and let 𝛼 be an element of

𝐿. If there exists some non-zero polynomial 𝑓 ∇ 𝐾[𝑥] with coefficients in 𝐾 such that

𝑓(𝛼) = 0, then α is said to be algebraic over 𝐾; otherwise 𝛼 is said to be transcendental

over 𝐾. A field extension 𝐿: 𝐾 is said to be algebraic if every element of 𝐿 is algebraic

over 𝐾.

ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION: An algebraic function is a function which can be expressed as a

root of an equation of the form

𝜆𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛–1 𝜆𝑛–1 + ··· + 𝑏1 𝜆 + 𝑏0 = 0

Where 𝑏𝑛–1 , − − − 𝑏1 , 𝑏0 are rational functions of 𝑥.

ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: Algebraic geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals

with algebraic varieties, that is, point sets defined by several algebraic equations in a

space of any dimension or those derived from these sets by means of certain

constructions, It may also be considered to be a theory of the field of algebraic functions

in several variables in geometric language, and it is closely related to the theories of

complex analytic manifolds, commutative algebra, and homological algebra. It also has

an important connection with number theory through the theories of automorphic

functions, Diophantine equations, and zeta functions.

ALGEBRAIC INTEGER: A complex number 𝑧 is said to be an algebraic integer if it is the

root of some monic polynomial with integer coefficients. It follows from the above

definition that a complex number is an algebraic integer if and only if it is integral over

the ring of integers. It follows from the relevant definitions that a complex number is an

algebraic number if and only if it is integral over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers. Also a

complex number is an algebraic integer if and only if it is integral over the ring 𝑍 of

(rational) integers. In algebraic number theory, elements of the ring 𝑍 are often referred

to as rational integers to distinguish them from algebraic integers. The set of all

algebraic integers constitutes a subring of the field 𝐶 of complex numbers that is

integrally closed in 𝐶. An algebraic number is an algebraic integer if and only if the

coefficients of its minimum polynomial over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers are rational

integers.

ALGEBRAIC NOTATION: This avoids the initial use of components, and is distinguished

by the explicit use of the tensor product symbol.

ALGEBRAIC NUMBER: Algebraic number is a real number that is the root of some

polynomial equation with integer coefficients. All rational numbers are algebraic, since

𝑎/𝑏 is the root of the equation 𝑏𝑥 − 𝑎 = 0. Some irrational numbers are algebraic; for

example, 3 is the root of the equation 𝑥 2 − 3 = 0. An irrational number that is not

algebraic such as π, e etc. is called a transcendental number.

ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELD: A complex number that satisfies an algebraic equation with

rational integral coefficients is said to be an algebraic number. If the coefficient of the

term of highest degree of the equation is 1, this algebraic number is said to be an

algebraic integer. The set 𝐴 of ah algebraic numbers is a field which is the algebraic

closure of the rational number field 𝑄 in the complex number field 𝐶. The set 𝐼 of all

algebraic integers is an integral domain which contains the integral domain 𝒁 of all the

rational integers. The field of quotients of 𝐼 is 𝐴. An extension field 𝑘 of 𝑄 of finite

degree, which we shall always suppose to be contained in C is said to be an algebraic

number field of finite degree, and 𝑘 is a subfield of 𝐴. Thus An algebraic number field is a

subfield of the field 𝐶 of complex numbers that is a finite-dimensional vector space over

the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.

ALGEBRAIC SET: A subset of 𝑛-dimensional affine space 𝐴𝑛 is said to be an algebraic set

if it is of the form {(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 ) ∇ 𝐴𝑛 ∶ 𝑓(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 ) = 0 for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑆} for some

subset 𝑆 of the polynomial ring 𝐾[𝑋1 , 𝑋2 , . . . , 𝑋𝑛 ].

ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE: It is the term used to describe an abstract concept defined as

consisting of certain elements with operations satisfying given axioms. Thus, a group

(ring or field) is an algebraic structure. The purpose of the definition is to recognize

similarities that appear in different contexts within mathematics and to encapsulate

these by means of a set of axioms.

ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM: It is a set together with the operations and relations defined on

that set.

ALGEBRA (LINEAR ALGEBRA): A linear space 𝑆 over a field 𝐹 is called an algebra, (or a

linear algebra) if a composition (.) is defined in 𝑆 such that

(i) 𝑓. 𝑔 . = 𝑓. 𝑔. 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓, 𝑔, ∇ 𝑆,

(ii) 𝑓. 𝑔 + = 𝑓. 𝑔 + 𝑓. and 𝑓 + 𝑔 . + 𝑔. , for all 𝑓, 𝑔, , ∇ 𝑆, and

(iii) 𝑎 𝑓. 𝑔 = 𝑎𝑓 . 𝑔 = 𝑓. 𝑎𝑔 , for all 𝑓, 𝑔, ∇ 𝑆, and 𝑎 ∇ 𝐹.

𝑎𝑓, 𝑓 + 𝑔, 𝑓𝑔, 𝑚𝑎𝑥(𝑓, 𝑔) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑖𝑛(𝑓, 𝑔) are all measurable. That is measurable functions

form algebra and this algebra is closed under convergence a.e.

𝑠𝑢𝑝

1. uniformly to f (notated 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓) if 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥) → 0

𝑥∇𝑋 𝑛

𝑎. 𝑒

2. almost everywhere to 𝑓 (notated 𝑓𝑛 𝑓) if 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋\𝐴, 𝜇 𝐴 = 0.

→

𝜇

3. in measure µ to f (notated 𝑓𝑛 𝑓) if for all 𝜀 > 0, 𝜇 {𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑓𝑛 𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥) >

→

𝜀} → 0.

ALGEBRA OF SETS: The set of all subsets of a universal set E is closed under the binary

operations ∪ union and ∩ intersection and the unary operation complementation .

The following are some of the properties, or laws, that hold for subsets A, B and C of E:

(i) 𝐴 ∪ (𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∪ 𝐶 and 𝐴 ∩ (𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∩ 𝐶 (Associative

property)

(ii) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝐵 ∪ 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝐵 ∩ 𝐴 (commutative property)

(iii) 𝐴 ∪ Ø = 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ Ø = Ø, where Ø is the empty set.

(iv) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐸 = 𝐸 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 = 𝐴.

(v) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 = 𝐴 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴 = 𝐴.

(vi) 𝐴 ∩ (𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶)

and 𝐴 ∪ (𝐵 ∩ 𝐶) = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐶) (distributive property)

(vii) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ = 𝐸 and 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′ = Ø.

(viii) 𝐸′ = Ø and Ø′ = 𝐸.

(ix) (𝐴′)′ = 𝐴.

(x) (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∩ 𝐵′ and (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∪ 𝐵′ De Morgan’s laws

The application of these laws to subsets of E is known as the algebra of sets.

ALGEBRA WITH IDENTITY: An algebra A is called an algebra with identity if there exists

a non-zero element in A, denoted by 𝑒 and called the identity element or the identity

such that

𝑒𝑓 = 𝑓𝑒 = 𝑓 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑓𝜖 𝐴

Obviously the identify in an algebra is unique.

ALGORITHM: An algorithm is a chain of instructions that tell how to carry out a task. An

algorithm must be specified exactly, so that there can be no doubt about what to do

next, and it must have a finite number of steps.

ALIQUOT PART : Aliquot part is another name for a proper divisor, i.e. any divisor of a

given number other than the number itself. A prime number has only one aliquot part -

the number 1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 are all aliquot parts of 12. The number 1 does not have aliquot

parts.

AL-KHWARIZMI: Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi (780 AD to 850 AD) was a

Muslim mathematician who introduced modern numerals (the Hindu-arabic numerals)

to Europe in his book titled Kitab -al-jabr-walli-muqabalah that provided the source for

the term algebra. His name is the source for the term algorithm.

ALMOST CONTINUOUS FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is almost continuous,

𝑓 ∇ 𝐴𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided each open subset of 𝑋 × 𝑌 containing the graph of 𝑓 also

contains the graph of a continuous function from 𝑋 to 𝑌 . This property was defined as a

generalization of functions having the fixed-point property. It is easy to see that if every

function in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑋) has the fixed-point property, then so does every 𝑓 ∇ 𝐴𝐶(𝑋, 𝑋).

ALMOST EVERYWHERE: If we have a property 𝑃(𝑥) which is true except possibly for

𝑥 ∇ 𝐴 and µ(𝐴) = 0, we say 𝑃(𝑥) is almost everywhere or a.e. t is Therefore, it is a

property holding for all values except on a set of zero measure. The most remarkable

example of a set of zero measure is the set of rational numbers, so if

1, when 𝑥 is rational

𝑓 𝑥 = ,

0, when 𝑥 is irrational

then we can say that 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 almost everywhere.

ALMOST PERIODIC FUNCTIONS: The theory of almost periodic functions was originated

by H. Bohr in 1924 as a result of his study of Dirichlet series. The theory provides a

method of studying a wide class of trigonometric series of general type.

Let 𝑓(𝑥) be a complex-valued continuous function defined for all real values of 𝑥. A

number 𝑻 is called a translation number of 𝑓(𝑥) belonging to 𝜖 > 0 if

𝑠𝑢𝑝

𝑓(𝑥 + 𝑇) − 𝑓(𝑥) <∇

−∞ < 𝑥 < ∞

If for any ∇ > 0 there exists a number 𝑙(∇) > 0 such that any interval of length 𝑙(∇)

contains a translation number belonging to ∇, then 𝒇(𝒙) is called almost periodic in the

sense of Bohr. We denote by 𝑩 the set of all almost periodic functions in the sense of

Bohr.

ALPHABETS AND WORDS: Let 𝐴 be a finite set. We refer to this set 𝐴 as an alphabet and

we refer to the elements of 𝐴 as letters. (For example, the set 𝐴 might be the set of

letters in the English language, or in any other world language, or the set {0, 1} of binary

digits, or the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} of decimal digits.) For any natural number 𝑛, we

define a word of length 𝑛 over the alphabet 𝐴 to be a string of the form 𝑎1 𝑎2 . . . 𝑎𝑛 in

which 𝑎𝑖 ∇ 𝐴 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛. We shall denote by 𝐴𝑛 the set of all words of length 𝑛

over the alphabet 𝐴. In particular, 𝐴1 = 𝐴.

Alt: alternating group (Alt(n) is also written as An)

ALTERNATING GROUP, An: It is the subgroup of the symmetric group 𝑆𝑛 and it contains

all the even permutations of 𝑛 objects. It has order 𝑛!/2. For 𝑛 > 4, it is the only proper

normal subgroup of 𝑆𝑛 apart from the empty set. The alternating group is a simple

group.

ALTERNATING MAP: A multilinear map 𝜙: 𝑉 𝑘 = 𝑉 × · · · × 𝑉 → 𝑈 where 𝑘 > 1, is

said to be alternating if for all 𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ∇ 𝑉 the value 𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ) changes sign

whenever two of the vectors 𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 are interchanged, that is

𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑖 , . . . , 𝑣𝑗 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ) = −𝜙(𝑣1 , . . . , 𝑣𝑗 , . . . , 𝑣𝑖 , . . . , 𝑣𝑘 ).

ALTERNATING SERIES: An alternating series is a series in which every term has the

opposite sign from the preceding term. For example, 1 − 𝑥 + 𝑥 2 − 𝑥 3 + − − − is an

alternating series.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: The model considered to be the case if the null

hypothesis in considered to be rejected (not hold). There is some debate as to whether

an alternative hypothesis increases the subjectiveness of hypothesis testing, since the

alternative hypothesis does not necessarily have to be the negation of the null

hypothesis. The issue is whether it is appropriate to make presumptions of what

the model in consideration cannot be (models not covered by the null or alternative

hypothesis but not considered) in hypothesis testing. Setting the alternative hypothesis

to be the negation of the null hypothesis amounts to not using alternative hypothesis as

some statistician would advocate. The alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis that

states, “The null hypothesis is false.”

AMBIGUOUS: Having more than one possible way, meaning , value, or solution.

AMICABLE NUMBERS: A pair of numbers with the property that each is equal to the sum

of the positive proper divisors of the other. Here proper divisor means that the number

is not included as one of its own divisors. For example, 220 and 284 are amicable

numbers because the positive divisors of 220 are 1,

2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 20, 22, 44, 55 and 110, whose sum is 284, and the positive divisors of 284

are 1, 2, 4, 71 and 142, whose sum is 220. More than 600 pairs are now known.

AMOUNT: The total value of an investment, including the principal and the interest

AMPLITUDE: Half the difference between the maximum and the minimum values of a

periodic function. The amplitude of a periodic function is half of the difference between

the largest possible value of the function and the smallest possible value. For example,

for the function 𝑦 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑥, the largest possible value of 𝑦 is 1 and the smallest possible

1−(−1)

value of 𝑦 is −1, so the amplitude is = 1.

2

An : The alternating group of degree 𝑛 and order 𝑛!/2. That is, a group having 𝑛!/

2 members which act on 𝑛 elements of a set. It is a group that consists of members

which are even permutations (compositions of even number of permutations) only.

various techniques of computation employing diagrams, or physical systems whose

equations are similar to the mathematical problems in question. The history of analog

computation is probably as old as that of digital computation; for example, the ancient

Greeks tried to solve cubic equations using diagrams, and the astrolabe widely used by

astronomers through the medieval period is also a kind of analog computer. Soon after

the discovery of logarithms, the slide rule was invented. In the 18th Century, the

planimeter, used to measure plane areas, was introduced, and in the 19th Century, the

nomogram appeared. In the first half of 20th Century, a large electronic analog computer

was developed, thus predating the first practical digital computer. However, analog

computation has an essential defect, namely, the limitation of accuracy. Today it is

useful for simple calculation, but is rapidly becoming less important as the development

of digital computers, including pocket calculators, advances.

ANALYSIS: Analysis (Real Analysis, Mathematical Analysis or Complex Analysis) is the

branch of mathematics that studies limits and convergence; calculus is a part of analysis.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: The sum of squared deviations from the mean of a whole

sample is split into parts representing the contributions from the major sources of

variation. The procedure uses these parts to test hypotheses concerning the equality of

mean effects of one or more factors and interactions between these factors. A special

use of the procedure enables the testing of the significance of regression, although in

simple linear regression this test may be calculated and presented in the form of a t-test.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a process used to test the hypothesis that three or more

different samples were all selected from populations with the same mean. The method

is based on a test statistic:

𝑛𝑆 ∗ 2

𝐹= 2

𝑆

where n is the number of members in each sample, 𝑆 ∗ 2 is the variance of the sample

averages for all of the groups, and 𝑆 2 is the average variance for the groups. If the null

hypothesis is true and the population means actually are all the same, this statistic will

have an 𝐹 distribution with (𝑚 − 1) and 𝑚(𝑛 − 1) degrees of freedom, where 𝑚 is the

number of samples. If the value of the test statistic is too large, the null hypothesis is

rejected. Intuitively, a large value of 𝑆 ∗ 2 means that the observed sample averages are

spread further apart, thereby making the test statistic larger and the null hypothesis

less likely to be accepted.

ANALYTIC FUNCTION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): A single-valued function which is

differentiable at every point of its domain. If the function is not differentiable

everywhere it may be said to be analytic at points where it is differentiable.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY: Analytic geometry is the branch of mathematics that uses

algebra to help in the study of geometry.

ANALYTIC METHOD: If the OR, model is solved by using all the tools of classical

mathematics such as differential calculus and finite differences available for this task,

then such type of solutions are called analytic solutions. Solutions of various inventory

models are obtained by adopting the so called analytic procedure.

set in 𝐺 if it is a closed subset and each point of 𝐴 has a neighborhood 𝑈 such that 𝑈 ∩ 𝐴

is the set of common zeros of a finite number of holomorphic functions in 𝑈. Specifically,

if 𝐴 is locally the set of zeros of a single holomorphic function that does not vanish

identically, then 𝐴 is called the principal analytic set.

ANCHOR RING: A surface obtained by rotating a circle (radius a) about a line in its plane

at a distance b (>a) from the centre is called anchor ring.

AND: The word “AND” is a connective word used in logic. The sentence “ p AND q” is true

only if both sentence p as well as sentence q are true. The operation of AND is illustrated

by the truth table:

p Q p AND q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

ANGLE BETWEEN A LINE AND A PLANE: The complement of the angle between the

normal to a plane and a straight line is called the angle between the line and the plane.

Let the given plane be 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛 = 𝑞 and the given line ne parallel to the vector b. Then if ∅

be the angle between the normal to the plane i.e. n and the given line (parallel to b), we

have

𝑛 ∙𝑏

∴ ∅ = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 .

𝑛𝑏

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES: If a line has slope m, then the angle it makes with the

positive direction of x-axis is tan−1 𝑚.

The angle between a line with slope 𝑚1 and another line with slope 𝑚2 is given by

𝑚1 − 𝑚2

tan−1 .

1 + 𝑚1 𝑚2

If 𝒗𝟏 is a vector pointing in the direction of a line, and 𝒗𝟐 is a vector pointing in the

direction of another line, then the angle between them is:

𝒗𝟏 . 𝒗𝟐

cos−1

𝒗𝟏 × 𝒗𝟐

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO PLANES: The angle between the normals to two planes is called

the angle between the planes.

perpendicular to the two planes. Now if 𝜃 be the angle between the two planes (i.e.

between their normal’s, then 𝑛1 ∙ 𝑛2 = 𝑛1 𝑛2 cos 𝜃

𝑛1∙ 𝑛2 𝑛1∙ 𝑛2

or cos 𝜃 = where 𝑛1 = 𝑛1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛2 𝑛2 or 𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 .

𝑛1𝑛2 𝑛1𝑛2

ANGLE BETWEEN LINES IN SPACE: If ⌌𝑙1 , 𝑚1 , 𝑛1 ⌍ and ⌌𝑙2 , 𝑚2 , 𝑛2 ⌍ are direction ratios for

directions along the lines, the angle θ between the lines is given by

𝑙1 𝑙2 + 𝑚1 𝑚2 + 𝑛1 𝑛2

𝜃 = cos −1

𝑙1 2 + 𝑚1 2 + 𝑛1 2 𝑙2 2 + 𝑚2 2 + 𝑛2 2

ANGLE BISECTOR THEOREM: A theorem which states that, given any triangle and any

one of its angle, the angle bisector divides its opposite side into

2 segments whose length are of the same ratio as the lengths of the

corresponding adjacent sides.

ANGULAR ACCELERATION: The time derivative of angular velocity, that is, the rate

(with respect of time) of increase of angular velocity.

ANGULAR FREQUENCY: Also known as angular speed. (So called because the measure is

essentially the same as how often - frequency - a certain unit of angle is achieved.). It is the

𝑑2𝑥

constant ω in the equation = −𝜔2 𝑥 for simple harmonic motion. The angular

𝑑𝑡 2

oscillations is equal to ω/2π.

ANGULAR MEASURE: The angle between the line from the observer to object 1 and the

line from the observer to object 2. For example: Shortly after sunrise, you see that the

sun is only a few degrees above the horizon, while at noon it is elevated to nearly 90

degrees (or directly overhead). You are the observer, the sun is Object 1, and the

horizon is Object 2.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM: A measure of the state of a physical system that is related to its

spin or abiliy to spin. Analogous to linear momentum, angular momentum of a system is

conserved unless an external force is applied in a particular way. Suppose that the

particle P of mass m has position vector 𝒓 and is moving with velocity 𝒗 at any time t.

Then the angular momentum 𝑳 of P about the point A with position vector 𝒓’ is the

vector defined by 𝑳 = (𝒓 – 𝒓’) × 𝑚𝒗. It is the moment of the linear momentum about

the point A

ANGULAR VELOCITY: Suppose that a particle P is moving in the plane, in a circle with

centre at the origin 𝑂 and radius 𝑟0 . Let (𝑟0 , 𝜃) be the polar coordinates of P. At an

elementary level, the angular velocity may be defined to be θ.

ANNULUS: It is the region between two concentric circles. If the circles have radii 𝑟 and

1

𝑟 + 𝑤, the area of the annulus is equal to 2𝜋𝑤(𝑟 + 𝑤). It is therefore the same as the

2

area of a rectangle of width 𝑤 and length equal to the circumference of the circle

midway in size between the two original circles.

open set of the form {𝑧 ∶ 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < |𝑧 − 𝑃| < 𝑟2 }, together with perhaps some or all of

the boundary points of the set, or a set of the form {𝑧 ∶ 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < |𝑧 − 𝑃| < +∞},

together with perhaps some or all of the boundary points of the set. Such an open set is

called an annulus centered at 𝑃.

ANTECEDENT: The "if" part of a conditional statement. It is the part of a conditional

statement such that if the antecedent is true, then the other part (the consequent) must

also be true. For example, the antecedent is the clause "he is good at math" in the

statement "If he is good at math, he must know what is."

ANTIDERIVATIVE: Given a real function 𝑓 in the domain 𝐷, any function 𝑔 such that

𝑔′(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥), for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝐷, is an antiderivative of 𝑓. If 𝑔1 and 𝑔2 are both

antiderivatives of a continuous function 𝑓, then 𝑔1 (𝑥) and 𝑔2 (𝑥) differ by a constant. In

that case, the notation ∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 may be used for an antiderivative of f, with the

understanding that an arbitrary constant can be added to any antiderivative.

ANTIDIAGONAL: For conventionally written matrices, the diagonal that runs from the

top right to thr bottom left. i.e. The "other" diagonal, as opposed to the main diagonal.

(The main diagonal is the diagonal that the elements "1" in an identity matrix runs

along.)

was used by the Greeks more than 2000 years ago to locate and predict the positions of

celestial objects. When new, the device was made of bronze with a wooden frame and

was roughly the size of a wall clock. The name Antikythera comes from the island near

where the device was discovered in the remains of a shipwreck that occurred in or

around the year 76 B.C. Like a mechanical clock, the Antikythera mechanism has dials

along with a sophisticated system of gears. It bears inscriptions that have been

deciphered. Based on its construction and on the nature of the writing, scientists have

deduced that the Antikythera mechanism must have been used to measure astronomical

time based on cycles of the sun, the moon and the planets. In this way it could have been

employed to predict solar and lunar eclipses, tides and the recurrence of the seasons.

These functions would have made the device useful to farmers, seafarers and perhaps

even military commanders.

ANTIPODAL POINTS: Antipodal points are two points on a sphere that are at opposite

ends of a diameter.

ANTISYMMETRIC MATRIX: A matrix such that it's sum with its transpose matrix is

the zero matrix.

for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆, whenever 𝑎 ~ 𝑏 and 𝑏 ~ 𝑎, then 𝑎 = 𝑏.

ANTI-SYMMETRIC TENSOR: A tenser 𝐴𝑖𝑗 is said to be anti-symmetric (or skew-

symmetric) if 𝐴𝑖𝑗 = −𝐴𝑗𝑖 .

ordered set 𝑇 is antitone if 𝑥 ≤ 𝑦 in 𝑆 implies 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝑓(𝑥) in 𝑇.

APOLLONIUS: Apollonius of Perga (262 BC to 190 BC) was a mathematician who

studied in Alexandria under pupils of Euclid, wrote works that extended Euclid’s work

in geometry, particularly focusing on conic sections.

APOTHEM: The apothem of a regular polygon is the distance from the center of the

polygon to one of the sides of the polygon, in the direction that is perpendicular to that

side.

and engineering, and also occasionally in mathematics. Two quantities are

approximately equal when they are close enough in value so the difference is

inconsequential in practical terms. Approximate equality is symbolized by a squiggly

equal sign ( ).

As an example of how approximate equality can be used in mathematics, consider the

positive square root of 2 (or 2 ). This is an irrational number ; when written in

decimal form, it is nonterminating and nonrepeating. Expressed to four significant

digits, 2 1.414. It is possible to express it to many more significant digits, but the

result will always be an approximation. Thus, to 10 significant digits,

2 1.414213562, and to 20 significant digits, 2 1.4142135623730950488. An

example of an approximate equation using variables is x + y z.

In many cases, the ordinary equality symbol (=) is used in situations where, to be

rigorous, the approximate equality sign ought to be used. This is done for two reasons:

first, most fonts do not include an approximate equality symbol; and secondly, many

people do not know what the approximate equality symbol means.

APPROXIMATION: When two quantities 𝑋 and 𝑥 are approximately equal, written

𝑋 ≈ 𝑥, one of them may be used in suitable circumstances in place of, or as an

22

approximation for, the other. For example, 𝜋 = and 3 = 1.73.

7

functions, 𝑈 say, which is a subset of 𝑋. Specifically, the method is just a mapping from 𝑋

to 𝑈. In other words, given any 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋, the method picks the element 𝑢𝑓 , say, from 𝑈,

which is regarded as an approximation to 𝑓. To find whether the method is good or bad,

it should be compared with the best approximation

APPROXIMATION THEORY: It is the area of numerical analysis related to finding a

simpler function 𝑓(𝑥) which has approximately the same value as 𝑔(𝑥) over a specified

interval. The analysis is then carried out on the more accessible 𝑓(𝑥) knowing that the

difference will be small.

ARAKELOV THEORY: Arakelov theory is an approach to arithmetic geometry that

explicitly includes the 'infinite primes'.

ARBITRARY CONSTANT: It is a non–numerical symbol which is not a variable in a

generalized operation. For example, 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 is the general equation of a straight

line in two dimensions, where 𝑚 and 𝑐 are arbitrary constants which represent the

slope of the line and the y- intercept.

ARC: An arc of a circle is the set of points on the circle that lie in the interior of a

particular central angle. Therefore an arc is a part of a circle. The degree measure of an

arc is the same as the degree measure of the angle that defines it. If 𝜃 is the degree

measure of an arc and r is the radius, then the length of the arc is 2𝜋𝑟𝜃/360. The term

arc is also used for a portion of any curve.

arccos: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosine function.

arccosec: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosecant function. (Also written as arccsc).

arccosech: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written

as arcsch).

arccosh: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosine function.

arccot: It is the abbreviation for It is the abbreviation for inverse cotangent function.

arccoth: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cotangent function.

arccsc: It is the abbreviation for inverse cosecant function. (Also written as arccosec).

arccsch: It is the abbreviation for inverse hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as

arcosech).

ARC LENGTH: The length of an arc of a curve can be found with integration. Let ds

represent a very small segment of the arc, and let dx and dy represent the x and y

components of the arc.

Then: 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑥 2 + 𝑑𝑦 2 .

2

𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑠 = 1+ 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑥

Now, suppose we need to know the length of the arc between the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 =

𝑏. Set up this integral:

𝑏

2

𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑠 = 1+ 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑥

𝑎

For the curve 𝑥 = 𝑥(𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑦(𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]), the arc length equals

𝑡=𝑏

2 2

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑠 = + 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑡=𝑎

𝜃=𝑏

2

𝑑𝑟

𝑑𝑠 = 𝑟2 + 𝑑𝜃

𝑑𝜃

𝜃=𝑎

arcsin: It is the abbreviation for inverse sine function.

arctan: It is the abbreviation for inverse tangent function.

ARCHIMEDEAN ORDERED FIELD: An ordered field F is said to be an Archimedean

ordered field if ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐹, 𝑦 > 0, there exists some 𝑛 ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑛𝑦 > 𝑥.

ARCHIMEDEAN PROPERTY OF REAL NUMBERS: Let 𝑎 be any real number and 𝑏 any

positive real number. Then there exists a positive integer 𝑛 such that 𝑛𝑏 > 𝑎.

ARCHIMEDEAN SPIRAL: It is the curve whose equation is 𝑟 = 𝑎𝜃 in polar coordinates,

where 𝑎 (> 0) is a constant.

ARCHIMEDES: Archimedes (290 BC to 211 BC) studied at Alexandria and then lived in

Syracuse. He wrote extensively on mathematics and developed formulas for the volume

and surface area of a sphere, and a way to calculate the circumference of a circle. He also

developed the principle of floating bodies and invented military devices that delayed

the capture of the city by the Romans.

ARCHIMEDES’ SPIRAL INVERSE: Taking the origin as the inversion center, archimedes'

spiral 𝑇 = 𝑎𝜃 inverts to the hyperbolic spiral = 𝑎/𝜃 .

AREA OF A CIRCLE: The area of a circle with radius r is equal to r2.

AREA OF AN ELLIPSE: The area of an ellipse (semi-major axis a and semi-minor axis b)

is equal to ab.

AREA OF A PARALLELOGRAM: The area of a parallelogram is equal to the length of a

base multiplied by the height to that base.

AREA OF A SQUARE OR A RECTANGLE: The area of a rectangle equals the product of its

base and its height (or the product of its length and its width). The area of a square is

equal to the square of the length of a side.

AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION: Let 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) be the graph of a function 𝑓 such

that 𝑓′ is continuous on [𝑎, 𝑏] and 𝑓(𝑥) ≥ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏]. The area of the surface

obtained by rotating, through one revolution about the 𝑥-axis, the arc of the curve

𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) between 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏, equals

𝑏

2

𝑑𝑦

2𝜋 𝑦 1+ 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑥

𝑎

For the curve 𝑥 = 𝑥(𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑦(𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]), the surface area equals

𝑡=𝑏

2 2

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

2𝜋 𝑦 + 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑡=𝑎

𝜃=𝑏

2

𝑑𝑟

2𝜋 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑟 2 + 𝑑𝜃

𝑑𝜃

𝜃=𝑎

AREA OF A TRAPEZOID: The area of a trapezoid is equal to half the product of its height

and the sum of its bases.

AREA OF A TRIANGLE: The area of a triangle is equal to half the product of a base (a

side) and the height to that base.

AREA-PRESERVING MAP: A map 𝐹 from 𝐼𝑘 n to 𝑅 n is area-preserving if 𝑚(𝐴) =

𝑚(𝐹 𝐴 ) for every subregion 𝐴 of 𝐼𝑘 n , where 𝑚(𝐴) is the measure of 𝐴. A linear

transformation is area preserving if its corresponding determinant is equal to 1.

smaller areas (counties, villages, city blocks, etc.), some of which are selected at random,

and the chosen areas are then subsampled or completely surveyed.

the punctured open unit disk 𝐷 − {0} and has the power series representation

AREA UNDER A CURVE: Suppose that the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) lies above the 𝑥 −axis, so that

𝑓(𝑥) ≥ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏]. The area under the curve, that is, the area of the region

bounded by the curve, the 𝑥-axis and the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏, equals

𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑎

If 𝑓(𝑥) ≤ 0 for all 𝑥 in [𝑎, 𝑏], the integral above is negative. However, it is still the case

that its absolute value is equal to the area of the region bounded by the curve, the

𝑥 −axis and the lines 𝑥 = 𝑎 and 𝑥 = 𝑏. If 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) crosses the 𝑥-axis, appropriate

results hold. For example, if the regions A and B are as shown in the figure below,

𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑎

𝑐

− 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑏

It follows that

𝑐 𝑏 𝑐

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑎 𝑎 𝑏

Similarly, to find the area of the region bounded by a suitable curve, the 𝑦-axis, and lines

𝑦 = 𝑐 and 𝑦 = 𝑑, an equation 𝑥 = 𝑔(𝑦) for the curve must be found. Then the

required area equals

𝑑

𝑔 𝑦 𝑑𝑦

𝑐

If a curve has an equation 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝜃) in polar coordinates, there is an integral that gives

the area of the region bounded by an arc AB of the curve and the two radial lines OA and

OB. Suppose that ∠xOA = α and ∠xOB = β. The area of the region described equals

𝛽

1

𝑟 2 𝑑𝜃

2

𝛼

ARGAND, JEAN ROBERT (1768–1822): Jean Robert Argand was a Swiss Mathematician,

who invented a geometrical representation of complex numbers. The name Argand

diagram is due to him.

ARGAND DIAGRAM: Another name for the complex plane. In a Cartesian coordinate

system, a point can be represented using coordinates (𝑥, 𝑦). When this point is taken to

represent the complex number (𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦), the plane is called complex plane or Argand

diagram. It is named after the Swiss-born mathematician Jean Robert Argand, one of

several people who invented this geometrical representation for complex numbers.

ARG MAX: It is the abbreviation for argument of the maximum.

ARG MIN: It is the abbreviation for argument of the minimum.

ARGUMENT: (1) The argument of a function is the independent variable that is put into

the function. In the expression sin x, x is the argument of the sine function.

(2) In logic, an argument is a sequence of sentences (called premises) that lead to a

resulting sentence (called the conclusion).

ARISTOTLE: Aristotle (384 BC to 322 BC) wrote about many areas of human knowledge,

including the field of logic. He was a student of Plato and also a tutor to Alexander the

Great.

ARITHMETIC-GEOMETRIC MEAN INEQUALITY: The arithmetic mean of a set of non-

negative numbers is never less than their geometric mean. So for any 𝑎, 𝑏 > 0, we have

𝑎+𝑏

≥ 𝑎𝑏 with equality if and only 𝑎 = 𝑏.

2

written as AM, is the sum of the numbers divided by n:

𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + . . . +𝑎𝑛

𝐴𝑀 =

𝑛

The arithmetic mean is commonly called the average.

ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE: An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of n numbers of the

form

𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑏, 𝑎 + 2𝑏, 𝑎 + 3𝑏, . . . , 𝑎 + (𝑛 − 1)𝑏

ARITHMETIC SERIES: An arithmetic series is a sum of an arithmetic sequence:

𝑎 + 𝑎 + 𝑏 + 𝑎 + 2𝑏 + 𝑎 + 3𝑏 + . . . +( 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑏)

In an arithmetic series the difference between any two successive terms is a constant

(in this case b). The sum of the first n terms in the arithmetic series above is

𝑛

𝑆𝑛 = 2𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑏

2

ARITY: The arity of something is the number of arguments it takes. This is usually

applied to functions: an 𝑛-ary function is one that takes 𝑛 arguments. Unary is a

synonym for 1-ary, and binary for 2-ary.

ARMSTRONG NUMBER: The 𝑛-digit numbers equal to sum of nth powers of their digits

(a finite sequence), also called plus perfect numbers. They first few are given by 1, 2, 3,

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 8208, 9474, 54748.

some ways, including but not limited to a rectangular array, where matrices (and by

extension, the matrix representation of vectors) are examples.

parametric representation e.g. the pole in the plane, referred to polar coordinates is an

artificial singularity.

ARTIN APPROXIMATION THEOREM: Let 𝐾 be a valued field of characteristic zero and let

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) be a vector of convergent power series in two sets of variables 𝑥 and 𝑦. Assume

given a formal power series solution 𝑦(𝑥) vanishing at 0, 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦 (𝑥)) = 0. Then there

exists, for any 𝑐 ∇ 𝑁, a convergent power series solution 𝑦(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦(𝑥)) = 0 which

coincides with 𝑦(𝑥) up to degree c, 𝑦(𝑥) ≡ 𝑦(𝑥) modulo (𝑥)𝑐 .

ARTIN, EMIL: Emil Artin (March 3, 1898-December 20, 1962) was born in Vienna. After

he studied at the Universities of Vienna, Leipzig, and Gottingen, he taught at the

University of Hamburg from 1923 to 1937. In 1937 he left Germany under the Nazi

regime for America, where he taught at Notre Dame, Indiana, and Princeton universities.

He returned to Germany in 1948 and taught again at the University of Hamburg until his

fatal heart attack.

ARTINIAN GROUP: A group in which any decreasing chain of distinct subgroups

terminates after a finite number.

condition.”

ARTIN L-FUNCTIONS: Artin L-functions are defined for quite general Galois

representations. The introduction of étale cohomology in the 1960s meant that Hasse–

Weil L-functions (q.v) could be regarded as Artin L-functions for the Galois

representations on l-adic cohomology groups.

ARTIN’S CONJECTURE: There are at least two statements which go by the name of

Artin’s conjecture. The first is the Riemann hypothesis. The second states that every

integer not equal to −1 or a square number is a primitive root modulo 𝑝 for infinitely

many p and proposes a density for the set of such 𝑝 which are always rational multiples

of a constant known as Artin's constant. There is an analogous theorem for functions

instead of numbers which has been proved by Billharz.

a number field and R’ a finite integral extension, then there is a surjection from the

group of fractional ideals prime to the discriminant, given by the Artin symbol. For some

cycle c, the kernel of this surjection contains each principal fractional ideal generated by

an element congruent to 1 mod c.

theorem for semi-simple rings and semi-simple algebras. The theorem states that an

(Artinian) semi-simple ring 𝑅 is isomorphic to a product of finitely many 𝑛𝑖 × 𝑛𝑖 matrix

rings over division rings 𝐷𝑖 , for some integers 𝑛𝑖 , both of which are uniquely determined

up to permutation of the index 𝑖. In particular, any simple left or right Artinian ring is

isomorphic to an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix ring over a division ring 𝐷, where both 𝑛 and 𝐷 are

uniquely determined.

ĀRYABHATA (about 476-550): An Indian mathematician, author of one of the oldest

Indian mathematical texts. Written in verse, the Āryabhatīya is a summary of

miscellaneous rules for calculation and mensuration. It deals with the areas of certain

plane figures, values for π, and the summation of arithmetic series.

[𝑎, 𝑏] is uniformly bounded if there is a number 𝑀 such that

for every function 𝑓𝑛 belonging to the sequence, and every 𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]. The sequence

is equicontinuous if, for every 𝜀 > 0, there exists 𝛿 > 0 such that

whenever |𝑥 − 𝑦| < 𝛿 for all functions 𝑓𝑛 in the sequence. Succinctly, a sequence is

equicontinuous if and only if all of its elements admit the same modulus of continuity. In

simplest terms, the theorem can be stated as follows:

closed and bounded interval [𝑎, 𝑏] of the real line. If this sequence is uniformly

bounded and equicontinuous, then there exists a subsequence (𝑓𝑛𝑘 ) that converges

uniformly.

The converse is also true, in the sense that if every subsequence of 𝑓𝑛 } itself has a

uniformly convergent subsequence, then 𝑓𝑛 } is uniformly bounded and

equicontinuous.

ASCENDING CHAIN CONDITION: A collection 𝑆 of subsets of a set 𝑋 satisfies the

ascending chain condition or ACC if there does not exist an infinite ascending chain

𝑆1 ⊆ 𝑆2 ⊆ · · · of subsets from 𝑆.

matched with the same number of things of another type in a way that is, in a specified

sense, the best possible.

The number of assignees and the number of tasks are the same, 𝑛.

Each assignee is to be assigned to exactly one task.

Each task is to be performed by exactly one assignee.

There is a cost 𝑐𝑖𝑗 associated with assignee 𝑖 (𝑖 = 1,2, … , 𝑛) performing

task 𝑗 (𝑗 = 1,2, … , 𝑛).

The objective is to determine how all 𝑛 assignments should be made to minimize

the total cost.

ASSOCIATED LAGUERRE POLYNOMIALS: The differential equation

d2 y dy

𝑥 + 𝛼 + 1 − 𝑥 + ny = 0,

dx 2 dx

ASSOCIATIVE: Denoting an operation in which the outcome is independent of the

grouping of the symbols and numbers involved, that is,

(𝑎 ∗ 𝑏) ∗ 𝑐 = 𝑎 ∗ (𝑏 ∗ 𝑐), in which ∗ is the operation. Such examples include addition

and multiplication.

(1 + 2) + 3 = 1 + (2 + 3)

(4 × 5) × 6 = 4 × (5 × 6)

The following examples demonstrate that subtraction and division are not associative:

(3 − 2) − 1 3 − (2 − 1)

(12 / 4) / 3 12 / (4 / 3)

ASSOCIATIVE ALGEBRAS: Let 𝐾 be a commutative ring with unity element 1, and let 𝐴

be a ring which is a unitary 𝐾-module. Such a ring 𝐴 is called an associative algebra over

𝐾 (or simply algebra over 𝐾 ) if it satisfies the condition 𝛼(𝑎𝑏) = (𝛼𝑎)𝑏 = 𝑎(𝛼𝑏) (𝛼 ∇

𝐾; 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐴). An (associative) algebra 𝐴 over 𝐾 is often written 𝐴/𝐾, and 𝐾 is called the

coefficient ring (or ground ring) of the algebra 𝐴 = 𝐴/𝐾 . In particular, if 𝐾 is a field,

then it is called the coefficient field (or ground field) of 𝐴. Notions such as zero algebra,

unitary algebra, commutative algebra, (semi) simple algebra, and division algebra are

replicas of the respective ones for rings. Considering both structures as rings and as 𝐾 -

modules, homomorphisms and isomorphisms are defined in a natural manner, and are

called algebra homomorphism and algebra isomorphism, respectively. In this

connection, subalgebra, quotient algebra (or residue class algebra), and direct product

of algebras are also defined as in the case of rings.

ASSOCIATIVE BINARY OPERATIONS: Let ∗ be a binary operation on a set 𝐴. Given any

three elements 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 of a set 𝐴, the binary operation, applied to the elements 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦

and 𝑧 of 𝐴, yields an element (𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) ∗ 𝑧 of 𝐴, and, applied to the elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 ∗ 𝑧

of 𝐴, yields an element 𝑥 ∗ (𝑦 ∗ 𝑧) of 𝐴. A binary operation ∗ on a set 𝐴 is said to be

associative if (𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) ∗ 𝑧 = 𝑥 ∗ (𝑦 ∗ 𝑧) for all elements 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 of 𝐴. The

operations of addition and multiplication on the set 𝑅 of real numbers are associative,

since (𝑥 + 𝑦) + 𝑧 = 𝑥 + (𝑦 + 𝑧) and (𝑥 × 𝑦) × 𝑧 = 𝑥 × (𝑦 × 𝑧) for all real numbers

𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧. However the operation of subtraction is not associative. For example

(1 − 2) − 3 = −4, but 1 − (2 − 3) = 2.

ASSOCIATIVE PROPERTY: An operation obeys the associative property if the grouping of

the numbers involved does not matter. Formally, the associative property of addition

says that

𝑎+ 𝑏 + 𝑐= 𝑎+ 𝑏+ 𝑐 .

The associative property for multiplication says that

(𝑎 × 𝑏) × 𝑐 = 𝑎 × 𝑏 × 𝑐 .

ASSUMPTION OF SEQUENCING: Some principal assumptions are as follows:

(i) The processing times 𝐴′𝑖 𝑠 etc. are exactly known and are independent of the

order of the jobs in which they are to be processed. Such problems where times are

exactly known are called deterministic problems.

(ii) The time taken by the jobs in going from one machine to another is negligible.

(iii) Each job, once started on a machine, is to be performed up to completion on that

machine.

(iv) A job starts on the machine as soon as the job and the machine both are idle and

job is next to the machine and the machine is also next to the job.

(v) There is only one machine of each type.

(vi) No machine may process more than one job at a time.

(vii) The cost of keeping the jobs in inventory (if needed) during the in process is

same for all jobs. Also it is too small that it can be neglected.

(viii) The order of completion of jobs has no significance i.e., no job is to be given

priority. Times of jobs are independent of sequence of jobs.

ASTROID: It is a hypocycloid in which the radius of the rolling circle is a quarter of the

radius of the fixed circle. It has parametric equations 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3 𝑡, 𝑦 = 𝑎 𝑠𝑖𝑛3 𝑡, where

𝑎 is the radius of the fixed circle.

∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆, whenever 𝑎 ~ 𝑏, then 𝑏 ~ 𝑎 does not hold. For example, the relation > on

the set of integers is asymmetric.

ASYMPTOTE: An asymptote is a straight line that is a close approximation to a particular

curve as the curve goes off to infinity in one direction. The curve becomes very, very

close to the asymptote line, but never touches it.

having an asymptote.

2. The relation between two functions that tends to the same value (possibly infinite)

and such that the difference between the values of the 2 functions, considered as a

proportion of the values of either function, becomes arbitrarily small.

ATKINSON'S THEOREM: Let 𝐻 be a Hilbert space and 𝐿(𝐻) the set of bounded operators

on 𝐻. An operator 𝑇 ∇ 𝐿(𝐻) is said to be a Fredholm operator if the kernel 𝐾𝑒𝑟(𝑇) is

finite-dimensional, 𝐾𝑒𝑟(𝑇 ∗ ) is finite-dimensional (where 𝑇 ∗ denotes the adjoint of 𝑇),

and the range 𝑅𝑎𝑛(𝑇) is closed. Atkinson's theorem states:

A 𝑇 ∇ 𝐿(𝐻) is a Fredholm operator if and only if 𝑇 is invertible modulo compact

perturbation, i.e. 𝑇𝑆 = 𝐼 + 𝐶1 and 𝑆𝑇 = 𝐼 + 𝐶2 for some bounded

operator 𝑆 and compact operators 𝐶1 and 𝐶2 .

ATLASES: The description of most manifolds requires more than one chart (a single

chart is adequate for only the simplest manifolds). A specific collection of charts which

covers a manifold is called an atlas. An atlas is not unique as all manifolds can be

covered multiple ways using different combinations of charts. Two atlases are said to

be Ck equivalent if their union is also a Ck atlas.

AUGEND: An argument in the binary operation of addition. Technically the second

argument, it is commonly applied to both arguments due to addition

being commutative.

the augmented matrix is the matrix obtained by adjoining to the matrix of coefficients

an extra column of entries taken from the right-hand sides of the equations.

We would like to make the process of solving a system of linear equations more

mechanical by forgetting about the variable names 𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 etc and doing the whole

operation as a matrix calculation. For this, we use the augmented matrix of the system

of equations, which we have constructed by “glueing” an extra column on the right-hand

side of the matrix representing the linear transformation, as above.

is defined to be the 𝑚 × (𝑛 + 1) matrix.

𝛼11 𝛼12 ⋯ 𝛼1𝑛 : 𝑏1

𝛼21 𝛼22 ⋯ 𝛼2𝑛 : 𝑏2

⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ : ⋮

𝛼𝑚1 𝛼𝑚2 ⋯ 𝛼𝑚𝑛 : 𝑏𝑚

The vertical line in the matrix is put there to remind that the rightmost column is

different from the others, and arises from the constants on the right hand side of the

equations.

Let us look at the following system of linear equations over ℝ: Suppose that we want to

find all 𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 𝜖 ℝ satisfying the equations.

2𝑤 − 𝑥 + 4𝑦 − 𝑧 = 1

𝑤 + 2𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 = 2

𝑤 − 3𝑥 + 3𝑦 − 2𝑧 = −1

−3𝑤 − 𝑥 − 5𝑦 + 0𝑧 = −3

corresponding linear system. Thus the solution can be carried out mechanically as

follows:

Matrix Operation(s)

2 −1 4 −1 : 1

1 2 1 1 : 2 𝑅1 →

𝑅1

1 −3 3 −2 : −1 2

−3 −1 −5 0 : −3

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2 𝑅2 → 𝑅2 − 𝑅1

1 2 1 1 : 2 𝑅3 → 𝑅3 − 𝑅1

1 −3 3 −2 : −1

𝑅4 → 𝑅4 + 3𝑅1

−3 −1 −5 0 : −3

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2

0 5 2 −1 3 2 : 3 2 𝑅3 → 𝑅3 + 𝑅2

0 −5 2 1 −3 2 : −3 2 𝑅4 → 𝑅4 + 𝑅2

0 −5 2 1 −3 2 : −3 2

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2

0 5 2 −1 3 2 : 3 2 𝑅2 →

2𝑅2

0 0 0 0 : 0 5

0 0 0 0 : 0

1 −1 2 2 −1 2 : 1 2

0 1 −2 5 3 5 : 3 5 𝑅1 → 𝑅1 +

𝑅2

0 0 0 0 : 0 2

0 0 0 0 : 0

1 0 9 5 −1 5 : 4 5

0 1 −2 5 3 5 : 3 5

0 0 0 0 : 0

0 0 0 0 : 0

The original system has been transformed to the following equivalent system, i.e, Both

systems have the same solutions.

𝑤 + 9𝑦 5 − 𝑧 5 = 4 5 , 𝑥 − 2𝑦 5 + 3 𝑧 5 = 3 5

𝑤, 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 = −9𝛼 5 + 𝛽 5 + 4 5 , 2𝛼 5 − 3 𝛽 5 + 3 5 , 𝛼, 𝛽

AUTOMORPHIC FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑧) is said to be automorphic under a group of

transformations if it is analytic in a domain D except at singular points and for all

transformations T in the group that if z is in D then so is T(z).

AUTOMORPHIC NUMBER: A number 𝑘 such that 𝑛𝑘 2 has its last digits equal to 𝑘 is

called n-automorphic. For example, 1. 52 = 25 - and 1. 62 = 36 are 1-automorphic and

2 . 82 = 128 and 2 . 882 = 15488 are 2-automorphic. de Guerre and Fairbairn (1968)

gave a history of automorphic numbers. The first few l-automorphic numbers are 1, 5, 6,

25, 76, 376, 625, 9376, 90625, . . .

elements of a set onto itself, so the domain and range of the function are the same. For

example, 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 + 5 is an automorphism on R but 𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 is not.

1 1

AUXILLIARY SERIES: The series is known as the auxiliary series. Note that

𝑛𝑝 𝑛𝑝

AVERAGE: The average of a group of numbers is the same as the arithmetic mean.

AVERAGE EXPECTED PAYOFF: An estimate of the amount that will be gained in a game

of chance, calculated by multiplying the probability of winning by the number of points

won each time.

AVERAGE LENGH OF LINE: The average time for which the system remains idle.

AXIAL PLANE: A fixed reference plane containing two of the three coordinate axes in a

three-dimensional coordinate system. For example, the plane that contains 𝑥-axis and 𝑦-

axis is the axial plane called the 𝑥𝑦-plane, or (𝑥, 𝑦)-plane. Similarly, the plane containing

𝑦-axis and 𝑧-axis is the 𝑦𝑧-plane.

AXIOM: An axiom is a statement that is assumed to be true without proof. Axiom is a

synonym for postulate.

AXIOMATIC SET THEORY: Axiomatic set theory pursues the goal of reestablishing the

essentials of G. Cantor’s rather intuitive set theory by axiomatic constructions

consistent with modern theories of the foundations of mathematics. A system of axioms

for set theory was first given by E. Zermelo, and was completed by A. Fraenkel. J. von

Neumann expressed it in symbolic logic, gave a formal generalization, and eliminated

ambiguous concepts. P. Bernays and K. Godel further refined and simplified von

Neumann’s formulation. The theories based on the systems before and after the formal

generalization are called Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF) and Bernays-Gode1 set

theory (BG), respectively.

AXIOM OF CHOICE: It states that for any collection of mutually exclusive sets there is at

least one set that contains exactly one element in common with each of the non-empty

sets.

This asserts that if for any element 𝑥 of a there is a set 𝑦 such that 𝐴(𝑥, 𝑦), then there is a

choice function 𝑦 for the formula, i.e., 𝐴 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑥 for all 𝑥 in a. Usually a function is

represented by its graph. A set 𝑓 is called a function defined on a if

∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑎∀𝑦𝐴𝑧 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑓⋀ 𝑥, 𝑧 ∇ 𝑓 → 𝑦 = 𝑧).

This formula is denoted by Fnc(𝑓); then the formula 𝐴 𝑥, 𝑓 𝑥 is an abbreviation of

Fun 𝑓 ⋀ 3𝑦(𝑥, 𝑦) ∇ 𝑓 ⋀ 𝐴 (𝑥, 𝑦)).

This asserts the existence of the empty set. The empty set is denoted by ⊘ or 0.

AXIOM OF EXTENSIONALITY: ∀𝑥 𝑥 𝜖 𝑎 ≡ 𝑥 𝜖 𝑏 → 𝑎 = 𝑏.

This asserts that sets formed by the same elements are equal. The formula 𝑥 𝜖 𝑎 (𝑥 𝜖 𝑏)

is denoted by 𝑎 ⊂ 𝑏. This means “𝑎 is a subset of 𝑏.” Then Axiom 1 can be expressed by

𝑎 ⊂ 𝑏 ∧ 𝑏 ⊂ 𝑎 → 𝑎 = 𝑏.

This asserts the existence of the set consisting all the natural numbers, whereas

0,1 = 0′ = 0 , 2 = 1′ = 0,1 , 3 = 2′ = 0,1,2 . This definition of natural number is due

to von Neumann.

This asserts the existence, for any sets a of the power set 𝑥 consisting of all the subsets

of a. This 𝑥 is denoted by 𝑃𝑎. We have 𝑆(𝑃 𝑎 = 𝑎, 𝑠𝑜 𝑆 is a left inverse of 𝑃 and the

products 𝑆𝑃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝑆 are idempotent.

ℸ(𝑥𝜖𝑦 𝐴 𝑦𝜖 𝑥), etc. If we assume the axiom of choice stated below, then this is equivalent

to the nonexistence of an infinite descending sequence

𝑥𝑛 ∇ ⋯ ∇ 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑥1 .

If a model e1 of a set theory satisfies the axiom of regularity and has an infinite

descending sequence that is not in the model, then such a model is called a nonstandard

model.

This asserts the existence for any set a of a set 𝑥 such that for any 𝑦 of 𝑎𝑖 , if there exists a

𝑧 satisfying 𝐴(𝑦, 𝑧) then such 𝑧 exists in 𝑥. If the relation 𝐴(𝑦, 𝑧) determines a function,

then the image of a set by the relation is included in a set, so by Axiom 7, the image is a

set. This axiom was introduced by Frankel.

This asserts that the existence for any set a and a formula 𝐴(𝑦) of a set 𝑥 consisting of all

element of a satisfying 𝐴(𝑦). This 𝑥 is denoted by {𝑦𝜖𝑎 𝐴 𝑦 }. This is rather a schema for

an infinite number of axioms, for there are an infinite number of 𝐴(𝑦). This axiom, also

called the axiom of comprehension or axiom of subsets, was introduced by Zermelo.

This asserts the existence, for any sets a of the sum (or union) 𝑥 of all the sets that are

elements of a. This 𝑥 is denoted by the 𝑈𝑎 or 𝑆(𝑎). We write a 𝑈𝑏 for 𝑈 𝑎, 𝑏 and

𝑎′ for 𝑎𝑈{𝑎. 𝑎}.

This asserts the existence, for any sets a and b, of a set 𝑥 having a and b as its only

elements. This 𝑥 is called the unordered pair of a and b and is denoted by 𝑎, 𝑏 . The

notion of ordered pair is characterized by

𝑎, 𝑏 = 𝑐. 𝑑 ≡ 𝑎 = 𝑐 ∨ 𝑏 = 𝑑.

An example of such is 𝑎, 𝑏 = 𝑎, 𝑎 , 𝑎, 𝑏 .

1) The probability of an event is a real number greater than or equal to zero; 2) The sum

of the probabilities of all possible outcomes of a given experiment is 1;

3) If two events cannot both occur at the same time, the chance that either one occurs is

the sum of the chances that each occurs.

AXIOMS FOR NUMBER SYSTEM: Any particular axiom might be true in some number

systems but not in others.

(Identity)

𝛼 + −𝛼 = 0 = −𝛼 + 𝛼 (Inverse)

These axioms may or may not be satisfied by a given number system S.For example,

in ℕ, A1 and A2 hold but A3 and A4 do not hold. A1-A4 all hold in ℞, ℚ, ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℂ.

M4. For each number 𝛼 𝜖 𝑆 𝑤𝑖𝑡 𝛼 ≠ 0,there exist a number 𝛼 −1 𝜖 𝑆 𝑠𝑢𝑐 𝑡𝑎𝑡

𝛼. 𝛼 −1 = 1 = 𝛼 −1 . 𝛼 (Inverse)

In ℕ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℞, M1-M3 hold but M4 does not hold. M1-M4 all hold in ℚ, ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ℂ.

AXIS OF SYMMETRY: It is a line in which the two halves of a curve reflect into each

other.

AXIS-SYMMETRIC FLOW FIELD: A flow field is said to be axis-symmetric when the

velocity components (𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤) with regard to cylindrical coordinates x, r, ∅ are all

independent of the azimuthal angle ∅. The velocity component q ∅ in the direction of

increasing ∅ is called swirl component of velocity.

AZIMUTH: The angle between the projection of the radius vector onto the plane

perpendicular to the polar axis, and the initial line.

B

BABBAGE, CHARLES (1792–1871): Charles Babbage was a British mathematician and

inventor of mechanical calculators.

BACK-SUBSTITUTION: A method of solving a system of linear equations (or

the equivalent matrix equation) that involves finding the components in the reverse

order to the way it is indexed, due to its being manipulated to a row-echelon form. (The

Upper-triangular form of a square matrix is a special case of this.)

𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + , 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the backward difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by

𝑓𝑖 – 𝑓𝑖−1 = 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖−1 ).

BAIRE CATEGORY THEOREM: A Baire space is a topological space with the following

property: for each countable collection of open dense sets 𝑈𝑛 , their intersection ⋂ 𝑈𝑛 is

dense.

(BCT1) Every complete metric space is a Baire space. More generally, every topological

space which is homeomorphic to an open subset of a complete pseudometric space is a

Baire space. Thus every completely metrizable topological space is a Baire space.

(BCT2) Every locally compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space. The proof is similar to

the preceding statement; the finite intersection property takes the role played by

completeness.

Note that neither of these statements implies the other, since there are complete metric

spaces which are not locally compact (the irrational numbers with the metric defined

below; also, any Banach space of infinite dimension), and there are locally compact

Hausdorff spaces which are not metrizable (for instance, any uncountable product of

non-trivial compact Hausdorff spaces is such; also, several function spaces used in

Functional Analysis; the uncountable Fort space).

(BCT3) A non-empty complete metric space is not the countable union of nowhere-

dense closed sets.

Also: if a non-empty complete metric space is the countable union of closed sets, then

one of these closed sets has non-empty interior.

open sets is dense;

Baire space is the set of all functions from the natural numbers to the natural

numbers, with the topology of pointwise convergence

BALINSKI'S THEOREM: It is a theorem about the graph-theoretic structure of three-

dimensional polyhedra and higher-dimensional polytopes. It states that, if one forms

an undirected graph from the vertices and edges of a convex d-dimensional polyhedron

or polytope (its skeleton), then the resulting graph is at least d-vertex-connected: the

removal of any d − 1 vertices leaves a connected subgraph. For instance, for a three-

dimensional polyhedron, even if two of its vertices (together with their incident edges)

are removed, for any pair of vertices there still exists a path of vertices and edges

connecting the pair.

BALKING: A customer may not like to join the queue seeing it very long and he may not

like to wait.

BALL: A ball in a metric space is a set containing all the points which are not more than a

given distance (radius of the ball) from a fixed point (center of the ball). An open ball

does not include the boundary where the distance is equal to the given constant and a

closed ball does include the boundary.

BANACH–ALAOGLU THEOREM : Banach–Alaoglu theorem also known as Alaoglu's

theorem states that the closed unit ball of the dual space of a normed vector

space is compact in the weak topology.

BANACH FIXED POINT THEOREM: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a non-empty complete metric

space with a contraction mapping 𝑇 : 𝑋 → 𝑋. Then 𝑇 admits a unique fixed-

point 𝑥 ∗ in 𝑋 (i.e. 𝑇(𝑥 ∗ ) = 𝑥 ∗ ). Furthermore, 𝑥 ∗ can be found as follows:

Start with an arbitrary element 𝑥0 in X and define a sequence {𝑥𝑛 } by 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑇(𝑥𝑛−1 ),

then 𝑥𝑛 → 𝑥 ∗ .

BANACH–MAZUR THEOREM: Most well-behaved normed spaces are subspaces of the

space of continuous paths. It is named after Stefan Banach and Stanisław Mazur.

BANACH SPACE: A complete normed vector space on the real or complex numbers.

A. For 1 ≤ 𝑝 < ∞, the space 𝑙𝑝 is a Banach space.

B. The spaces 𝑐0 and 𝑙∞ are Banach spaces.

C. Let 𝐸 be a normed space, and let 𝐹 be a Banach space. Then 𝐵(𝐸, 𝐹) is a Banach

space.

D. Let 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, and again let 𝑞 be such that 1/𝑝 + 1/𝑞 = 1. Then the map

𝑙𝑞 → (𝑙_𝑝)∗ : 𝑢 ↦ 𝜑𝑢 , is an isometric isomorphism, where 𝜑𝑢 is defined, for

∞

𝑢 = (𝑢𝑗 ) ∇ 𝑙𝑞 , by 𝜑𝑢 𝑥 = 𝑖=1 𝑢𝑖 𝑥𝑖 𝑥 = 𝑥𝑖 ∇ 𝑙𝑝

satisfïes

(𝑥 + 𝑦)∗ = 𝑥 ∗ + 𝑦 ∗ ;

(𝑙𝑥)∗ = 𝑙𝑥 ∗ ;

(𝑥𝑦)∗ = 𝑦 ∗ 𝑥 ∗ ;

(𝑥 ∗ )∗ = 𝑥.

A Banach algebra with an involution is called a Banach *-algebra. A *-homomorphism 𝜑

between two Banach*-algebras is an algebraic homomorphism which preserves

involutions, i.e., 𝜑(𝑥 ∗ ) = 𝜑(𝑥)∗ . To represent a Banach *-algebra, we prefer a *-

representation, i.e., a representation 𝑥 → 𝑇𝑥 on a Hilbert space such that 𝑇𝑥 is equal to

the adjoint 𝑇𝑥 ∗ of 𝑇𝑥 for any 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 .

BANACH, STEFAN (1892–1945): Stefan Banach was a Polish mathematician who gave a

major contribution to the subject known as functional analysis.

BANACH SUBALGEBRA: A closed subalgebra M of Banach algebra of A is called Banach

subalgebra of A if M itself is a Banach algebra with respect to the operations, identify

and norm defined on A.

BAR GRAPH: A bar graph is a pictorial rendition of statistical data in which

the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values. The dependent

variable may be discrete or continuous. The most common form of bar graph is the

vertical bar graph, also called a column graph. In a vertical bar graph, values of the

independent variable are plotted along a horizontal axis from left to right. Function

values are shown as shaded or colored vertical bars of equal thickness extending

upward from the horizontal axis to various heights. In a horizontal bar graph, the

independent variable is plotted along a vertical axis from the bottom up. Values of the

function are shown as shaded or colored horizontal bars of equal thickness extending

toward the right, with their left ends vertically aligned.

In a specialized type of vertical bar graph called a Pareto chart , values of the dependent

variable are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Another

type of bar graph called a histogram uses rectangles to show the frequency of data items

in successive numerical intervals of equal size. Other types of bar graphs allow plotting

multiple ranges of the dependent variable, multiple independent variables,

positive/negative variables and multi-category variables.

linearly independent and span 𝑉. The vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 in 𝑉 form a basis of 𝑉 if and

only if ever 𝑣 𝜖 𝑉 can be written uniquely as 𝒗 = 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑣𝑛 : i.e the

coefficients 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 are uniquely determined by the vector v.

The scalars 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 in the note above are called the coordinates of 𝑣 with respect

to the basis 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 . with respect to the different basis, 𝑣 will have different

coordinates.

1: (1,0) and (0,1) form a basis of ℝ2 .This follows because each element (𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜖ℝ2 can be

written as 𝑥(1,0) + 𝑦(0,1) and this expression is clearly unique.

2: More generally (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1) form a basis of ℝ3 .

(1,0,0,0, ), (0,1,0,0), (0,0,1,0) , (0,0,0,1) form a basis of ℝ4 and so on. This is called the

standard basis of ℝ𝑛 for n 𝜖𝑁.

3: There are many other basis of ℝ𝑛 .For example (1,0), (1,1) form a basis of ℝ2 because

(𝛼1 , , 𝛼2 ) = 𝛼1 −𝛼2 1,0 + 𝛼2 (0,1) and this expression is unique. In fact, any two non-

zero vectors such that one is not a scalar multiple of the other form a basis of ℝ2 .

4: As we have defined a basis, it has to consist of a finite number of vectors. Not every

vector space has a finite basis. For example, let 𝐾 𝑥 be the space of polynomials in an

indeterminate x with coefficients in the field K.Let 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 be any finite

collection of polynomials in 𝐾 𝑥 .Then if 𝑑 is the maximum degree of

𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 ,any linear combination of 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 has degree

atmost d,and so 𝑝1 𝑥 , 𝑝2 𝑥 , … … . , 𝑝𝑛 𝑥 cannot span 𝐾[𝑥].On the other hand, it is

possible to define what it means for an infinite set of vectors 1, 𝑥, 𝑥 2 , … … … , … . . 𝑥 𝑛 … … ..

is a basis of 𝐾 𝑥 . A vector space with a finite basis is called finite-dimensional. The

spaces of functions mentioned in example above have uncountably infinite dimension.

BASE (TOPOLOGY): Let X be a topological space with Γ as topology defined on it. Then a

collection 𝐵𝑛 of subsets of X is said to be a base for the topology Γ if for every open set

𝐺 ∇ Γ and for every element 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺, there exists a member 𝐵𝑛 of this collection such that

𝑥 ∇ 𝐵𝑛 ⊆ 𝐺. If there exists a countable base for a topological space, then the topological

space is called a second countable space.

BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTION: A basic feasible solution for a linear programming problem

is a solution that satisfies the constraints of the problem where the number of nonzero

variables equals the number of constraints.

Consider a linear programming problem with 𝑚 constraints and 𝑛 total variables

(including slack variables). Then a basic feasible solution is a solution that satisfies the

constraints of the problem and has exactly 𝑚 nonzero variables and 𝑛 − 𝑚 variables

equal to zero. The basic feasible solutions will be at the corners of the feasible region,

and an important theorem of linear programming states that, if there is an optimal

solution, it will be a basic feasible solution.

BASIC FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS OF TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS: A feasible solution

(𝑥𝑖,𝑗 ) of a Transportation Problem is said to be basic if there exists a basis 𝐵 for that

Transportation Problem such that 𝑥𝑖,𝑗 = 0 whenever (𝑖, 𝑗) ∈ 𝐵.

BASIC MODULE DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: If 𝑀 is a finitely generated module over a

Euclidean domain 𝐷 then 𝑀 may be written as an internal direct sum 𝑀 = 𝑀1 ⊕

𝑀2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ 𝑀𝑠 where 𝑀𝑖 is a non-trivial cyclic submodule of order 𝑑𝑖 [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠]

and 𝑑𝑖 |𝑑𝑖+1 [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠 − 1].

BASIS: A set of vectors in a vector space form a basis if other vectors can be written as a

linear combination of the basis vectors. The vectors in the basis need to be necessarily

linearly independent.

BASIS AND DIMENSION OF A SUBSPACE: A set of vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , … , 𝑎𝑘 belonging to

the subspace 𝑆 is said to be a basic of 𝑆, if

(ii) The vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑘 are linearly independent.

It can be easily shown that every subspace, 𝑆,or 𝑉𝑛 possesses a basic. It can be easily

shown that the vectors e1 = 1,0,0, … 0 , e2 = 0,1,0, … 0 , e3 = 0,0,1, … 0 , … en =

0,0,0, … 1 constitute a basis of 𝑉𝑛 .

We have already shown that these vectors are linearly independent. Moreover any

vector 𝑎 = (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 ) of 𝑉𝑛 is expressible as 𝑎 = 𝑎1 𝑒1 + 𝑎2 𝑒2 + 𝑎3 𝑒3 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑛 .

Hence the vectors 𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , 𝑒3 , … , 𝑒𝑛 constitute a basis of 𝑉𝑛 .

A basis of a subspace, 𝑆, can always be selected out of a set of vectors which span

𝑆.

A vector subspace may (and in fact does) possess several bases.

The number of members in any one basis of a subspace is the same as in any

other basis. This number is called the dimension of the subspace.

BASIS THEOREM: Any linearly independent set of n vectors is a basis of a vector space of

finite dimension n.

BAYES FACTOR: The Bayesian equivalent (in its application) to the classical frequentist

concept of hypothesis testing.

BAYESIAN CONFIDENCE INTERVAL: An interval of a posterior distribution which is

such that the density at any point inside the interval is greater than the density at any

point outside and that the area under the curve for that interval is equal to a

prespecified probability level. For any probability level there is generally only one such

interval, which is also often known as the highest posterior density region. Unlike the

usual confidence interval associated with frequentist inference, here the intervals

specify the range within which parameters lie with a certain probability.

consisting of the following principal steps:

(1) Obtain the likelihood, 𝑓 (𝑥 𝜃 ) describing the process giving rise to the data 𝑥 in

terms of the unknown parameters 𝜃.

(2) Obtain the prior distribution, 𝑓 (𝜃) expressing what is known about 𝜃, prior to

observing the data.

is known about 𝜃 after observing the data.

(4) Derive appropriate inference statements from the posterior distribution. These may

include specific inferences such as point estimates, interval estimates or probabilities of

hypotheses. If interest centres on particular components of q their posterior

distribution is formed by integrating out the other parameters.

This form of inference differs from the classical form of frequentist inference in several

respects, particularly the use of the prior distribution which is absent from classical

inference. It represents the investigator’s knowledge about the parameters before

seeing the data. Classical statistics uses only the likelihood. Consequently to a Bayesian

every problem is unique and is characterized by the investigator’s beliefs about the

parameters expressed in the prior distribution for the specific investigation.

probability of a hypothesis by specifying some prior probability, and then updating in

the light of new relevant data.

BAYES’S RULE PROBABILITY): Bayes’s rule tells how to find the conditional probability

𝑃(𝐵 ∕ 𝐴) (that is, the probability of the event 𝐵 given that event 𝐴 has occurred),

provided that 𝑃(𝐴 ∕ 𝐵) and 𝑃(𝐴 ∕ 𝐵 𝑐 ) are known.

Bayes’s rule states:

𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑃(𝐵)

𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 =

𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑃 𝐵 + 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑐 𝑃(𝐵 𝑐 )

For example, suppose that two dice are rolled. Let A be the event of rolling doubles, and

let B be the event where the sum of the numbers on the two dice is greater than or equal

to 11. Then 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 refers to the probability of obtaining doubles if the sum of the two

numbers is greater than or equal to 11; this probability is 1/3. There are 3 possible

outcomes where the sum of the two numbers is greater than or equal to 11, and one of

1

these are doubles: (6, 6). Also, 𝑃 𝐴 𝐵 𝑐 = 1 − 3 = 2/3. Then, we can use Bayes’s rule to

find the probability that the sum of the two numbers will be greater than or equal to 11,

given that doubles were obtained as

1 3

3 12 1

𝑃 𝐵 𝐴 = =

1 3 2 9 7

+

3 12 3 12

BAYES, THOMAS (1702 to 1761): Thomas Bayes was an English mathematician who

studied probability and statistical inference.

BEARING: The angle that the direction makes with north, measured in degrees in a

clockwise direction from north. Bearings of less than 100° are generally written with an

initial 0. For example, north-east has a bearing of 045°, and south-west has a bearing of

225°. Bearing is an important concept in radar, sonar, navigation, and surveying.

BECKMAN–QUARLES THEOREM: If a transformation of the Euclidean plane or a higher-

dimensional Euclidean space preserves unit distances, then it preserves all distances.

Equivalently, every automorphism of the unit distance graph of the plane must be

an isometry of the plane.

BECQUEREL: An SI derived unit of radio acitivity denoted by the symbol Bq.

BEES ALGORITHM: The bees algorithm is a method of problem solving that mimics the

behavior of honeybees to find the optimum solution. Based on the behaviors bees

employ to search and prioritize, the algorithm is a classical example of swarm

intelligence, in which many individuals work together to solve problems or optimize

scenarios. Bees search for food by using scouts to explore areas deemed most likely to

produce favorable results. At first, the scouts conduct random searches to locate the

areas where food exists in the greatest abundance. Then they conduct more orderly,

localized searches until they arrive at the most efficient possible food-recovery process.

The bees algorithm makes it possible for research scientists and engineers to solve

complex problems involving vast amounts of data, categorizing the results according to

specific criteria (such as geographic region or age group), and then giving priority to the

results most likely to yield workable solutions. Computers and swarms of insect

robots can use the bees algorithm as well.

Machine vision

Pattern recognition

Image analysis

Job scheduling

Finding multiple solutions to problem

Data aggregation

Mechanical component design

Robot control

BELL CURVE: It is the shape of the normal curve i.e. the shape of the graph that indicates

a normal distribution in probability and statistics.

BELL-SHAPED DISTRIBUTION: A probability distribution having the overall shape of a

vertical cross-section of a bell. The normal distribution is the most well known example,

but Student’s t-distribution is also this shape.

BELONGS TO: If x is an element of a set S, then we say that x belongs to S and this is

written as x ∇ S. Naturally, x ∈ S means that x does not belong to S.

BELOW (LESS THAN): The limit of a function at 𝑎 from below is the limit of 𝑓(𝑥) as

𝑥 → 𝑎 for values of 𝑥 < 𝑎. It is of particular importance when 𝑓(𝑥) has a discontinuity

at 𝑎, i.e. where the limits from above and from below do not coincide. It can be written

as 𝑓(𝑎−) or lim𝑥→𝑎− 𝑓(𝑥).

BELTRAMI AND ENNPER THEOREM (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Statement: At a point

on a surface where the Gaussian curvature is negative and equal to 𝜅, the torsion of the

asymptotic line is ± −𝜅.

∂q

∂∅ ∂t = 0 ⇒ curl q = 0. Since 𝑞×curl 𝑞= 0.

It follows that 𝑞 and curl 𝑞 are parallel i.e., streamlines and vortex lines coincide. For

such a motion, 𝑞 is known as a Beltrami vector and the flow is known as a Beltrami flow.

relations

𝜍 1+ 𝜍

ℯ𝑖𝑗 = − 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜃 + 𝜏𝑖𝑗

𝐸 𝐸

1 𝜍 1+ 𝜍

Then ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 − 1+ 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 − 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖

1+ 𝜍 1− 𝜍

1 𝜍

Or ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 + 1− 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = − 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖

1+ 𝜍

1 𝜍

Or ∆2 𝜏𝑖𝑗 + 𝜃, 𝑖𝑗 = − 1− 𝜍 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 = − 𝐹𝑖,𝑗 + 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑖

1+ 𝜍

These are called Beltrami- Michell compatibility equations. The Cartesian form of this

equation is

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑥

∆2 𝜏𝑥𝑥 + 2

=− 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑥 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑥

2

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑦

∆ 𝜏𝑦𝑦 + = − 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑦 2 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑦

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜍 2𝜕𝐹𝑧

∆2 𝜏𝑧𝑧 + 2

=− 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹 − ,

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑧 1− 𝜍 𝜕𝑧

2

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜕𝐹𝑦 𝜕𝐹𝑧

∆ 𝜏𝑦𝑧 + =− + ,

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦

2

1 𝜕2𝜃 𝜕𝐹𝑧 𝜕𝐹𝑥

∆ 𝜏𝑧𝑥 + =− + ,

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧

∆2 𝜏𝑥𝑦 + =− +

1 + 𝜍 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

property of having constant curvature. More precisely, if (𝑀, 𝑔) and (𝑁, ) are

two Riemannian manifolds and 𝜑 : 𝑀 → 𝑁 is a geodesic map between them, and if

either of the manifolds (𝑀, 𝑔) or (𝑁, ) has constant curvature, then so does the other

one.

BEND POINT: Also known as an (extremal) turning point.

geometry that gives a lower bound on the volume of a Riemannian manifold and also

gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the manifold to be isometric to the m-

dimensional sphere with its usual metric. The theorem is named after

the mathematicians Marcel Berger and Jerry Kazdan. It can be stated as follows:

radius 𝑖𝑛𝑗(𝑀). Let vol denote the volume form on 𝑀 and let 𝑐𝑚 (𝑟) denote the volume of

the standard m-dimensional sphere of radius r. Then

with equality if and only if (𝑀, 𝑔) is isometric to the 𝑚-sphere 𝑺𝒎 with its usual metric.

investigated mathematics and other areas. He developed Bernoulli’s theorem in fluid

mechanics, which governs the design of airplane wings.

BERNOULLI DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation which can be

written in the form 𝑦′ + 𝑓(𝑥)𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛 . The transformation 𝑧 = 𝑦1−𝑛 gives

𝑑𝑧

= (1 − 𝑛)𝑦 −𝑛 𝑦 ′ . Dividing the original equation by 𝑦 𝑛 gives 𝑦– 𝑛𝑦ʹ + 𝑓(𝑥)𝑦1−𝑛 =

𝑑𝑥

1 𝑑𝑧

𝑔(𝑥) which reduces to + 𝑓 𝑥 𝑧 = 𝑔(𝑥), which is in linear form and can be

1−𝑛 𝑑𝑥

BERNOULLI DISTRIBUTION: It is a type of discrete probability distribution. BERNOULLI

EXPERIMENT: An experiment consisting of Bernoulli trials is called a Bernoulli

experiment.

of 1 + x.

for every integer 𝑟 ≥ 0 and every real number 𝑥 ≥ − 1. If the exponent 𝑟 is even, then

the inequality is valid for all real numbers 𝑥. The strict version of the inequality reads

BERNOULLI, JAKOB (1655 to 1705): Jakob Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician who

studied concepts in what is now the calculus of variations, particularly the catenary

curve.

BERNOULLI, JOHANN (1667 to 1748): Johann Bernoulli, brother of Jakob Bernoulli, was

also a mathematician investigating these issues.

BERNOULLI NUMBER: Bernoulli number can be defined through the power series

expansion of

𝑥 𝑥 2 ∕ 2! 𝑥 4 ∕ 4! 𝑥 6 ∕ 6!

𝑥 1 − 𝑒 −𝑥 = 1 + + + + +−−−

2 6 30 42

𝑥𝑛

The Bernoulli numbers are the coefficients of in this expansion.

𝑛!

outcome considered to be success or failure, all with the same probability p of success.

It is the event that has only two possible outcomes: success and failure.

BERNSTEIN POLYNOMIALS: For 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶[0, 1], the Bernstein polynomials of 𝑓 are given

𝑛 𝑛

by the formula 𝐵𝑛 (𝑓, 𝑥) ∶= 𝑘=0 𝑘 𝑥 𝑘 (1 − 𝑥)𝑛−𝑘 𝑓( 𝑘/𝑛 ). This formula produces a

positive linear map 𝑓 → 𝐵𝑛 (𝑓) of 𝐶[0, 1] into 𝑃𝑛 .

BERTRAND CURVES: If a pair of curves 𝐶 and 𝐶1 are such that the principal normal to 𝐶

are also principal normal to 𝐶1 , then the curves 𝐶 and 𝐶1 are called conjugate or

associate Bertrand curves.

Bonnet theorem. Let 𝑝 be a point on a smooth surface 𝑀. The geodesic circle of

radius 𝑟 centered at 𝑝 is the set of all points whose geodesic distance from 𝑝 is equal

to 𝑟. Let 𝐶(𝑟) denote the circumference of this circle, and 𝐴(𝑟) denote the area of the

disc contained within the circle. Then

BERTRAND’S POSTULATE: For any integer greater than 3, there is always at least one

prime between n and 2n – 2. For example, for n = 6 the number 7 is prime and lies

between 6 and 10. This statement was first conjectured in 1845 by Joseph Bertrand.

Bertrand himself verified his statement for all numbers in the interval [2, 3 × 106 ]. His

conjecture was completely proved by Chebyshev in 1852 and so the postulate is also

called the Bertrand–Chebyshev theorem or Chebyshev's theorem. Chebyshev's theorem

can also be stated as a relationship with 𝜋(𝑥), where 𝜋(𝑥) is the prime counting

𝜋

function (number of primes less than or equal to 𝑥): 𝜋 𝑥 − 𝜋 ≥ 1 ∀ 𝑥 ≥ 2.

2

astronomer and mathematician who made a major contribution to mathematics in the

development of what are now called Bessel functions.

BESSEL FUNCTION: These are the functions that provide solutions to Bessel’s

equation. These are of the form

∞

(−1)𝑟 𝑧 𝑛+2𝑟

𝐽𝑛 𝑧 =

𝑟! Γ(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1) 2

𝑟=0

∞

(−1)𝑟 𝑧 2𝑟

𝐽0 𝑧 =

𝑟! 2 2

𝑟=0

𝑥 2 𝑦ʺ + (𝑥 2 – 𝑛2 )𝑦 = 0

∂2 V 1 ∂V 1 ∂2 V 𝜕2𝑉

BESSEL EQUATION FROM LAPLACE EQUATION: ∂r 2 + r + r 2 ∂θ 2 + 𝜕𝑧 2 = 0.

∂r

Let V = Rθ′z′ where R, θ′ , z′ are functions of r, θ and z alone, respectively.

d2R 1 dR 1 d2θ′ d 2 z′

θ′ z′ dr 2 + r θ′ z′ dr + r 2 Rz′ + Rθ′ dz 2 = 0.

dθ 2

1 d2R 1 dR 1 1 d 2 θ′ 1 d2z′

or +r + r 2 θ′ + z′ + = 0. …………….. ii

R dr 2 dr dθ 2 dz 2

Since the first three terms are independent of z therefore the fourth terms also be

independent of z. Thus the fourth term must be equal to constant

1 d2z′ d2z′

i.e. z′ = C (constant) or = Cz′. ………….. iii

dz 2 dz 2

Similarly third term must be free form θ and therefore must be equal to a constant

1 d2θ′ d2θ′

i.e., = D or = Dθ′ . ………….. iv

θ′ dθ 2 dθ 2

d2R dR

r2 + dr + D + Cr 2 R = 0 …………….. v

dr 2

dR dR dv dR d2R d 2 R dv d2R

Putting kr = v so that dr = . dr = k dv and = k dv 2 . dr = k 2 dv 2

dv dr 2

in (v), we have

d2R dR v2

k 2 r 2 dv 2 + kr dv + D + C k 2 R = 0.

d2R dR

Putting 𝐶 = k 2 𝐷 = −n2 , we get v 2 dv 2 + v dv + v 2 − n2 R = 0.

d2y dy

Putting 𝑅 = 𝑦 and 𝑣 = 𝑥, we have x 2 dx 2 + x dx + x 2 − n2 y = 0

The solution of this equation is called the cylindrical function or Bessel’s function of

order n.

2 𝑛

BESSEL’S INEQUALITY: If ⌌𝑒𝑖 ⌍ is orthonormal set, then 𝑥 ≥ 𝑖=1 ⌌𝑥, 𝑒𝑖 ⌍ 2 . For an

arbitrary vector of 𝑆, we have

𝑛

2 2

≥ , 𝑒𝑖

𝑖=1

point outside the subset. A best approximation to 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋 from 𝑈 is an element

𝑢∗ ∇ 𝑈 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑑(𝑓, 𝑢∗ ) = 𝑖𝑛𝑓{𝑑(𝑓, 𝑢) ∶ 𝑢 ∇ 𝑈} = : 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡(𝑓, 𝑈).

BETA DISTRIBUTION: If X is a random variable with probability density function given

by

1

𝑓 𝑥, 𝛼, 𝛽 = 𝑥 𝛼 −1 (1 − 𝑥)𝛽−1 ; 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1

𝐵 𝛼, 𝛽

where 𝐵(𝛼, 𝛽) is a beta function and 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝑥 > 0, then we say that 𝑋 has a beta

𝛼

distribution with parameters 𝛼, 𝛽. The beta distribution has mean and variance

𝛼+𝛽

𝛼𝛽

2

.

𝛼 +𝛽 𝛼+𝛽+1

1

Γ 𝑝 Γ(𝑞)

𝐵 𝑝, 𝑞 = 𝑥 𝑝−1 1 − 𝑥 𝑞−1

𝑑𝑥 =

Γ(𝑝 + 𝑞)

0

where 𝛤(𝑝) is the gamma function, is called a beta function. For integers 𝑚, 𝑛, we have

𝑚 − 1 ! (𝑛 − 1)!

𝛽 𝑚, 𝑛 =

(𝑚 + 𝑛 − 1)!

BÉZOUT'S IDENTITY: Let 𝑎 and 𝑏 be nonzero integers and let 𝑑 be their greatest

common divisor. Then there exist integers 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that

In addition,

𝑥 and 𝑦 are called Bézout coefficients for (𝑎, 𝑏) and are not unique. A pair of Bézout

coefficients can be computed by the extended Euclidean algorithm.

BHĀSKARA (1114–85): Bhaskara was an eminent Indian mathematician who continued

in the tradition of Brahmagupta, making corrections and filling in many gaps in the

earlier work. He solved examples of Pell’s equation and grappled with the problem of

division by zero.

an upper bound on the variance of any bounded probability distribution on the real line.

Suppose a distribution has minimum 𝑚, maximum 𝑀, and expected value 𝜇. Then the

inequality says:

endpoints 𝑚 and 𝑀.

BIAS: A prejudice or a lack of objectivity or randomness resulting in an imbalance that

makes it likely that the outcome will tend to be distorted. In statistics this is when a

process contains some systematic imbalance so that, on average, the outcome of the

process is not equal to the true value. Randomization techniques are employed to try

and remove bias that may result from other sample estimator selection methods

requiring choices to be made. An estimate of a parameter is biased if its expected value

does not equal the population value of the parameter.

BIASED SAMPLE: It is a sample whose composition is not determined only by the

population from which it has been taken, but also by some property of the sampling

method which has a tendency to cause an over-representation of some parts of the

population. It is a property of the sampling method rather than the individual sample.

BICONDITIONAL STATEMENT: A biconditional statement is a compound statement that

says one sentence is true if and only if the other sentence is true. Symbolically, this is

written as p ↔ q, which means “p → q” and “q → p.”

BIEBERBACH CONJECTURE: Because of applications, there is a lot of interest in

functions 𝑓 which are analytic and one-one in 𝐵(0, 1). Since 𝑓 ′ (0) ≠ 0, we can

normalize so that 𝑓(0) = 0, 𝑓 ′ (0) = 1 (else consider (𝑓(𝑧) − 𝑓(0))/𝑓 ′ (0) instead of

∝

𝑓), and look at the Taylor series 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑧 + 𝑘=2 𝑎𝑘 𝑧 𝑘 , |𝑧| < 1. Bieberbach proved

in 1916 that |𝑎2 | ≤ 2, and asked whether we always have |𝑎𝑛 | ≤ 𝑛. This became his

conjecture, an object of an enormous amount of research, and was finally proved by

Louis de Branges in 1984

BIHOLOMORPHISM: 𝑓 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 is said to be a biholomorphism if it is bijective and

𝑓, 𝑓 −1 are both holomorphic. Since the derivative map is a composition of scaling and

rotation, it preserves angles between vectors. So biholomorphisms are conformal maps,

meaning they preserve angles.

BIJECTION: A one-to-one onto mapping, that is, a mapping that is both injective and

surjective is known as a bijection.

BILATERAL SYMMETRY: Reflective symmetry. It is a type of self-similarity

through reflection in a line or a plane.

form

𝑎𝑧 + 𝑏

𝑤=

𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑

complex constants. Such type of transformation was first studied by Mobius and hence

it is sometimes called Mobius transformation is expressible as

𝑐𝑤𝑧 + 𝑤𝑑 − 𝑎𝑧 − 𝑏 = 0

That is why, it is called bilinear. Here we assume that 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 ≠ 0 which is called the

determinant of the transformation. The transformation (1) is said to be normalized if

𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 = 1. If the determinant vanishes, then 𝑤 is merely a constant.

and C such that for any x and y in X

BILLION: The name variously given to a thousand million and a million million in the

past. Traditionally, the US used a billion as the former and the UK as the latter, also

referred to as short billion and long billion respectively. With the rapid globalization in

the past few decades, the US definition has become more prevalent although it is better

to clarify as its use is dominant.

BIMODAL: A frequency distribution of numerical data that shows two distinct peaks

(modes).

BINARY AND TERNARY CODE: A code over 𝐴 = {0, 1} is called a binary code and a code

over 𝐴 = {0, 1, 2} is called a ternary code.

BINARY HAMMING CODE: Let 𝑟 ≥ 2 and let C be a binary linear code with 𝑛 = 2𝑟 −

1 whose parity-check matrix 𝐻 is such that the columns are all of the non-zero vectors

in 𝐹2𝑟 . This code 𝐶 is called a binary Hamming code of length 2𝑟 − 1, denoted

𝐻𝑎𝑚(𝑟, 2).

BINARY NUMBERS: Binary (base-2) numbers are written in a positional system that

uses only two digits: 0 and 1. Each digit of a binary number represents a power of 2. The

rightmost digit is the 1’s digit, the next digit to the left is the 2’s digit, and so on. For

example, the binary number 11101 represents

1 × 24 + 1 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 21 + 1 × 20 = 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 29

BINARY OPERATIONS ON SETS: A binary operation ∗ on a set 𝐴 is an operation which,

when applied to any elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of the set 𝐴, yields an element x ∗ 𝑦 of 𝐴. Example

The arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication are binary

operations on the set 𝑅 of real numbers which, when applied to real numbers 𝑥 and 𝑦,

yield the real numbers 𝑥 + 𝑦, 𝑥 − 𝑦 and 𝑥𝑦 respectively. However division is not a

binary operation on the set of real numbers, since the quotient 𝑥/𝑦 is not defined when

𝑦 = 0. (Under a binary operation ∗ on a set must determine an element 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦 of the set

for every pair of elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of that set.)

BINARY RELATIONS: A binary relation on a set specifies relations between pairs of

elements from the set. Example The relations = ‘equals’ , ≠ ‘not equal to’ , < ‘less

than’ , > ‘greater than’ , ≤ ‘less than or equal to’ and ≥ ‘greater than or equal to’

are all binary relations on the set 𝑅 of real numbers. Let 𝐴 be a set, and let 𝑃(𝐴) be the

power set of 𝐴 (i.e., the set whose elements are the subsets of 𝐴). Then ⊂ is a binary

relation on 𝑃(𝐴), where two subsets 𝐵 and 𝐶 of A satisfy 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐶 if and only if 𝐵 is a

subset of 𝐶. If one has a relation 𝑅 on a set 𝐴, then, given two elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of 𝐴,

either 𝑥 is related to 𝑦, in which case we may write 𝑥𝑅𝑦, or else the element 𝑥 is not

related to 𝑦.

BINARY SYMMETRIC CHANNEL: A binary symmetric channel has two probabilities:

𝑃[1 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 0 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑃[0 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 1 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑝

𝑃[1 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 1 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 𝑃[0 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 0 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] = 1 − 𝑝

The probability 𝑝 is called the crossover probability.

the digits 0 and 1.

BINOMIAL: A binomial is the sum of two terms. For example, (𝑝𝑥 + 𝑞) is a binomial.

binomial expansions. They can be represented in Pascal's triangle and are identical to

of the (𝑘 + 1)st term in a binomial expansion of exponent 𝑛, it is also the number of

ways that a set of 𝑘 objects can be chosen from a set of n distinct objects, provided that

the set of 𝑘 objects are chosen at the same time and so the order (of being chosen) does

not matter. The calculation of these binomial coefficients involves factorials as follows,

probability of success of 𝑝 each time. If X is the number of successes that occur in those

𝑛 trials, then X will have the binomial distribution with parameters 𝑛 and 𝑝. X is a

discrete random variable whose probability function is given by

𝑛 𝑟

𝑃 𝑋=𝑟 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛−𝑟

𝑟

The expectation is 𝐸 𝑋 = 𝑛𝑝

The variance is 𝑉𝑎𝑟 𝑋 = 𝑛𝑝(1 − 𝑝).

𝑞, 𝑞 × 𝑝 respectively, then

provided A and B + BVA−1UB are nonsingular. Note that if B is invertible, the

two B terms flanking the quantity inverse in the right-hand side can be replaced with

(B−1)−1, which results in

BINOMIAL THEOREM: The binomial theorem tells how to expand the expression

(𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑛 . The general formula is

𝑛 0 𝑛 1 𝑛 𝑛

(𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑛 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛 + 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑛−1 + − − − + 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)0

0 1 𝑛

Some examples of the powers of binomials are as follows:

(𝑎 + 𝑏)0 = 1

(𝑎 + 𝑏)1 = 𝑎 + 𝑏

(𝑎 + 𝑏)2 = 𝑎2 + 2𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2

(𝑎 + 𝑏)3 = 𝑎3 + 3𝑎2 𝑏 + 3𝑎𝑏 2 + 𝑏 3

(𝑎 + 𝑏)4 = 𝑎4 + 4𝑎3 𝑏 + 6𝑎2 𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑏 3 + 𝑏 4

(𝑎 + 𝑏)5 = 𝑎5 + 5𝑎4 𝑏 + 10𝑎3 𝑏 2 + 10𝑎2 𝑏 3 + 5𝑎𝑏 4 + 𝑏 5

The coefficients form an interesting pattern of numbers known as Pascal’s triangle. This

triangle is an array of numbers such that any entry is equal to the sum of the two entries

above it.

BINORMAL: The normal perpendicular to the principal to the principal normal at point

𝑃 is called binormal at point 𝑃.

BIPARTITE GRAPHS: A graph (𝑉, 𝐸) is said to be bipartite if there exist subsets 𝑉1 and 𝑉2 ,

such that

(i) 𝑉1 ∪ 𝑉2 = 𝑉 ;

(ii) 𝑉1 ∩ 𝑉2 = ∅;

(iii) each edge in E is of the form {𝑣, 𝑤} with 𝑣 ∇ 𝑉1 and 𝑤 ∇ 𝑉2 .

a quartic whose cubic and linear coefficients are zero. Note that this term is also used to

refer the product of two quadratics or the quadratic of a quadratic, which makes

the term equivalent to the term quartic.

conjecture on elliptic curves postulates a connection between the rank of an elliptic

curve and the order of pole of its Hasse-Weil L-function. It has been an significant

pointer in Diophantine geometry since the mid-1960s, with significant results such as

the Coates–Wiles theorem, Gross–Zagier theorem and Kolyvagin's theorem.

BIRTHDAY PROBLEMS: The birthdays of 𝑟 people form a sample of size 𝑟 from the

population of all days in the year. As a first approximation these may be considered as a

random selection of birthdays from the year consisting of 365 days. Then the

probability, 𝑝, that all 𝑟 birthdays are different is

1 2 3 r−1

𝒫 = 1− 1− 1− −−− 1−

365 365 365 365

For example, when 𝑟 = 23, 𝑝 < 0.5, so that for 23 people the probability that no two

people have the same birthday is less than a half, so the probability that at least two of

the twenty three people share a birthday is greater than a half; most people when asked

to make a guess of how many people are needed to achieve a greater than 50% chance

of at least two of them sharing a birthday, put the figure higher than 23. Matching

triplets of birthdays are much harder to observe and it can be shown that in a group of

23 people the probability of at least one triplet of matching birthdays is only 0.013; now

there has to be a group of 88 people before the probability becomes larger than 0.5.

BISECTOR: A line or plane which divides a geometrical object (e.g. a figure or an angle)

into two congruent parts.

BIT: The simplest unit of information consisting of one binary digit, conventionally

labelled 0 and 1.

BLASIUS’S THEOREM: Let a fixed cylinder be placed in a liquid which is moving steadily

and irrotationally given by the relation 𝑤 = 𝑓(𝑧), if the hydro-dynamical pressure on

the contour of a fixed cylinder are represented by a force (𝑋, 𝑌) and a couple 𝑀 about

the origin of coordinates then

1 𝑑𝑤 2

𝑋 − 𝑖𝑌 = 2 𝑖𝜌 ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 (neglecting extraneous forces)

𝑑𝑧

1 𝑑𝑤 2

and 𝑀 = 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑜𝑓 − 2 𝜌 ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 ,

𝑑𝑧

where the integrations are round any contour which surrounds the cylinder.

BLOCH'S THEOREM: Bloch's theorem gives a lower bound on the size of a disc in which

an inverse to a holomorphic function exists. Let 𝑓 be a holomorphic function in the unit

disk |𝑧| ≤ 1. Take |𝑓′(0)| = 1. Then there exists a disc of radius 𝑏 and an analytic

function 𝜑 in this disc, such that 𝑓(𝜑(𝑧)) = 𝑧 for all 𝑧 in this disc. Here 𝑏 > 1/72 is an

absolute constant.

BLOCK CODE: Let 𝐴 = {𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑞 } be an alphabet; we call the 𝑎𝑖 values symbols. A block

code 𝐶 of length 𝑛 over 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐴𝑛 . A vector 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶 is called a codeword. The

number of elements in 𝐶, denoted |𝐶|, is called the size of the code. A code of length 𝑛

and size 𝑀 is called an (𝑛, 𝑀)-code.

BOCHNER’S THEOREM: A continuous function 𝑓 ∶ 𝐺 → 𝐶 is positive definite if and only

if 𝑓 = µ for some µ ∇ 𝑀 +(𝐺 ).

BODY FORCES: The forces which are proportional to the mass contained in the volume

element are called body forces.

BOLYAI, JANOS (1802 to 1860): Janos Bolyai was a Hungarian mathematician who

developed a version of non-Euclidian geometry.

BOLZANO WEIRSTRASS THEOREM: Every infinite bounded set of real numbers has a

limit point.

Every bounded sequence has at least one limit point.

BONNET’S THEOREM ON PARALLEL SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): In general

for every surface (S) of constant positive Gaussian curvature. 𝐴−2 there are associated

two surface of constant mean curvature ±(2𝐴)−1 which are parallel to the former (S)

and distant ± 𝐴 form it.

numbers and 𝑛 ≥ 4, then

BOOLE GEORGE (1815 to 1865): George Boole was an English mathematician who

developed the symbolic analysis of logic now known as Boolean algebra, which is used

in the design of digital computers.

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Boolean algebra is the study of operations carried out on variables

that can have only two values: 1 (true) or 0 (false). Boolean algebra was developed by

George Boole in the 1850s; it is an important part of the theory of logic and has become

of tremendous importance since the development of computers.

Here are some rules from Boolean algebra. In the following statements, p, q, and r

represent Boolean variables and ⟷ represents “is equivalent to.” Parentheses are used

as they are in arithmetic: an operation inside parentheses is to be done before the

operation outside the parentheses.

Double Negation:

𝑝 ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝)

Commutative Principle:

(𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) ↔ (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑝)

(𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) ↔ (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑝)

Associative Principle:

𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟

𝑝 𝑂𝑅 (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) 𝑂𝑅 𝑟

Distribution:

𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑞 𝑂𝑅 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞) 𝑂𝑅 (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟)

𝑝 𝑂𝑅 (𝑞 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑟) ↔ (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑟)

De Morgan’s Laws:

(𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝) 𝐴𝑁𝐷 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑞) ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑝 𝑂𝑅 𝑞)

(𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑝) 𝑂𝑅 (𝑁𝑂𝑇 𝑞) ↔ 𝑁𝑂𝑇 (𝑝 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑞)

whose domain is 𝐴 and whose codomain is the set {𝑇, 𝐹} whose elements are the truth

values T = true and F = false.

BOOLEAN PRIME IDEAL THEOREM: The Boolean prime ideal theorem is the strong

prime ideal theorem for Boolean algebras. Its formal statement is:

Let 𝐵 be a Boolean algebra, let 𝐼 be an ideal and let 𝐹 be a filter of 𝐵, such

that 𝐼 and 𝐹 are disjoint. Then 𝐼 is contained in some prime ideal of 𝐵 that is disjoint

from 𝐹.

The weak prime ideal theorem for Boolean algebras simply states that every Boolean

algebra contains a prime ideal.

BOOLE'S INEQUALITY: For any finite or countable set of events, the probability that at

least one of the events happens is no greater than the sum of the probabilities of the

individual events. Formally, for a countable set of events 𝐴1 , 𝐴2 , 𝐴3 , . . ., we have

distribution parameters.

analytic for 𝑧 ≤ 𝑅. Also suppose 𝑀 𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴(𝑟) are respectively maxima of 𝑓(𝑧) and

𝑅 𝑓(𝑧) on 𝑧 =r where 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑅. then

2𝑟 𝑅+𝑟

𝑀 𝑟 ≤ 𝐴 𝑅 + 𝑓(0)

𝑅−𝑟 𝑅−𝑟

BOREL, FÉLIX EDOUARD JUSTIN EMILE: Félix Edouard Justin Emile Borel (1871–1956)

was a French mathematician who was one of the first to study real-valued functions,

with important results in set theory and measure theory.

BOREL MEASURE: It is a measure defined on the sigma algebra of a topological space

onto the set of real numbers. If the mapping is onto the interval [0, 1] it is a Borel

probability measure.

BOREL SET: It is a set obtained from repeated applications of unions and intersections

of countable collections of closed or open intervals on the real line.

BOREL’S METHOD OF SUMMATION: If for a given series 𝑢𝑛 ,

∞

𝑠𝑛 𝑥 𝑛

𝑢 𝑥 =

𝑛!

𝑛=0

is convergent for all 𝑥, and 𝑢(𝑥) 𝑒 𝑥 → 𝑠 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 → ∞, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by

Borel’s expontial method to the sum 𝑠, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐵). The transformation

thus determined is denoted by 𝐵 and is called Borel’s method of summation.

BOREL 𝝈 −ALGEBRA: Let 𝐾 be a compact topological space. The Borel 𝜍 −algebra, 𝐵(𝐾),

on 𝐾, is the 𝜍 −algebra generated by the open sets in 𝐾. A member of 𝐵(𝐾) is a Borel

set. Notice that if 𝑓: 𝐾 → 𝐾 is a continuous function, then clearly f is 𝐵(𝐾) −measurable

(the inverse image of an open set will be open, and hence certainly Borel). So if

µ: 𝐵(𝐾) → 𝐾 is a finite charge or complex measure (for 𝐾 = ℝ or 𝐾 = ℂ respectively),

then 𝑓 will be µ-integrable (as 𝑓 is bounded) and so we can define 𝜑𝜇 : 𝐶𝐾 𝐾 → 𝐾 by

𝜑𝜇 𝑓 = ∫𝑋 𝑓𝑑𝜇. Clearly 𝜑𝜇 is linear. Suppose for now that µ is positive, so that

𝜑𝜇 (𝑡) ≤ ∫𝑋 𝑓 𝑑𝜇 ≤ 𝑓 ∞ 𝜇(𝐾)

𝜇 𝐴 =

𝑖𝑛𝑓 𝜇 𝐹 : 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡

regular if its real and imaginary parts are regular.

Note that

1. Many common measures on the real line, e.g. the Lebesgue measure, point

measures, etc., are regular.

1

𝜇 ∅ = 0, 𝜇 = 0, 𝜇 𝐴 = +∞

2

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒

𝜇 𝐴 =

+∞, 𝑖𝑓 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒

We let 𝑀𝑅 (𝐾) and 𝑀𝐶 (𝐾) be the collection of all finite, regular, signed or complex

measures on 𝐵(𝐾). The variation || · || is a norm on 𝑀𝐾 (𝐾).

BORSUK-ULAM THEOREM: For any continuous real function on the sphere 𝑆 𝑛 there

must be antipodal (i.e. opposite) points where the values of the function are same.

for 𝑆 if 𝑢 is greater than or equal to every element of 𝑆. If 𝑆 has an upper bound, then 𝑆 is

said to be a set bounded above. Moreover, 𝑢 is a supremum (or least upper bound) of 𝑆

if 𝑢 is an upper bound for 𝑆 and no upper bound for 𝑆 is less than 𝑢; this is written

𝑢 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝 𝑆. For example, if 𝑆 = {1/𝑛; 𝑛 ∇ 𝑁} then 𝑠𝑢𝑝 𝑆 = 1. Similarly, a real number

𝑙 is a lower bound for the set 𝑆 if 𝑙 is less than or equal to every element of 𝑆. If 𝑆 has a

lower bound, then 𝑆 is said to be a set bounded below. Moreover, 𝑙 is an infimum (or

greatest lower bound) of 𝑆 if 𝑙 is a lower bound for the set 𝑆 and no lower bound for 𝑆 is

greater than 𝑙; this is written 𝑙 = 𝑖𝑛𝑓 𝑆. A set is said to be a bounded set if it is bounded

above and below. It is a non-elementary result about the real numbers that any non-

empty set that is bounded above has a supremum, and any non-empty set that is

bounded below has an infimum.

BOUNDARY CONDITION: A complete set of values for all variables at some instant (often

the initial condition, when 𝑡 = 0) which provides a particular solution to a differential

equation.

BOUNDARY MAXIMUM MODULUS THEOREM: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a bounded domain. Let 𝑓 be

a continuous function on 𝑈 that is holomorphic on 𝑈. Then the maximum value of |𝑓| on

𝑈 must occur on ∂U.

BOUNDARY MINIMUM MODULUS PRINCIPLE: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a bounded domain. Let 𝑓 be

a continuous function on 𝑈 that is holomorphic on 𝑈. Assume that 𝑓 never vanishes on

𝑈. Then the minimum value of |𝑓| on 𝑈 must occur on ∂U.

BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM: A differential equation to be satisfied over a region

together with a set of boundary conditions is usually called a boundary value problem.

BOUNDED FUNCTION: A real valued function 𝑓, defined on a domain 𝐷, is said to be a

bounded function on 𝐷 if there is a number 𝐾 such that, for all 𝑥 in 𝐷, we have

| 𝑓(𝑥)| < 𝐾. If 𝑓 is a continuous function on a closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] then it is bounded

on 𝑎, 𝑏 .

BOUNDED INVERSE THEOREM: Bounded inverse theorem is an important result in the

theory of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces. It states that a bijective bounded

linear operator 𝑇 from one Banach space to another has bounded inverse 𝑇 −1 . It is

equivalent to both the open mapping theorem and the closed graph theorem.

BOUNDED LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: The linear functional Φ on the normed linear space 𝑁

is said to be bounded if there exists a real constant 𝑘, such that Φ (𝑓) ≤ 𝑘 𝑓 .

Equivalently, we can say that Φ is bounded if Φ (𝑓) is bounded on the closed unit

sphere of 𝑁 i.e, Φ(𝑓) / 𝑓 is bounded for every 𝑓 ≠ 0 in 𝑁.

BOUNDED LINEAR OPERATOR: Let 𝑁 and 𝑁′ be two normed linear spaces with the

same scalars. Then a linear operator 𝑇 of 𝑁 into 𝑁′ is said to be bounded if there exists

a non-negative real number 𝑘 such that

𝑇 𝑓 ≤ 𝑘 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑁.

BOUNDED SEQUENCE: The real sequence ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ is said to be bounded if there is a real

number 𝑀 such that, for all 𝑛, |𝑎𝑛 | < 𝑀.

BOUNDED SET: A set 𝐴 is said to be a bounded set if closure of 𝐴 does not consist of any

infinite values.

boundaries of the 4 quadrants on a scale with the middle quadrants represented

as rectangles (boxes) and the outer quadrants as lines (whiskers).

BOX PLOT: Box plot is another name of the box-and-whisker diagram, also known as a

box-and-whisker plot.

mathematician whose text on astronomy includes some notable mathematics for its

own sake: the areas of quadrilaterals and the solution of certain Diophantine equations,

for example. Here, the systematic use of negative numbers and zero occurs for probably

the first time.

BRACES: Symbols { and } commonly used to represent the order of operations along

with parentheses and brackets. (And other less common types.) They're also used to

represent sets.

BRACHISTOCHRONE: The trajectory of fastest travel between 2 points if a bead is

considered to be guided by a smooth wire, under gravity only, between the 2 points

starting from rest. Note that the starting point must not be the lower of the 2 points or

the bead would never reach the other point. (At the starting point, the bead

has zero Kinectic energy. It will never reach the point with higher gravitational potential

energy. However, due tot he smoothness of the wire, points of equal heights are

possible.)

BRACKETS: Symbols [ and ] commonly used to represent the order of operations, along

with parentheses and braces. (And other less common types.) Informally, all 3 pairs of

symbols are referred to as brackets. Brackets are also used to

represent matrices amongst other mathematical objects.

branch, and where the differential has a discontinuity.

BRANCH OF A HYPERBOLA: The two separate parts of a hyperbola are called the two

branches.

BRANCH AND BOUND METHOD: This procedure constructs a branching method that

terminates each branch once the constraint limit has been reached, and by allowing

items to be added in an order which is determined at the start. This reduces

considerably the number of combinations that have to be tried.

BRANCH POINT: Branch point is a point on the curve at which two or more branches of

the curve meet.

BRANCH POINT (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): A point is called a branch point of a function

𝑓 𝑧 if some of the branches interchange as the independent variable 𝑧 describes a

closed path about it.

2

𝑢 + 𝑣 2 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑢 ≠ 𝑣,

𝑑(𝑢, 𝑣) =

0 𝑖𝑓 𝑢 = 𝑣,

and its chromatic number. According to the theorem, in a connected graph in which

every vertex has at most 𝑚 neighbors, the vertices can be colored with only 𝑚 colors,

except for two cases, complete graphs and cycle graphs of odd length, which require

𝑚 + 1 colors.

BROUWER'S FIXED-POINT THEOREM: It is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named

after Luitzen Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function 𝑓 mapping a compact

convex set into itself there is a point 𝑥0 such that 𝑓(𝑥0 ) = 𝑥0 . The simplest forms of

Brouwer's theorem are for continuous functions 𝑓 from a closed interval 𝐼 in the real

numbers to itself or from a closed disk 𝐷 to itself.

of compact subsets of Euclidean space. Let 𝑛 ≥ 1 and let 𝜇 denote the Lebesgue

measure on Rn. Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be two nonempty compact subsets of Rn. Then the

following inequality holds:

𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑟) ⊂ 𝐵 (𝑥0 , 𝑠) ⊂ 𝑈 be concentric balls in 𝑈 with 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑠. There exists a

smooth function 𝑔 ∇ 𝐶 ∞ (𝑀), which takes values in [0, 1], such that 𝑔(𝑞) = 1 for

𝑞 ∇ 𝜍(𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑟)) and 𝑔(𝑞) = 0 for 𝑞 ∈ 𝜍(𝐵(𝑥0 , 𝑠)). The function 𝑔 is called a bump

function around 𝑝 = 𝜍(𝑥0 ), because of the resemblance with speed bumps used to

reduce traffic.

BURALI-FORTI PARADOX: The Burali-Forti paradox demonstrates that the class of all

ordinals is not a set. If there were a set of all ordinals, 𝑂𝑟𝑑, then it would follow that 𝑂𝑟𝑑

was itself an ordinal, and therefore that 𝑂𝑟𝑑 ∇ 𝑂𝑟𝑑. Even if sets in general are allowed

to contain themselves, ordinals cannot since they are defined so that ∇ is well founded

over them.

numbers, and 𝑎 and 𝑏 are non-negative integers, then 𝐺 is solvable. Hence each non-

Abelian finite simple group has order divisible by at least three distinct primes.

BUSEMANN’S THEOREM: Let 𝐾 be a convex body in 𝑛-dimensional Euclidean

space 𝑹𝒏 containing the origin in its interior. Let 𝑆 be an (𝑛 − 2)-dimensional linear

subspace of 𝑹𝒏 . For each unit vector 𝜃 in 𝑆 ⊥ , the orthogonal complement of 𝑆, let 𝑆𝜃

denote the (𝑛 − 1)-dimensional hyperplane containing 𝜃 and 𝑆. Define 𝑟(𝜃) to be the

(𝑛 − 1)-dimensional volume of 𝐾 ∩ 𝑆𝜃 . Let 𝐶 be the curve {𝜃𝑟(𝜃)} in 𝑆 ⊥ . Then 𝐶 forms

the boundary of a convex body in 𝑆 ⊥ .

BUTLER’S SPHERE THEOREM: Let a rigid sphere r = a be introduced into flow field of an

axis-symmetric irrotational flow in an incompressible inviscid fluid with no rigid

boundaries, characterized by the stream function Ψ0 = Ψ0 (r, θ)all of whose singularties

are at a distance greater than a from the origin, where Ψ0 = 0(r 2 ) at an origin, then the

stream function becomes

r a2

Ψ = Ψ0 − Ψ1 = Ψ0 r, θ − Ψ0 ,θ

a r

two other chords𝐴𝐵 and 𝐶𝐷 are drawn; 𝐴𝐷 and 𝐵𝐶 intersect chord 𝑃𝑄 at 𝑋 and 𝑌

correspondingly. Then 𝑀 is the midpoint of 𝑋𝑌.

take an arbitrary subdivision of [𝑎, 𝑏] as

𝑎 = 𝑡0 ≤ 𝑡1 ≤ 𝑡2 ≤ ⋯ ≤ 𝑡𝑛 = 𝑏,

𝑛

𝑉𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑡𝑘 − 𝑓 𝑡𝑘−1 .

𝑘=1

bounded, then the function 𝑓(𝑡) is defined as a function of bounded variation on the

interval 𝑎, 𝑏 , and the quantity

We denote the space of all functions of bounded variation in the interval [𝑎, 𝑏] by

𝐵𝑉 𝑎, 𝑏 . That this is a linear space follows from the property that a function is of

bounded variation if and only if it can be expressed as the difference of two non-

decreasing functions.

C

𝑪𝟎 SPACE: This is the space of all sequences of complex numbers which converges to

zero, with the norm defined as in 𝑐. Since, if two sequences converge to zero, then their

linear combination also converges to zero, 𝑪𝟎 is a subspace of 𝑐. Thus 𝑐0 is a normed

linear space.

∞

For completeness, let 𝑓𝑛 be a fundamental sequence in 𝑐0 . Since 𝑐0 ⊂ 𝑐, 𝑓𝑛 𝑛=1 is also

a fundamental sequence is 𝑐, and has a limit 𝑐. By the theorem of double limits

𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑛→∞𝑓(𝑛) exists and is equal to 0. Hence

𝑓 = 𝑓(𝑛)∞

𝑛=1 lies in 𝑐.

𝐂[𝟎, 𝟏] SPACE: The linear space 𝐶[0,1] of all continuous real function defined on the

closed unit interval [0,1] is a normed linear space with respect the norm of an element 𝑓

defined by

1

𝑓 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡,

0

𝐂[𝐚, 𝐛] SPACE: The space 𝐶 [𝑎, 𝑏] is the space of all bounded continuous functions

defined on the closed interval 𝑎, 𝑏 . We know that 𝐶 [𝑎, 𝑏] is a linear space with respect

to pointwise linear operations defined by

𝑓+𝑔 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑔 𝑥 and 𝛼𝑓 𝑥 = 𝛼𝑓 𝑥 ,

ii) 𝑓 = 0 ⟺ 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) ,

⟺ 𝑓 𝑥 =, for each 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 ,

⟺ 𝑓 = 0 (zero function)

iii) For any scalar 𝛼,

𝑎𝑓 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑎𝑓 𝑥

= 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑎 𝑓(𝑥)

= 𝛼 sup 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑓(𝑥)

= 𝛼 𝑓

iv) 𝑓 + 𝑔 = 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓+𝑔 𝑥

≤ 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑔 𝑥

= 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑥∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑓(𝑥) + 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝛼 ∇ 𝑎,𝑏 𝑔(𝑥)

= 𝑓 + 𝑔

cal: Calorie - a metric unit of energy. The equivalent SI unit of energy is joule. 1 cal

(lower case c) is the energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 °C at roughly 4.2

joules, while 1 Cal (capital C) is the energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 °C 4.2

kilojoules.

CALCULUS: Calculus is divided into two general areas: differential calculus and integral

calculus. The basic problem in differential calculus is to find the rate of change of a

function. Geometrically, this means finding the slope of the tangent line to a function at a

particular point; physically, this means finding the speed of an object if you are given its

position as a function of time. The slope of the tangent line to the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥) at a

𝑑𝑦

point (𝑥, 𝑓 (𝑥)) is called the derivative, written as 𝑦 ′ or . The reverse process of

𝑑𝑥

CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS: Calculus of variation is a development of calculus

concerned with problems in which a function is to be determined such that some

related definite integral achieves a maximum or minimum value. In calculus of

variations, the problem is to determine a curve 𝑦(𝑥) that minimizes (or maximizes) the

integral of a specified function over a specific range:

𝑏

𝐽= 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦 ′ 𝑑𝑥

𝑎

𝑌 = 𝑦 + 𝑒𝜌

where 𝑒 is a new variable, and 𝜌 can be any continuous function as long as it meets

these two conditions:

𝜌 𝑎 = 0, 𝜌 𝑏 =0

These conditions mean that the value for 𝑌 is the same as the value of 𝑦 at the two

endpoints of our interval 𝑎 and 𝑏. Then 𝐽 can be expressed as a function of 𝑒:

𝑏

𝐽(𝑒) = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥

𝑎

𝑏

𝑑 𝑑

𝐽(𝑒) = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑒

𝑎

𝑏

𝑑

= 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑌, 𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑒

𝑎

𝑏

𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑌 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑌 ′

= + + 𝑑𝑥

𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑒 𝜕𝑌 𝑑𝑒 𝜕𝑌 ′ 𝑑𝑒

𝑎

CANCELLATION: Any method of calculation the result of which, when compared to the

original form, attributes a number of components of the original form to mitigate the

effects of the rest (of those components), so that the result remains the same through

their omission. A common example invloves the numerator and denominator of

a fraction, and another invloves the omission of one logarithm symbol from each side of

the equation (when the each side consists of the logarithm only), even though the

former is a result of the equivalence of fractions and the latter the injective nature of

the logarithmic function. Failure of understanding these can result in the misuse of such

methods, and is commonplace amongst students.

CANCELLATION LAWS: Let ⟪ be a binary operation on a set 𝑆. The cancellation laws are

said to hold if, for all 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 in 𝑆,

(i) if 𝑎⟪𝑏 = 𝑎⟪𝑐, then b = c,

(ii) if 𝑏⟪𝑎 = 𝑐⟪𝑎, then b = c.

In a group G, the cancellation laws hold.

CANONICAL: Describes a representation of an object (e.g. an expression,

a transformation) in a way that is preferred, perhaps unique or considered natural due

to certain properties that it exhibits, even though there may be

other equivalent representations.

CANONICAL HEIGHT: The canonical height on an abelian variety is a height function that

is a distinguished quadratic form.

CANONICAL OR NORMAL FORM OF A REAL QUADRATIC FORMS: If X ′ AX is a real

quadratic form in 𝑛 variables, then there exists real non-singular linear transformation

𝑋 = PV which transforms X ′ AX to the form

2

− ⋯ − 𝑦𝑟2

In the new form the given quadratic form has been expressed as a sum and difference

of the squares of new variables. This latter expression is called the canonical form or

normal form of the given quadratic form.

finite order 𝜌 with an infinite number of zeroes 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , 𝑧3 arranged in the order of

increasing modulus. Let 𝜌1 be the exponent of the convergence of zeros. We associate an

integer 𝜌 with sequence of zeros s.t.

𝜌1 , 𝜌1 ≠ 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟

∞

𝜌= 𝜌1 − 1, 𝜌1 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑒𝑟 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑟𝑛 − 𝜌1 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝑛=1

𝜌1 , 𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒

∞

𝑧

𝐺 𝑧 = ,𝑝

𝑧𝑛

𝑛 =1

Converges uniformly and absolutely in any bounded closed domain of 𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 which

does not contain any 𝑧𝑛 𝑛 = 1,2,3, … . Also 𝐺(𝑧) is an integral function and vanishes if

and only if 𝑧 is a zero of 𝑓 𝑧 . We call this product by the name Canocial product formed

with zero of 𝑓 𝑧 , the integer 𝜌 is called genus of it.

CANTILEVER: A beam or such similar structures which is anchored at only one end such

that it resists rotation under load.

responsible for the establishment of set theory and for profound developments in the

notion of the infinite. In 1873, he showed that the set of rational numbers is

denumerable. He also showed that the set of real numbers is not. Later he fully

developed his theory of infinite sets and so-called transfinite numbers. The latter part of

his life was clouded by repeated mental illness.

CANTOR INTERMEDIATE VALUE PROPERTY: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 has the Cantor

intermediate value property if for every 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 and for each perfect set 𝐾 between

𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑓 (𝑦), there is a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that 𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ 𝐾; the strong

Cantor intermediate value property if for every 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 and for each perfect set 𝐾

between 𝑓 (𝑥) and 𝑓 (𝑦) there is a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that 𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ 𝐾

and 𝑓I𝐶 is continuous; the weak Cantor intermediate value property if for every

𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅 with 𝑓 (𝑥) < 𝑓 (𝑦) there exists a perfect set 𝐶 between 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that

𝑓 [𝐶] ⊂ (𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑓 (𝑦)); the perfect road if for every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 there exists a perfect set

𝑃 ⊂ 𝑅 having 𝑥 as a bilateral (i.e., two sided) limit point for which 𝑓I𝑃 is continuous at

𝑥.

CANTOR SET: Consider the closed interval [0, 1]. Remove the open interval that forms

1 2

the middle third, that is, the open interval , . From each of the remaining two

3 3

intervals, again remove the open interval that forms the middle third. The Cantor set is

the set that remains when this process is continued indefinitely. It consists of those real

numbers whose ternary representation 0. 𝑐1 𝑐2 𝑐3 … has each ternary digit 𝑐𝑖 equal to

either the digit 0 or 2.

theorem underlies the theory of transfinite cardinals. In an infinite set, there are subsets

of the exactly same cardinality. But then there are also different transfinite cardinalities.

So how does one compare infinite sets. Given two infinite sets 𝑨 and 𝑩, assume there is

a 1-1 correspondence between B and a subset of A. It is reasonable and viable to expect

that |𝑩| ≤ |𝑨|. Similarly, it is reasonable to say that |𝑩| < |𝐴| provided it is not true

that |𝑨| ≤ |𝑩|, which would hold if there was a 1-1 correspondence between A and a

subset of B. The theorem states as follows:

𝛼 ∶ 𝐴 → 𝐵. In other words, if |𝐴| ≤ |𝐵| and |𝐵| ≤ |𝐴|, then |𝐴| = |𝐵|.

empty compact subsets of 𝑆 has nonempty intersection. In other words, supposing {𝐶𝑘 }

is a sequence of non-empty, closed and bounded sets satisfying

it follows that

CANTOR LEMMA: No interval [a, b] is countable.

CANTOR’S PARADOX: Suppose there exists an infinite set A containing the largest

possible number of elements. Cantor’s Diagonal Theorem shows that its power set has

more elements than A had. This proves there is no largest cardinal number.

CANTOR'S THEOREM: It states that, for any set A, the set of all subsets of 𝐴 (the power

set of 𝐴) has a strictly greater cardinality than 𝐴 itself.

animals) through 2 periods of capture (observation), assuming that the total number

has remained constant and that the probability of capture of any animal on any one visit

is constant and equal. In implementing this method, a researcher captures a number of

animals and mark them (or make sure that they can be identified in the future in some

way) and releases them, they come back to capture a number of animals and count the

proportion of animals that were captured both times. By assuming that the proportion

of animals recaptured in an unbiased estimate of the proportion of animals marked in

the first capture, combine this with the number of animals marked on the first visit, we

can easily calculate the estimated number of the total population. In practice, it is

difficult to ensure that the animal population remains constant (or roughly the same)

while ensuring that the chance of recapture is truly equal amongst the population since

the former requires the visits to be relatively close to each other so that the population

does not change significantly and yet the latter condition requires the visits to be

sufficiently space apart so that the locations of the animals are truly randomized.

Carathéodory measurable if 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 = 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 + 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴\𝐸 for any 𝐴 ⊆ 𝑋. As µ∗ is sub-

additive, this is equivalent to 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ≥ 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐸 + 𝜇 ∗ 𝐴\𝐸 as the other inequality is

automatic. Measurability by Lebesgue and Carathéodory are equivalent.

complex plane C, whose boundary is a Jordan curve 𝛤 then the Riemann map 𝑓: 𝑈 → 𝐷

from 𝑈 to the unit disk 𝐷 extends continuously to the boundary, giving a

homeomorphism 𝐹 : 𝛤 → 𝑆 1 from 𝛤 to the unit circle 𝑆 1 .

CARD: It is the abbreviation for cardinality of a set. (Card(X) is also written

#𝑋, ♯𝑋 𝑜𝑟 |𝑋|).

CARDINALITY OF A SET: For a finite set 𝐴, the cardinality of 𝐴, denoted by 𝑛(𝐴), is the

number of elements in 𝐴. The notation #(𝐴) or |𝐴| is also used. For subsets 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 of

some universal set 𝐸,

𝑛(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑛(𝐴) + 𝑛(𝐵) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)

𝑛(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶) = 𝑛(𝐴) + 𝑛(𝐵) + 𝑛(𝐶) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) – 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) – 𝑛(𝐵 ∩

𝐶) + 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶).

CARDINAL NUMBER: A number that gives the number of elements in a set. If two sets

can be put in one-to-one correspondence with one another they have the same cardinal

number or cardinality. For finite sets, the cardinal numbers are 0, 1, 2, 3, …, but infinite

sets require new symbols to describe their cardinality like aleph and aleph-null.

CARDIOID: A cardioids is the curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle

rolling round another circle of the same radius. Its equation, in which 𝑎 is the radius of

each circle, may be taken in polar coordinates as 𝑟 = 2𝑎(1 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃)(– 𝜋 < 𝜃 ≤ 𝜋). In

the figure, OA = 4a and OB = 2a.

CARMICHAEL'S THEOREM: It states that for 𝑛 greater than 12, the 𝑛th Fibonacci

number 𝐹(𝑛) has at least one prime divisor that does not divide any earlier Fibonacci

number.

𝐹(6) = 8 whose only prime divisor is 2 (which is 𝐹(3))

𝐹(12) = 144 whose only prime divisors are 2 (which is 𝐹(3)) and 3 (which is

𝐹(4))

If a prime 𝑝 is a divisor of 𝐹(𝑛) that does not divide any 𝐹(𝑚) with 𝑚 < 𝑛, then 𝑝 is

called a characteristic factor or a primitive prime divisor of 𝐹(𝑛).

Carmichael's theorem says that every Fibonacci number, apart from the exceptions

listed above, has at least one primitive prime divisor.

Riemannian-Cartan geometry instead of Riemannian geometry. This extension provides

affine torsion, which allows for non-symmetric curvature tensors and the incorporation

of spin-orbit coupling.

CARTAN–HADAMARD THEOREM: It states that a connected, simply connected complete

Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional curvature is diffeomorphic to Rn via

the exponential map; for metric spaces, the statement that a connected, simply

connected complete geodesic metric space with non-positive curvature in the sense of

Alexandrov is a globally CAT(0) space.

CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM: The rectilinear coordinate system used for any

(finite and natural) number of dimensions. The number of axes used is commonly seen

as a basic way of "defining" the number of dimensions.

These axes must all be mutually perpendicular and the components (the coordinates) of

a point are the shortest distances of a point to the hyperplane consisting the axes

(except the axis related to the component in question). Thus, the x-coordinate of a point

is the shortest distance from the point to any point on the line (plane) consisting of

the y-axis (both y and z-axes) in 2D (3D).

While rectilinear coordinate system is a more descriptive name of its function, it is more

commonly called Cartesian, named after Cartesius, the Latin name of René Descartes.

CARTESIAN PRODUCT: The Cartesian product 𝐴 × 𝐵, of sets 𝐴 and 𝐵, is the set of all

ordered pairs (𝑎, 𝑏), where 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 and 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵. Similarly, the Cartesian product

𝐴 × 𝐵 × 𝐶 of sets 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 can be defined as the set of all ordered triples (𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐),

where 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵 and 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶.

continuum mechanics, such as fluid mechanics and elasticity. In classical continuum

mechanics, the space of concentration is usually 3-dimensional Euclidean space, as is

the tangent space at each point. If we put a ceiling on the local coordinates to be

Cartesian coordinates with the same scale centered at the point of concentration, the

metric tensor is the Kronecker delta. This means that there is no requirement to

distinguish covariant and contravariant components, and furthermore there is no need

to distinguish tensors and tensor densities. All Cartesian-tensor indices are written as

subscripts. Cartesian tensors achieve considerable computational simplification at the

cost of generality and of some theoretical insight.

an essential singularity of 𝑓, then 𝑓(𝐷(𝑃, 𝑟) \ {𝑃}) is dense in 𝐶 for any 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑟0 .

CASTING OUT NINES: It is a method of verification of integer arithmetic by checking that

the answer matches the equivalent calculations under modulo arithmetic.

The modulus of 9 is chosen simply because of our decimal systems (base 10).

The difference of 1 between the modulus (9) and the base (10) allows for an easy

conversion of a number to modulo 9. (By adding the constituent digits of a number

represented in base 10.)

rather than measurements or values of variables. Often such data consists of a summary

that shows the numbers or frequencies of individuals in each category. This form of data

is known as a 'frequency table' or, if there are two or more categorized features, as 'a

contingency table'.

CATEGORICAL VARIABLE: A random variable with values which are categories. (e.g.

nationality, gender etc.)

subset 𝑬 of a topological space 𝑿 is said to be of the first category in 𝑿 if it can be

expressed as a finite or countable union of nowhere dense sets in 𝑿, otherwise 𝑬 is said

to be of the second category. This terminology is, however, not universal: some authors

use the name second category for complements in 𝑿 of sets of the first category. In the

case of a Baire space, a more appropriate name for such sets is residual. A non-empty

closed set of real numbers, in particular an interval, is not of the first category in itself.

This result generalizes to any complete metric space, it is called Baire category theorem

and has wide application in analysis. The role of a set of the first category in topology is

analogous to that of a null set in measure theory. However, in 𝑹 a set of the first

category can be a set of full (Lebesgue) measure, while there are (Lebesgue) null sets

which are residual.

CATENARY: The curve in which an ideal flexible heavy rope or chain of uniform density

hangs between two points. The equation of the curve is 𝑦 = 𝑐 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝑥/𝑐).

1

𝑦= 𝑎 𝑒 𝑥/𝑎 + 𝑒 −𝑥/𝑎

2

The value of 𝑎 is the 𝑦 intercept. The catenary can also be represented by the hyperbolic

cosine function 𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥.

CATENOID: Catenoid is the surface generated by rotating a catenary around its axis of

symmetry.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN-LOUIS (1789–1857): Augustin-Louis Cauchy was one of the most

important mathematicians of the early nineteenth century and a dominating figure in

French mathematics. His work ranged over vast areas of mathematics, in almost 800

papers, but he is chiefly remembered as one of the founders of rigorous mathematical

analysis. Using the definition of limit as it is now known; he developed sound definitions

of continuity and convergence. He was also a pioneer in the theory of functions of a

complex variable.

condition for the convergence of a sequence: an infinite sequence is convergent, if and

only if, for any positive number 𝜀, there is always a number 𝑁(𝜀) (𝑁 is a function of 𝜀),

such that the difference between any two terms after the 𝑁th term is less than 𝜀.

2. For series - a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of a series: An

infinite series 𝛴𝑎𝑛 is convergent, if and only if, for any positive number 𝜀 , there is an

integer 𝑁(𝜀) (𝑁 is a function of 𝜀 ), such that

support.

𝜕𝑘 𝑀 · 𝑘!

and if |𝑓| ≤ 𝑀 on 𝐷 (𝑃, 𝑟), then 𝑓(𝑃) ≤ .

𝜕𝑥 𝑘 𝑟𝑘

CAUCHY HADAMARD THEOREM: Consider the formal power series in one complex

variable z of the form

where lim sup denotes the limit superior, the limit as 𝑛 approaches infinity of

the supremum of the sequence values after the 𝑛th position. If the sequence values are

unbounded so that the lim sup is ∞, then the power series does not converge near 𝑎,

while if the lim sup is 0 then the radius of convergence is ∞, meaning that the series

converges on the entire plane.

𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑡𝜄 − 𝛼). Then we have 𝑄(𝑡) = 𝑡 2 + 𝑎𝑡 + 𝑏 where 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐶. The Cayley–

Hamilton theorem states that 𝛼 2 + 𝑎𝛼 + 𝑏𝜄 = 𝑂 or, more briefly that Q α = O.

function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on a closed contour 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎 is any point lying in it,

then

1 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧

𝑓′ 𝑎 = ∫𝐶

2𝜋𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑎)²

𝑡

CAUCHY MACLAURIN’S INTEGRAL TEST: Let 𝐹 𝑡 = ∫𝑎 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 for 𝑎 ≤ 𝑡 < ∞. If

∞

lim𝑡→∞ 𝐹(𝑡) exists and is equal to 𝑙 ∇ 𝑅, the improper integral ∫𝑎 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 is convergent

to 𝑙 otherwise, it is divergent.

CAUCHY MEAN VALUE THEOREM: If real valued functions 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥) are such that

𝑓 𝑥 , 𝑔(𝑥) are continuous in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]

𝑓 𝑥 , 𝑔(𝑥) are differentiable in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)

𝑓 ′ (𝑐) 𝑓 𝑏 −𝑓(𝑎)

then there exist at least one value of 𝑥 = 𝑐 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑔 ′ (𝑐) = 𝑔 .

𝑏 −𝑔(𝑎)

CAUCHY RATIO TEST: Also known simply as the ratio test. It is a method of deciding

the convergence of a series through the general ratio of one term of the series to the

next.

variable 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦 the Cauchy–Riemann equations linking the real and imaginary

parts of the function are

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑢

= 𝑎𝑛𝑑 =−

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

CAUCHY SCHWARZ–BUNYAKOVSKII INEQUALITY: For vectors 𝑥 and 𝑦 in an inner

product space 𝑉 let us define ||𝑥|| = ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑥 ⟩𝑎𝑛𝑑 ||𝑦|| = ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑦 ⟩ then we have

⌌𝑥, 𝑦⌍ ≤ 𝑥 𝑦 with equality if and only if 𝑥 and 𝑦 are scalar multiple each other.

CAUCHY SCHWARZ INEQUALITY FOR INTEGRALS: If 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑔(𝑥) are real functions then

{∫ [𝑓(𝑥)𝑔(𝑥)]𝑑𝑥}2 ≤ {∫ [𝑓(𝑥)]2 𝑑𝑥}{∫ [𝑔(𝑥)]2 𝑑𝑥}

if all these integrals exist.

CAUCHY SCHWARZ INEQUALITY FOR SUMS: If 𝑎𝑖 and 𝑏𝑖 are real numbers, 𝑖 = 1, 2, … , 𝑛

then

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

𝑎𝑖 𝑏𝑖 ≤ 𝑎𝑖2 𝑏𝑖2

𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1

CAUCHY SEQUENCE: A sequence ⌌𝑎𝑛 ⌍ for which the metric 𝑑(𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑚 ), where 𝑚 > 𝑛,

satisfies lim𝑛 →∞ 𝑑 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑚 = 0.

Cauchy sequences converge when they are defined on the set of real numbers, but do

not necessarily converge on the set of rational numbers.

CAUCHY’S CONDENSATION TEST: If the function 𝑓(𝑥) is positive for all positive integral

values of 𝑛 and continually decreases as 𝑛 increases, then the two infinite series 𝑓(𝑛)

and 𝑎𝑛 𝑓(𝑎𝑛 ) are either both convergent or both divergent, 𝑎 being a positive integer

greater than 1.

CAUCHY’S FIRST THEOREM ON LIMITS: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ is a sequence of positive reals such that

lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙, then

𝑥1 + 𝑥2 + 𝑥3 + − − − + 𝑥𝑛

lim =𝑙

𝑛 →∞ 𝑛

CAUCHY’S GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONVERGENCE: A sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ of real numbers

converges if and only if it is a Cauchy sequence.

CAUCHY’S INEQUALITY COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on a circle

𝑛 𝑀𝑛 !

𝐶, given by 𝑧 − 𝑎 = 𝑅 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑓 𝑓(𝑧) ≤ 𝑀 for every 𝑧 𝑜𝑛 𝐶, then 𝑓 (𝑎) ≤ 𝑅𝑛

CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL THEOREM: For a closed curve C and an analytic function 𝑓(𝑧),

𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧 = 0

CAUCHY’S LEMMA: If 𝐺 is a finite group and 𝑝 is a prime number that divides the order

of 𝐺, then 𝐺 must contain an element of order 𝑝.

1

CAUCHY’S ROOT TEST: Let 𝑢𝑛 be a series of positive terms such that lim𝑛→∞ 𝑢𝑛 𝑛 = 𝑙.

Then

1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑙 < 1.

2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑙 > 1.

3. The test fails if 𝑙 = 1.

CAUCHY’S SECOND THEOREM ON LIMITS: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ is a sequence of positive reals such that

lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙, then

𝑛

lim 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 − − − 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙

𝑛→∞

the order of the group𝐺, then 𝐺 contains an element of order 𝑝. This implies that there

must be a subgroup of 𝐺 whose order is 𝑝.

CAUCHY’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If a function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic and single

valued inside and on a simple closed contour 𝐶, then ∫𝑐 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧 = 0

predictor or predictor variable or regressor.

CAVALIERI’S PRINCIPLE: Two geometrical figures whose cross sections are the same as

each other, at the same distance away from some reference line/lines (plane/planes)

have the same area (volume). As an example, this explains why triangles whose bases

have the same length, and have the same height, have also the same area, regardless of

its shape.

contributed greatly to the resurgence of pure mathematics in Britain in the nineteenth

century. He published over 900 papers on many aspects of geometry and algebra. He

conceived and developed the theory of matrices, and was one of the first to study

abstract groups.

CAYLEY–HAMILTON THEOREM: The characteristic polynomial 𝑝(𝜆) of an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix

𝑨 is defined by 𝑝(𝜆) = 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰). The following result about the characteristic

polynomial is called the Cayley–Hamilton Theorem:

Theorem: If the characteristic polynomial 𝑝(𝜆) of an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑨 is 𝑝(𝜆) =

CAYLEY-HAMILTON THEOREM FOR RINGS: Let 𝑈 be be an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix with

coefficients in a unital commutative ring 𝑅 and let 𝜒𝑈 (𝑡) be the characteristic

polynomial of 𝑈. Then 𝜒𝑈 (𝑈) = 0.

CAYLEY REPRESENTATION THEOREM: Every group is isomorphic to a group of

permutations.

cdf: It is the abbreviation for cumulative distribution function. Short form of

Cumulative distribution function of a probability distribution.

CEILING FUNCTION: It is the function on real numbers whose value is always rounded

up, if the argument is not already an integer. The function leaves integers unchanged.

CELESTIAL MECHANICS: The study of motions of celestial bodies such as stars, planets

and comets etc.

CELL: Categories of data divided into rectangular arrays through more than

one variable. It is essentially a conventional use for the analogue of groups in 1

dimension.

CELSUIS: Represented by the symbol °C. It is based on dividing the difference between

the freezing point and boiling point of water into 100 equal "degrees.

CENSORED OBSERVATIONS: In statistics, these are the observations that are made

incomplete systematically due to the nature of the procedure (possible) for observation

or the objects under study.

CENTESIMAL MEASURE: A metric angular measure dividing a right angle into 100

centesimal degrees.

CENTRAL ANGLE: An angle between two radii (of a circle or sphere).

CENTRAL CONIC: A central conic is a conic with a centre of symmetry, and thus an

ellipse or a hyperbola. The conic with equation

𝑎𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑏𝑦 2 + 2𝑔𝑥 + 2𝑓𝑦 + 𝑐 = 0

is central if and only if

𝑎𝑏 ≠ 2 .

CENTRAL DIFFERENCE: If {(𝑥𝑖 , 𝑓𝑖 )}, 𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, … is a given set of function values with

𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + , 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the central difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by

𝑓𝑖+1 – 𝑓𝑖−1 𝑓 𝑥𝑖+1 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖−1 )

=

2 2

CENTRAL DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION: The most common numerical approximation

to the derivative of a function 𝑓(𝑥) is to take the gradient of the chord joining the point

and another point where 𝑥 has been increased by a small amount . The central

difference approximation uses the chord joining the two points whose 𝑥 values are a

small amount from the value 𝑥0 , giving

𝑓 𝑥0 + − 𝑓 𝑥0 −

𝑓 ′ (𝑥0 ) ≈

2

CENTRAL FIELD: The family of curves 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥, 𝑐 is said to form a central field over a

domain D if together they cover the whole D without intersecting each other.

CENTRALIZER: Let 𝐺 be a group. The centralizer 𝐶() of an element of 𝐺 is the

subgroup of 𝐺 defined by 𝐶() = {𝑔 ∇ 𝐺 ∶ 𝑔 = 𝑔}.

CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM: If independent samples of size n are taken from a

population the distribution of the sample means (known as the sampling distribution of

the mean) will be approximately normal for large n. The mean of the sampling

distribution is the population mean and its variance is the population variance divided

by n. Note that there is no need for the distribution in the population sampled to be

normal. The theorem is important because it allows statements to be made about

population parameters by comparing the results of a single experiment with those that

would be expected according to some null hypothesis.

CENTRAL TENDENCY: A common measure in summary statistics bsed around the loose

idea that we can assign one location to represent the locations of a number of objects

considered as one. Thus, there is not just one but rather a number of slightly different

concepts which fits the description of central tendency. It is what is commonly referred

to by the similarly loose idea of an average.

way self-similar. It can either be a centre of rotational symmetry, or the intersections of

multiple lines/planes of reflective symmetry, or even the intersections of medians in

a triangle.

CENTRE OF A FUZZY SET: if the mean value of all points at which the membership

function of the fuzzy set achieves its maximum value is finite, then define this mean

value as the center of the fuzzy set; if the mean value equals positive (negative) infinite,

then the center is defined as the smallest (largest) among all points that achieve the

maximum membership value.

CENTRE OF A GROUP: The set of elements which are commutative with every elements

of the group. Note that there must be at least one element in the centre, the identity.

Whereas the centre can be as large as the group, such a group is called an Abelian group.

CENTRE OF BUOYANCY: The centre of gravity of the body of water that an object

displaces.

CENTRE OF CURVATURE: Given a curve, the centre of curvature of a point on this curve

is the centre of a circle which "locally" (for a neighborhood of that point) describes the

curvature of the curve.

individually on the point masses or acting on the body as a whole. It is a different

concept from the centre of mass, although due to the small differences in gravitational

strength in most context, they can be considered close approximates of each other.

CENTRE OF MASS: The point (not necessarily within the object) which is the

weighted average of the point masses of a body (or the set of infinitely many point

masses through integration), which can be used to calculate linear motion of a rigid

body as if all of the object's mass are at that point (the centre of mass) only.

(Considering the object as a particle.) It is also known as the barycentre. A point q ∇ M is

called the center of mass of the points if it is a point of global minimum

of the function

Such a point is unique if all distances are less than radius of convexity.

For uniform bodies:

2

TRIANGULAR LAMINA: along median from vertex

3

𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼

CIRCULAR ARC, RADIUS r, ANGLE AT CENTRE 2α: from centre

α

2𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼

SECTOR OF CIRCLE, RADIUS r, ANGLE AT CENTRE 2𝛼: from centre

3α

a centripetal force.

the object to travel on a curved (not straight) path.

length L, the centroid is the midpoint of the line segment. For a triangle, the centroid is

the intersecting point of its three medians. The centroid of a symmetrical figure is the

center of symmetry. For any other irregular shaped two-dimensional object, the

centroid is the point where this single support can balance this object. Generally, the

centroid of a two- or three-dimensional object is found by using double or triple

integrals.

CESARO’S THEOREM: If ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ and ⌌𝑦𝑛 ⌍ are two sequences of positive reals such that

lim𝑛→∞ 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑙 and lim𝑛→∞ 𝑦𝑛 = 𝑙 ′ , then

𝑥1 𝑦𝑛 + 𝑥2 𝑦𝑛−1 + 𝑥3 𝑦𝑛−2 + − − − + 𝑥𝑛 𝑦1

lim = 𝑙𝑙 ′

𝑛 →∞ 𝑛

CEVIAN: Any line segment joining a vertex of a triangle to a point on the infinite line

containing the opposite side.

c.g.s. UNITS: A system of units based on centimeters, grams and seconds. (Instead

of meters, kilograms and hours for the SI units). It has been largely superseded by the

use of SI units nowadays.

are comparable. That is, 𝐵 is a linearly ordered subset of 𝐴.

CHAIN COMPLEXES: A chain complex 𝐶 ∗ is a (doubly infinite) sequence (𝐶𝑖 ∶ 𝑖 ∇ 𝑍) of

modules over some unital ring, together with homomorphisms 𝜕𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐶𝑖−1 for each

𝑖 ∇ 𝑍, such that 𝜕𝑖 ∘ 𝜕𝑖 + 1 = 0 for all integers 𝑖.

CHAIN MAP: Let 𝐶 ∗ and 𝐷 ∗ be chain complexes. A chain map 𝑓: 𝐶 ∗ → 𝐷∗ is a sequence

𝑓𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐷𝑖 of homomorphisms which satisfy the commutativity condition

𝜕𝑖 ∘ 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓𝑖−1 ∘ 𝜕𝑖 for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝑍.

CHAIN RULE: The following rule that gives the derivative of the composition of two

functions: If (𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑔(𝑥)) for all x, then ′(𝑥) = 𝑓′(𝑔(𝑥))𝑔′(𝑥).

char: It is the abbreviation for characteristic of a ring.

CHARACTERS: A character 𝜒 of an Abelian group 𝐺 is a function which assigns to each

𝑎 ∇ 𝐺 a complex number 𝜒(𝑎) of absolute value 1 and satisfies 𝜒(𝑎𝑏) = 𝜒(𝑎)𝜒(𝑏)for all

𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺. The product 𝜒 = 𝜒1 𝜒2 of two characters 𝜒1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜒2 is delïned by 𝜒(𝑎) =

𝜒1 (𝑎)𝜒2 (𝑏), and 𝜒 is also a character of 𝐺. Thus all the characters of 𝐺 form an Abelian

group 𝐶(𝐺), which is called the character group of 𝐺. The identity element of the

character group is the identity character (or principal character) 𝜒 such that 𝜒(𝑎) = 1

for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝐺. If 𝐺 is finite, then 𝐺 ≈ 𝐶(𝐺). This implies the duality 𝐺 = 𝐶[𝐶(𝐺)].

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYNOMIALS: The order of a zero of a polynomial equals the

order of its first non-vanishing derivative.

1, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴

𝜒𝐴 𝑥 =

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴

is the characteristic function for 𝐴.

CHARACTERISTIC OF A FIELD: The smallest positive whole number 𝑛 such that the sum

of the multiplicative identity added to itself 𝑛 times equals the additive identity. If no

such 𝑛 exists, the field is said to have characteristic zero.

CHARACTERISTIC OF A RING: Let 𝑅 be a ring, and let 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅. We may define 𝑛. 𝑟 for all

natural numbers 𝑛 by recursion on 𝑛 so that 1. 𝑟 = 𝑟 and 𝑛. 𝑟 = (𝑛 − 1). 𝑟 + 𝑟 for all

𝑛 > 0. We define also 0. 𝑟 = 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (−𝑛). 𝑟 = −(𝑛. 𝑟) for all natural numbers n. Then

(𝑚 + 𝑛). 𝑟 = 𝑚. 𝑟 + 𝑛. 𝑟, 𝑛. (𝑟 + 𝑠) = 𝑛. 𝑟 + 𝑛. 𝑠, (𝑚𝑛). 𝑟 = 𝑚. (𝑛. 𝑟), (𝑚. 𝑟)(𝑛. 𝑠) =

(𝑚𝑛). (𝑟𝑠) for all integers 𝑚 an 𝑛 and for all elements 𝑟 and 𝑠 of 𝑅. In particular,

suppose that 𝑅 is a unital ring. Then the set of all integers n satisfying 𝑛. 1 = 0 is an

ideal of 𝑍. Therefore there exists a unique nonnegative integer 𝑝 such that 𝑝𝑍 = {𝑛 ∇

𝑍 ∶ 𝑛. 1 = 0} . This integer 𝑝 is referred to as the characteristic of the ring 𝑅, and is

denoted by 𝑐𝑎𝑟 𝑅.

CHARACTERISTIC POLYNOMIAL: Let 𝑨 be a square matrix. Then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 (𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) is a

polynomial in 𝜆 and is called the characteristic polynomial of 𝑨. The equation

𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) = 0 is the characteristic equation of 𝑨, and its roots are the characteristic

values of 𝑨.

CHARACTERISTIC SUBSPACES OF A MATRIX: Suppose λ is an eigenvalue of a square

matrix 𝐴. Then every non-zero vector 𝑋 satisfying the equation

A − λI = 0 ………. 1

then the equation (1) will possess 𝑛 − 𝑟 linarly independent solutions. Each non-zero

linear combination of these solutions is also a solution of (1) and therefore it will be an

eigenvector of 𝐴. The set of all these linear combinations is a subspace of 𝑉𝑛 provided we

add zero vector also to this set. This subspace of 𝑉𝑛 is called characteristic subspace of 𝐴

corresponding to the eigenvalue λ. It is nothing but the column null space of the matrix

𝐴 − λI. Its dimension 𝑛 − 𝑟 is the geometric multiplicity of the eigenvalue λ.

equation 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨 – 𝜆𝑰) = 0 are called the characteristic values of 𝑨. Then 𝜆 is a

characteristic value of 𝑨 if and only if there is a non-zero vector 𝒙 such that 𝑨𝒙 = 𝜆𝒙.

Let A = aij be any 𝑛-rowed square matrix and λ an indeterminate. The matrix

n×n

a21 a22 − λ … a2n

Also the determinant A − λI = which is an ordinary

… … … …

an1 an2 … ann − λ

polynomial of λ of degree 𝑛, is called the characteristic polynomial of 𝐴. The equation

A − λI = 0 is called the characteristic equation of A and the roots of this equation are

called the characteristic roots or characteristics values or eigen values or latent roots or

proper values of the matrix A. The set of the eigen values of A is called the spectrum of

A.

singular. Therefore there exists a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that

A − λI X = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝐴𝑋 = λX.

vector corresponding to the characteristic value 𝜆. If λ is a characteristic root of an 𝑛 × 𝑛

matrix 𝐴, then a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that 𝐴𝑋 = λX is called a character vector or

eigenvector of 𝐴 corresponding to the characteristic root λ. λ is a characteristic root of a

matrix 𝐴 if and only if there exists a non-zero vector 𝑋 such that 𝐴𝑋 = λX.

If 𝑋 is a characteristic vector of a matrix 𝐴 corresponding to the characteristic value λ,

then 𝑘𝑋 is also a characteristic vector of 𝐴 corresponding to the same characteristic

value λ. Here 𝑘 is any non-zero scalar.

one characteristic value A.

linear independent.

is called the algebraic multiplicity of λ1 . If s be the number of linearly independent

eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue λ1 , then s is called the geometric

multiplicity of λ1 . In this case number of linearly independent solutions of A − λ1 I X =

0 will be s and the matrix A − λ1 I will be rank n − s.

multiplicity i.e., s ≤ t.

The characteristic roots of a skew-Hermitian matrix are either pure imaginary or zero.

The characteristic roots of a real symmetric matrix are either pure imaginary or zero,

for every such matrix is skew- Hermitian.

that a continuous group homomorphism 𝜒 ∶ 𝐺 → 𝑆 1 is a character of the group. We

write 𝐺 for the set of such characters and 𝑥, 𝜒𝑖 = 𝜒(𝑥) for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺 and 𝜒 ∇ 𝐺 .

surface 𝜍: 𝑈 → 𝑅 3 with image 𝜍(𝑈) ⊂ 𝑆. A collection of charts 𝜍𝑖 : 𝑈𝑖 → 𝑅 3 on 𝑆 is said

to cover 𝑆 if 𝑆 = ⋃𝑖 𝜍𝑖 𝑈𝑖 . In that case the collection is called an atlas of 𝑆. A coordinate

map, a coordinate chart, or simply a chart, of a manifold is an invertible map between a

subset of the manifold and a simple space such that both the map and its inverse

preserve the desired structure. For a topological manifold, the simple space is

some Euclidean space Rn and interest focuses on the topological structure. This

structure is preserved by homeomorphisms, invertible maps that are continuous in

both directions. In the case of a differentiable manifold, a set of charts called

an atlas allows us to do calculus on manifolds. Polar coordinates, for example, form a

chart for the plane R2 minus the positive x-axis and the origin.

and 𝑓(𝑧) a continuous function on 𝐷. Then there exists a polynomial 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 of degree 𝑛

such that 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑧𝜀𝐷 𝑓 𝑧 − 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 attains the infimum 𝐸𝑛 𝑓 . The polynomial 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 is

unique and is called the best approximation polynomial (in the sense of Chebyshev). If

𝐷 is simply connected and 𝑓 𝑧 is single-valued and holomorphic on 𝐷, then 𝜋𝑛 𝑧

converges to 𝑓 𝑧 uniformly on 𝐷. Moreover, in this case there exist a number 𝑀 that

does not depend on 𝑛 and a number 𝑅 > 1 such that

𝑓 𝑧 − 𝜋𝑛 𝑧 ≤ 𝑀 𝑅𝑛 .

mathematician and founder of a notable school of mathematicians in St Petersburg. His

name is remembered in results in algebra, analysis and probability theory. In number

theory, he proved that, for all 𝑛 > 3, there is at least one prime between 𝑛 and 2𝑛 – 2.

CHEBYSHEV’S DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy

1 − 𝑥2 − x + n2 y = 0

dx 2 dx

inequalities relating to the maximum proportion of distributions which could lie beyond

1

a certain point: 𝑃 𝑋 − 𝜇𝑥 > 𝑘𝜍 ≤ 𝑘 2 says that the probability a random variable 𝑋 lies

more than 𝑘 standard deviations from its mean is not more than 1/𝑘 2 . If X is a random

𝐸{𝑔 𝑋 }

variable and 𝑔(𝑋) is always ≥ 0 then 𝑃 𝑔(𝑋) ≥ 𝑘 ≤ says that for a non-negative

𝑘

function of a random variable, the probability the function takes a value at least 𝑘 can be

no more than the mean of the function divided by 𝑘.

While these inequalities are very weak statements in that most distributions do not

come close to the limit specified, it is very useful sometimes to be able to identify an

upper limit that it is impossible for a probability to exceed.

CHEBYSHEV’S INEQUALITY (MEASURE THEORY): If 𝑓 is non-negative & summable, then

1

𝜇 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑓 𝑥 > 𝑐 < 𝑐 ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇. Let (𝑓𝑛 ) be monotonically ↑ sequence of µ −summable

lim𝑛→∞ ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ .

if and only if 𝑠𝑢𝑝∫ 𝑓 𝑑µ < ∞, where the supremum is taken over all finite-measure set 𝐴

such that 𝑓 is bounded on 𝐴.

second kind Un (x) are defined by

Tn x = cos(ncos −1 x)

and Un x = sin(ncos −1 x)

Sometimes the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind is defined by

1

Un x = sin (n + 1)cos−1 x) / [ 1 − x 2 ] Un+1 (x)

[ 1 − x2

polynomials.

and

then

Similarly, if

and

then

CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM (NUMBER THEORY): For any positive integer greater than 𝑛

there is always a prime between 𝑛 and 2𝑛.

CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM (STATISTICS): For a random variable, whatever the

distribution, with 𝐸(𝑋) = 𝜇, 𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑋) = 𝜍 2 the proportion of values which lie within 𝑘

1

standard deviations of the mean will be at least 1 − 𝑘 2 .

CHINESE POSTMAN PROBLEM: The problem of finding the least weighted circuit in a

connected graph. If an Eulerian cycle exists than such a cycle is the solution to the

problem, otherwise, it is necessary to repeat at least one edge and the problem can be

more complicated.

CHINESE REMAINDER THEOREM: Suppose 𝑛1 , . . . , 𝑛𝑘 are positive integers that

are pairwise coprime. Then, for any given sequence of integers 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑘 , there exists

an integer 𝑥 solving the following system of simultaneous congruences.

Furthermore, all solutions 𝑥 of this system are congruent modulo the product,

𝑁 = 𝑛1 , . . . , 𝑛𝑘 . Hence

continuous probability distribution, normally written as the χ2-distribution, with one

parameter υ called the degrees of freedom. The distribution is skewed to the right and

has the property that the sum of independent random variables each having a χ2-

distribution also has a χ2-distribution. It is used in the chi-squared test for measuring

goodness of fit, in tests on variance and in testing for independence in contingency

tables. It has mean υ and variance 2υ.

CHI-SQUARED TEST: A test, normally written as the χ2-test, to determine how well a set

of observations fits a particular discrete distribution or some other given null

hypothesis. The observed frequencies in different groups are denoted by 𝑂𝑖 , and the

expected frequencies from the statistical model are denoted by 𝐸𝑖 . For each 𝑖, the value

(𝑂𝑖 – 𝐸𝑖 )2 /𝐸𝑖 is calculated, and these are summed. The result is compared with a chi-

squared distribution with an appropriate number of degrees of freedom. The number of

degrees of freedom depends on the number of groups and the number of parameters

being estimated. The test requires that the observations are independent and that the

sample size and expected frequencies exceed minimum numbers depending on the

number of groups. Chi-Square is a squared standard normal variable that has zero mean

and unit variance but is more often used for the sum of v independent squared standard

normal variables. The mean of this quantity is v, and this is termed the "degrees of

freedom". Common uses include:

To test a sample variance against a known value;

To test the homogeneity of a set of sample means where the population variance

is known;

To test the homogeneity of a set of proportions;

To test the goodness-of-_t of a theoretical distribution to an observed frequency

distribution;

To test for association between categorized variables in a contingency table;

To construct a confidence interval for a sample variance

CHRISTOFFEL’S EXPANSION: P′n = 2n − 1 Pn−1 + 2n − 5 Pn−3 + 2n − 9 Pn−5 + ⋯

The last terms of the series being 3P1 or P0 according as n is, even or odd.

given as

n P n +1 x P n y −P n +1 y P n x

r=0 2r + 1 Pr x Pr y = (n + 1) .

(x−y)

formula is given as

𝑛

1 + n + 1 [Pn+1 x Qn y − Pn x Qn+1 y

(2𝑟 + 1) Pr x Qr y =

y−x

𝑟=0

CHROMATIC NUMBER: For a graph or map 𝐺, the maximum number of colours needed

so that all regions touching one another (meeting at an edge or a vertex) are in a

different colour is the chromatic number, denoted by 𝜒(𝐺). The Four Colour Theorem

proved that 𝜒(𝐺) ≤ 4 for all planar graphs.

CIRCLE: The conic produced by slicing a right-circular cone at right angles to its central

axis

CIRCLE OF CONVERGENCE: A circle in the complex plane with the property that

∞

𝑖=1 𝑎𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑧0 )𝑖 converges for all 𝑧 within a distance 𝑅 > 0 of 𝑧0 and diverges for all 𝑧

for which |𝑧 − 𝑧0 | > 𝑅 . 𝑅 is the radius of convergence and if the power series

converges for the whole of the complex plane then 𝑅 is infinite. The case where 𝑅 = 0

is trivial since convergence only occurs when 𝑧 − 𝑧0 = 0. For points on the

circumference of the circle the series may either converge or diverge.

CIRCLE OF CURVATURE: A circle which describes correctly the curvature of a curve for

the neighborhood of a point on the curve.

irrotational flow of an incompressible, inviscid fluid with no rigid boundaries and 𝑓(𝑧)

has no singularities within the circle z = a. If a circular cylinder, classified by its cross-

section the circle z = a, be introduced into the field of flow, the complex potential

becomes

𝑤 = 𝑓 𝑧 + 𝑓 (𝑎2 /𝑧)

Note that the angular velocity (rate of rotation) at any point of the flowing fluid is equal

to the half the curl of the velocity at the point. The vector curl q is termed the vector or

the vorticity of the fluid at a point.

Body forces are those which act equally on all the matter within a small element of

volume and the total force is proportional to the size of the volume element or mass of

the fluid considered. The simplest example of such a force is the gravitational force.

Centrifugal force is treated as a body force when the coordinate system is rotating, but it

is not treated as a body force if the coordinates system is stationary. Thus the body can

be specified as per unit mass of the fluid. It may vary from point to point of the fluid, and

at any point it may have different values at different instances of times. The body forces

have three components and can be represented by a vector function of position and

time.

Surface forces are viewed s acting on any surface divided in the fluid including its

boundaries. Each point in the fluid may belong to several surfaces. Several such surf e

forces seem to co-exist at the point.

Surface forces have a direct molecular origin, decrease rapidly with increase of distance

between interacting elements. These are considerable only when that distance is of the

separation of molecules of the fluid. They are negligible unless there is direct

mechanical contact between the interacting elements. These are the forces exerted by

adjacent portions of the fluid upon one another and are in the nature of action and

reaction. The specification of these force are obtained from the concept of stress tensor

which has nine components.

CIRCULAR CYLINDER: A cylinder whose base is a circle. It is normally known as

cylinder.

functions are based on parameterization of a circle just as hyperbolic functions are

based on parameterization of hyperbolae. This usage highlights the analogue between

the two.

CIRCULAR HELIX: A helix which lies on the surface of a circular cylinder is called a

circular helix or right circular helix.

CIRCULAR SECTIONS: When the intersection of a plane and a quadric is a circle, the

intersection is called a circular section. In general, circular sections are cut off by two

systems of parallel planes through a quadric. The point of contact on the tangent plane

parallel to these is an umbilical point of the quadric.

CIRCUMCENTRE: The centre of a circle which goes through all vertices of a polygon.

CIRCUMSCRIBED: It is the act of enclosing a geometric figure with a

(minimal) circle or sphere.

CIS: A commonly defined function in the study of complex numbers. 𝑐𝑖𝑠(𝜃) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜃) +

𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜃) Incidentally, 𝑐𝑖𝑠(𝜃) = 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑖𝜃). As such, 𝑐𝑖𝑠 is seldom used apart from a

particular stage of learning in school as most favour the use of the simpler 𝑒𝑥𝑝(𝑖𝜃).

revolution cuts the meridian through any point P on it at an angle Ψ, then 𝑢 sin Ψ is

constant where 𝑢 the distance of the point P from the axis is.

𝑊 ℯ1, ℯ2 , … … . . 𝑒6 can be expanded in a power series

2 𝑊= 𝑐0 + 2𝑐𝑖 𝑒𝑖 , + 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑖 𝑒𝑗 + … … .,

Neglecting constant terms 𝑐𝑜 and third and higher order terms in the strains.

Differentiating partially (1) w.r.t 𝑒𝑖 , we have

2𝜕𝑊

= 2𝑐𝑖 + 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑖

𝜕𝑒𝑖

2𝜕𝑊 1

Or = 𝜏𝑖 = 𝑐𝑖 + 2 𝑐𝑖𝑗 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑗 ∵ 𝑖 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑢𝑚𝑚𝑦

𝜕𝑒 𝑖

1

𝑊 = 2 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗

𝜕𝑊 1

𝐻𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝜏𝑖 = = 𝑐 + 𝑐𝑗𝑖 𝑒𝑗 .

𝜕𝑒𝑖 2 𝑖𝑗

Also the coefficient in the generalized Hooke’s law is symmetric of the strain- energy

density function W, with the property stated above, exists.

This gives

1

𝑊 = 2 𝜏𝑖𝑒 𝑖 𝑖 = 1,2, … . .6 . This formula is known as the Clapeyron’s formula.

CLASS: A collection of objects, not necessary a set. The distinction generally is that

certain operations on sets are not allowed so as to allow us to refer to a (usually large)

collection of objects without causing contradictions such as Russell's paradox.

of motion of objects before the drastically different quantum mechanics. Thus classical

mechanics include Newtonian, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and arguably, relativistic

mechanics.

following groups:

An alternating group of degree at least 5;

A simple group of Lie type, including both

the projective special linear, unitary, symplectic or orthogonal

transformations over a finite field;

the exceptional and twisted groups of Lie type.

questions about the structure of finite groups (and their action on other mathematical

objects) can sometimes be reduced to questions about finite simple groups.

CLASS INTERVALS: The intervals in which data fall into a particular class.

𝑢, 𝑣 ; 𝑧 = (𝑢, 𝑣) then the surface is said to be of class 𝑟 if the functions 𝑓, 𝑔, are

single valued as well continuous and possess partial derivatives of rth order.

CLOSED (GRAPH THEORY): A walk, trail or path which finishes at its starting point is

closed.

CLOSED BALL: If (𝑀, 𝑑) is a metric space, a closed ball is a set of the form 𝐷(𝑥; 𝑟) : =

{𝑦 ∇ 𝑀 : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑟}, where 𝑥 is in 𝑀 and 𝑟 is a positive real number, the radius of

the ball. A closed ball of radius 𝑟 is a closed 𝒓-ball. Every closed ball is a closed set in the

topology induced on 𝑀 by 𝑑. Note that the closed ball 𝐷(𝑥; 𝑟) might not be equal to

the closure of the open ball 𝐵(𝑥; 𝑟).

CLOSED CURVE: A continuous plane curve that has no ends or, in other words, that

begins and ends at the same point. In other words, a closed curve is a curve that

completely encloses an area.

CLOSED FIGURE: It is a shape or a curve that begins and ends at the same point.

CLOSED GRAPH: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be metric spaces. A correspondence 𝛤 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is said to

be closed at 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, if, for any sequence (𝑥𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑋 and (𝑦𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑌, 𝑥𝑚 → 𝑥, 𝑦𝑚 ∇ 𝛤(𝑥𝑚 )

(for each 𝑚) and 𝑦𝑚 → 𝑦 imply 𝑦 ∇ 𝛤(𝑥). 𝛤 is said to have a closed graph if it is closed

at every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋.

CLOSED GRAPH THEOREM: Let 𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵′ be Banach spaces and let 𝑇 be a linear

treansformation of 𝐵 into 𝐵 ′ . Then 𝑇 is a continuous mapping of and only if its graph is

closed.

CLOSED INTERVAL: The closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is the set of all real numbers between 𝑎

and 𝑏 including 𝑎 and 𝑏 i.e. {𝑥|𝑥 ∇ 𝑹, 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏}.

CLOSED RANGE THEOREM: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be Banach spaces, 𝑇: 𝐷(𝑇) → 𝑌 a closed linear

operator whose domain 𝐷(𝑇) is dense in 𝑋, and 𝑇 ′ the transpose of 𝑇. The theorem

asserts that the following conditions are equivalent:

𝑅(𝑇 ′ ), the range of 𝑇 ′ , is closed in 𝑋 ′ , the dual of 𝑋.

.

.

CLOSED REGION: It is a set of points containing all limit points and is connected.

CLOSED SET: The complement of an open set in a metric space or in a topological space

is called a closed set. Therefore, a subset of a topological space is called closed if it is the

complement of an open set

space. For example, a sphere is a closed surface, but a teacup is not.

CLOSED WALK: Let (𝑉, 𝐸) be a graph. A walk 𝑣0 𝑣1 𝑣2 . . . 𝑣𝑛 in the graph is said to be

closed if 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑛 . Thus a walk in a graph is closed if and only if it starts and ends at the

same vertex.

CLOSURE OF A SET: The closure of an open set A is obtained by including in it all limit

points of the set A.

CLOSURE PROPERTY: An arithmetic operation obeys the closure property with respect

to a given set of numbers if the result of performing that operation on two numbers

from that set will always be a member of that same set. For example, the operation of

addition is closed with respect to the integers, but the operation of division is not.

Operation Natural Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Real Numbers

Addition Closed Closed Closed Closed

Subtraction Not Closed Closed Closed Closed

Division Not Closed Not Closed Closed Closed

Root extraction Not Closed Not Closed Not Closed Not Closed

CLUSTER POINT: 𝑥 ∗ ∇ 𝑅 is a cluster point of the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ iff, given any 𝜀 > 0, and

any positive integer 𝑚, there exists 𝑛 > 𝑚 such that |𝑥𝑛 − 𝑥 ∗ | < 𝜀. The real number 𝑥 ∗

is a cluster point of the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ iff there exists a subsequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 𝑖 ⌍ of ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍, such

that 𝑥𝑛 𝑖 → 𝑥 ∗ . If the sequence ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍ converges to 𝑥 ∗ ∇ R, then 𝑥 ∗ is a cluster point; in fact

the only cluster point of ⌌𝑥𝑛 ⌍. CM: An abbreviation for the centre of mass of an object.

divide it into regions from which a sample is taken, and then a sample of individuals is

taken from those regions only. The result is that the individuals in the final sample

appear as clusters in the original population, but the costs of taking the sample are

much lower than doing a full random sampling process. There are different strategies

possible at both stages of the sampling process.

space minus the dimension of the submanifold.

CODING THEORY: The area of mathematics concerned with the encryption of messages

to ensure security during transmission, and with the recovery of information from

corrupted data. With increasing use of the internet and other electronic

communications to conduct business, this is one of the developing areas of mathematics

research, for example encryption using numbers based on the product of very large

primes.

sometimes known as the range of the function. The co-domain serves as a constraint as

to what values a function can take, thus there can be elements of the co-domain which is

not the value of the function but not vice versa.

the coefficients of the equations only (omitting the variables). Also known as

an augmented matrix

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION: A name for several related methods which measure

the relationship between two sets of data.

data can be accounted for by the statistical model, for the purpose of inferring the likely

level of determination of outcomes.

the normal reaction as determined by a number of other factors.

the mean. Informally, it measured the "pointiness"/"peakedness" of the

distribution curve.

separation to the speed of approach of 2 objects as determined by other factors. (e.g. the

material the objects consist of and their arrangement.)

the standard deviation of a sample divided by the mean. The value is a dimensionless

quantity, not dependent on the units or scale in which the observations are made, and is

often expressed as a percentage.

i+j

COFACTORS: The minor Mij multiplied by −1 is called the cofactor of the element

aij . We shall denote the cofactor of an element by the corresponding capital letter. With

this notation, cofactor of aij = Aij = (−1)i+j Mij . For example,

a12 a13

=− a a33 ,

32

a11 a13

The cofactor of the element a32 = A32 = − a a23 ,

21

a22 a23

The cofactor of the element a11 = A11 = − a a33 , and so no

32

Thus the cofactor of any element aij = (−1)i+j × the determinant obtained by leaving

the row and the column passing through that element.

Therefore, in a determinant the sum of the products of the elements of any row or

column with the corresponding cofactors is equal to the value of the determinant.

functions to their cofunctions, e.g. sin and cos, sec and csc, tan and cot.

COINCIDENT: The property of two geometric figures to have all points in common.

CO-INTIAL VECTOR: The vectors which have the same initial point are called co-initial

vectors.

COLATITUDE: The angle between the vector and the polar axis (z-axis) in a

Spherical polar coordinate system, whereas latitude is the value subtracting colatitude

from 90 degrees, the smallest angle between the radius vector and the plane

perpendicular to the polaw axis through the origin. (the equator)

COLLINEAR: A set of three or more points is collinear if they all lie on the same line.

COLLINEARITY OF THREE POINTS: The necessary and sufficient condition for three

points with position vectors 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 to be collinear is that there exist three scalars x, y, z

not all zero, such that x𝒂 + y𝒃+ z𝒄=0 where x + y + z= 0.

COLLINEAR OR PARALLEL VECTORS: Vectors having the same line of action or having

the lines of action parallel to one another are called collinear or parallel vectors.

COLLISION: The interaction of two objects with each other through contact transitioned

from a state of non-contact prior.

COLLUSION: Several customers may collaborate and only one of them may stand in the

queue.

COLUMN RANK OF A MATRIX: Let A = aij be any 𝑚 × 𝑛 matrix. Each of the 𝑛 rows of 𝐴

consists of 𝑚 elements. Therefore the column vectors of 𝐴 are 𝑚-vectors. These column

vectors of 𝐴 will span a subspace 𝐶 to 𝑉𝑚 . This subspace 𝐶 is called the column space of

the matrix 𝐴. The dimension 𝑐 of 𝐶 is called the column rank of 𝐴. In other words the

column rank of a matrix 𝐴 is equal to the maximum number of linearly independent

column of 𝐴.

are 𝜏 (𝑒1 ), . . . , 𝜏 (𝑒𝑚 ). Thus the image of 𝜏 is the subspace of 𝐹 𝑛 spanned by the columns

of 𝑇. We call this the column space of 𝑇 and define the column rank of 𝑇 to be the

dimension of this column space.

COMBINATION: A selection of all or part of a set of objects, where the order of the

selection is not significant.

COMBINATORICS: The branch of mathematics that includes the study of permutations

and combinations. The area of mathematics concerned with counting strategies to

calculate the ways in which objects can be arranged to satisfy given conditions.

COMMON DIFFERENCE: A constant that is added to each term to produce an arithmetic

sequence. It is the constant difference between any two successive terms in an

arithmetic sequence.

COMMON RATIO: It is a constant that is multiplied to each term to produce a geometric

sequence. It is the ratio of successive terms in a geometric sequence.

COMMON REFINEMENT OF TWO PARTITIONS: Let 𝑃 and 𝑃 ∗ be two partitions of a closed

interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. Then 𝑃∗∗ is said to be a common refinement of 𝑃 and 𝑃∗ if 𝑃∗∗ = 𝑃 ∪ 𝑃 ∗ .

COMMON TANGENT: One single line that forms a tangent to two or more different

curves. The term is also used for the distance between two tangential points.

COMMUNICATION CHANNEL: A communication channel is comprised of an alphabet

𝐴 = {𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑞 } and a set of forward channel probabilities of the form

𝑃[𝑎𝑗 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 | 𝑎𝑖 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡] such that for every 𝑖:

𝑞

𝑗 =1

𝑐 = 𝑐1 . . . 𝑐𝑛 it holds that

𝑛

𝑖=1

if,

𝑎⟪ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⟪𝑎 ∀ 𝑎 , 𝑏 ∇ 𝑆

COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA: An algebra A is called commutative algebra if

commutative if 𝑥 ∗ 𝑦 = 𝑦 ∗ 𝑥 for all elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 of 𝐴. Example The operations of

addition and multiplication on the set R of real numbers are commutative, since

𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑦 + 𝑥 and 𝑥 × 𝑦 = 𝑦 × 𝑥 for all real numbers 𝑥 and 𝑦. However the

operation of subtraction is not commutative, since 𝑥 − 𝑦 ≠ 𝑦 − 𝑥 in general. (Indeed

the identity 𝑥 − 𝑦 = 𝑦 − 𝑥 holds only when 𝑥 = 𝑦.)

COMMUTATOR: The element 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑥 −1 𝑦 −1 𝑥𝑦 for 𝑥, 𝑦 in the group. It has the

property that [𝑥, 𝑦] and [𝑦, 𝑥] must be commutative, because one is the inverse of the

other, and therefore both products will be equal to the identity.

COMMUTE: Let ⟪ be a binary operation on a set 𝑆. The elements 𝑎 and 𝑏 of 𝑆 are said to

commute if 𝑎⟪ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⟪𝑎.

COMPACTIFICATION: A compactification of a space 𝑋 is a compact space 𝑌 such that 𝑋 is

homeomorphic to a dense subspace of 𝑌. A compactification of the Euclidean interval

(0, 1) is the Euclidean interval [0, 1].

COMPACT OPEN TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be two topological spaces. Let 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) be the

set of all continuous functions from 𝑋 to 𝑌. The topology on generated by all sets of the

form 𝑆(𝐴, 𝑈) = { 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) | 𝑓(𝐴) ⊂ 𝑈} where 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 is compact and 𝑈 ⊂ 𝑌 is

open is called the compact-open topology on 𝐶 𝑋, 𝑌 . The compact-open topology on the

set 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) of all continuous maps between two spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 is defined as follows:

Given a compact subset 𝐾 of 𝑋 and an open subset 𝑈 of 𝑌, let 𝑉(𝐾, 𝑈) denote the set of

all maps 𝑓 in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) such that 𝑓(𝐾) is contained in 𝑈. Then the collection of all

such 𝑉(𝐾, 𝑈) is a subbase for the compact-open topology.

sequence in 𝑋 then its image (𝑇𝑥𝑖 )1 ∞ has a convergent subsequence in 𝑌.

The set of finite rank operators is denote by 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) and the set of compact operators—

by (𝑋, 𝑌) . Both 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) and 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌) are linear subspaces of 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌). For any two metric

spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 we have 𝐹(𝑋, 𝑌) ⊂ 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌).

Let 𝑇𝑚 be a sequence of compact operators convergent to an operator 𝑇 in the norm

topology (𝑖. 𝑒. ||𝑇 − 𝑇𝑚 || → 0) then 𝑇 is compact itself. Equivalently 𝐾(𝑋, 𝑌) is a closed

subspace of 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌).

COMPACT SET IN A METRIC SPACE: A compact set in a metric space is defined by the

property that any its covering by a family of open sets contains a subcovering by a finite

subfamily. In the finite dimensional vector spaces ℝn or ℂn there is the following

equivalent definition of compactness:

E is compact;

Any infinite subset of E has a limiting point belonging to E.

COMPACT SPACE: A topological space in which any collection of open sets whose union

is the whole space (open cover of space) has a finite number of open sets from this

collection (finite subcover of the cover) whose union is also the whole space.

A topological space is compact when

(i) Each open cover contains a finite subcover OR

(ii) Every convergent net has a convergent subnet OR

(iii) Every filter on X has a convergent refinement OR

(iv) Every ultrafilter converges to at least one point.

COMPARATIVE STATICS: Comparative static is concerned with the dependencies of

optimal solutions on the parameter.

optimal solutions varying monotonically with the parameter.

COMPARISON OF FILTERS: If 𝐹 and 𝐹0 are two filters on the same set 𝐸, 𝐹 is said to be

finer than 𝐹0 , or 𝐹0 is coarser than 𝐹, if the fundamental family 𝐹 is finer than 𝐹0 , i.e. if

every 𝐴0 ∇ 𝐹0 contains an 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. If 𝐹 is finer than 𝐹0 and 𝐹0 is finer than 𝐹, 𝐹0 and 𝐹

are said to be equivalent.

∞

COMPARISON TEST: If 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑏𝑛 ∇ 𝑅 and 0 ≤ 𝑎𝑛 ≤ 𝑏𝑛 then whenever 𝑛=1 𝑏𝑛

∞

converges 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 must converge.

COMPATIBLE ATLASES: Two m-dimensional smooth atlases on 𝑀 are said to be

compatible, if every chart from one atlas has smooth transition on its overlap with every

chart from the other atlas (or equivalently, if their union is again an atlas). It can be seen

that compatibility is an equivalence relation. An equivalence class of smooth atlases is

called a smooth structure. All atlases on a given manifold 𝑆 in 𝑅 𝑛 are compatible. The

smooth structure so obtained on 𝑆 is called the standard smooth structure.

COMPATIBLE MATRICES: Two matrices in a particular order so that they can be

multiplied. In the usual convention, the number of columns in the first matrix and the

number of rows in the second matrix must be the same. In more abstract terms,

considering the matrices as transformations, it amounts to maintaining that the number

of dimensions (rank) of the co-domain of the first transformation be the same as the

dimensions (rank) of the domain of the second transformation.

COMPETITIVE GAME: A game is said to be competitive game if it has the following four

properties:

2. Each player has a finite list of his possible course of action.

3. A play is said to be played when each player choose one of his course of action

and no player knows the choice of action of the other player until he has decided his

own.

4. When each player chooses his activity, then this combination of activities gives a

result according which player gains a payment which may be –ve, +ve or zero.

the difference set 𝐸\𝐴 (𝑜𝑟 𝐸 – 𝐴). It may be denoted by 𝐴′ (or Ā) when the universal set

is understood or has previously been specified. Complementation is a unary operation

on the set of subsets of a universal set E.

The following properties hold:

𝐸′ = Ø and Ø′ = 𝐸.

For all 𝐴, (𝐴′)′ = 𝐴.

For all 𝐴, 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′ = Ø and 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ = 𝐸

COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES: Two angles that sum to a right angle. In this case, each

angle is called the complement of the other angle.

mutually exclusive. So for A and B to be complementary, 𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 1 and

𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 0. It then follows that 𝑃(𝐵) = 1 – 𝑃(𝐴).

COMPLEMENTARY FUNCTION: Along with the particular integral, it forms the general

solution of a linear differential equation. It is essentially an element in the kernel of

the differential operator.

complementary if 𝑊1 ∩ 𝑊2 = 0 and 𝑊1 + 𝑊2 = 𝑉

vector in v 𝜖 𝑉 can be written uniquely as v= 𝑤1 + 𝑤2 with 𝑤1 𝜖 𝑊1 , 𝑤2 𝜖 𝑊2 .

complementary subspaces.

2. V=ℝ3 , 𝑊1 = 𝛼, 0,0 : 𝛼 𝜖ℝ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑊2 = 0, 𝛼, 𝛽 : 𝛼, 𝛽 𝜖ℝ . Here 𝑊1 , 𝑊2 are

complementary subspaces.

complementary subspaces.

all possible analytic continuation of (𝑓, 𝐷) and then all possible analytic continuations of

𝑓1 , 𝐷1 , 𝑓2 , 𝐷2 , 𝑓3 , 𝐷3 , … (𝑓𝑛 , 𝐷𝑛

and so on. At some stage we arrive at a function 𝐹(𝑧) such that for any 𝑣, 𝐹(𝑣) denotes

the value of values obtained for 𝑣 by all possible continuation to 𝑣, that is to say.

𝑓1 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷1

𝑓2 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷2

𝐹 𝑧 =

…………………

𝑓𝑛 𝑧 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 ∇ 𝐷𝑛

Such a function 𝑓(𝑧) is called complete analytic function. In this process of continuation,

we may arrive at a closed curve beyond which it is not possible to take analytic

continuation. Such a closed curve is called the natural boundary of the complete analytic

function. A point outside the natural boundary is called the singularity of complete

analytic function.

COMPLETE INDUCTION: Also known as strong induction. This method assumes that the

statement is true for all values below a certain finite value in the inductive step of

proving the next statement. Logically strong induction is equivalent to weak induction

and is not "stronger" in this logical sense.

COMPLETE LATTICE: A poset where all subsets have a supremum and an infimum.

𝑇31 -space) if it is a 𝑇1 -space and for each point 𝑥 and each closed set 𝐴 with 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴𝑐

2

there is a map 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝑋) such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎 and 𝑓(𝐴) = {𝑏} where 𝑎 ≠ 𝑏. Thus in a

completely regular space a point and a closed set disjoint from it can be separated by a

continuous real function.

COMPLETE GRAPH: A simple graph in which every vertex is joined to every other. The

complete graph with 𝑛 vertices, denoted by 𝐾𝑛 , is regular of degree 𝑛 – 1 and has edges.

𝐾4 𝐾5 𝐾6

which every Cauchy sequence is convergent. For example, the real numbers, with the

usual metric.

COMPLETENESS: A system S of numbers is said to be complete if every non-empty

subset S, which is bounded above has a member of S for its supremum. COMPLETE

ORDERED FIELD: An ordered field F is said to be a complete ordered field if every non-

empty subset S of F which is bounded above has an element of F for its supremum. The

set of all real numbers is a complete ordered field.

COMPLETE ORTHONORMAL SEQUENCE: An orthonormal sequence ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍1∞ in a Hilbert

space 𝐻 is complete if the identities ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑒𝑘 ⟩ = 0 for all 𝑘 imply 𝑦 = 0. A complete

orthonormal sequence is also called orthonormal basis in H.

COMPLETE SET OF RESIDUES (modulo n): A set of 𝑛 integers, one from each of the 𝑛

residue classes modulo 𝑛. Thus {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} is a complete set of residues modulo 5; so

too are {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and {−2, – 1, 0, 1, 2}.

COMPLETE SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The solution of differential

equation containing a particular integral and the complementary function. This

generates a family of solutions which contains all possible solutions.

COMPLETING THE SQUARE: It is the method for solving a quadratic equation in general

by writing a quadratic expression in the vertex form. Note that the quadratic formula is

derived from the method of completing the square for the general quadratic expression.

𝑋′, 𝜌′ is said to be a completion of 𝑋, 𝜌 if

(ii) The closure of 𝑋0 i.e. 𝑋0 , is all of 𝑋 ′ , 𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑋0 = 𝑋 ′ .

An equivalent way of stating condition (ii) is that 𝑋0 is dense of 𝑋 ′ . It means that every

point of 𝑋 ′ is either a point or a limit point of 𝑋0, which in turn implies that, given any 𝑓

of 𝑋 ′ , there exists a sequence of points in 𝑋0 which converges to 𝑓.

COMPLEX ANALYSIS: Complex analysis is the area of mathematics relating to the study

of complex functions.

COMPLEX CONJUGATE: Given a complex number, the complex conjugate is the complex

number whose real part is the same, while the imaginary part (being a real number)

has opposite signs. The significance of complex conjugates stems from the theorem that

says the complex conjugates of all roots of real polynomials are also roots themselves.

the division of complex numbers as complex fractions is a standard way of calculating

the division. (through algebraic methods such as the difference of two squares.)

either input or output, but usually both. So if 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖, 𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑧 2 , 𝑔 𝑧 =

sin 𝑧 , 𝑧 = 𝑧 etc are complex functions.

COMPLEX LINE INTEGRAL: Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is continuous at every point of a closed curve

𝐶 having a finite length i.e. 𝐶 is a rectifiable curve.

𝑧0 , 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , … , 𝑧𝑛 ,

Let 𝑎 = 𝑧0 , 𝑏 = 𝑧𝑛

𝑆𝑛 = 𝑓 𝜉𝑘 (𝑧𝑟 − 𝑧𝑟 − 1)

𝑟=1

Then the sum 𝑆𝑛 tends to a fixed limit which does not depend upon the mode of

subdivision and denote this limit by

𝑏

𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑥 𝑜𝑟 ∫𝑐 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧

𝑧

Which is called the complex line integral or line integral of 𝑓(𝑧) along 𝐶. An evaluation

of integral by such method is also called ab-initio method.

𝑥 2 + 1 = 0. The introduction of the imaginary number 𝑖 such that 𝑖 2 = – 1 gives rise

to further numbers of the form 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖. A number of the form 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖, where 𝑎 and 𝑏 are

real, is a complex number. Since one may take b = 0, this includes all the real numbers.

The set of all complex numbers is usually denoted by 𝑪. Thus the set C of complex

numbers is closed under addition and multiplication, and the elements of this enlarged

number system satisfy the laws commonly expected of numbers.

It can be verified that addition and multiplication are associative and commutative, that

the distributive law holds, that there is a zero element and an identity element and that

every element has a negative and every non-zero element has an inverse. This shows

that 𝑹 × 𝑹 with this addition and multiplication is a field whose elements, according to

this approach, are called complex numbers. The elements of the form (𝑎, 0) can be seen

to behave exactly like the corresponding real numbers 𝑎.

COMPLEX PLANE: Let points in the plane be given coordinates (𝑥, 𝑦) with respect to a

Cartesian coordinate system. The plane is called the complex plane when the point

(𝑥, 𝑦) is taken to represent the complex number 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖.

COMPLEX POTENTIAL AND COMPLEX VELOCITY: Since the function ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) and Ψ(𝑥, 𝑦)

constitute the Cauchy. Riemann equation so they provide the necessary and sufficient

condition for the function

𝐹 𝑧 = ∅ 𝑥, 𝑦 + 𝑖Ψ(𝑥, 𝑦)

To be an analytic function of the complex variable 𝑧 = (𝑥 + 𝑖𝑦). Thus the real and

imaginary parts of any analytic function may be regarded as the potential function and

stream function of a flow of an inviscid fluid in two dimensions. The complex function 𝐹,

whose real and imaginary parts are the velocity potential and stream function

respectively, is termed the complex potential of the liquid motion. It ceases to exist at

exist at point occupied by sources, sinks to vortices. Differentiating (1) partially with

regard to 𝑥, we have

dF ∂z ∂∅ ∂Ψ

∙ = +i

dz ∂x ∂x ∂x

dF ∂F

=

dz ∂z

as F is a function of z only .

or

dF ∂∅ ∂∅ ∂Ψ ∂∅

= −i = −𝑢 + 𝑖𝑣; =

dz ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

COMPLEX VARIABLE: If a simple z takes any one of the values of a set of complex

numbers, then z is called a complex variable.

is said to be a component if it is not contained in any other connected set of that

topological space other than the topological space itself.

COMPONENT (GRAPH): A graph may have several small pieces and these are called its

components: two vertices are in the same component if and only if there is a path from

one to the other. A more precise definition can be given by defining an equivalence

relation on the set of vertices with u equivalent to v if there is a path from u to v. Then

the components are the corresponding equivalence classes.

COMPONENT (VECTOR): In a Cartesian coordinate system in 3-dimensional space, let

𝒊, 𝒋 and 𝒌 be unit vectors along the three coordinate axes. Given a vector 𝒑, there are

unique real numbers 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 such that 𝒑 = 𝑥𝒊 + 𝑦𝒋 + 𝑧𝒌. Then 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 are called

as the components of 𝒑.

COMPOSITE NUMBER: A positive integer is composite if it is neither prime, nor equal to

1; that is, if it can be written as a product 𝑘, where the integers and 𝑘 are both

greater than 1.

COMPOSITION LAW: If (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝜌) and (𝑍, 𝜍) are metric spaces and 𝑔 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 , 𝑓 ∶

𝑌 → 𝑍 are continuous, then so is the composition 𝑓 ∘ 𝑔.

COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS: Let 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇 and 𝑔: 𝑇 → 𝑈 be mappings. With each

𝑠 ∇ 𝑆 is associated the element 𝑓(𝑠) ∇ 𝑇, and hence the element 𝑔(𝑓(𝑠)) ∇ 𝑈. This

rule gives a mapping from 𝑆 to 𝑈, which is denoted by 𝑔°𝑓 and is the composition of 𝑓

and 𝑔. Thus 𝑔°𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑈 is defined by (𝑔 °𝑓)(𝑠) = 𝑔(𝑓(𝑠)), and exists if and only if the

domain of 𝑔 equals the range of 𝑓.

COMPOSITION OF LINEAR MAPS: Let 𝑇1 : 𝑈 → 𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇2 : 𝑈 → 𝑉 be two linear maps. We

define a map 𝑇2 𝑇1 : 𝑈 → 𝑊 by

𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑢 = 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑢 ∀𝑢 𝜖 𝑈

probability distribution whose parameters are distributed along other probability

distributions.

its numerator or denominator.

previous interest payments as part of the principal.

words such as ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘not’, ‘implies’ or their corresponding symbols. The simple

statements involved are the components of the compound statement. For example,

(𝑝 ∧ 𝑞) ∨ (¬𝑟) is a compound statement built up from the components 𝑝, 𝑞 and 𝑟.

COMPRESSION: A name for a transformation where a figure becomes

proportionally smaller.

applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how

a gas or liquid flows -- as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past.

Computational fluid dynamics is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. These equations

describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are

related.

Computational fluid dynamics has been around since the early 20th century and many

people are familiar with it as a tool for analyzing air flow around cars and aircraft. As

the cooling infrastructure of server rooms has increased in complexity, CFD has also

become a useful tool in the data center for analyzing thermal properties and modeling

air flow. CFD software requires information about the size, content and layout of the

data center. It uses this information to create a 3D mathematical model on a grid that

can be rotated and viewed from different angles. CFD modeling can help an

administrator identify hot spotsand learn where cold air is being wasted or air is

mixing.

Simply by changing variables, the administrator can visualize how cold air will flow

through the data center under a number of different circumstances. This knowledge can

help the administrator optimize the efficiency of an existing cooling infrastructure and

predict the effectiveness of a particular layout of IT equipment. For example, if an

administrator wanted to take one rack of hard drive storage and split the hard drives

over two racks, a CFD program could simulate the change and help the administrator

understand what adjustments would be need to be made to deal with the additional

heat load before any time or money has been spent.

CONCAVE: A geometric figure where it is possible to form a line between two points in

the figure where the line consists of points not from the figure. For a plane figure, it

is equivalent to a shape having an interior angle of greater than 180 degrees.

CONCAVE FUNCTION: A function whose graph is such that, for any two points of the

graph, the function for arguments between the two points are higher than the straight

line joining the two points. For a differentiable function, it is equivalent to a function

with a monotonically decreasingly gradient. Note that a function can be described

as concave for a certain interval only.

CONCAVITY: At a point of a graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), it may be possible to specify the concavity

by describing the curve as either concave up or concave down at that point, as follows, If

the second derivative 𝑓″(𝑥) exists and is positive throughout some neighbourhood of a

point 𝑎, then 𝑓′(𝑥) is strictly increasing in that neighbourhood, and the curve is said to

be concave up at 𝑎. At that point, the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and its tangent look like one of the

cases shown in the first figure.

Consequently, if 𝑓′(𝑎) = 0 and 𝑓″(𝑎) > 0, the function 𝑓 has a local minimum at 𝑎.

Similarly, if 𝑓″(𝑥) exists and is negative throughout some neighbourhood of 𝑎, or if

𝑓″(𝑎) < 0 and 𝑓″ is continuous at 𝑎, then the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is concave down at 𝑎 and

looks like one of the cases shown in the second figure. If 𝑓′(𝑎) = 0 and 𝑓″(𝑎) < 0, the

function 𝑓 has a local maximum at 𝑎.

CONCAVE SET: A set of three or more points is concave if it is possible to draw a line

segment that connects two points that are in the set, but includes also some points that

are not in the set.

same center. The region formed between two concentric circles is therefore an annulus.

CONCURRENT: The property of sharing a common point.

CONCYCLIC POINTS: A number of points are said to be concyclic points if there is a circle

that passes though all of them.

CONDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION: The distribution of a random variable given that another

random variable is known to be of a certain value.

Normally known simply as equations, as opposed to identities, which is true regardless

of contexts.

provided that something else is true. For example ‘if 𝑛 is not divisible by 2, 𝑛 is odd is a

conditional statement.

CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY: For two events 𝐴 and 𝐵, the probability that 𝐴 occurs,

given that 𝐵 has occurred, is denoted by 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵), read as ‘the probability of 𝐴 given 𝐵’.

This is called a conditional probability. Provided that 𝑃(𝐵) is not zero, 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵) =

𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)/𝑃(𝐵). This result is often useful in the following form: 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) =

𝑃(𝐵) 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵). If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are independent events, 𝑃(𝐴|𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴), and this gives the

product law for independent events: 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) 𝑃(𝐵).

CONDITIONALY CONVERGENT SERIES: A series 𝑢𝑛 is said to be absolutely convergent

if 𝑢𝑛 is convergent but the series 𝑢𝑛 is not convergent.

CONDITION FOR CONSISTENCY: The system of equations 𝐴𝑋 = 𝐵 is consistent i.e.,

possesses a solution, if and only if the coefficient matrix 𝐴 and the augmented matrix

[𝐴, 𝐵] are of the same rank.

condition for any four points in three dimensional space to be coplanar is that there

exists a linear relation between their position vectors such that the algebraic sum of the

scalar coefficients in it is zero, provided the scalars are nor all zero.

condition for three points in three dimensional space to be collinear is that there exists

a linear relation connecting their position vectors such that the algebraic sum of the

scalar coefficients in it is zero, provided the scalars are not all zero.

CONDITION, NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT (DISCRETE MATHEMATICS): The

implication 𝑞 ⇒ 𝑝 can be read as ‘if 𝑞 then 𝑝’. When this is true, it may be said that 𝑞 is

a sufficient condition for 𝑝; that is, the truth of the ‘condition’ 𝑞 is sufficient to ensure

the truth of 𝑝. This means that 𝑝 is true if 𝑞 is true. On the other hand, when the

implication 𝑝 ⇒ 𝑞 holds, then 𝑞 is a necessary condition for 𝑝; that is, the truth of the

‘condition’ 𝑞 is a necessary consequence of the truth of 𝑝. This means that 𝑝 is true only

if 𝑞 is true. When the implication between 𝑝 and 𝑞 holds both ways, 𝑝 is true if and only

if q is true, which may be written 𝑝 ⇔ 𝑞. Then 𝑞 is a necessary and sufficient condition

for 𝑝.

CONFIDENCE INTERVAL (CONFIDENCE LEVEL): An interval, calculated from a sample,

which contains the value of a certain population parameter with a specified probability.

The end-points of the interval are the confidence limits. The specified probability is

called the confidence level. An arbitrary but commonly used confidence level is 95%,

which means that there is a one-in-twenty chance that the interval does not contain the

true value of the parameter. For example, if 𝑥 is the mean of a sample of 𝑛 observations

taken from a population with a normal distribution with a known standard deviation 𝜍,

1.96 𝜍 1.96 𝜍

then 𝑥 − , 𝑥+ is a 95% confidence interval for the population mean 𝜇.

𝑛 𝑛

CONFIDENCE LIMITS: Two values between which the true value of a population

parameter is thought to lie with some given probability. This probability represents the

proportion of occasions when such limits calculated from repeated samples actually

include the true value of the parameter. An essential feature of the interval is that the

distance between the limits depends on the size of the sample, being smaller for a larger

sample. CONFOCAL CONICS: Two central conics are said to be confocal conics if they

have the same foci. An ellipse and a hyperbola that are confocal intersect at right angles.

CONFOCAL QUADRICS: A family of central quadrics represented by the following

equations is called a family of confocal quadrics.

𝑥2 𝑦2 𝑧2

+ 𝑏+𝑘 + 𝑐+𝑘 = 1, 𝑎 > 𝑏 > 𝑐 > 0,

𝑎+𝑘

Where 𝑘 is a parameter. For a quadric belonging to this family, any point on the ellipse

𝑥2 𝑎 − 𝑐 + 𝑦2 𝑏 − 𝑐 = 1, 𝑧 = 0 or the hyperbola

𝑥2 𝑎 − 𝑏 − 𝑧2 𝑏 − 𝑐 = 1, 𝑦 = 0 is called a focus. The ellipse and hyperbola are

called focal conics of the quadric.

CONFORMABLE MATRICES: Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable matrices

(for multiplication) if the number of columns of A equals the number of rows of B. Then

A has order 𝑚 × 𝑛 and B has order 𝑛 × 𝑝, for some 𝑚, 𝑛 and 𝑝, and the product AB, of

order 𝑚 × 𝑝, is defined.

conformal at a point 𝑃 ∇ 𝐶 if the function “preserves angles” at 𝑃 and “stretches

equally in all directions” at 𝑃. Both of these statements must be interpreted

infinitesimally. Holomorphic functions enjoy both properties.

CONFORMALLY FLAT: An 𝑀 is conformally flat if it is locally conformally equivalent to a

Euclidean space, for example standard sphere is conformally flat.

conformally mapped on to a surface S* if there is a differentiable homomorphism (i.e.

and analytic one-one map) of S on to S* such that the angle between any two curves at

any arbitrary point P on S is equal to the angle between the corresponding directed

curves on S*. Thus in short, a map said to be conformal if it preserves angles.

𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑣 = 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦) maps the two curves 𝑐1 , 𝑐2 [intersecting at the point p 𝑤0 of 𝑤

plane .

If the angle between 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 at 𝑧0 is equal to the angle between 𝑐1 and 𝑐2 at 𝑤0 then the

transformation is called isogonal. If the sense of rotation as well as the magnitude of the

angle is preserved the transformation is called conformal.

CONGRUENCE (modulo n): For each positive integer 𝑛, the relation of congruence

between integers is defined as follows: 𝑎 is congruent to 𝑏 modulo 𝑛 if 𝑎 – 𝑏 is a

multiple of 𝑛. This is written as 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛). The integer 𝑛 is the modulus of the

congruence. Then 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) if and only if 𝑎 and 𝑏 have the same remainder upon

division by 𝑛. For example, 33 is congruent to 8 modulo 5.

The following properties hold, if 𝑎 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) and 𝑐 ≡ 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛):

𝑎 + 𝑐 ≡ 𝑏 + 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛),

𝑎 – 𝑐 ≡ 𝑏 – 𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛),

𝑎𝑐 ≡ 𝑏𝑑 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛).

It can be shown that congruence modulo n is an equivalence relation and so defines a

partition of the set of integers, where two integers are in the same class if and only if

they are congruent modulo n. These classes are the residue (or congruence) classes

modulo n.

CONGRUENCE EQUATION: congruence equations are the equations involving

congruence modulo n. The following are examples of congruence equations:

(i) 𝑥 + 5 ≡ 3 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 7); this has the solution 𝑥 ≡ 5 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 7).

(ii) 2𝑥 ≡ 5 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 4); this has no solutions.

In seeking solutions to a congruence equation, it is necessary only to consider a

complete set of residues and find solutions in this set.

The linear congruence equation 𝑎𝑥 ≡ 𝑏 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑛) has a solution if and only if (𝑎, 𝑛)

divides 𝑏, where (𝑎, 𝑛) is the greatest common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑛.

CONGRUENCE OF MATRICES: A square matrix B of order 𝑛 over a field 𝐹 is said to be

congruent to another square matrix 𝐴 of order 𝑛 over 𝐹, if there exists a non-singular

matrix 𝑃 over 𝐹 such that 𝐵 = 𝑃 −1 𝐴𝑃.

n × n matrices over a field 𝐹.

Every matrix congruent to a symmetric matrix is a symmetric matrix.

Each congruent transformation of a matrix consists of a pair of elementary

transformations, one row and the other columns, such that of the corresponding

elementary matrices each is the transpose of the other.

Every matrix B obtained from any given matrix 𝐴 by subjecting 𝐴 to a finite chain

of congruent operations is congruent to 𝐵.

quadratic forms X T AX and Y T BY over a field F are said to be congruent or equivalent

over F if their respective matrices A and B are congruent over F. Thus X T AX is

equivalent to Y T BY if there exists a non-singular matrix P over F such that 𝑃 −1 𝐴𝑃 = 𝐵.

Since congruence of matrices is an equivalence relation therefore equivalence of

quadratic forms is also an equivalence relation.

CONGRUENT: One figure that would coincide with another with

a combination of translation, rotation and reflection. Essentially, two shapes are

congruent if they can be considered "the same" except for its location and orientation.

For triangles, there are certain conditions that make it easier to decide if two such

figures are the same. (Without having to consider the transformations)

I - SSS - The length of all three sides of a triangle are the same as the lengths of the

corresponding sides of another.

II - SAS - The lengths of any two pairs of sides correspond, and the angles between those

sides are also the same as each other.

III - ASA/AAS - Any pair of angles on one shape correspond with the other shape, while

any side of either shape is the same as the corresponding side of the other.

IV - RHS (also known as LH) - Both triangles are right-angled, their hypotenuses are of

the same length and they share another side of the same length.

the trajectory of the weight is a (horizontal) circle with the string being taut (and

having constant length) at all times. The circle drawn out by the weight together with

the positions of the string forms a cone which explains the name.

CONICOID: A surface generated by the rotation about an axis of one of the conics -

ellipsoids, paraboloids, hypocycloids and a sphere.

The four curves—circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas are called conic sections

because they can be formed by the intersection of a plane with a right circular cone. If

the plane is perpendicular to the axis of the cone, the intersection will be a circle. If the

plane is slightly tilted, the result will be an ellipse. If the plane is parallel to one element

of the cone, the result will be a parabola. If the plane intersects both parts of the cone,

the result will be a hyperbola.

b

CONJECTURE: An assertion that is not yet proven. In this sense, it is the same as

an hypothesis.

for some 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.

CONJUGACY CLASS: The set of all elements of a group that are conjugate to an element 𝑎

is called cojugacy class of 𝑎.

CONJUGATE (COMPLEX NUMBER): For any complex number 𝑧, where 𝑧 = 𝑥 + 𝑦𝑖, its

conjugate read as ‘z bar’ is equal to 𝑧 = 𝑥 – 𝑦𝑖. In the complex plane, the points

representing a complex number and its conjugate are mirror images with respect to the

real axis. The following properties hold:

root of this equation.

CONJUGATE AXIS: It is the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the transverse axis of a

hyperbola.

CONJUGATE ELEMENTS: Two elements 𝑥 and 𝑦 in a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate to

CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS: If 𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑢 + 𝑖𝑣 is analytic and if 𝑢 and 𝑣 satisfy Laplace’s

equation ∆2 = V = 0, then 𝑢 and 𝑣 are called conjugate harmonic function or conjugate

functions simply.

CONJUGATE OF A MATRIX: The matrix obtained from any given matrix A on replacing its

elements by the corresponding conjugate complex numbers is called the conjugate of A

and is denoted by A.

m×n

If A be a matrix over the field of real numbers, then obviously A coincides with A.

2 + 3i 4 − 7i 8 2 − 3i 4 + 7i 8

A= , then A = .

−i 6 9+i i 6 9−i

(i) A = A; (ii) A + B = A + B;

(i) kA = k A; 𝑘 being any complex number;

(ii) AB = A B, A and B being conformable to multiplication.

are called conjugate if there is a Jacobi field on 𝛾 which has a zero at 𝑝 and 𝑞.

CONJUGATE SUBGROUPS: Two subgroups 𝐻 and 𝐾 of a group 𝐺 are said to be conjugate

if 𝐾 = 𝑔𝐻𝑔−1 for some 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.

CONJUNCTION: If 𝑝 and 𝑞 are statements, then the statement ‘𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞’, denoted by

𝑝 ∧ 𝑞, is the conjunction of 𝑝 and 𝑞. For example, if 𝑝 is ‘It is raining’ and 𝑞 is ‘It is

March’, then 𝑝 ∧ 𝑞 is ‘It is raining and it is March’. The conjunction of 𝑝 and 𝑞 is true

only when 𝑝 and 𝑞 are both true, and so the truth table is as follows:

p Q 𝑝 ∧𝑞

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑥 ≠ 𝑦, either 𝑥 ~ 𝑦 or 𝑦 ~ 𝑥. So, for example, in the set of real numbers the relation

‘is greater than’ is connected.

CONNECTED (SET): A set A is said to be a connected set if ∄ non-empty subsets E and F

of A such that 𝐸 ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑 and 𝐸 ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑.

CONNECTED COMPONENT: Let 𝛺 be an open set in 𝐶 and 𝑧 ∇ 𝛺. The connected

component (or simply the component) of 𝛺 containing 𝑧 is the set 𝐶𝑧 of all points w in 𝛺

that can be joined to 𝑧 by a curve entirely contained in 𝛺. In other words, a connected

component of a space is a maximal nonempty connected subspace. Each connected

component is closed, and the set of connected components of a space is a partition of

that space.

CONNECTED GRAPH: A connected graph is a graph in which there always exists a path

from any one vertex to any other vertex. So a graph is connected if it is ‘all in one piece’;

that is, if it has precisely one component.

CONNECTED METRIC SPACE: A metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) is said to be connected if there do

not exist two nonempty and disjoint open sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 in 𝑋 such that 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑋. A

metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) is connected if, and only if, the only subsets of 𝑋 that are both open

and closed in 𝑋 are ∅ and 𝑋. Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be metric spaces, and let 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a

continuous function. If 𝑋 is connected, then 𝑓(𝑋) is a connected subset of 𝑌.

CONNECTED SET: A set that can't be split into a union of two sets each of which is

both open and closed.

CONNECTED SUM: Let S and T be two surfaces. From each surface, delete an open disk,

then glue the two boundary circles. The resulting surface is called the connected sum of

the two surfaces, denoted by S#T. It is known that the connected sum does not depend

on the choices of the disks.

CONSECUTIVE ANGLES: A set of angles where every member can be considered to be

"next" to another angle within the set. This idea of "next" or adjacency can be sharing

a side or sharing a side as well as a point depending on the context.

CONSECUTIVE SIDES: A set of sides (edges) where every memeber can be considered to

be "next" to another side within the set. This idea of "next" or adjacency can be sharing

a vertex or sharing an angle depending on the context.

the restriction 𝑓/ 𝑍 of 𝑓 to 𝑍 is connected in 𝑋 × 𝑌 for every connected subset 𝑍 of 𝑋. It

is easy to see that 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 is connectivity if and only if its graph is a connected

subset of 𝑅 2 . However, there are functions 𝐹 ∶ 𝑅 2 → 𝑅 with a connected graph which

are not connectivity functions. For example, this is the case if 𝐹 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛(1/𝑥) for

𝑥 = 0, and 𝐹 (0, 𝑦) = (𝑦), where ∶ 𝑅 → [−1, 1] is any function with a disconnected

graph.

then B", the consequent is the second part of the sentence. It is the part of the sentence

whose truth value is dependent on the other part. (Within the context of the statement

itself)

CONSERVATION LAWS: Any theorem or assertion that states that certain measurable

quantities remains unchanged, and the condition under which this happens.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: The law that states that the amount of energy in a closed

system remains unchanged. The exactness of this law, in our current understanding,

depends on whether we use mass-energy as the measure or simply energy in the

classical sense.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM: The law that states that the total momentum of a

closed system of objects remains unchanged.

CONSISTENCY: An axiomatic theory is consistent if it's impossible (in the confines of the

theory) to prove simultaneously a statement and its negation. The Godel's Theorem

states that any (sufficiently powerful) consistent axiomatic theory is incomplete.

CONSISTENT SET OF EQUATIONS: A set of equations is consistent if there is a

solution.

CONSTANT FUNCTION: In real analysis, a constant function is a real function 𝑓 such that

𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎 for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑹, where 𝑎, the value of 𝑓, is a fixed real number.

CONSTANT OF INTEGRATION: If 𝜑 is a particular antiderivative of a continuous function

𝑓, then any antiderivative of 𝑓 differs from 𝜑 by a constant. It is common practice,

therefore, to write

∫ 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥 = 𝜑(𝑥) + 𝑐,

where 𝑐, an arbitrary constant, is the constant of integration.

CONSTANT VALUE THEOREM: If 𝑓 ′ (𝑡) = 0 for all 𝑡 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) then 𝑓 is constant on

[𝑎, 𝑏]. (That is, 𝑓(𝑦) = 𝑓(𝑥) whenever 𝑏 ≥ 𝑦 > 𝑥 ≥ 𝑎.)

inequations under the action of which the objective function is optimized.

There is a simple description of all measures on it. For a measure µ, define 𝐹𝜇 𝑡 =

µ 0, t if t > 0

0 if t = 0

−µ t, 0 if t < 0

µ([𝑎, 𝑏)) = 𝐹(𝑏) − 𝐹(𝑎). The correspondence is one-to-one with the additional

assumption 𝐹(0) = 0. The above measure µ is 𝜍 −additive on 𝑆 if and only if 𝐹 is

continuous from the left: 𝐹(𝑡 − 0) = 𝐹(𝑡) for all 𝑡 ∇ ℝ.

and also to say that ‘𝐴 is contained in 𝐵’ if 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵. To distinguish between these two

different notions, it is better to say that ‘𝑥 belongs to 𝑆’ and to say that ‘𝐴 is included in

𝐵’ or ‘𝐴 is a subset of 𝐵’. However, some authors consistently say ‘is contained in’ for ⊆.

Given the same examples, it is similarly tempting to say that ‘𝑆 contains 𝑥’ and also that

‘𝐵 contains 𝐴.’ It is again desirable to distinguish between the two by saying that

‘𝐵 includes 𝐴’ in the second case, though some authors consistently say ‘contains’ in this

situation. The first case is best avoided or else clarified by saying that ‘𝑆 contains the

element 𝑥’ or ‘𝑆 contains 𝑥 as an element.’

CONTINGENCY TABLE: A table in which individuals are categorized according to two or

more characteristics or variables. Each cell of the table contains the number of

individuals with a particular combination of characteristics or values.

CONTINGENT (LOGIC): A statement or proposition is contingent if it is neither always

true nor always false. For example ‘𝑥 divided by 2 is an integer’ is true when

𝑥 = 2, 4, 6, … but is not true when 𝑥 = 3, 4.5, 7, …

CONTINUED FRACTION: An expression of the form 𝑞1 + 1/𝑏2 , where 𝑏2 = 𝑞2 +

1/𝑏3 , 𝑏3 = 𝑞3 + 1/𝑏4 , and so on, where 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , 𝑞3 , … are integers, usually positive. If

the continued fraction terminates, it gives a rational number. When the continued

fraction continues indefinitely, it represents an irrational number.

form a closer approximation to a continuous argument. (Usually an adjustment of 0.5

for discrete distributions that admits integers)

cumulative distribution function is continuous.

if 𝑓(𝑥) → 𝑓(𝑎) 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 → 𝑎. The rough idea is that, close to 𝑎, the function has values

close to 𝑓(𝑎). It means that the function does not suddenly jump at 𝑥 = 𝑎 or take

widely differing values arbitrarily close to 𝑎.

A function 𝑓 is continuous in an open interval if it is continuous at each point of the

interval; and 𝑓 is continuous on the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏], where 𝑎 < 𝑏, if it is

continuous in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏) and if lim𝑥→𝑎+ 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑎) and lim𝑥→𝑏− 𝑓(𝑥) =

𝑓(𝑏). The following properties hold:

The sum of two continuous functions is a continuous function.

The product of two continuous functions is a continuous function.

The quotient of two continuous functions is continuous at any point or in any

interval where the denominator is not zero.

Suppose that 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎, that 𝑓(𝑎) = 𝑏 and that 𝑔 is continuous at 𝑏.

Then , defined by (𝑥) = (𝑔 𝑓)(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑓(𝑥)), is continuous at 𝑎.

CONTINUOUS HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: According to Gauss, the function

𝐹 a′ , b′ , c ′ , z′ is continuous to 𝐹 a; b; c; z if it is obtained by increasing or decreasing

one and only one of the parameters a, b, c by unity.

Thus there are six hypergeometric functions continuous to 𝐹 a; b; c; z and are denoted

as

𝐹 a + 1; b; c; z = Fa+, 𝐹 a − 1; b; c; z = Fa−

𝐹 a; b + 1; c; z = Fb+, 𝐹 a; b − 1; c; z = Fb−

𝐹 a; b; c + 1; z = Fc+, 𝐹 a; b; c − 1; z = Fc−

open set is always open. Note that

(1) A composition of continuous functions is continuous,

(2) 𝑓 continuous ⇒ 𝑓(compact subset) is compact,

(3) 𝑓 continuous ⇒ 𝑓(connected subset) is connected.

(4) Continuous bijection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space ⇒

homeomorphism.

(5) Continuous surjection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space ⇒ quotient map.

CONTINUOUSLY DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTION: A function is continuously differentiable

if its derivative is itself a continuous function. The function 𝑓(𝑥) = 0 for 𝑥 ≤ 0 and

𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 for 𝑥 ≥ 0 is continuous, but not continuously differentiable since 𝑓′(𝑥) = 0

for 𝑥 < 0 and 𝑓′(𝑥) = 1 for 𝑥 > 0.

CONTINUUM: The set of real numbers or any interval (𝑎, 𝑏), which can be open or closed

at either end is a continuum.

CONTINUUM HYPOTHESIS: The conjecture made by Georg Cantor that there is no set

with a cardinal number between aleph-null which is the cardinal number of the set of

natural numbers and the cardinal number of the set of real numbers, i.e. the continuum.

CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLE: A random variable that can take on any real-number

value within a certain finite or infinite interval.

CONTOUR: By counter, we mean a continuous chain of a finite number of regular areas.

If the contour is closed and does not interest itself, then it is called closed contour.

CONTOUR INTEGRAL: An integral ∫ 𝑓(𝑧) 𝑑𝑧 of a function f in the complex plane over a

curve C, usually a closed curve, in the plane.

CONTOUR LINE: A line joining points of a constant value. If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is a function

which defines a surface and the line 𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥) has the property that 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑔(𝑥)) is

constant then the line 𝑦 = 𝑔(𝑥) is a contour line.

CONTRACTION MAPPING: A mapping 𝑓 on a metric space 𝑋 is said to be a contraction

mapping, which decreases the distance, 𝑑, between any two points in 𝑋, i.e. for some

𝑎 < 1, i.e. 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝑎 × 𝑑 𝑥, 𝑦 for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑋.

CONTRACTION MAPPING PRINCIPLE: Suppose that 𝑆 is a closed subset of a Banach

space, 𝑌, and that 𝑇 ∶ 𝑆 → 𝑆 is a mapping on 𝑆 such that

||𝑇𝑢 − 𝑇𝑣||𝑌 ≤ 𝛼||𝑢 − 𝑣||𝑌 ; 𝑢, 𝑣 ∇ 𝑆

for some constant 𝛼 < 1. Then T has a unique fixed point 𝑢 ∇ 𝑆 that satisfies

𝑇𝑢 = 𝑢.

CONTRADICTION: The simultaneous assertion of both the truth of a proposition and its

denial. Since both cannot be true there must necessarily be a flaw in either the

reasoning leading to the simultaneous assertion or in the assumptions on which the

deductive reasoning is based. It is this latter situation which provides the basis for proof

by contradiction.

CONTRAPOSITION: The logical principle, upon which proof by contradiction is based.

Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be statements. If 𝑝 implies not 𝑞, then 𝑞 being true implies that 𝑝 cannot be.

For example, since all rhombuses are parallelograms, a shape which is not a

parallelogram cannot be a rhombus. Here 𝑝 is the statement ‘is a rhombus’ and 𝑞 is the

statement ‘is not a parallelogram’.

CONTRAPOSITIVE: The contrapositive of an implication 𝑝 ⇒ 𝑞 is the implication

¬𝑞 ⇒ ¬𝑝. An implication and its contrapositive are logically equivalent, so that one is

true if and only if the other is. So, in giving a proof of a mathematical result, it may on

occasion be more convenient to establish the contrapositive rather than the original

form of the theorem. For example, the theorem that if 𝑛2 is odd then 𝑛 is odd could be

proved by showing instead that if 𝑛 is even then 𝑛2 is even.

CONTRAVARIANT AND CO-VARIANT VECTORS: Let 𝐴𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2 … . 𝑛, be 𝑛 functions of co-

ordinate 𝑥1 , 𝑥 2 , … 𝑥 𝑛 . If the quantities 𝐴𝑖 are transformed to another co-ordinate system

𝜕𝑥 𝑎

𝑥′1 , 𝑥′2 , 𝑥′3 , … 𝑥′𝑛 according to the rule 𝐴𝑖 = 𝐴𝑎 , then the function Ai are called

𝜕𝑥 𝑖

are transformed to another co-ordinate system 𝑥′1 , 𝑥′2 , 𝑥′3 , … 𝑥′𝑛 according to the rule

𝜕𝑥 𝑖

𝐴𝑖 = 𝐴𝑎 , then the functions 𝐴𝑖 are called components of a covariant vector. The

𝜕𝑥 𝑎

contravariant (or covariant) vector is also called a contravariant (or Covariant) tensor

of rank one.

CONVENIENCE SAMPLE: Quick, easy, and readily available people or objects selected to

conduct a survey. It is convenient for the person compiling the statistics. If you conduct

a survey on people´s opinions about a specific movie by interviewing people who just

walked out of that movie, you are taking a convenience sample.

CONVENIENCE SAMPLING: In convenience sampling, a sample is chosen by using the

most conveniently available group. Data collected from such a sample are unlikely to

contain much worthwhile information about a larger population.

CONVERGE (NET): A net 𝑓𝑛 is said to said to converge to a point 𝑥 of the directed set 𝐷,

CONVERGE (SEQUENCE): A real sequence 𝑥𝑛 is said to be convergent to a real number 𝑎

if for every ∇> 0 there exists a 𝑚∇ ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑥𝑛 − 𝑎 <∇ whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑚∇ .

CONVERGE (SEQUENCE IN A TOPOLOGICAL SPACE): A sequence 𝑥𝑛 in a topological

space is said to be convergent to a number 𝑎 if for every for every nbd 𝑁𝑎 of 𝑎 there

exists a 𝑚𝑎 ∇ 𝑁 such that 𝑥𝑛 ∇ 𝑁𝑎 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑚𝑎 .

CONVERGE (SERIES): The infinite series 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + 𝑎3 + … is said to converge to a

limit 𝐿 if for every 𝜀 > 0 there exists an 𝑁 such that

𝑛

𝑖=1 𝑎𝑛 − 𝐿 <∇ for all 𝑛 > 𝑁.

CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE OF INFINITE SERIES: Let 𝑎𝑛 𝑛 = 1,2,3, … be a

sequence of real or complex numbers. Then the formal infinite sum 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ is

∞

called an infinite series (or series) and is denoted by 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛 . The number 𝑎𝑛 is

the 𝑛𝑡 term of the series 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑛 = 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 is the 𝑛𝑡 partial sum of

𝑎𝑛 . Also for a finite sequence 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 , the sum 𝑎1 + 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 is called a series.

To distinguish these two series, the latter is called a finite series. Series means an

infinite series. If the sequence of partial sums 𝑠𝑛 converges to s, we say that the series

∞

𝑎𝑛 converges or is convergent to the sum 𝑠 and write 𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑠. If the

sequence 𝑠𝑛 is not convergent, we say that the series diverges or divergent. In

particular, if 𝑠𝑛 is divergent to +∞(−∞) or oscillating, we say that the series is

properly divergent to +∞(−∞) or oscillating, respectively.

CONVERGENT ITERATION: An iterative process for which the sequence of each state (in

order) is a convergent sequence

neighborhood 𝑈 of 𝑥 there is an index 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼 such that if 𝑗 ≥ 𝑖 then 𝑥𝑗 belongs to 𝑈. The

point 𝑥 is called a limit of the net 𝑥𝑖 ; 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼 and we often write 𝑥𝑖 → 𝑥. Convergence of

nets with index set 𝐼 = 𝑁 with the usual order is exactly convergence of sequences.

products (analogues to partial sums) converges.

consecutive terms tends to zero when n is large.

CONVERGENT SERIES: A series in which the sum is finite.

CONVERGES UNIFORMLY: Let 𝑋 be a set, (𝑌, 𝑑) a metric space and {𝑓𝑛 } a sequence of

functions from 𝑋 to 𝑌 , and 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 another function. If for any 𝜖 > 0 there exists an

integer 𝑁 such that

𝑑(𝑓𝑛 (𝑥), 𝑓(𝑥)) < 𝜖

for all 𝑛 > 𝑁 we say that fn converges uniformly to 𝑓.

implication is true, then its converse may or may not be true.

CONVERSE OF THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM: If the square of the hypotenuse is equal

to the sum of the squares of the other two legs of a triangle, then the triangle is a right

triangle.

CONVERSION TABLE: A table showing the equivalent numerical values in two or more

desired units. When the value in one unit is given, the corresponding value in another

unit can be directly read from the table. One example is to convert from imperial to

metric measures and vice versa.

CONVEX (MANIFOLD): A subset K of a Riemannian manifold M is called convex if for any

two points in K there is a shortest path connecting them which lies entirely in K.

𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , 𝑥3 , … , 𝑥𝑛 is defined as a point . 𝑥 = 𝜆1 𝑥1 + 𝜆2 𝑥2 = ⋯ 𝜆𝑛 𝑥𝑛 where 𝜆𝑖 is real and

𝑛

≥ 0, ∀ 𝑖 and 𝑖=1 𝜆𝑖 = 1.

in 𝑅 𝑚 if 𝜆𝑣 + µ𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 for all 𝑣, 𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 and for all real numbers 𝜆 and µ satisfying

𝜆 ≥ 0 and µ ≥ 0. Every convex cone in 𝑅 𝑚 is a convex subset of 𝑅 𝑚 .

other distinct points 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑓 𝜆𝑥1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑥2 } < 𝜆𝑓 𝑥1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑓(𝑥2 ) , where

0 < 𝜆 < 1. On the other hand, a function 𝑓 𝑥 is strictly concave if -𝑓 𝑥 is strictly

convex.

manifold is a convex if for any geodesic 𝛾, the function 𝑓 ∘ 𝛾 is convex. A function 𝑓 is

called 𝜆-convex if for any geodesic 𝛾 with natural parameter 𝑡, the function 𝑓 ∘ 𝛾 𝑡 −

𝜆𝑡 2 is convex.

CONVEX HULL: The convex hull C(x) of any given set of points X is the set of all convex

combination of sets of points from X. For examples, if x is just the eight vertices of a

cube, then the convex hull C(x) is the whole cube.

CONVEX POLYHEDRON: The set of all convex combinations of finite number of points is

called the convex polyhedron generated by these points.

For example: The set of the area of the triangle is a convex polyhedron its vertices.

functionals 𝜂1 , 𝜂2 , . . . , 𝜂𝑚 on 𝑅 𝑛 and real numbers 𝑠1 , 𝑠2 , . . . , 𝑠𝑚 such that 𝑋 = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 ∶

𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑚}. Let (𝜂𝑖 ∶ 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼) be a finite collection of linear

functionals on 𝑅 𝑛 indexed by a finite set 𝐼, let 𝑠𝑖 be a real number for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼, and let

𝑋 = ⋂𝑖∇𝐼 {𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 ∶ 𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 }. Then 𝑋 is a convex polytope in 𝑅 𝑛 . A point 𝑥 of 𝑅 𝑛

belongs to the convex polytope 𝑋 if and only if 𝜂𝑖 (𝑥) ≥ 𝑠𝑖 for all 𝑖 ∇ 𝐼.

CONVEX SET: A plane or solid figure, such as a polygon or polyhedron, is said to be

convex if the line segment joining any two points inside it lies wholly inside it.

𝜇𝐴 (𝜆𝑥1 + (1 − 𝜆𝑥2 ) ≥ min

(𝜇𝐴 𝑥1 , 𝜇𝐴 𝑥2 )

for all 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑹𝒏 and all 𝜆 ∇ [0, 11.

CONVOLUTION THEOREM FOR FOURIER TRANSFORMS: Fourier transform of

convolution of 𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 is the product of their Fourier transforms i.e.

𝐹 𝐹∗𝑔 = 𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 𝐹 𝑔 𝑡

COORDINATE: One within a set of such numbers, called coordinates, which specifies the

position of a point e.g. abscissa and ordinate.

a coordinate system.

If 𝑝 ∇ 𝑆 we call (𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑚 ) ∇ 𝑈 the coordinates of 𝑝 with respect to 𝜍 when 𝑝 =

𝜍(𝑥). The map 𝜍 −1 : 𝜍(𝑈) → 𝑈 is called the coordinate map of 𝜍.

COORDINATE PLANE: A plane with a point selected as an origin, some length selected as

a unit of distance, and two perpendicular lines that intersect at the origin, with positive

and negative direction selected on each line. Traditionally, the lines are called 𝑥 (drawn

from left to right, with positive direction to the right of the origin) and 𝑦 (drawn from

bottom to top, with positive direction upward of the origin). Coordinates of a point are

determined by the distance of this point from the lines, and the signs of the coordinates

are determined by whether the point is in the positive or in the negative direction from

the origin.

COPLANAR SET OF POINTS: A set of points is coplanar if they all lie in the same plane.

Any three points are always coplanar. The vertices of a triangle are coplanar, but not the

vertices of a pyramid. Two lines are coplanar if they lie in the same plane, that is, if they

either intersect or are parallel.

COPRIME INTEGERS: Two integers n and m with no common factors are said to be

mutually prime or coprime. By definition, 𝒈𝒄𝒅(𝑛, 𝑚) = 1.

CORE: The core of a game with characteristic function v is the set, 𝐶(𝑣), of all

imputations that are not dominated for any coalition. The idea is that only such

imputations can persist in pre-game negotiations.

COROLLARY: Corollary is a result that follows from a theorem almost immediately, often

without further proof.

CORRELATION: Between two random variables, the correlation is a measure of the

extent to which a change in one tends to correspond to a change in the other. The

correlation is high or low depending on whether the relationship between the two is

close or not. If the change in one corresponds to a change in the other in the same

direction, there is positive correlation, and there is a negative correlation if the changes

are in opposite directions. Independent random variables have zero correlation. One

measure of correlation between the random variables 𝑋 and 𝑌 is the correlation

coefficient 𝜌 defined by

𝒄𝒐𝒗 (𝑥, 𝑦)

𝜌=

𝒗𝒂𝒓 𝑥 (𝒗𝒂𝒓 𝑦)

This satisfies — 1 ≤ 𝜌 ≤ 1. If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are linearly related, then 𝜌 = — 1 𝑜𝑟 + 1.

cos: It is the abbreviation for cosine function.

cosec: It is the abbreviation for cosecant function. (Also written as csc).

cosech: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as csch).

COSET: If 𝐻 is a subgroup of a group 𝐺, then for any element, 𝑥 of 𝐺 there is a left coset

𝑥𝐻 consisting of all the elements 𝑥, where is an element of 𝐻. Similarly, there is a

right coset, 𝐻𝑥, with elements 𝑥. If 𝑥𝐻 = 𝐻𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐺, then 𝐻 becomes a normal

subgroup of 𝐺.

COSET (CODING THEORY): Let 𝐶 be a linear code of length 𝑛 over 𝑓𝑄 and let ∇ 𝑓𝑄𝑁 .

Then the coset of 𝐶 determined by 𝑢 is defined to be the set 𝐶 + 𝑢 = {𝑐 + 𝑢 | 𝑐 ∇ 𝐶}.

For example, let 𝐶 = {000, 101, 010, 111} be a binary linear code. Then, 𝐶 + 000 =

𝐶, 𝐶 + 010 = {010, 111, 000, 101} = 𝐶, and 𝐶 + 001 = {001, 100, 011, 110}.

COSETS OF IDEAL IN A RING: Let 𝑅 be a ring and let 𝐼 be an ideal of 𝑅. The cosets of 𝐼 in

𝑅 are the subsets of 𝑅 that are of the form 𝐼 + 𝑥 for some 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅, where 𝐼 + 𝑥 = {𝑎 +

𝑥 ∶ 𝑎 ∇ 𝐼}.

We denote by 𝑅/𝐼 the set of cosets of 𝐼 in 𝑅. Let 𝑥 and 𝑥 ′ be elements of 𝑅. Then

𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ if and only if 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼.

Indeed if 𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ , then 𝑥 = 𝑐 + 𝑥 ′ for some 𝑐 ∇ 𝐼. But then 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ = 𝑐, and

thus 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼.

Conversely if 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼 then 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ = 𝑐 for some 𝑐 ∇ 𝐼. But then 𝐼 + 𝑥 = {𝑎 + 𝑥 ∶

𝑎 ∇ 𝐼} = {𝑎 + 𝑐 + 𝑥 ′ ∶ 𝑎 ∇ 𝐼} = {𝑏 + 𝑥 ′ ∶ 𝑏 ∇ 𝐼} = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ .

If 𝑥, 𝑥 ′ , 𝑦 and 𝑦 ′ are elements of 𝑅 satisfying 𝐼 + 𝑥 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ and 𝐼 + 𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑦 ′

then

(𝑥 + 𝑦) − (𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ), 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ = 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥𝑦 ′ + 𝑥𝑦 ′ −

𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ = 𝑥(𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ) + (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ )𝑦 ′ . But 𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ ∇ 𝐼 and 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, and therefore

𝑥(𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ ) ∇ 𝐼 and (𝑥 − 𝑥 ′ )𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, because 𝐼 is an ideal.

It follows that (𝑥 + 𝑦) − (𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ ) ∇ 𝐼 and 𝑥𝑦 − 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ ∇ 𝐼, and therefore 𝐼 + 𝑥 +

𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ + 𝑦 ′ and 𝐼 + 𝑥𝑦 = 𝐼 + 𝑥 ′ 𝑦 ′ .

This shows that the quotient group 𝑅/𝐼 admits well-defined operations of addition and

multiplication, defined such that (𝐼 + 𝑥) + (𝐼 + 𝑦) = 𝐼 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 and (𝐼 + 𝑥)(𝐼 +

𝑦) = 𝐼 + 𝑥𝑦 for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑅.

cosh: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosine function.

COSINE RULE: In trigonometry, (also known as the cosine formula or the law

of cosines ) it is a statement about a general triangle that relates the lengths of its sides

to the cosine of one of its angles.

COTANGENT SPACE: Let 𝑀 be an 𝑚-dimensional abstract manifold, and let 𝑝 ∇ 𝑀. The

dual space (𝑇𝑝 𝑀)∗ of 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 is denoted 𝑇𝑝∗ 𝑀 and called the cotangent space of 𝑀 at 𝑝. Its

elements are called cotangent vectors or just covectors.

COTERMINAL ANGLES: Angles in standard position with the same initial arm and

terminal arm.

coth: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cotangent function.

COUNTABLE ATLAS: An atlas of an abstract manifold M is said to be countable if the set

of charts in the atlas is countable. Let M be an abstract manifold. Then M has a countable

atlas if and only if there exists a countable base for the topology.

COUNTABLE SET: A set X is said to be a countable set if there is a one-to-one

correspondence between X and a subset of the set of natural numbers. Thus a countable

set is either finite or denumerable. Some authors use ‘countable’ to mean denumerable.

COUNTABLY ADDITIVE MEASURE: We say that µ is countably additive (or 𝜍 −additive)

if for any countable family (𝐴𝑛 ) of pairwise disjoint sets from 𝑅 we have µ(⋃𝑛 𝐴𝑛 ) =

𝑛 µ(𝐴𝑛 ). If the sum diverges, then as it will be the sum of positive numbers, we can,

without problem, define it to be +∞.

cov: It is the abbreviation for covariance of a pair of random variables.

COVARIANCE: A measure of the extent to which two variables vary together. When

divided by the product of the standard deviations of the two variables, this measure

becomes the Pearson (or product-moment) correlation coefficient. The covariance of

two random variables 𝑋 and 𝑌, denoted by 𝐶𝑜𝑣(𝑋, 𝑌), is equal to 𝐸((𝑋 — 𝜇𝑋 )(𝑌 — 𝜇𝑌 )),

where 𝜇𝑋 and 𝜇𝑌 are the population means of 𝑋 and 𝑌 respectively. If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are

independent random variables, then 𝐶𝑜𝑣(𝑋, 𝑌) = 0. For computational purposes, note

that 𝐸((𝑋 — 𝜇𝑋 )(𝑌 — 𝜇𝑌 )) = 𝐸(𝑋𝑌) — 𝜇𝑋 𝜇𝑌 . For a sample of n paired observations

(𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ), (𝑥2 , 𝑦2 ), … , (𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ), the sample covariance is equal to

𝑥𝑖 − 𝑥 𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦

𝑛

COVARIANT CONSTANTS: The covariant derivatives of the tensors 𝑔𝑖𝑗 , 𝑔𝑖𝑗 , 𝑔𝑗𝑖 vanish

identically. It means these tensors behave as constants in covariant differentiation.

Hence these tensors are defined a covariant constant.

𝜕∅

defined as its ordinary partial derivative w.r.t. 𝑥 𝑖 and is denoted by ∅, 𝑖. Thus ∅, 𝑖 = 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 .

𝜕∅

Evidently ∅, 𝑖 = 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 = ∆∅.

introduction to algebraic curves, published in 1750, contains the so-called Cramer’s rule

of solving a system of 𝑛 linear equations in 𝑛 variables. The rule was known earlier by

Maclaurin.

CRAMER’S RULE: Consider a set of 𝑛 linear equations in 𝑛 unknowns 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 ,

written in matrix form as 𝑨𝒙 = 𝒃. When 𝑨 is an invertible matrix, the set of equations

has a unique solution 𝒙 = 𝑨—1 𝒃. Since 𝑨—1 = (1/𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨) 𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑨, this gives the solution

𝑎𝑑𝑗𝐴 𝑏

𝑥=

det 𝐴

The equation ax + by + cz = 0 is a linear homogeneous equation in x, y and z. On the

other hand the equation ax + by + cz = 0 is a linear non-homogeneous equation in

x, y and z.

… … … … … … … …

… … … … … … … …

a21 a22 ⋯ a2n

Let ∆= ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ≠ 0.

⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯

an1 an2 ⋯ ann

Suppose A11 , A12 , A13 ,………. etc. denote the cofactors if a11 , a12 , a13, ………. etc, in ∆. Then

multiplying the given equation respectively byA11 , A12 , A13 ,……… An1 and adding, we get

Or 𝑥1 ∆= ∆1 ,

Where ∆1 is the determinant obtained by replacing the elements in the first column of ∆

by the elements b1 , b2 , … , bn .

Again multiplying the given equation respectively by A12 , A22 , … , An2 and adding, we get

𝑥2 ∆= ∆2 ,

Where ∆2 is the determinant obtained by replacing the elements in the second column

of ∆ by the elements b1 , b2 , … , bn .

Similarly, we get

𝑥3 ∆= ∆3

…………

𝑥𝑛 ∆= ∆𝑛 .

Rule.

∆i

xi = , i = 1,2, … , n,

∆

Where ∆𝑖 is the determinant obtained by replacing the ith column of ∆ by the elements

b1 , b2 , … , bn .

CRITICAL POINT: A critical point for a function is a point where the first derivative(s) is

(are) zero.

CRITICAL POINTS (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Consider the bilinear transformation

𝑎𝑧 + 𝑏

𝑤=𝑇 𝑧 =

𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑

𝑏 − 𝑤𝑑

𝑧 = 𝑇 −1 𝑤 =

𝑤𝑐 − 𝑎

𝑑

𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 except the point 𝑧 = − 𝑐 when 𝑐 ≠ 0. The transformation 𝑇 −1 associates a

𝑎

unique point of 𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 to any point 𝑤 plane except the point 𝑤 = , when 𝑐 ≠ 0.

𝑐

𝑑 𝑎

These exceptional points 𝑧 = − 𝑐 and 𝑤 − 𝑐 are mapped into the points 𝑤 = ∞ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑧 =

𝑑𝑤 𝑎𝑑 −𝑏𝑐

From (1) = (𝑐𝑧 +𝑑)²

𝑑𝑧

𝑑

𝑑𝑤 ∞ 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 = − 𝑐

This ⟹ =

𝑑𝑧

0 𝑖𝑓 𝑧 = ∞

𝑑

The points 𝑧 = − 𝑐 , 𝑧 = ∞ are called Critical points where the conformal property does

CRITICAL REGION: If the calculated value of a test statistic falls within the critical region,

then the null hypothesis is rejected.

CROSS RATIO: For a set of coplanar points 𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶, 𝐷, it is,

𝐴𝐶 × 𝐵𝐷

𝐴𝐷 × 𝐵𝐶

and for points 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , 𝑧3 , 𝑧4 in the complex plane it is

𝑧1 − 𝑧3 𝑧2 − 𝑧4

𝑧1 − 𝑧4 𝑧2 − 𝑧3

The definition in the complex plane can be extended to the Riemann sphere by

continuity.

CRYPTOGRAPHY: Cryptography is the area of mathematics concerning the secure

coding and decoding of information, often relying on mathematics such as prime

factorizations of very large numbers.

csc: It is the abbreviation for cosecant function. (Also written as cosec).

csch: It is the abbreviation for hyperbolic cosecant function. (Also written as cosech).

CUBE ROOT OF UNITY: A complex number z such that 𝑧 3 = 1. The three cube roots of

−1+𝑖 3 −1−𝑖 3

unity are 1, 𝜔 and 𝜔2 , where 𝜔 = and 𝜔2 = .

2 2

CUBIC EQUATION: A polynomial having a degree of 3 (i.e. the highest power is 3), of the

form 𝑎𝑥 3 + 𝑏𝑥 2 + 𝑐𝑥 + 𝑑 = 0, which can be solved by factorization or formula to

find its three roots.

CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION: For a random variable 𝑋, the cumulative

distribution function (c.d.f.) is the function 𝐹 defined by 𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑃(𝑋 ≤ 𝑥). Thus, for a

discrete random variable

𝐹 𝑥 − 𝑝(𝑥𝑖 )

𝑥 𝑖 ≤𝑋

where p is the probability mass function, and, for a continuous random variable,

𝑥

𝐹 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡

−∞

CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY: The sum of the frequencies of all the values up to a given

value. If the values 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 , in ascending order, occur with frequencies 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , … , 𝑓𝑛 ,

respectively, then the cumulative frequency at 𝑥𝑖 is equal to 𝑓1 + 𝑓2 , … + 𝑓𝑖 . Cumulative

frequencies may be similarly obtained for grouped data.

CURL OF A VECTOR: For a vector function of position 𝑽 (𝒓) = 𝑉𝑥 𝒊 + 𝑉𝑦 𝒋 + 𝑉𝑧 𝒌, the curl

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

of 𝑽 is the vector product of the operator del ∆= 𝒊 𝜕𝑥 + 𝒋 𝜕𝑦 + 𝒌 𝜕𝑧 , with 𝑽 giving

𝜕𝑽 𝜕𝑽 𝜕𝑽

𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝑽 = ∆ × 𝑽 = 𝒊 × +𝒋× +𝒌×

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

which can be written in determinant form as

𝑖 𝑗 𝑘

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝑉𝑥 𝑉𝑦 𝑉𝑧

CURVATURE: The rate of change of direction of a curve at a point 𝑃 on the curve. The

Greek letter 𝜅 is used to denote curvature and

𝑦 ′′

𝜅= .

1 + 𝑦′ 2 3/2

1

𝜌 = 𝜅 is the radius of curvature which is the radius of the circle which best fits the curve

at that point, matching the position, the gradient and the second differential of the curve

at that point. The centre of curvature is the centre of that best-fitting circle, known as

the circle of curvature.

CURVE: A curve is a continuous mapping of the segment [0, 1] into another space -

container of the curve. A curve may not look as a line. For example, there are space

filling curves.

CUSP: A point at which two or more branches of a curve meet, and at which the limits of

the tangents approaching that point along each branch coincide. There are two main

characteristics used to describe cusps. In a single or simple cusp there are only two

branches, and the limits of the second differentials approaching that point are different.

If the branches are on opposite sides of the common tangent, it is said to be a cusp of the

first kind, and if the branches are on the same side of the common tangent it is a cusp of

the second kind.

A double cusp or point of osculation has four branches, comprising two continuously

differentiable curves meeting at a point with a common tangent. Double cusps can also

be of the first or second kind, or one or both curves can have a point of inflexion at the

cusp, so the tangent intersects the curve, in which case it is a point of osculinflection.

C(X) SPACES: All our topological spaces are assumed Hausdorff. Let X be a compact

space, and let 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) be the space of continuous functions from 𝑋 to 𝐾, with pointwise

operations, so that 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) is a vector space. We norm 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋)by setting 𝑓 ∞ =

𝑠𝑢𝑝

𝑓(𝑥) ; 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋).

𝑥∇𝑋

Note that

Let 𝑋 be a compact space. Then 𝐶𝐾 (𝑋) is a Banach space.

Let 𝐸 be a vector space, and let || · || (1) and || · || (2) be norms on 𝐸. These norms

are equivalent if there exists 𝑚 > 0 with 𝑚−1 𝑥 (2) ≤ 𝑥 (1) ≤𝑚 𝑥 (2) . (𝑥 ∇

𝐸)

Let E be a finite-dimensional vector space with basis {𝑒1 , … , 𝑒𝑛 }, so we can

identify 𝐸 with 𝐾 𝑛 as vector spaces, and hence talk about the norm || · || (2) on E.

If || · || is any norm on 𝐸, then || · || and || · || (2) are equivalent.

Let E be a finite-dimensional normed space. Then a subset 𝑋 ⊆ 𝐸 is compact if

and only if it is closed and bounded.

Let 𝐸 be a normed vector space, and let 𝐹 be a closed subspace of 𝐸 with 𝐸 ≠ 𝐹.

For 0 < 𝜃 < 1, we can find 𝑥0 ∇ 𝐸 with ||𝑥0 || ≤ 1 and ||𝑥0 − 𝑦|| > 𝜃 for 𝑦 ∇ 𝐹.

Let 𝐸 be an infinite-dimensional normed vector space. Then the closed unit ball

of 𝐸, the set {𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 ∶ ||𝑥|| ≤ 1}, is not compact.

CYCLE (GRAPH THEORY): A closed path with at least one edge. In a graph, a cycle is a

sequence 𝑣0 , 𝑒1 , 𝑣1 , … , 𝑒𝑘 , 𝑣𝑘 (𝑘 ≥ 1) of alternately vertices and edges (where 𝑒𝑖 is an

edge joining 𝑣𝑖—1 and 𝑣𝑖 ), with all the edges different and all the vertices different,

except that 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑘 .

CYCLIC GROUP: Let 𝑎 be an element of a multiplicative group 𝐺. The elements 𝑎𝑟 , where

𝑟 is an integer (positive, zero or negative), form a subgroup of 𝐺, called the subgroup

generated by 𝑎. A group 𝐺 is cyclic if there is an element a in 𝐺 such that the subgroup

generated by 𝑎 is the whole of 𝐺. If 𝐺 is a finite cyclic group with identity element 𝑒, the

set of elements of 𝐺 may be written as {𝑒, 𝑎, 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛−1 }, where 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑒 and 𝑛 is the

smallest such positive integer. If 𝐺 is an infinite cyclic group, the set of elements may be

written { … , 𝑎−2 , 𝑎−1 , 𝑒, 𝑎, 𝑎2 , … }.

CYCLIC POLYGON: A polygon whose vertices all lie on the same circle. All triangles, all

rectangles, and all regular polygons are cyclic. Convex quadrilaterals, whose opposite

angles are supplementary, are also cyclic.

CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL: A four-sided figure whose four vertices all lie on a

circumscribed circle. If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral add to 180°, it is a cyclic

quadrilateral.

CYCLOID: The curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls

without slipping along a straight line. With suitable axes, the cycloid has parametric

equations 𝑥 = 𝑎(𝑡 — 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑡), 𝑦 = 𝑎(1 — 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑡)(𝑡 ∇ 𝑹), where 𝑎 is a constant (equal

to the radius of the rolling circle). In the figure, 𝑂𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑎.

CYCLOTOMIC NUMBER FIELDS: The starting point for cyclotomic number fields is the

irreducibility of the cyclotomic polynomial 𝑓(𝑡) = 𝑡 𝑛 −1 + 𝑡 𝑛 −2 + … + 𝑡 + 1 in 𝑄[𝑡]

for any positive rational prime 𝑝. To see this, note that 𝑓(𝑡 + 1) = 𝑡 𝑝 −1 +

𝑝(𝑡 𝑝−2 + . . . ) + 𝑝, and the irreducibility now follows immediately from Eisenstein’s

criterion. For any positive rational prime 𝑝, the 𝑝-th cyclotomic number field is the

algebraic number field 𝑄(𝜁), where 𝜁 = 𝑒 2𝜋𝑖 /𝑝 is a primitive 𝑝-th root of unity.

CYCLOTOMIC POLYNOMIAL Φn(z): The polynomial whose roots are all the primitive n-

th roots of unity. We know

𝑧 𝑛 — 1 ≡ (𝑧 — 1)(𝑧 𝑛−1 + 𝑧 𝑛−2 + … + 𝑧 + 1),

so when n is prime 𝛷𝑛 (𝑧) = 𝑧 𝑛 −1 + 𝑧 𝑛 −2 + … + 𝑧 + 1 is the cyclotomic polynomial,

but when 𝑛 = 4, 𝑧 4 — 1 = (𝑧 — 1)(𝑧 + 1)(𝑧 2 + 1), and so 𝛷4 (𝑧) = (𝑧 2 + 1).

CYLINDRICAL HELICES: A cylindrical helix is a curve traced out on the surface of the

cylinder and cuts the generators at a constant angle.

Thus the tangent at any point on the helix makes a constant angle say 𝛼, with a fixed

line, this fixed line is known as axis (generator) of the cylinder, the axis of the cylinder is

also called the axis of the helix.

CYLINDRICAL POLAR COORDINATES: Suppose that three mutually perpendicular

directed lines 𝑂𝑥, 𝑂𝑦 and 𝑂𝑧, intersecting at the point 𝑂 and forming a right-handed

system, are taken as coordinate axes. For any point 𝑃, let 𝑀 and 𝑁 be the projections of

𝑃 onto the 𝑥𝑦 −plane and the 𝑧 −axis respectively. Then 𝑂𝑁 = 𝑃𝑀 = 𝑧, the

𝑧 −coordinate of 𝑃. Let 𝜌 = |𝑃𝑁|, the distance of 𝑃 from the 𝑧 −axis, and let ø be the

angle ∠𝑥𝑂𝑀 in radians (0 ≤ ø < 2 𝜋). Then

(𝜌, ø, 𝑧) are the cylindrical polar coordinates of 𝑃.

(It should be noted that the points of the 𝑧 −axis

give no value for ø.) The two coordinates (𝜌, ø) can be seen as polar coordinates of the

point 𝑀 and, as with polar coordinates, ø + 2 𝑘𝜋, where 𝑘 is an integer, may be allowed

in place of ø.

D

D’ ALEMBERT’S PARADOX: If we super- impose on the system a uniform velocity 𝑈 in

the direction opposite to that of the current the inviscid fluid at a great distance remain

undisturbed and the body moves with uniform velocity 𝑈. The dynamical conditions

remain unaltered by superposing a uniform velocity therefore, the resistance to a body

moving with uniform velocity through an unbounded inviscid fluid, otherwise at rest,

vanishes. This is in contradiction to the common experience and is called 𝐷’ Alembert’s

Paradox.

𝑢 𝑛 +1

lim𝑛→∞ = 𝑙. Then

𝑢𝑛

1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑙 < 1.

2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑙 > 1.

3. The test fails if 𝑙 = 1.

DARBOUX FUNCTION: For topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌, a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is a

Darboux function (or has the Darboux property), 𝑓 ∇ 𝐷(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided the image

𝑓 [𝐶] of 𝐶 under 𝑓 is a connected subset of 𝑌 for every connected subset 𝐶 of 𝑋. In

particular, 𝑓 ∶ 𝑅 → 𝑅 is Darboux provided 𝑓 maps intervals onto intervals, that is,

when it has the intermediate value property.

DARBOUX THEOREM: Let 𝑓 be a bounded function defined on [𝑎, 𝑏]. Then to every ∇> 0,

there corresponds 𝛿 > 0 such that

𝑏

𝑈 𝑃, 𝑓 < 𝑓𝑑𝑥+∇

𝑎

and

𝑏

𝐿 𝑃, 𝑓 > 𝑓𝑑𝑥−∇

𝑎

Often the data are a randomly selected sample from an underlying population.

Numerical data are discrete if the underlying population is finite or countably infinite

and are continuous if the underlying population forms an interval, finite or infinite. Data

are nominal if the observations are not numerical or quantitative, but are descriptive

and have no natural order. Data specifying country of origin, type of vehicle or subject

studied, for example, are nominal. Note that the word ‘data’ is plural. The singular

‘datum’ may be used for a single observation.

DATA ANALYTICS: Data analytics (DA) is the science of examining raw data with the

purpose of drawing conclusions about that information. Data analytics is used in many

industries to allow companies and organization to make better business decisions and

in the sciences to verify or disprove existing models or theories. Data analytics is

distinguished from data mining by the scope, purpose and focus of the analysis. Data

miners sort through huge data sets using sophisticated software to identify

undiscovered patterns and establish hidden relationships. Data analytics focuses on

inference, the process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what is already known by

the researcher.

arguments to any compact subset 𝐾 of 𝑅 𝑑 is dense in 𝐶(𝐾).

a necessary condition on a holomorphic function in order for it to map the open unit

disk of the complex plane injectively to the complex plane. It was posed by Ludwig

Bieberbach (1916) and finally proven by Louis de Branges (1985).

The statement concerns the Taylor coefficients 𝑎𝑛 of such a function, normalized as is

always possible so that 𝑎0 = 0 and 𝑎1 = 1. That is, we consider a function defined on

the open unit disk which is holomorphic and injective (univalent) with Taylor series of

the form

when decisions have to be made at stages in a process, but the outcomes resulting from

the implementation of those decisions are dependent on chance.

DECISION THEORY: The area of statistics and game theory concerned with decision

making under uncertainty to maximize expected utility.

DECISION TREE: The diagram used to represent the process in a decision analysis

problem. Different symbols are used to denote the different types of node or vertex. For

example, decisions may be shown as rectangles, chance events as circles, and payoffs as

triangles.

DECISION PROBLEMS: A decision problem (or recognition problem) is one that takes

the form of a question with a yes/no answer.

DECISION VARIABLES: The quantities to be found in linear programming or other

constrained optimization problems.

DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: If 𝐺 is a subspace (i.e. a closed linear manifold) of a Hilbert

space 𝐻, then every vector of H can be uniquely decomposed into the sum of a vector

𝑔 belonging to 𝐺 and a vector 𝑓 which is orthogonal to : i.e.

𝐻 = 𝐺 ⊕ 𝐺⊥

= 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 − 𝑔′ ,

at the vector 𝑔.

DECREASING FUNCTION: A function f (x) is a decreasing function if f (a) _ f (b) when a _

b.

DECREASING SEQUENCE: A real sequence 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , … is said to be a decreasing

sequence if 𝑎𝑛 ≥ 𝑎𝑛+1 for all 𝑛 and strictly decreasing if 𝑎𝑛 > 𝑎𝑛+1 for all 𝑛.

DEDEKIND- CANTOR AXIOM: To every real number there corresponds a unique point on

a directed line and conversely, to every point on a directed line there corresponds a

unique real number.

DEDEKIND DOMAINS: A Dedekind domain is an integrally-closed Noetherian domain in

which every non-zero prime ideal is maximal. It follows from this definition that a unital

commutative ring R is a Dedekind domain if and only if it possesses all four of the

following properties:

(i) R is an integral domain;

(ii) every ideal of R is finitely generated,

(iii) R is integrally closed in its field of fractions;

(iv) every non-zero prime ideal of R is maximal.

Properties (i) and (ii) characterize Noetherian domains, and property (iii) characterizes

integrally-closed domains. Every principal ideal domain is a Dedekind domain.

DEDEKIND, JULIUS WILHELM RICHARD (1831–1916): Richard Dedekind was a German

mathematician who developed a formal construction of the real numbers from the

rational numbers by means of the so-called Dedekind cut. This new approach to

irrational numbers, contained in the very readable paper Continuity and Irrational

Numbers, was an important step towards the formalization of mathematics. He also

proposed a definition of infinite sets that was taken up by Cantor, with whom he

developed a lasting friendship.

DEDEKIND’S AXIOM: Let 𝐿 and 𝑈 be two subsets of 𝑅 such that

1. 𝐿 ≠ 𝜑, 𝑈 ≠ 𝜑

2. 𝐿 ∪ 𝑈 = 𝑅

3. 𝑥 ∇ 𝐿, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑈 ⇒ 𝑥 < 𝑦

Then the subset L has the greatest member or the subset U has the smallest member i.e.

∃𝛼 ∇ 𝑅 𝑠. 𝑡. 𝑥 < 𝛼 ⇒ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐿, 𝑦 > 𝛼 ⇒ 𝑦 ∇ 𝑈.

DEDUCTION: A deduction is a conclusion arrived at by reasoning.

DEDUCTIVE REASONING: Using facts, definitions, accepted properties, and the laws of

logic to make a logical argument.

DEFICIENT NUMBER: A positive integer is said to be a deficient number if it is larger

than the sum of its positive divisors

DEFINITE INTEGRAL: If 𝑓(𝑥) represents a function of 𝑥 that is always nonnegative, then

the definite integral of 𝑓(𝑥) between 𝑎 and 𝑏 represents the area under the curve

𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), above the x-axis, to the right of the line 𝑥 = 𝑎, and to the left of the line x = b.

The definite integral is represented by the expression

𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑎

DEFINITION: An exact statement of the meaning, nature, and/or limits of a

mathematical object.

deg: It is the abbreviation for degree of a polynomial. (Also written as ∂ .

DEGENERACY IN TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS: The solution procedure for non-

degenerate basic feasible solution with exactly m+n-1 strictly positive allocations in

independent positions has been discussed so far. However, sometimes it is not possible

to get such initial feasible solution to start with. Thus degeneracy occurs in the

transportation problem whenever a number of occupied cells is less than m+n-1.

have at most m+n-1 number of positive (non –zero) basic variables. If this number is

exactly m+n-1 , the BFS is said to be non-degenerate; and if less than m+n-1 the basic

solution degenerates. It follows that whenever the number of basic cells is less than

m+n-1 , the transportation problem is a degenerate one.

(i) Basic feasible solutions may be degenerate from the initial stage onward.

(ii) They may become degenerate at any intermediate stage.

A special technique called as the Assignment technique is used to solve the special type

of problems called Assignment problem. This type of problems may be defined as the

traditional or classical problems where the main motive is to allot a number of origins

to the equal number of destinations at a least cost are called assignment problems.

The assignment problems can be stated in the form of 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑐𝑖𝑗 of real

numbers called cost matrix or effectiveness matrix.

DEGENERACY PROBLEM (TIE FOR MINIMUM RATIO): At the stage of improving the

solution during simplex procedure, minimum ratio 𝑥8 /𝑥𝑘 (𝑥𝑘 > 0) is determined in the

last column of simplex table to find the key row (i.e. a row containing the key element).

But, sometimes this ratio may not be unique, i.e, the key element (hence the variable to

leave the basis) is not uniquely determined or at the very first iteration, the value of one

or more basic variables in the XB column become equal to zero, this causes the problem

of degeneracy.

However, if the minimum ratio is zero for two or more basic variables, degeneracy may

result the simplex routine to cycle indefinitely. That is, the solution which we have

obtained in one iteration may repeat again after few iterations and therefore no

optimum solution may be obtained under such circumstances.

DEGENERATE CONIC SECTION: A point, line, or pair of lines that arise as a limiting form

of a conic.

DEGREE OF AN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER: The degree of an algebraic number field 𝐾 is the

dimension [𝐾: 𝑄] of K considered as a vector space over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.

DEGREE OF A VERTEX OF A GRAPH: The degree of a vertex 𝑉 of a graph is the number of

edges ending at 𝑉. If loops are allowed, each loop joining 𝑉 to itself contributes two to

the degree of 𝑉.

DEGREES OF FREEDOM (MECHANICS): The number of degrees of freedom of a body is

the minimum number of independent coordinates required to describe the position of

the body at any instant, relative to a frame of reference. A particle in straight-line

motion or circular motion has one degree of freedom. A rigid body rotating about a fixed

axis also has one degree of freedom. A particle moving in a plane, such as a projectile, or

a particle moving on a cylindrical or spherical surface has two degrees of freedom. A

rigid body in general motion has six degrees of freedom.

DEGREES OF FREEDOM (STATISTICS): A positive integer normally equal to the number

of independent observations in a sample minus the number of population parameters to

be estimated from the sample. When the chi-squared test is applied to a contingency

table with rows and 𝑘 columns, the number of degrees of freedom equals

( – 1)(𝑘 – 1).

DEL: The del symbol ∆ is used to represent this vector of differential operators:

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

∆= , ,

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

DELETED NEIGHBOURHOOD OF A POINT: If from a nbd of a point 𝑝, the point 𝑝 itself is

deleted, then we get a deleted nbd of the point 𝑝.

DELTA FUNCTION 𝛅 𝐱 − 𝐚 : It is defined as

∞ if x = a

δ(x − a) =

0 if x ≠ a

∞

together with the condition ∫−∞ δ x − a dx = 1.

France, who later settled in England. In De Moivre’s Theorem, he is remembered for his

use of complex numbers in trigonometry.

DE MOIVRE’S THEOREM: For all positive integers 𝑛,

(𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃)𝑛 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑛𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑛𝜃.

DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (1806–71): Augustus De Morgan was a British mathematician

and logician who was responsible for developing a more symbolic approach to algebra,

and who played a considerable role in the beginnings of symbolic logic. His name is

remembered in De Morgan’s laws, which he formulated.

DE MORGAN’S LAWS: For all sets A and B (subsets of a universal set),

(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∩ 𝐵′ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)′ = 𝐴′ ∪ 𝐵′.

DE MORGAN AND BERTRAND’S TEST: The series 𝑢𝑛 of positive terms is convergent or

divergent according as

𝑢𝑛

lim 𝑛 − 1 − 1 log 𝑛 > 1 𝑜𝑟 < 1.

𝑛 →∞ 𝑢𝑛 +1

DENSE IN ITSELF: A subset 𝐴 of 𝑅 is said to be dense in itself if it possesses no isolated

point i.e. every point of 𝐴 is a limit point of 𝐴.

DENSENESS PROPERTY OF REAL NUMBERS: Between any two distinct real numbers

there always lies a rational number and therefore infinitely many rational numbers.

DENSE SUBSET: A subset 𝑅 of a normed linear space 𝑁 is said to be dense in 𝑁, if every

element of 𝑁 is the limit of some fundamental sequence of vectors in 𝑅. This is

equivalent to saying that given any vector 𝑓 of 𝑁 and given any 𝜀 > 0, a vector 𝑔∇ in 𝑅

can be found such that 𝑓 − 𝑓∇ < 𝜀.

DENSITY PROPERTY: The property that states that there always exists another rational

number between any two given rational numbers. This means that the set of rational

numbers is dense.

DENSITY PROPERTY FOR REAL NUMBERS: The property that states that there always

exists another real number between any two given real numbers. This means that the

set of real numbers is dense.

DENUMERABLE SET: A set 𝑋 is said to be a denumerable set if there is a one-to-one

correspondence between X and the set of natural numbers. It can be shown that the set

of rational numbers is denumerable but that the set of real numbers is not.

DEPENDENT EQUATIONS: A set of equations where at least one of the set may be

expressed as a linear combination of the others.

DEPENDENT EVENT: An event that is affected by the occurrence of other events

DEPENDENT VARIABLE: The dependent variable stands for the output number of a

function. In the equation 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑦 is the dependent variable and 𝑥 is the

independent variable. The value of 𝑦 depends on the value of 𝑥. In statistics, the variable

which is thought might be influenced by certain other explanatory variables. In

regression, a relationship is sought between the dependent variable and the

explanatory variables. The purpose is normally to enable the value of the dependent

DERIVATIVE: The derivative of a function is the rate of change of that function. On the

graph of the curve 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), the derivative at 𝑥 is equal to the slope of the tangent line

at the point (𝑥, 𝑓 (𝑥)). If the function represents the position of an object as a function of

time, then the derivative represents the velocity of the object. Derivatives can be

calculated from this expression:

Function Derivative

𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) 𝑓 𝑥 + − 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑦 ′ = 𝑓 ′ 𝑥 = lim

→0

DERIVED SET: The set of all limit points of 𝐴 is called derived set of 𝐴.

DERIVED UNIT: It is a unit that is defined or obtained in terms of the fundamental units.

For example, a unit of force, one Newton (N), is defined as the amount of force that will

accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second.

Therefore, its formal definition is kg·m·s-2.

DEROGATORY AND NON-DEROGATORY MATRIX: An 𝑛-rowed matrix is said to be

derogatory or non-derogatory, according as the degree of its minimal equation is less

than or equal to 𝑛.

If the roots of the characteristic equation of a matrix are all distinct, then the matrix is

non-derogatory.

DESCARTES, RENE: Rene Descartes (1596 to 1650) was a French mathematician and

philosopher who is noted for the sentence “I think, therefore I am” and for developing

the concept now known as rectangular, or Cartesian coordinates. He was the

mathematician who in mathematics is known mainly for his methods of applying

algebra to geometry, from which analytic geometry developed. He expounded these in

La Géométrie, in which he was also concerned to use geometry to solve algebraic

problems.

DESCARTES’ RULE OF SIGNS: Descartes’ rule of signs states that the number of positive

roots of a polynomial equation will equal the number of sign changes among the

coefficients, or that number minus a multiple of 2. To count the sign changes, be sure the

polynomial terms are arranged in descending order by power of x, and ignore any zero

coefficients.

DESCENDING CHAIN CONDITION: A collection 𝑆 of subsets of a set 𝑋 satisfies the

ascending chain condition or DCC if there does not exist an infinite descending chain

𝑆1 ⊇ 𝑆2 ⊇ · · · of subsets from 𝑆.

DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY: A method of representing three-dimensional objects by

projections on the two-dimensional plane using a specific set of procedures.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: This is the part of the subject of statistics concerned with

describing the basic statistical features of a set of observations. Simple numerical

summaries, using notions such as mean, range and standard deviation, together with

appropriate diagrams such as histograms, are used to present an overall impression of

the data. Descriptive statistics is the study of ways to summarize data. For example, the

mean, median, and standard deviation are descriptive statistics that summarize some of

the properties of a list of numbers.

det: It is the abbreviation for determinant of a matrix or linear transformation.

DETERMINANT: The determinant of a matrix is a number that is useful in describing the

characteristics of the matrix. The determinant is symbolized by enclosing the matrix in

vertical lines. The determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix is:

𝑎 𝑏

= 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐

𝑐 𝑑

The determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix can be found from:

𝑎 𝑏 𝑐

𝑓 𝑑 𝑑 𝑒

𝑑 𝑒 𝑓 =𝑎 𝑒 𝑓

+𝑏 +𝑐

𝑖 𝑖 𝑔 𝑔

𝑔 𝑖

= 𝑎 𝑒𝑖 − 𝑓 + 𝑏 𝑓𝑔 − 𝑑𝑖 + 𝑐(𝑑 − 𝑔𝑒)

The following properties hold:

(i) If two rows or two columns of a square matrix 𝑨 are identical, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 = 0.

(ii) If two rows or two columns of a square matrix 𝑨 are interchanged, then only the

sign of 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 is changed.

(iii) The value of 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 is unchanged if a multiple of one row is added to another row, or

if a multiple of one column is added to another column.

(iv) If 𝑨 and 𝑩 are square matrices of the same order, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡(𝑨𝑩) = (𝑑𝑒𝑡𝑨) (𝑑𝑒𝑡𝑩).

(vi) If 𝑨 is an 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix, then 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑘𝑨 = 𝑘 𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨.

DETERMINANT OF A SQUARE MATRIX: Let A = aij be a square matrix of order 𝑛.

m×n

a11 a12 ⋯ a1n

a21 a22 ⋯ a2n

Then the number ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ is called the determinant of the matrix A and is

⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯

an1 an2 ⋯ ann

denoted by A or by Det. A or by aij . Since in a determinant the number of rows is

equal to the number of columns, therefore only square matrices can have determinants.

The value of a determinant does not change when rows and columns are interchanged.

If any two rows (or two columns) of a determinant are interchanged, the value of the

determinant is multiplied by–1.

If all the elements of one rows (or one column) of a determinant are multiplied by the

same number k, the valuye of the new determinant is k times the value of the given

determinant.

If two rows (or two columns) of a determinant are identical, the value of the

determinant is zero.

In a determinant the sum of the products of the elements of any row (column) with the

cofactors of the corresponding elements of any other row (column) is zero.

If in a determinant each element in any row (or column) consists of the sum of two

terms, then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants of the

same order.

If to the elements of a row (or column) of a determinant are added m times the

corresponding elements of another row (or column), the value of the determinant thus

obtained is equal to the value of the original determinant.

has n × n elements.

A determinant of order n is a square array of n × n quantities (numbers of functions)

a11 a12 ⋯ a1n

a21 a22 ⋯ a2n

enclosed between vertical bars, ∆= ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ .

⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯

an1 an2 ⋯ ann

The cofactor Aij of the element aij in ∆ is equal to (−1)i+j times the determinant of order

n − 1 obtained from ∆ by leaving the row and the column passing through the element

aij . Then we have

ring 𝑅, let 𝐽 be an ideal of 𝑅, and let 𝜙: 𝑀 → 𝑀 be an endomorphism of the 𝑅-module 𝑀.

Suppose that 𝜙(𝑀) ⊂ 𝐽𝑀. Then there exist elements 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑛−1 of R such that

𝑛−1

𝑎𝑘 ∇ 𝐽 𝑛−𝑘 for 𝑘 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛 − 1 and 𝜙 𝑛 + 𝑘=0 𝑎𝑘 𝜙

𝑘

= 0𝐸𝑛𝑑 𝑅 (𝑀) .

for a subsequent period of time, are known as deterministic model.

developable surface or simply a developable. It is a surface isometric to the plane.

value. If {𝑥𝑖 } is a set of observations of the random variable 𝑋 then 𝑥𝑖 – 𝑥 is the deviation

of the 𝑖th observation from the mean.

DIAGONAL FORMS: Diagonal forms are some of the simplest projective varieties to

study from an arithmetic point of view (including the Fermat varieties). Their local zeta-

functions are computed in terms of Jacobi sums. Waring's problem is the most classical

case.

DIAGONALIZABLE MATRIX: A matrix is said to be diagonalizable if it is similar to a

diagonal matrix.

An 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix is diagonalizable if and only if it possesses 𝑛 linearly independent

eigenvectors.

DIAGONAL MATRIX: A square matrix in which all entries, except the main diagonal

entries, are zero. A square matrix A = aij those elements above and below the

n×n

principle diagonal are all zero, i.e., aij = 0 for all i ≠ j, is called a diagonal matrix

Thus a diagonal matrix is both upper and lower triangular. An n- rowed diagonal matrix

whose diagonal elements in order are d1 , d2 , d3 , … , dn will often be denoted by the

symbol

Diag [d1 , d2 , … , dn ]

For example

2 0 0 2 0 0

A = 0 0 0 and 0 2 0 are diagonal matrices.

0 0 5 0 0 2

distances between pairs of points.

DIAMETRAL PLANE: The locus of points which bisect a system of parallel chords of a

given sphere is called the diametric plane, all chords being parallel to a given line.

map 𝑓 from 𝑀 to 𝑁 is called a diffeomorphism if both 𝑓: 𝑀 → 𝑁 and its inverse 𝑓 −1 : 𝑀 →

𝑁 are smooth functions.

DIFFERENCE EQUATION: Difference equations describe the change with time of

variables that change over discrete time steps. Difference equations have some

similarities with differential equations. The difference is that the independent variable

in a differential equation can vary continuously. In a difference equation, the function

has one value at time 1, then another value at time 2, another value at time 3, and so on.

𝑥𝑖 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥𝑖−1

DIFFERENTIABLE: A continuous function is said to be differentiable over an interval

𝑎, 𝑏 if its derivative exists everywhere in that interval. This means that the graph of the

function is smooth, with no kinks, cusps, or breaks.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation is an equation containing the

derivatives of a function with respect to one or more independent variables. The order

of the equation is the highest derivative that appears.

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY: The area of mathematics which uses differential calculus in

the study of geometry. For example, to prove that the area of a circle is exactly 𝜋𝑟 2 .

DIFFERENTIATION: Differentiation is the process of finding a derivative.

DIGRAPH: A digraph or directed graph consists of a number of vertices, some of which

are joined by arcs, where an arc, or directed edge, joins one vertex to another and has an

arrow on it to indicate its direction. The arc from the vertex 𝑢 to the vertex 𝑣 may be

denoted by the ordered pair (𝑢, 𝑣).

DIHEDRAL ANGLE: The angle formed by two intersecting planes. The size of the

dihedral angle is defined as the size of the angle formed by two intersecting lines (one in

each plane) that are both perpendicular to the straight edge along which the two planes

intersect.

DIHEDRAL GROUP: The group of symmetries of a regular 𝑛 −sided polygon; the notation

𝐷𝑛 is often used.

DILATION: Dilation of a map between metric spaces is the infimum of numbers L such

that the given map is L-Lipschitz.

dim: It is the abbreviation for dimension of a vector space.

DIMENSION OF A VECTOR SPACE: The number n of vectors in a basis of the finite-

dimensional vector space V is called the dimension of V and we write 𝑑𝑖𝑚(𝑉) = 𝑛. Thus,

as we might expect, ℝ𝑛 has dimension n. 𝐾 𝑥 is infinite-dimensional, but the space

𝐾 𝑥 ≤ 𝑛 of polynomials over 𝐾 of degree at most 𝑛 has basis 1, 𝑥, 𝑥 2 , … … … , 𝑥 𝑛 so its

dimension is (𝑛 + 1).

Note that the dimension of 𝑉 depends on the field 𝐾. Thus the complex numbers ℂ

can be considered as

A vector space of dimension 1 over ℂ ,with one possible basis being the single

element 1.

A vector space of dimension 2 over ℝ, with one possible basis given by the two

elements 1,i

A vector space of infinite dimension over ℚ.

Note the following:

Suppose that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 , 𝑤 span 𝑉 and that 𝑤 is a linear

combination of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 .Then 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 span 𝑉.

Suppose that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 span the vector space 𝑉.Then there is a

subsequence of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 which forms a basis of 𝑉.

Let 𝑉 be the vector space over 𝐾 which has a finite spanning set, and suppose

that the vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟 are linearly independent in 𝑉. Then we can extend

the sequence to a basis 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 of 𝑉 where 𝑛 ≥ 𝑟.

Suppose that the vectors v𝟏 , v𝟐 , ⋯ ⋯ , v𝒏 span 𝑉 and that vectors

w𝟏 , w𝟐 , ⋯ ⋯ , w𝒎 ϵ V are linearly independent. Then 𝑚 ≤ 𝑛.

Let V be a vector space of dimension n over K. Then any n vectors which span V

forms a basis of V, and no n-1 vectors can span V.

Let V be a vector space of dimension n over K. Then any linearly independent

vectors form a basis of V and no 𝑛 + 1 vectors can be linearly independent.

If a non-trivial vector space V is spanned by a finite number of vectors, then it

has a basis.

DIMENSION THEOREM FOR VECTOR SPACES: Given a vector space 𝑉, any two linearly

independent generating sets (in other words, any two bases) have the same cardinality.

If 𝑉 is finitely generated, then it has a finite basis, and the result says that any two bases

have the same number of elements.

functions converges on a compact space, it converges uniformly. If 𝑋 is

a compact topological space, and { 𝑓𝑛 } is a monotonically increasing

sequence of continuous real-valued functions on 𝑋 which converges pointwise to a

continuous function 𝑓, then the convergence is uniform. The same conclusion holds if

{ 𝑓𝑛 } is monotonically decreasing instead of increasing.

geodescially on each other by a non-conformal mapping must have line elements which

can be written in the forms

𝑑𝑠 2 = 𝑈 − 𝑉 (𝑑𝑢2 + 𝑑𝑣 2 )

𝑑𝑠 ∗2 = 𝑉 −1 − 𝑈 −1 (𝑈 −1 + 𝑑𝑢2 + 𝑉 −1 𝑑𝑣 2 )

Where 𝑈 = 𝑈 𝑢 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉 = 𝑉 𝑣 .

integer coefficients, for which integer solutions are required. A great variety of

Diophantine equations have been studied. Some have infinitely many solutions, some

have finitely many and some have no solutions. For example:

(i) 14𝑥 + 9𝑦 = 1 has solutions 𝑥 = 2 + 9𝑡, 𝑦 = – 3– 14𝑡 .

(ii) 𝑥 2 + 1 = 2𝑦 4 has two solutions 𝑥 = 1, 𝑦 = 1 and 𝑥 = 239, 𝑦 = 13.

(iii) 𝑥 4 + 𝑦 3 = 𝑧 5 has no solutions.

DIOPHANTUS OF ALEXANDRIA: Diophantus of Alexandria was an ancient Greek

mathematician whose work displayed an algebraic approach to the solution of

equations in one or more unknowns, unlike earlier Greek methods that were more

geometrical. In the books of Arithmetica that survive, particular numerical examples of

more than 100 problems are solved, probably to indicate the general methods of

solution. These are mostly of the kind now referred to as Diophantine equations.

DIRAC DELTA FUNCTION: We have functions which have non-zero values on very short

intervals. The Dirac delta function may be thought of as a generation of this concept. The

Dirac delta function and its derivatives play a very useful role in the solution of the

boundary value problems in mathematical physics as well as in quantum mechanics.

1

, t >𝜖

δϵ t = 2ϵ ………….. 1

0, t <𝜖

∞ 𝜖 1

Thus ∫−∞ δϵ t dt = ∫−𝜖 2ϵ dt. ………….. 2

Again if 𝑓 𝑡 is any function which is integrable in the interval −ϵ, ϵ then using the

mean value theorem of the integral calculus, we have

∞ 1 𝜖

∫−∞ 𝑓(𝑡)δϵ t dt = 2ϵ ∫−𝜖 𝑓(𝑡)dt = 𝑓 𝜃𝜖 , 𝜃 ≤ 1. ……….…. 3

i.e., δ t = limϵ→0 δϵ(t) …………… 4

∞ if t = 0

δ t = limϵ→0 δϵ(t) = ………….. 5

0 if t ≠ 0

∞

and ∫−∞ δ t dt = 1. ………… 6

this limiting function δ t defined by equations (5) and (6) is known a the Dirac delta

function (or the unit impulse function) after Dirac who first introduced it. Dirac called

this delta function as improper function as there cannot be proper function satisfying

such conditions.

together with a subset 𝐸 of 𝑉 × 𝑉 . The elements of 𝑉 are the vertices of the digraph;

the elements of 𝐸 are the edges of the digraph.

DIRECTED NUMBER: A number having a positive or negative sign attached, such as +4

or -4. It is commonly used for temperature readings to emphasize whether it is above or

below 0°.

DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVE: The directional derivative of a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) in the

direction of a unit vector 𝒗 = (𝑣𝑥 , 𝑣𝑦 ) is the dot product of the gradient of 𝑓 with 𝒗:

𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓

𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 = 𝑣𝑥 + 𝑣

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝑦

DIRECTRIX: A directrix is a line that helps to define a geometric figure.

DIRECT SUM OF MODULES: Let 𝑀1 , 𝑀2 , . . . , 𝑀𝑘 be modules over a unital commutative

ring 𝑅. The direct sum 𝑀1 ⊕ 𝑀2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ 𝑀𝑘 is defined to be the set of ordered 𝑘-tuples

(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ), where 𝑥𝑖 ∇ 𝑀𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑘. This direct sum is itself an 𝑅-module:

(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ) + (𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , . . . , 𝑦𝑘 ) = (𝑥1 + 𝑦1 , 𝑥2 + 𝑦2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 + 𝑦𝑘 ), 𝑟(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑥𝑘 ) =

(𝑟𝑥1 , 𝑟𝑥2 , . . . , 𝑟𝑥𝑘 ) for all 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖 ∇ 𝑀𝑖 and 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅. If 𝐾 is any field, then 𝐾 𝑛 is the direct

sum of 𝑛 copies of 𝐾.

DIRECT SUM OF SUBSPACES: If 𝑈 ∩ 𝑊 = {0}, then we write 𝑈 ⊕ 𝑊 for 𝑈 + 𝑊. A

vector space 𝑉 is said to be the direct sum of subspaces 𝑈 and 𝑊 if 𝑉 = 𝑈 ⊕ 𝑊.

DIRICHLET, PETER GUSTAV LEJEUNE (1805–59): Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet was a

German mathematician who was professor at the University of Berlin before succeeding

Gauss at the University of Göttingen. He proved that in any arithmetic series

𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑑, 𝑎 + 2𝑑, …, where 𝑎 and 𝑑 are relatively prime, there are infinitely many

primes. He gave the modern definition of a function. In more advanced work, he was

concerned to see analysis applied to number theory and mathematical physics.

DIRICHLET’S PRIME NUMBER THEOREM: Suppose that 𝑞 ∇ 𝑁 and 𝑎 ∇ 𝑍 satisfy

(𝑎, 𝑞) = 1. Then there are infinitely many primes 𝑝 ≡ 𝑎 𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑞.

DIRICHLET SERIES: A series in the form

∞

𝑎𝑛 𝑒 −𝜆 𝑛 𝑧

𝑛 =1

where 𝑎𝑛 and 𝑧 are complex and {𝜆𝑛 } is a monotonic increasing sequence of real

numbers. When 𝜆𝑛 = log 𝑒 𝑛, the series reduces to

∞

𝑎𝑛 𝑛−𝑧

𝑛=1

DIRICHLET’S CONDITIONS: Let 𝑓 𝑥 be a function which satisfies the following

conditions:

(b) 𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓′ 𝑥 are piecewise continuous in −𝜆, 𝜆 .

(c) 𝑓 𝑥 is periodic whose period is 2𝜆.

bounded partial sums,

i.e.

𝑚

𝑎𝑛 < 𝐾

𝑛=1

for all values of 𝑚, and {𝑏𝑛 } is decreasing sequence converging to zero, then 𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑛

converges.

DISCONNECTED GRAPH: D is connected graph is a graph in which the vertices are

separated into two or more distinct groups and cannot be linked from a vertex in one

group to a vertex in the other group through a series of edges.

DISCRETE: Discrete refers to a situation where the possibilities are distinct and

separated from each other. For example, the number of people in a city is discrete,

because there is no such thing as a fractional person.

DISCRETE RANDOM VARIABLE: A discrete random variable is a random variable which

can only take on values from a discrete list. The probability function (or density

function) lists the probability that the variable will take on each of the possible values.

The sum of the probabilities for all of the possible values must be 1. Binomial

distribution, Poisson distribution, Geometric distribution, Hypergeometric distribution

etc are examples of discrete random variable.

DISCRETE TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 be any non-empty set and let 𝑃(𝑋) be the collection of all

subsets of 𝑋. Then 𝑃(𝑋) is called the discrete topology on the set 𝑋. The topological

space (𝑋; 𝑃(𝑋)) is called a discrete space.

DISCRETE VALUATION: Let 𝐾 be a field, and let 𝑍 ∪ {∞} be the set obtained from the

ring 𝑍 of integers by adding a symbol ∞ with the properties that ∞ + ∞ = ∞, 𝑛 +

∞ = ∞ + 𝑛 = ∞, ∞ − 𝑛 = ∞ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∞ > 𝑛 for all integers 𝑛. A discrete valuation on

the field 𝐾 is a function 𝜈: 𝐾 → 𝑍 ∪ {∞} which satisfies the following conditions:

(i) 𝜈(𝑎) = ∞ if and only if 𝑎 = 0𝐾 ;

(ii) 𝜈(𝑎𝑏) = 𝜈(𝑎) + 𝜈(𝑏) for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐾;

(iii) 𝜈(𝑎 + 𝑏) ≥ 𝑚𝑖𝑛(𝜈(𝑎), 𝜈(𝑏)) for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐾.

Let 𝑝 be a prime number. Then, given any non-zero rational number 𝑟, there exist

integers 𝑘, 𝑢 and v such that 𝑟 = 𝑝𝑘 𝑢𝑣 −1 and neither 𝑢 nor 𝑣 is divisible by 𝑝. The

integer 𝑘 is uniquely determined by 𝑟, and we define 𝑣𝑝 (𝑟) = 𝑘. We also define

𝑣𝑝 (0) = ∞. Then the function 𝑣𝑝 ∶ 𝑄 → 𝑍 ∪ {∞} defined in this fashion is a discrete

valuation on the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.

DISCRETE VALUATION RING: A discrete valuation ring is an integral domain 𝑅 with a

unique maximal ideal 𝑀 whose proper ideals are all of the form 𝑀𝑘 for some positive

integer 𝑘. Every discrete valuation ring is a principal ideal domain.

DISCRIMINANT: The discriminant D of a quadratic equation 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 is

𝐷 = 𝑏 2 + 4𝑎𝑐. If 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 are real numbers, the discriminant allows us to determine

the characteristics of the solution for 𝑥. If 𝐷 is a positive perfect square, then 𝑥 will have

two rational values. If 𝐷 = 0, then 𝑥 will have two real and equal solutions. If 𝐷 is

positive but is not a perfect square, then 𝑥 will have two irrational solutions. If 𝐷 is

negative, then 𝑥 will have two complex solutions. In other words, the equation has two

distinct real roots, equal roots (that is, one root) or no real roots according to whether

the discriminant is positive, zero or negative.

DISJOINT SETS: Two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no elements in common,

that is, if their intersection is the empty set.

DISJOINT UNION: The disjoint union 𝑈 ⊔ 𝑉 is the union of two disjoint sets , 𝑉 ; the

notation 𝑈 ⊔ 𝑉 simply means 𝑈 ∪ 𝑉 together with an assertion (or reminder) that 𝑈

and 𝑉 are disjoint. The disjoint union of any collection of (disjoint) sets is defined and

denoted similarly.

DISJUNCTION: A disjunction is an OR statement of the form: “A OR B.” It is true if either

A or B is true.

DISPERSION: The spread of values of a variable in a distribution. A measure of

dispersion is a way of describing how scattered or spreads out the observations in a

sample are. The term is also applied similarly to a random variable. Common measures

of dispersion are the range, interquartile range, mean absolute deviation, variance and

standard deviation. The range may be unduly affected by odd high and low values. The

mean absolute deviation is difficult to work with because of the absolute value signs.

The standard deviation is in the same units as the data, and it is this that is most often

used. The interquartile range may be appropriate when the median is used as the

measure of location.

DISPLACEMENT VECTOR: A vector that describes a movement from one point to

another, using both direction and magnitude.

DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO CODEWORDS: The distance between two codewords in a

binary code is the number of bits in which the two codewords differ. For example, the

distance between 010110 and 001100 is 3 because they differ in the second, third and

fifth bits. If the distance between any two different codewords in a binary code is at

least 3, the code is an error-correcting code capable of correcting any one error.

DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE IN THE PLANE: If a point 𝑃 has coordinates (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 )

and a line 𝑙 has equation 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐 = 0, then the distance from 𝑃 to 𝑙 is equal to

𝑎𝑥1 + 𝑏𝑦1 + 𝑐

𝑎2 + 𝑏 2

DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A PLANE IN 3-DIMENSIONAL SPACE: If a point 𝑃 has

coordinates (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 , 𝑧1 ) and a plane 𝑝 has equation 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝑐𝑧 + 𝑑 = 0, the

distance from 𝑃 to 𝑝 is equal to

𝑎𝑥1 + 𝑏𝑦1 + 𝑐𝑧1 + 𝑑

𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 + 𝑐 2

DISTANCE OF THE CODE: Let 𝐶 be a code. The distance of the code, denoted 𝑑(𝐶), is

defined by 𝑑(𝐶) = 𝑚𝑖𝑛{𝑑(𝑐1 , 𝑐2 ) | 𝑐1 , 𝑐2 ∇ 𝐶, 𝑐1 , ≠ 𝑐2 }. An (𝑛, 𝑀) −code of distance 𝑑 is

called an (𝑛, 𝑀, 𝑑) −code. The values 𝑛, 𝑀, 𝑑 are called the parameters of the code.

DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY: The distributive property says that

𝑎 𝑏 + 𝑐 = 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑎𝑐 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐.

DIVERGENCE: The divergence of a vector field 𝒇 (written as ∆. 𝒇) is defined to be the

scalar

𝜕𝑓𝑥 𝜕𝑓𝑦 𝜕𝑓𝑧

∆. 𝒇 = + +

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

It can be thought of as the dot product of the operator ∆ (del) with the field f.

DIVERGENCE THEOREM: The divergence theorem states that if E is a three-dimensional

vector field, then the surface integral of E over a closed surface is equal to the triple

integral of the divergence of E over the volume enclosed by that surface:

𝐸. 𝑑𝑆 = (∆. 𝐸)𝑑𝑉

DIVISION ALGEBRA: A division algebra is an algebra with identity which, as a ring, is a

division ring.

DIVISION ALGORITHM: For integers 𝑎 and 𝑏, with 𝑏 > 0, there exist unique integers 𝑞

and 𝑟 such that 𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞 + 𝑟, where 0 ≤ 𝑟 < 𝑏. In the division of 𝑎 by 𝑏, the number 𝑞

is the quotient and 𝑟 is the remainder.

DIVISOR OF ZERO: If in a ring there are non-zero elements 𝑎 and 𝑏 such that 𝑎𝑏 = 0,

then 𝑎 and 𝑏 are divisors of zero. For example, in the ring of 2 × 2 real matrices,

0 1 0 0 0 0

=

0 0 1 0 0 0

and so each of the matrices on the left-hand side is a divisor of zero. In the ring 𝑍6 ,

consisting of the set 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 with addition and multiplication modulo 6, the

element 4 is a divisor of zero since 4.3 = 0.

DNE: It is the abbreviation for a solution for an expression does not exist, or is

undefined. Generally used with limits and integrals.

DOMAIN: The domain of a function is the set of all possible values for which the function

is well defined.

DOMAIN OF A RELATION: The set of all first coordinates of the ordered pairs.

DOMAIN OF A VARIABLE: The base set of numbers or quantities that can be mapped to a

second set. In elementary algebra, the domain of a function 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is the set of

values that the independent variable 𝑥 can take. For example, if 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑥),

then the domain might be defined as all the numbers whose absolute value is no more

than 1, that is, |𝑥| < 1.

DOMAIN WITH SMOOTH BOUNDARY: Let 𝑀 be an 𝑚-dimensional abstract manifold. A

nonempty open subset 𝐷 ⊂ 𝑀 is said to be a domain with smooth boundary if for each

𝑝 ∇ 𝜕𝐷 there exists an open neighborhood 𝑊 of 𝑝 in 𝑀, and a smooth function

𝑓: 𝑊 → 𝑅 such that 0 is a regular value, 𝑓(𝑝) = 0 and

𝑊 ∩ 𝐷 = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑊 | 𝑓(𝑥) > 0}.

DORN’S CONVERSE DUALITY THEOREM: Let 𝐶 be positive semi- definite. If x, u solves

Quadratic Duality Problem, then some x ∇ Rn (not necessarily equal to x), satisfying

𝐶 x − x = 0 solves Quadratic maximization Problem and the two extremes are equal.

DOT PRODUCT: Let a and b be two n-dimensional vectors, whose components are:

𝒃 = ( 𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , 𝑏3 , − − − 𝑏𝑛 )

𝒂 = ( 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , − − − 𝑎𝑛 )

Then

𝒃. 𝒂 = 𝑏1 𝑎1 + 𝑏2 𝑎2 + 𝑏3 𝑎3 + − − − + 𝑏𝑛 𝑎𝑛

DOUBLE-ANGLE FORMULA: The trigonometric functions of a double-angle that are

expressed in terms of separate functions of the angle.

𝑐𝑜𝑠(2𝑥) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝑥) = 2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥/(1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥)

Where P,Q, R are continuous functions of 𝑢 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑣 and do not vanish together represents

two families of curves on the surface provided 𝑄 2 − 𝑃𝑅 > 0.

2

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢

𝑃 + 2𝑄 +𝑅 =0

𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝑢

Which is quadratic in 𝑑𝑣 and by solving this equation the separate differential equations

the volume under the surface 𝑧 = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) and above the 𝑥𝑦 plane in a specified region.

For example:

𝑥=𝑏,𝑦=𝑑

𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦

𝑥=𝑎,𝑦=𝑐

represents the volume under the surface 𝑧 = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦) over the rectangle from 𝑥 = 𝑎 to

𝑥 = 𝑏 and 𝑦 = 𝑐 to 𝑦 = 𝑑.

DOUBLE-NAPPED CONE: Two identical but opposite cones that share a common vertex.

DOUBLE SERIES: A sequence with the indices, i.e., a mapping from the Cartesian

product 𝑁 × 𝑁 of two copies of the set of natural numbers 𝑁 to a subset of the real or

complex numbers, is called a double sequence and is denoted by 𝑎𝑚𝑛 or 𝑎𝑚 ,𝑛 . If

there exists a number 𝐼 such that for any positive 𝜀, there is a natural number 𝑁(𝜀)

satisfying 𝑎𝑚𝑛 − 1 < 𝜀 for all 𝑚 > 𝑁(𝜀) and 𝑛 > 𝑁(𝜀), then we say that the sequence

𝑎𝑚𝑛 has a limit 𝐼 and write lim𝑚 →∞ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 = 𝛼𝑛 uniformly in 𝑛 and lim𝑚 →∞,𝑛→∞ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 =

∞

𝐼. For a given double sequence 𝑎𝑚𝑛 , the formal series m,n=1 𝑎𝑚𝑛 is called a double

series and is sometimes denoted by 𝑎𝑚𝑛 . In contrast with double series, the ordinary

series discussed previously is called a simple series.

DUAL BASIS: Let 𝑉 be a finite-dimensional real vector space, let 𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , . . . , 𝑢𝑛 be a basis of

𝑉 . The corresponding dual basis of the dual space 𝑉 ∗ of 𝑉 consists of the linear

𝑛

functionals 𝜀1 , 𝜀2 , . . . , 𝜀𝑛 on 𝑉 , where ϵi 𝑗 =1 𝜆𝑗 𝑢𝑗 = 𝜆𝑖 for 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , 𝑛 and for all

real numbers 𝜆1 , 𝜆2 , . . . , 𝜆𝑛 .

DUAL CODE: Let 𝐶 be a linear code over 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . Then

1. The dual code of 𝐶 is 𝐶 ⊥ (the orthogonal complement of 𝐶 in 𝐹𝑞𝑛 ).

2. The dimension of 𝐶 is the dimension of 𝐶 as a vector subspace of 𝐹𝑞𝑛 , and is denoted

dim(C).

DUALITY (FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS): If 𝑋 and 𝑌 are normed linear spaces and

𝑇 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 , then we get a natural map 𝑇 ∗ : 𝑌 ∗ → 𝑋 ∗ by 𝑇 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑇 𝑥) for all

𝑓 ∇ 𝑌 ∗ , 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋. In particular, if 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ), then 𝑇 ∗ ∇ 𝐵(𝑌 ∗ , 𝑋 ∗ ). In fact,

𝑇 ∗ 𝐵(𝑌 ∗ , 𝑋 ∗ ) = 𝑇 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ). To prove this, note that |𝑇 ∗ 𝑓(𝑥)| = |𝑓(𝑇 𝑥)| ≤

𝑓 𝑇 𝑥 . Therefore 𝑇 ∗ 𝑓 ≤ 𝑓 𝑇 , so 𝑇 ∗ is indeed bounded, with 𝑇 ∗ ≤ 𝑇 .

Also, given any 𝑦 ∇ 𝑌 , we can find 𝑔 ∇ 𝑌 ∗ such that |𝑔(𝑦)| = 𝑦 , 𝑔 = 1. Applying

this with 𝑦 = 𝑇 𝑥 (𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 arbitrary), gives 𝑇 𝑘 = |𝑔(𝑇 𝑥)| = |𝑇 ∗ 𝑔𝑥| ≤

𝑇 ∗ 𝑘𝑔𝑘 𝑥 = 𝑇∗ 𝑥 . This shows that 𝑇 ≤ 𝑇 ∗ . Note that if 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝑋, 𝑌 ), 𝑈 ∇

𝐵(𝑌, 𝑍), then (𝑈𝑇)∗ = 𝑇 ∗ 𝑈 ∗.

with another linear programming problem called the dual of the problem. The original

problem is called ‘primal’ while the other is called its dual. The solution of the dual

problem leads to the solution of the primal problem and thus efficient computational

techniques can be developed through the concept of duality.

𝑧 = 𝑐1 𝑥2 + 𝑐2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑐𝑛 𝑥𝑛 ≤ 𝑏1

⋮ ⋮ ⋮

The corresponding dual problem is obtained by transposing the rows and columns of

constraint coefficients, transporting the coefficients of the objectives function and the

right hand side of the constraints, reversing the inequalities and minimizing instead of

maximizing.

DUALITY SPECULATION: Every primal linear programming problem has associated with

it another linear programming problem called the dual linear programming problem.

Constraint parameters in one are variable coefficients in other.

Coefficients for the objective function of either are the RHS for other problem.

DUALITY THEOREM:

Feasible solutions exist and objective function is bounded, then same is true for

other problem.

Feasible solutions exist and objective function is unbounded, then other problem

is infeasible.

No feasible solutions exist, then other problem is either infeasible or has

unbounded objective function.

Some properties of this theory are:

Weak duality If 𝒙 is a feasible solution for the primal problem and 𝒚 is a

property feasible solution for the dual problem, then 𝒄𝒙 ≤ 𝒚𝒃.

Strong duality If 𝒙∗ is an optimal solution for the primal problem and 𝒚∗ is an

property optimal solution for the dual, then 𝒄𝒙∗ = 𝒚∗ 𝒃.

Complementary At each iteration, the simplex method simultaneously identifies

solutions property a CPF solution 𝒙 for the primal problem and a complementary

solution 𝒚 for the dual (found in row 0, the coefficient of the

slack variables), where 𝒄𝒙 = 𝒚𝒃.

Complementary At the final iteration, the simplex method simultaneously

optimal solutions identifies an optimal solution 𝒙∗ for the primal problem and a

property complementary optimal solution 𝒚∗ for the dual problem (found

in row 0, the coefficient of the slack variables), where

𝒄𝒙∗ = 𝒚∗ 𝒃.. In this solution, 𝒚∗ gives the shadow prices for the

primal problem.

Symmetry property The dual of the dual is the primal.

Complementary basic Each basic solution in the primal problem has a complementary

solutions property basic solution in the dual, where their respective objective

function values (Z and W) are equal.

Complementary The variables in the primal basic solution and the

slackness property complementary dual basic solution satisfy the complementary

slackness as shown:

Primal variable Dual variable

Basic Non-basic (m variables)

Non-basic Basic (n variables)

optimal basic complementary optimal basic solution in the dual problem,

solutions property where their respective objective function values (Z and W ) are

equal.

suboptimal Yes superoptimal no

optimal Yes optimal yes

superoptimal No suboptimal yes

infeasible, not sup No infeasible, not sup no

Primal Dual

Maximize Z Minimize W

Constraint i: Variable yi:

≤ form yi ≥ 0

= form unconstrained

≥ form y’i ≤ 0

Variable xj: Constraint j:

xj ≥ 0 ≥ form

unconstrained unconstrained

x’j ≤ 0 ≤ form

DUAL OF A QUOTIENT SPACE: Next, consider the projection map 𝜋 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑋/𝑆 where 𝑆

is a closed subspace. We then have 𝜋 ∗ ∶ (𝑋/𝑆)∗ → 𝑋 ∗ . Since 𝜋 is surjective, this map is

injective. It is easy to see that the range is contained in 𝑆 𝑎 . In fact we now show that 𝜋 ∗

maps (X/S) ∗ onto 𝑆 𝑎 , hence provides a canonical isomorphism of 𝑆 𝑎 with (𝑋/𝑆)∗ .

Indeed, if 𝑓 ∇ 𝑆 𝑎 , then we have a splitting 𝑓 = 𝑔 ∘ 𝜋 with 𝑔 ∇ (𝑋/𝑆)∗ (just define

𝑔(𝑐) = 𝑓(𝑥) where x is any element of the coset c). Thus 𝑓 = 𝜋 ∗ 𝑔 is indeed in the

range of 𝜋 ∗ . This correspondence is again an isometry.

where 𝑆 is a closed subspace of 𝑋. Then 𝑟 = 𝑖 ∗ ∶ 𝑋 ∗ → 𝑆 ∗ is just the restriction map:

𝑟𝑓 (𝑠) = 𝑓(𝑠). Hahn-Banach tells us that 𝑟 is surjective. Obviously 𝑁 (𝑟) = 𝑆 𝑎 . Thus

we have a canonical isomorphism 𝑟 ∶ 𝑋 ∗ /𝑆 𝑎 → 𝑆 ∗ . In fact, the Hahn-Banach theorem

shows that it is an isometry. Via this isometry one often identifies 𝑋 ∗ /𝑆𝑎 with 𝑆 ∗ .

𝑧 = 𝑏1 𝑦1 + 𝑏2 𝑦2 + … + 𝑏𝑚 𝑦𝑚

𝑎12 𝑦1 + 𝑎22 𝑦2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑦𝑚 ≥ 𝑐2

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

𝑎1𝑛 𝑦1 + 𝑎2𝑛 𝑦2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛𝑚 𝑦𝑚 ≥ 𝑐𝑚

DUAL SIMPLEX METHOD: For a L.P.P. (maximization problem) the optimality criterion

of the simplex method 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 = 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑐𝐵 𝐵 −1 . 𝛼𝑗 ≤ 0, for all 𝑗 where 𝐵 is the basis,

depends only on 𝛼𝑗 , and 𝑐𝑗 and is independent of the requirement vector 𝑏. Thus, every

basic solution with all 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 ≤ 0, will not be feasible but any basic feasible solution

with all 𝑐𝑗 − 𝑧𝑗 ≤ 0 will certainly be an optimal solution.

DUAL SPACE (FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS): The dual space X* of a normed space X is the set

𝑠𝑢𝑝

of continuous linear functionals on X. Define a norm on it by 𝛼 = 𝑥 ≤ 1 𝛼(𝑥)

DUAL SPACE (LINEAR ALGEBRA): For fixed vector spaces 𝑈 and 𝑉 over 𝐾, the

operations of addition and scalar multiplication on the set 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) of all linear

maps from 𝑈 to 𝑉 makes 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) into a vector space over 𝐾.

Given a vector space 𝑈 over a field 𝐾, the vector space 𝑈 ∗ = 𝐻𝑜𝑚𝐾 (𝑈, 𝑉) plays a

special role.It is often called the dual space or the space of convectors of 𝑈. One can

think of coordinates as elements of 𝑈 ∗ .Indeed,let 𝑒𝑖 be a basis of U. Every x 𝜖 𝑈 can be

uniquely written as x =𝛼1 𝑒1 + 𝛼2 𝑒2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑒𝑛 , 𝛼𝑖 𝜖 𝐾

The elements 𝛼𝑖 depends on 𝑥 as well as on a choice of the basis, so for each I one can

write the coordinate function 𝑒 𝑖 : 𝑈 → 𝐾 , 𝑒 𝑖 𝑥 = 𝛼𝑖

It is easy to check that 𝑒 𝑖 is a linear map, and indeed the function 𝑒 𝑖 form a basis of the

dual space 𝑈 ∗ .

DUAL SPHERICAL TRIANGLES: Let ∆ be a spherical triangle with angles 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾 and side

lengths 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐. Then the dual triangle ∆∗ has sides of length 𝑎∗ = 𝜋 − 𝛼, 𝑏 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝛽, 𝑐 ∗ =

𝜋 − 𝛾 and angles 𝛼 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑎, 𝛽 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑏, 𝛾 ∗ = 𝜋 − 𝑐.

DYADIC TENSOR: A dyadic tensor has order two, and may be represented as a square

matrix. The conventions aij, aij, and aij, do have different meanings (the position of the

index determines its valence (variance), in that the first may represent a quadratic

form, the second a linear transformation, and the differention is significant in contexts

that require tensors that aren't orthogonal. A dyad is a tensor such as aibj, product

component-by-component of rank-one tensors. In this case it represents a linear

transformation, of rank one in the sense of linear algebra - a clashing terminology that

can cause confusion.

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: The area of mathematics relating to the study of

optimization problems where a step-wise decision making approach is employed. This

is often done iteratively.

E

ECCENTRICITY: The ratio of the distances between a point on a conic and a fixed point

(the focus) and between the point and a fixed line (the directrix). For 𝑒 = 0 a circle is

produced, for 0 < 𝑒 < 1 an ellipse is produced, for 𝑒 = 1 a parabola is produced and

for 𝑒 > 1 the conic produced is a hyperbola.

ECHELON FORM OF A MATRIX: A matrix is in echelon form if

All the zero rows come below the non-zero rows.

The first non-zero entry in each non-zero row is 1 and occurs in a column to the

right of the leading 1 in the row above.

EDGE: The edge of a polyhedron is a line segment where two faces intersect.

𝑎. 𝑒

EGOROV THEOREM: If 𝑓𝑛 𝑓 on a finite measure set 𝑋 then for any 𝜍 > 0 there is

→

𝐸𝜍 ⊂ 𝑋 with µ(𝐸𝜍 ) < 𝜍 and 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 on 𝑋 ∖ 𝐸𝜍 .

𝜇 𝑎. 𝑒

If 𝑓𝑛 𝑓 then there is a subsequence (𝑛𝑘 ) such that 𝑓𝑛 𝑘 𝑓 for 𝑘 → ∞.

→ →

1: 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴

𝜒𝐴 𝑥 = . Then, if 𝜒𝐴 is measurable, then 𝜒𝐴 −1 ( (1/2,3/2) ) = 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿;

0: 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴

conversely, if 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿, then 𝑋 ∖ 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿, and we see that for any 𝑈 ⊆ ℝ open, 𝜒𝐴 −1 (𝑈) is

either ∅, 𝐴, 𝑋 ∖ 𝐴, or 𝑋, all of which are in 𝐿. So 𝜒𝐴 is measurable if and only if 𝐴 ∇ 𝐿.

EIGENVALUE: Suppose that a square matrix 𝑨 multiplies a vector 𝒙, and the resulting

vector is proportional to 𝒙:

𝐴𝑥 = 𝜆𝑥

In this case, l is said to be an eigenvalue of the matrix A, and x is the corresponding

eigenvector. In order to find the eigenvalues, rewrite the equation like this:

𝐴 − 𝜆𝐼 𝑥 = 𝑂

where 𝑰 is the appropriate identity matrix.

EIGENVALUE OF OPERATOR: An eigenvalue of operator 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵(𝐻) is a complex number

𝜆 such that there exists a nonzero 𝑥 ∇ 𝐻, called eigenvector with property 𝑇𝑥 = 𝜆 𝑥, in

other words 𝑥 ∇ 𝑘𝑒𝑟(𝑇 − 𝜆 𝐼).

In infinite dimensions it is not the same: the right shift operator S is not

invertible but 0 is not its eigenvalue because 𝑆𝑥 = 0 implies 𝑥 = 0.

EINSTEIN, ALBERT (1879–1955): Albert Einstein was an outstanding mathematician.

Born in Ulm in Germany, he lived in Switzerland and Germany before moving to the

United States in 1933. He was responsible in 1905 for the Special Theory of Relativity

and in 1916 for the General Theory. He made a fundamental contribution to the birth of

quantum theory and had an important influence on thermodynamics. He regarded

himself as a physicist rather than as a mathematician, but his work has triggered off

many developments in modern mathematics.

EISENSTEIN’S IRREDUCIBILITY CRITERION: Let 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑎2 𝑥 2 + · · · + 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛

be a polynomial of degree 𝑛 with integer coefficients, and let 𝑝 be a prime number.

Suppose that

• 𝑝 does not divide 𝑎𝑛 ,

• 𝑝 divides 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , . . . , 𝑎𝑛−1 ,

• 𝑝2 does not divide 𝑎0 .

Then the polynomial 𝑓 is irreducible over the field 𝑄 of rational numbers.

EINSTEIN NOTATION: This notation is based on the understanding that in a product of

two indexed arrays, if an index letter in the first is repeated in the second, then the

interpretation is that the product is summed over all values of the index. For example if

aij is a matrix, then under this convention aii is its trace. The Einstein convention is

generally used in physics and engineering texts, to the extent that if summation is not to

be applied it is normal to note that explicitly.

EINSTEIN’S SUMMATION CONVENTION: Einstein proposed that if the same index letter

appears twice in a term, then it will automatically be assumed to be summed over. For

example, 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 means the summation 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 .

ELEMENTARY ABELIAN GROUP: An Abelian group all non-trivial elements of which have

the same prime order p.

ELEMENTARY AXIOM SYSTEM: An axiom system written in the language of restricted

predicate calculus. Examples of elementary axiom systems are those of formal

arithmetic, the Zermelo–Fraenkel system of set theory and the system of the theory of

types.

ELEMENTARY COLUMN OPERATION: Elementary column operations are the following

operations on the columns of a matrix:

Interchange two columns,

Multiply a column by a non-zero scalar,

Add a multiple of one column to another column.

An elementary column operation can be produced by post-multiplication by the

appropriate elementary matrix.

ELEMENTARY DIVISORS OF A MATRIX OVER A POLYNOMIAL RING: Powers of the monic

irreducible polynomials over the field 𝐾 into which the invariant factors of 𝐹[𝑥] split.

Two 𝑚 × 𝑛-matrices over 𝐾[𝑥] having the same rank are equivalent (that is, can be

obtained from one another by means of elementary operations) if and only if they have

the same system of elementary divisors.

ELEMENTARY FUNCTION: following real functions are called elementary functions:

The rational functions, the trigonometric functions, the logarithmic and exponential

functions, the functions 𝑓 defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 𝑚 /𝑛 (where m and n are non-zero

integers), and all those functions that can be obtained from these by using addition,

subtraction, multiplication, division, composition and the taking of inverse functions.

ELEMENTARY INTERVAL OF A PARTIALLY ORDERED SET: A subset consisting of two

elements 𝒂 ≤ 𝒃 such that there are no other elements in the partially ordered

set between them, i.e.

𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 𝑏 ⇒ 𝑎 = 𝑥 𝑜𝑟 𝑎 = 𝑏.

ELEMENTARY MATRIX: Elementary matrix is a square matrix obtained from the identity

matrix 𝐼 by an elementary row operation. A matrix obtained from a unit matrix by a

single elementary transformation is called an elementary matrix (or 𝐸- matrix). For

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0

example 0 1 0 , 0 4 0 , 0 1 0 are the elementary matrices obtained from

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

Is by subjecting it to the elementary operations C1 ⟷ C3 , R 2 → 4R 2 , R1 → R1 + R 2

respectively.

the 𝐸- matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R i → k −1 R1 .

matrix corresponding to the 𝐸-operation R1 → R i − kR j .

ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY: The branch of number theory that investigates

properties of the integers by elementary methods. These methods include the use of

divisibility properties, various forms of the axiom of induction and combinatorial

arguments. Sometimes the notion of elementary methods is extended by bringing in the

simplest elements of mathematical analysis. Traditionally, proofs are deemed to be non-

elementary if they involve complex numbers. Usually, one refers to elementary number

theory the problems that arise in branches of number theory such as the theory of

divisibility, of congruences, of arithmetic functions, of indefinite equations, of partitions,

of additive representations, of the approximation by rational numbers, and of continued

fractions. Quite often, the solution of such problems leads to the need to go beyond the

framework of elementary methods. Occasionally, following the discovery of a non-

elementary solution of some problem, one also finds an elementary solution of it.

ELEMENTARY OPERATION: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and finding

integer roots are the elementary operations.

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION: Much type of calculations with matrices can be carried

out in a computationally efficient manner by the use of certain type of operations on

rows and columns. These are really the same as the operations used in solving sets of

simultaneous linear equations.

elementary row operations on A are defined as follows:

3 1 9 𝑅3 →𝑅3 −3𝑅1 3 1 9

Example: 4 6 7 4 6 7

2 5 8 −7 2 −19

2 0 5 𝑅2 →2𝑅2 2 0 5

Example: 1 −2 3 2 −4 6

5 1 2 5 1 2

appropriate elementary matrix.

ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS OF A MATRIX: An elementary transformation (or an

𝐸- Transformation) is an operation of any one of the following types:

2. The multiplication of the elements of any row (or column) be any non-zero

number.

3. The addition to the elements of any other row (or column) the corresponding

elements of any other row (or column) multiplied by any number.

transformation according as it applies to rows or columns.

approximation to a given element 𝒙 in a metric space 𝑿, i.e. is such that

𝜌(𝒖𝟎 , 𝑥) = 𝑖𝑛𝑓{𝜌(𝑢, 𝑥): 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹} .

The main questions concerning elements of best approximation are: their existence and

uniqueness, their characteristic properties, the properties of the operator that

associates with each element 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 the set of elements of best approximation and

numerical methods for the construction of elements of best approximation.

ELLIPSE: An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances

to two fixed points is a constant. Each of these two fixed points is known as a focus or

focal point. The plural of focus is foci. The longest distance across the ellipse is known as

the major axis. The shortest distance across is the minor axis. The center of the ellipse

is the midpoint of the segment that joins the two foci. The equation of an ellipse with

center at the origin is

𝑥2 𝑦2

+ =1

𝑎2 𝑏 2

where 2𝑎 is the length of the major axis, and 2𝑏 is the length of the minor axis. Area of

this ellipse is 𝜋𝑎𝑏.

ELLIPSOID: A quadric whose equation in a suitable coordinate system is

𝑥2 𝑦2 𝑧2

+ + =1

𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝑐 2

The three axial planes are planes of symmetry. All non-empty plane sections are

ellipses. If the ellipse has major axis 2𝑎 and minor axis 2𝑏, then the ellipsoid formed by

4

rotating the ellipse about its major axis will have the volume 𝜋𝑎𝑏 2 .

3

rectangular coordinates 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝑧 by the formulas

2

𝜆 + 𝑎2 𝜇 + 𝑎2 𝜈 + 𝑎2

𝑥 =

𝑏 2 − 𝑎2 𝑐 2 − 𝑎2

2

𝜆 + 𝑏2 𝜇 + 𝑏2 𝜈 + 𝑏2

𝑦 =

𝑎2 − 𝑏 2 𝑐 2 − 𝑏 2

𝜆 + 𝑐2 𝜇 + 𝑐2 𝜈 + 𝑐2

𝑧2 =

𝑎2 − 𝑐 2 𝑏 2 − 𝑐 2

coordinates by the formulas

𝜍 + 𝑎2 𝜏 + 𝑎2

𝑥2 =

𝑎2 − 𝑏 2

𝜍 + 𝑏2 𝜏 + 𝑏2

𝑦2 =

𝑏 2 − 𝑎2

where −𝑎2 < 𝜏 < −𝑏 2 < 𝜍 < ∞ .

ELLIPTIC CYLINDER: Elliptic cylinder is a cylinder in which the fixed curve is an ellipse

and the fixed line to which the generators are parallel is perpendicular to the plane of

the ellipse. It is a quadric, and in a suitable coordinate system has equation

ELLIPTIC FUNCTION: A function defined on the complex plane for which 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑓(𝑧 +

𝑎) = 𝑓(𝑧 + 𝑏) where 𝑎/𝑏 is not real. From this it follows that 𝑓(𝑧 + 𝑚𝑎 + 𝑛𝑏) =

𝑓(𝑧) for all integers 𝑚, 𝑛 and that the function is periodic in two distinct directions on

the complex plane.

possible singular points in the finite part of the plane are poles.

All the meromorphic functions which have two distinct periods are called elliptic

functions.

Primitive period parallelogram, Mess and cell: Let 𝑓 𝑧 be an elliptic function with 2ω1

and 2ω2 as a pair of primitive periods.

ω2

Supposing that imaginary part of which is not zero to be positive, we see that the

ω1

points 0, 2ω1 , 2ω1 + 2ω2 , 2ω1 taken in order are the vertices of a parallelogram

described in the positive sense. This is called the primitive period-parallelogram of the

elliptic function 𝑓 𝑧 . There are the unlimited number of such primitive period

parallelograms. Now the only periods of 𝑓 𝑧 (double periodic function) are of the form

2mω1 + 2nω2 , where m and n are integers. Therefore the vertices are the only points

within or on a primitive period- parallelogram. Whose affixes are periods in the Argand

plane the points of affix 2mω1 + 2nω2 where m = 0, ±1, ±2, … , n = 0, ±1, ±2…. Are

denoted by Ωm,n

Thus, the four points Ωm,n, Ωm+1,n Ωm+1,n+1 are the vertices of a parallelogram. This

parallelogram may be obtained from the primitive period-parallelogram by a

translation without rotation. This parallelogram with vertices

Ωm′n′ Ωm+1′n Ωm+1,n+1′ Ωm ′ n+1 is called a period parallelogram or a mesh. The Argand

plane may be covered by this system of non overlapping meshes. In each mesh (within

and on the boundary) there are only a finite number of poles and zeros, and hence we

can translate the mesh without rotation until no pole or zero lies on its boundary. The

parallelogram thus obtained is called a cell.

The set of poles (or zeros) in a given cell is called an irreducible set.

constant and positive in any two-dimensional direction. Elliptic geometry is a higher-

dimensional generalization of the Riemann geometry.

ELLIPTIC INTEGRALS: The integrals

𝜔 𝑑𝑡

𝑧 = ∫0 𝑘 <1 ……. i

1−𝑡 2 1−𝑘 2 𝑡 2

is called an elliptic integral of the first kind. The integral exists if ω is real and such that

ω < 1. By analytical continuation it can be extended to other values of ω.

∅ 𝑑𝑡

𝑧 = ∫0 ………. ii

1−𝑘 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃

𝜔

𝑑𝑡

= 𝑠𝑖𝑛−1 𝜔

0 1− 𝑡2

∴ 𝜔 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑍.

∴ when 𝑘 ≠ 0, the integral (i) is deputed by Sn −1 (𝜔/𝑘) or briefly Sn −1 (𝜔), when k doe

not change during a given discussion.

Thus we have

𝜔 𝑑𝑡

𝑧 = Sn −1 𝜔 = ∫0 1−𝑡 2 1−𝑘 2 𝑡 2

This gives the function Sn (z), which is called a Jacobi’s elliptic function.

𝑥 2 𝑦 2 2𝑧

+ =

𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝑐

Here the 𝑦𝑧-plane and the 𝑧𝑥-plane are planes of symmetry. Sections by planes 𝑧 = 𝑘,

where 𝑘 ≥ 0, are ellipses (circles if 𝑎 = 𝑏); planes 𝑧 = 𝑘, where 𝑘 < 0, have no

points of intersection with the paraboloid. Sections by planes parallel to the 𝑦𝑧-plane

and to the 𝑧𝑥-plane are parabolas. Planes through the 𝑧-axis cut the paraboloid in

parabolas with vertex at the origin.

ELLIPTIC POINTS (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): The points on the surface at which the

principal curvatures 𝜅𝑎 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜅𝑏 have the same sign. i.e. the Gaussian curvature 𝜅 is

positive are called elliptic points.

𝐿𝑁−𝑀² 𝐿𝑁−𝑀²

Again 𝐾 = 𝜅𝑎 𝜅𝑏 = =

𝐸𝐺−𝐹² 𝐻²

which is a homeomorphism 𝑈 → 𝜍(𝑈), is called an embedded parametrized manifold.

In particular this definition applies to curves and surfaces, and thus we can speak of

embedded parametrized curves and embedded parametrized surfaces. In addition to

being smooth and regular, the condition on 𝜍 is thus that it is injective and that the

inverse map 𝜍(𝑥) → 𝑥 is continuous 𝜍(𝑈) → 𝑈.

EMPIRICAL STATEMENT: A statement that is based upon observation and experimental

evidence.

EMPTY SET: Empty set also called void set or null set is the set, denoted by 𝜑 with no

elements in it. Consequently, its cardinality, 𝑛(𝜑), is zero. The Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms

of set theory postulate that there exists an empty set.

ENCRYPT: To encrypt means to transform information or data into a coded form.

END: It is the abbreviation for categories of endomorphisms.

ENDOMORPHISM RING: The associative ring 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 = 𝑯𝒐𝒎 (𝑨, 𝑨) consisting of all

morphisms of into itself, where is an object in some additive category. The

multiplication in 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 is composition of morphisms, and addition is the addition of

morphisms defined by the axioms of the additive category. The identity morphism 𝟏𝑨 is

the unit element of the ring 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨. An element 𝝋 in 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 is invertible if and only

if 𝝋 is an automorphism of the object 𝑨. If 𝑨 and 𝑩 are objects of an additive category 𝑪,

then the group 𝑯𝒐𝒎 (𝑨, 𝑩) has the natural structure of a right module over 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 and

of a left module over 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑩. Let 𝑻: 𝑪 → 𝑪𝟏 be a covariant (or contravariant) additive

functor from an additive category 𝑪 into an additive category 𝑪𝟏 . Then for any

object 𝑨 in 𝑪 the functor 𝑻 induces a natural homomorphism (or anti-

homomorphism) 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑨 → 𝑬𝒏𝒅 𝑻(𝑨).

END-POINT: End point of an interval is a number defining one end of an interval on the

real line. Each of the finite intervals [𝑎, 𝑏], (𝑎, 𝑏), [𝑎, 𝑏) and (𝑎, 𝑏] has two end-points, 𝑎

and 𝑏. Each of the infinite intervals [𝑎, ∞), (𝑎, ∞), (– ∞, 𝑎] and (– ∞, 𝑎) has one end-

point, 𝑎.

ENERGY EQUATION: The principle of energy enunciates that the change in the total

energy (Kinetic 𝑇, Potential 𝑊 and Intrinsic 𝐼) is equal to work done by the extraneous

forces. The potential due to external forces is supposed to the independent of time.

∂q 1

The Euler’s equation of motion is = −∆Ω − ρ ∆ρ, where the extraneous forces are

∂t

conservative.

∂q

ρ = −ρ ∆Ω − ∆ρ

∂t

Multiplying the above equation scalarly by q, we get

∂q 1 d

ρq ∂t = −ρq ∆Ω − q∆ρ or ρ dt q2 + ρq. ∆Ω = −q. ∆ρ

2

1 d dΩ d 1

or ρ dt q2 + ρ dt = −q. ∆ρ or ρ dt q2 + Ω − q. ∆ρ .

2 2

d 1 2

ρ q + Ω dv = − q. ∆ρ dv

V dt 2 V

Or

𝑑 1 2

ρq dv + ρΩ dv = − q. ∆ρ dv

𝑑𝑡 V2 V V

𝑑

Or 𝑇 + 𝑊 = − ∫V ∆. ρq dv + ∫V ρ ∆. q dv

𝑑𝑡

𝑑 ρ dρ

𝑇 + 𝑊 = − ∫V ∆. ρq dv − ∫V dv.

𝑑𝑡 ρ dt

By virtue of divergence theorem and the equation of continuity,

𝑑 dI

𝑇+𝑊 =− ρq ∙ n ds −

𝑑𝑡 s dt

𝑑

Or 𝑇 + 𝑊 + 𝐼 †= − ∫s ρq ∙ n ds,

𝑑𝑡

ENERGY PRINCIPLE: Denote by 𝐸 the class of all measures of finite energy. A symmetric

kernel is called positive definite (or of positive type) if 𝜇 − 𝑣, 𝜇 − 𝑣 = 𝜇, 𝜇 + 𝑣, 𝑣 −

2(𝜇, 𝑣) ≥ 0 for any 𝜇, 𝑣𝜖 𝐸. If the equality (𝜇 − 𝑣, 𝜇 − 𝑣) = 0 always implies 𝜇 = 𝑣, then

the kernel is said to satisfy the energy principle.

ENTIRE FUNCTION: A function which has no singularity in the finite part of plane is

called an entire function.

algorithm that enumerates 𝑨 for a given set 𝑨, i.e. an algorithm 𝕳 that is applicable to

any natural number, that converts it to an element of 𝑨 and such that any element

of 𝑨 is obtained by applying 𝕳 to some natural number; in other words, 𝑨 =

𝕳 𝒊 : 𝒊 ∇ 𝚴 . The enumeration problem for a set 𝑨 is solvable if and only if 𝑨 is a non-

empty enumerable set.

ENVELOPE: A curve or surface that is tangential to every curve or surface in a family.

For example, if a family of circles has radius 𝑎 and centre at a distance 𝑟 > 𝑎 from a

fixed point 𝐶, the envelope will be an annulus with the two circles having radii 𝑟 + 𝑎

and 𝑟 – 𝑎.

ENVELOPING SERIES FOR A NUMBER A: A series

∞

𝑎𝑛

𝑛=𝑜

such that

for all 𝑛 = 0,1, …. An enveloping series may converge or diverge; if it converges, then its

sum is equal to 𝐴.

EPICYCLOID: The curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a circle rolling

round the outside of a fixed circle. When the two circles have the same radius, the curve

is a cardioid. A planar curve given by the trajectory of a point on a circle rolling on the

exterior side of another circle. The parametric equations are:

𝜃

𝑥 = (𝑟 + 𝑅)𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 − 𝑟𝑐𝑜𝑠[(𝑟 + 𝑅) ],

𝑟

𝜃

𝑦 = (𝑟 + 𝑅)𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛[(𝑟 + 𝑅) ],

𝑟

where r is the radius of the rolling and 𝑅 that of the fixed circle, and 𝜃 is the angle

between the radius vector of the point of contact of the circles and the x-axis.

for all morphisms g between 𝑌 and 𝑍, 𝑔1 ∘ 𝑓 = 𝑔2 ∘ 𝑓 ⇒ 𝑔1 = 𝑔2 .

EPSILON: The Greek letter 𝑒, written ∇, commonly used to represent a small, strictly

positive quantity.

EPSILON–DELTA NOTATION: The standard notation used to define the concepts of

limits and continuity of functions, sequences, series, nets, filters etc.

EQUALITY (FUNCTIONS): Functions 𝑓 and 𝑔 are said to be equal if they have the same

domains and for every 𝑥 in their common domain, 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑥 .

EQUALITY (FUZZY SETS): Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 are fuzzy subsets of a classical set 𝑋. 𝐴 and 𝐵 are

said to be equal, denoted 𝐴 = 𝐵, if 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐴 in the sense of Fuzzy

subsethood. Note that 𝐴 = 𝐵 if and only if 𝜇𝐴 (𝑥) = 𝜇𝐵 (𝑥) ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋.

EQUALITY (MATRICES): Matrices 𝑨 and 𝑩, where 𝑨 = [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] and 𝑩 = [𝑏𝑖𝑗 ], are said to

be equal if and only if they have the same order and 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 𝑏𝑖𝑗 for all 𝑖 and 𝑗.

EQUALITY (SETS): Sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 are said to be equal if they consist of the same elements.

In order to establish that 𝐴 = 𝐵, a technique that can be useful is to show, instead, that

both 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵 and 𝐵 ⊆ 𝐴.

EQUALITY OF POLYNOMIALS: Two matric polynomials are equal iff (if and only if), the

coefficients of the power of λ are the same. Every square whose elements are ordinary

polynomials in λ, can essentially be expressed as a matrix polynomial in λ of degree m is

the highest power of λ occurring in any element of the matrix.

EQUAL VECTORS: Two vectors are said to be equal if, and only if, they are parallel, have

the same sense of direction and the same magnitude. The starting points of the vectors

are immaterial. It is the direction and magnitude which are important. To denote the

equality of vectors, the usual equality sign (=) is used. Thus, if 𝒂 and 𝒃 are equal

vectors, we write 𝒂 = 𝒃.

𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑎0 + 𝑎1 𝑥 + … + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛 −1 + 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 ,

𝑔(𝑥) = 𝑏0 + 𝑏1 𝑥 + … + 𝑏𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛−1 + 𝑏𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 ,

where it is not necessarily assumed that 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0 and 𝑏𝑛 ≠ 0. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑔(𝑥) for all

values of 𝑥, then 𝑎0 = 𝑏0 , 𝑎1 = 𝑏1 , … , 𝑎𝑛−1 = 𝑎𝑛−1 , 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎𝑛 . Using this fact is known

as equating coefficients.

EQUATING REAL AND IMAGINARY PARTS: Complex numbers 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖 and 𝑐 + 𝑑𝑖 are

equal if and only if 𝑎 = 𝑐 and 𝑏 = 𝑑. Using this fact is called equating real and

imaginary parts. For example, if (𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖)2 = 3 + 22𝑖, then 𝑎2 – 𝑏 2 = 3 and

2𝑎𝑏 = 22.

EQUATION: An equation is a statement that asserts that two mathematical expressions

are equal in value. We can also say that an equation is a statement that says that two

mathematical expressions have the same value. If this is true for all values of the

variables involved then it is called an identity, for example 2(𝑥 – 3) = 2𝑥 – 6, and

where it is only true for some values it is called a conditional equation; for example

𝑥 2 – 2𝑥 – 3 = 0 is only true when 𝑥 = – 1 𝑜𝑟 3, which are known as the roots of the

equation. An equation that can be put in the general form 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 = 0, where 𝑥 is

unknown and 𝑎 and 𝑏 are known, is called a linear equation. Any one-unknown equation

can be written in this form provided that it contains no terms with 𝑥 2 , 1/𝑥, or any term

with 𝑥 raised any power other than 1. An equation involving 𝑥 2 and 𝑥 is called a

quadratic equation, and can be written in the form 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0.

EQUATION OF A CIRCLE: The equation of a circle in the Argand plane can be put in the

form

zz + bz + bz + 𝑐 = 0

coordinates is 𝑟 = 𝑎𝑒 𝑘𝜃 , where 𝑎 (> 0), 𝑘 are constants. Let 𝑂 be the origin and 𝑃 be

any point on the curve. The curve derives its name from the property that the angle 𝛼

between 𝑂𝑃 and the tangent at 𝑃 is constant. In fact, 𝑘 = 𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝛼. The equation can be

written 𝑟 = 𝑘𝜃 + 𝑏, and the curve is also called the logarithmic spiral.

of compactness of a set of continuous functions. Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be compact metric spaces

and let 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) be the set of continuous mappings of 𝑋 into 𝑌. A set 𝐷 ⊂ 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌) is called

equicontinuous if for any 𝜖 > 0 there is a 𝛿 > 0 such that 𝜌𝑋 (𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ) ≤ 𝛿 implies

𝜌𝑌 𝑓 𝑥1 , 𝑓 𝑥2 ≤ 𝜖 ∀ 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ∇ 𝑋, 𝑓 ∇ 𝐷. Equicontinuity of 𝐷 is equivalent to the

relative compactness of 𝐷 in 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌), equipped with the metric

𝜌(𝑓, 𝑔) = max 𝜌𝑌 (𝑓(𝑥), 𝑔(𝑥)) ;

𝑥∇𝑋

this is the content of the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem. The idea of equicontinuity can be

transferred to uniform spaces.

difference is a convergent series with zero sum: 𝑎𝑛 − 𝑏𝑛 . If their difference is only a

convergent series, then the series are called equiconvergent in the wide sense.

EQUIVALENCE CLASS: For an equivalence relation ~ on a set S, an equivalence class [𝑎]

is the set of elements of 𝑆 equivalent to 𝑎; that is to say, [𝑎] = {𝑥 |𝑥 ∇ 𝑆 and a ~ x}. It

can be shown that if two equivalence classes have an element in common, then the two

classes are, as sets, equal. The collection of distinct equivalence classes having the

property that every element of 𝑆 belongs to exactly one of them is a partition of 𝑆.

EQUIVALENCE OF CODES: Two (𝑛, 𝑀)-codes are equivalent if one can be derived from

the other by a permutation of the coordinates and multiplication of any specific

coordinate by a non-zero scalar. Note that permuting the coordinates or multiplying by

a non-zero scalar makes no difference to the parameters of the code. In this sense, the

codes are therefore equivalent. Every linear code C is equivalent to a linear code C′ with

a generator matrix in standard form.

EQUIVALENCE OF REAL QUADRATIC FORMS: Two real quadratic forms X T AX and Y T BY

are said to be real equivalent, orthogonally equivalent, or complex equivalent according

as there exists a non-singular real, orthogonal, or a non-singular complex matrix P such

that 𝐵 = 𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃.

transitive. For an equivalence relation ~, 𝑎 is said to be equivalent to 𝑏 when 𝑎 ~ 𝑏. It is

an important fact that, from an equivalence relation on 𝑆, equivalence classes can be

defined to obtain a partition of 𝑆. equivalence relation. The equivalence class of an

element 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴 is the set of all elements 𝑏 such that 𝑎 ∼ 𝑏. An equivalence relation on

𝐴 partitions 𝐴 into a disjoint union of equivalence classes.

EQUIVALENT MATRICES A AND B OVER A RING R: Matrices such that 𝑨 can be

transformed into 𝑩 by a sequence of elementary row-and-column transformations, that

is, transformations of the following three types:

a) permutation of the rows (or columns);

b) addition to one row (or column) of another row (or column) multiplied by an

element of R

c) multiplication of a row (or column) by an invertible element of 𝑹. Equivalently, 𝑩 is

obtained from 𝑨 by multiplication on left or right by a sequence of matrices each of

which is either a) a permutation matrix; b) an elementary matrix; c) an

invertible diagonal matrix.

EQUIVALENT NORMS: Let 𝑁 be a normed linear space. Suppose that ∥ 1 and ∥ 2 are

two different norms 𝑁. The norms ∥ 1 is said to be equivalent to ∥ 2 written as

∥ 1 ~∥ 2, if there exist positive number 𝑎 and 𝑏 such that

𝑎 𝑓 1 ≤ 𝑓 2 ≤ 𝑏 𝑓 1 , for all 𝑓 𝜖 𝑁.

mathematician who was the first to calculate the size of the Earth by making

measurements of the angle of the Sun at two different places a known distance apart.

His other achievements include measuring the tilt of the Earth’s axis. He is also credited

with the method known as the sieve of Eratosthenes.

ERDOS AND TURAN CONJECTURE: Every set 𝐴 of natural numbers with positive upper

asymptotic density contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progrssions. This is equivalent

to the statement that if there is a natural number 𝑡 such that the set 𝐴 contains no

arithmetic progression of 𝑡 terms, then 𝑑(𝐴) = 0.

ERDOS, PAUL (1913–96): Paul Erdos was a Hungarian mathematician who was prolific

in his output, publishing more than 1500 papers, many of them jointly as he

collaborated with a wide range of other mathematicians. He sought elegant and simple

solutions to complex problems, which requires insight into the essential nature of the

problem, as well as the technical mathematics to extract the solution. He can be

regarded as the founder of discrete mathematics and was awarded the Wolf Prize in

1983 for contributions to number theory, combinatorics, probability, set theory and

mathematical analysis.

erf: It is the abbreviation for error function.

erfc: It is the abbreviation for complementary error function.

ERROR-CORRECTING AND ERROR-DETECTING CODE: A code is said to be error-

detecting if any one error in a codeword results in a word that is not a codeword, so that

the receiver knows that an error has occurred. A code is error-correcting if, when any

one error occurs in a codeword, it is possible to decide which codeword was intended.

Certain error-correcting codes may not be able to detect errors if more than one error

occurs in a codeword; other error-correcting codes can be constructed that can detect

and correct more than one error in a codeword.

ESSENTIAL SINGULARITIES: These singularities are due to the nature (geometrical

features) of the surface and are independent of the choice of parametric representation

of the surface, e.g., the vertex of the cone is an essential singularity.

ESTIMATOR: A statistic used to estimate the value of a population parameter. An

estimator 𝑋 of a parameter 𝜃 is consistent if the probability of the difference between

the two exceeding an arbitrarily small fixed number tends to zero as the sample size

increases indefinitely. An estimator 𝑋 is an unbiased estimator of the parameter 𝜃 if

𝐸(𝑋) = 𝜃, and it is a biased estimator if not. The best unbiased estimator is the

unbiased estimator with the minimum variance. The relative efficiency of two unbiased

estimators 𝑋 and 𝑌 is the ratio 𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑌)/𝑉𝑎𝑟(𝑋) of their variances. Estimators may be

found in different ways, including the method of maximum likelihood, and the method

of moments.

EUCLID (ABOUT 300 BC): Euclid was an outstanding mathematician of Alexandria,

author of what may well be the second most influential book in Western Culture: the

Elements. Little is known about Euclid himself, and it is not clear to what extent the

book describes original work and to what extent it is a textbook. The Elements develops

a large section of elementary geometry by rigorous logic starting from ‘undeniable’

axioms. It includes his proof that there are infinitely many primes, the Euclidean

algorithm, the derivation of the five Platonic solids, and much more.

EUCLIDEAN ALGORITHM: It is a process, based on the Division Algorithm, for finding the

greatest common divisor (𝑎, 𝑏) of two positive integers 𝑎 and 𝑏. Assuming that 𝑎 > 𝑏,

write 𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞1 + 𝑟1 , where 0 ≤ 𝑟1 < 𝑏. If 𝑟1 ≠ 0, the g.c.d. (𝑎, 𝑏) is equal to

𝑏; 𝑖𝑓 𝑟1 ≠ 0, then (𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝑏, 𝑟1 ), so the step is repeated with 𝑏 and 𝑟1 in place of 𝑎 and

𝑏. After further repetitions, the last non-zero remainder obtained is the required g.c.d.

For example, for 𝑎 = 927 and 𝑏 = 643, write

927 = 1 × 643 + 274,

643 = 2 × 274 + 95,

274 = 2 × 95 + 84,

95 = 1 × 84 + 11,

84 = 7 × 11 + 7,

11 = 1 × 7 + 4,

7 = 1 × 4 + 3,

4 = 1 × 3 + 1,

3 = 3 × 1,

and then 927, 643 = 643, 274 = 274, 95 = 95, 84 = 84, 11 = 11, 7 =

7, 4 = 4, 3 = 3,1 = 1.

EUCLIDEAN DOMAINS: Let 𝑹 be an integral domain, and let 𝑹∗ denote the set 𝑹\{𝟎} of

non-zero elements of 𝑹. An integer-valued function 𝝓: 𝑹∗ → 𝒁 defined on 𝑹∗ is said to

be a Euclidean function if it satisfies the following properties:—

(iv) 𝝓(𝒓) ≥ 𝟎 for all 𝒓 ∇ 𝑹∗ ;

(v) if 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑹∗ satisfy 𝒙|𝒚 then 𝝓(𝒙) ≤ 𝝓(𝒚);

(vi) given 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑹∗ , there exist 𝒒, 𝒓 ∇ 𝑹 such that

𝒙 = 𝒒𝒚 + 𝒓, where either 𝒓 = 𝟎 or 𝝓(𝒓) < 𝜙(𝑦).

A Euclidean domain is an integral domain on which is defined a Euclidean function.

EUCLIDEAN FIELD: An ordered field in which every positive element is a square. For

example, the field 𝑹 of real numbers is a Euclidean field. The field 𝑸 of rational numbers

is not a Euclidean field.

EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY: The area of mathematics relating to the study of geometry

based on the definitions and axioms set out in Euclid’s book, the Elements. The

geometry of space described by the system of axioms first stated systematically in

the Elements of Euclid. The space of Euclidean geometry is usually described as a set of

objects of three kinds, called "points" , "lines" and "planes" ; the relations between them

are incidence, order, congruence and continuity. The parallel axiom (fifth postulate)

occupies a special place in the axiomatics of Euclidean geometry. The first sufficiently

precise axiomatization of Euclidean geometry was given by D. Hilbert. There are

modifications of Hilbert's axiom system as well as other versions of the axiomatics of

Euclidean geometry.

EUCLIDEAN ISOMETRIES: An isometry of 𝑬𝑵 is a map 𝑻 ∶ 𝑬𝑵 → 𝑬𝑵 that preserves the

Euclidean metric: 𝒅(𝑻(𝒙), 𝑻(𝒚) = 𝒅(𝒙, 𝒚) for all 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑬𝑵 .

EUCLIDEAN PRIME NUMBER THEOREM: The set of prime numbers is infinite.

The Chebyshev theorems on prime numbers and the asymptotic law of the distribution

of prime numbers provide more precise information on the set of prime numbers in the

series of natural numbers.

EUCLIDEAN RING: An integral domain with an identity such that to each non-zero

element a of it corresponds a non-negative integer 𝒏(𝒂) satisfying the following

requirement: For any two elements 𝒂 and 𝒃 with 𝒃 ≠ 𝟎 one can find

elements 𝒒 and 𝒓 such that

𝑎 = 𝑏𝑞 + 𝑟,

Every Euclidean ring is a principal ideal ring and hence a factorial ring; however, there

exist principal ideal rings that are not Euclidean. Euclidean rings include the ring of

integers (the absolute value |𝑎| plays the part of 𝑛(𝑎)), and also the ring of polynomials

in one variable over a field (𝑛(𝑎) is the degree of the polynomial). In any Euclidean ring

the Euclidean algorithm can be used to find the greatest common divisor of two

elements.

EUCLIDEAN SPACE (CARTESIAN SPACE): The number line 𝑹, plane 𝑹𝟐 and 3-

dimensional space 𝑹𝟑 can be generalized to n-dimensional space 𝑹𝒏 with co-ordinates

(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 ) on which the operations of addition and multiplication by a scalar have

been extended in the obvious way. While 𝑹𝒏 is hard to visualize for 𝑛 > 3 it provides a

very powerful framework for multivariable analysis.

relates perfect numbers to Mersenne primes. An even positive integer is a perfect

number, that is, equals the sum of its proper divisors, if and only if it has the form

2p−1Mp where Mp is a Mersenne prime (i.e. a prime number of the form Mp = 2p − 1).

perfect number. Furthermore, there are no other even perfect numbers.

EUCLID NUMBERS: The perfect numbers which are even, for example 6 and 28 are

known as Euclid numbers.

EUCLID’S AXIOMS: The axioms Euclid set out in his famous text, the Elements, are:

A straight line may be drawn from any point to any other point,

A straight line segment can be extended indefinitely at either end,

A circle may be described with any centre and any radius,

Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another.

The whole is greater than the part.

EUCLIDEAN SPACE OVER A FIELD: Let be a (commutative) field of characteristic not

two. A Euclidean space is a vector space 𝑿 over 𝑭 equipped with a symmetric bilinear

form 𝝈: 𝑿 × 𝑿 → 𝑭 satisfying 𝝈(𝒙, 𝒙) ≠ 𝟎 for all 𝒙 ∇ 𝑿, 𝒙 ≠ 𝟎. The elements of 𝑿 are

called points, and a set of points 𝒑 + 𝑭. 𝒗 (𝒑, 𝒗 ∇∇ 𝑿, 𝒗 ≠ 𝟎) is called a line. Let

𝑸 𝒙 = 𝝈(𝒙, 𝒙). Two points 𝒂, 𝒃 , (𝒄, 𝒅) are said to be congruent if and only if

𝑸 𝒂 − 𝒃 = 𝑸(𝒄 − 𝒅).

EULER ANGLES: The angles 𝜙, 𝜓 and 𝜃 that determine the position of one Cartesian

rectangular coordinate system 0𝑥𝑦𝑧 relative to another one 0𝑥′𝑦′𝑧′ with the same origin

and orientation. The Euler angles are regarded as the angles through which the former

must be successively rotated about the axes of the latter so that in the end the two

systems coincide.

EULER EQUATION: A linear ordinary differential equation of order 𝑛 of the form

𝑛

𝑑𝑖 𝑦

𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑑𝑥 𝑖

𝑖=0

𝑒 𝑖𝑧 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑧 + 𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑧,

𝑒 𝑖𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑖𝑧 𝑒 𝑖𝑧 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝑧

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑧 = , 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑧 = .

2 2𝑖

These hold for all values of the complex variable 𝑧. In particular, for a real value 𝑧 =

𝑥 the Euler formulas become

𝑒 𝑖𝑥 + 𝑒 −𝑖𝑥 𝑒 𝑖𝑥 − 𝑒 −𝑖𝑥

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 = , 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 = .

2 2𝑖

of degree 𝒎 − 𝟏 ≥ 𝟎 are characterized by the Frobenius reciprocal identity

𝟏

𝒙𝒎−𝟏 𝒑𝒎 = 𝒑𝒎 (𝒙)

𝒙

Thus, 𝒑𝒎 (𝒙) is invariant under the reflection of the indeterminate 𝑥.

1

0

called the Euler integral of the first kind, or the beta-function, and

𝑥 𝑠−1 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑑𝑥

0

called the Euler integral of the second kind. (The latter converges for 𝑠 > 0 and is a

representation of the gamma-function.)

EULER, LEONHARD (1707–83): Leonord Euler was the most prolific of famous

mathematicians. He was born in Switzerland. He worked in a highly productive period

when the newly developed calculus was being extended in all directions at once, and he

made contributions to most areas of mathematics, pure and applied. Euler, more than

any other individual, was responsible for notation that is standard today. Among his

contributions to the language are the basic symbols, 𝜋, 𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖, the summation notation

𝛴 and the standard function notation 𝑓(𝑥). His Introduction in analysis in infinitorum

was the most important mathematics text of the late eighteenth century.

EULER NUMBERS: The coefficients in the expansion

The recurrence formula for the Euler numbers ( in symbolic notation) has the

form

Thus, , the are positive and the are negative integers for

all ; , , , , and . The

Euler numbers are connected with the Bernoulli numbers by the formulas

EULERIAN CIRCUIT: An Eulerian circuit in a graph is a circuit that traverses every edge

of the graph. It follows from these definitions that any closed Eulerian trail is an

Eulerian circuit.

EULERIAN GRAPH: One area of graph theory is concerned with the possibility of

travelling around a graph, going along edges in such a way as to use every edge exactly

once. A connected graph is called Eulerian graph if there is a sequence 𝑣0 , 𝑒1 , 𝑣1 , … , 𝑒𝑘 , 𝑣𝑘

of alternately vertices and edges (where 𝑒𝑖 is an edge joining 𝑣𝑖−1 and 𝑣𝑖 ), with 𝑣0 = 𝑣𝑘

and with every edge of the graph occurring exactly once.

EULERIAN TRAIL: An Eulerian trail in a graph is a trail that traverses every edge of the

graph. Note that an Eulerian trail in a graph must traverse every edge of the graph

exactly once, since a trail traverses an edge of the graph at most once.

𝑠0 + 𝑠1 + ⋯ + 𝑠 2− 𝑘+1

1 2 𝑘+1 𝑘

𝑛

𝑠𝑛 = 𝑘=0 𝑢𝑘 converges to 𝑠 as 𝑘 → ∞, then 𝑢𝑛 is said to be summable by Eular’s

method, and we write 𝑢𝑛 = 𝑠(𝐸). The transformation thus obtained is called Eular’s

method of summation.

1

1− − 1,

𝑝𝑠

𝑝

where 𝑠 is a real number and 𝑝 runs through all prime numbers. This product converges

absolutely for all 𝑠 > 1. The analogous product for complex numbers 𝑠 = 𝜍 + 𝑖𝑡

converges absolutely for 𝜍 > 1 and defines in this domain the Riemann zeta-function

1

𝜁(𝑠) = 1− − 1,

𝑝𝑠

𝑝

∞

1

= .

𝑛𝑠

𝑛=1

EULER STRAIGHT LINE: The straight line passing through the point 𝐻 of intersection of

the altitudes of a triangle, the point 𝑆 of intersection of its medians, and the centre 𝑂 of

the circle circumscribed to it. If the Euler line passes through a vertex of the triangle,

then the triangle is either isosceles or right-angled, or both right-angled and isosceles.

The segments of the Euler line satisfy the relation

𝑂𝐻: 𝑆𝐻 = 1: 2

1 1 1

EULER’S CONSTANT: Let 𝑎𝑛 = 1 + 2 + 3 + − − − + 𝑛 − ln 𝑛. This sequence has a limit

whose value is known as Euler’s constant, 𝛾; that is, 𝑎𝑛 → 𝛾. The value equals 0.577

215 66 to 8 decimal places. It is not known whether 𝛾 is rational or irrational.

𝑥

EULER’S EQUATIONS: The necessary condition for ∫𝑥 2 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 to be an extremum

1

is that

𝜕𝑓 𝑑 𝜕𝑓

− =0

𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑦′

This is called Euler’s equation

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION ALONG A STREAMLINE: Consider an elementary

section of a stream tube. Let 𝛿𝑠 be the length of the stream tube element. Mass of the

fluid particle moving along a streamline in the positive direction is 𝜌 𝛿𝐴 𝛿𝑠. The force

acting on the element are of two types: (i) Body force and (ii) Surface force exerted due

to hydrostatics pressure on the end areas of the particle.

The body force is (𝜌𝐹𝑠 ) 𝛿𝐴𝛿𝑠. On the upstream face the pressure force is 𝜌𝛿𝐴 in the (+𝑠)

𝜕𝑝

direction face it is 𝜌 + 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝐴 , 𝛿𝐴 acting in the (−𝑠) direction. The total force along the

𝜕𝑝

𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 + 𝜌𝛿𝐴 − 𝜌 + 𝛿𝐴

𝜕𝑠

𝜕𝐴

= 𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 − 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴.

dq

The acceleration of the fluid flowing along 𝛿𝑠 is . By using Newton’s second law of

dt

dq 𝜕𝜌

𝜌𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 = 𝜌𝐹𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴 − 𝜕𝑠 𝛿𝑠𝛿𝐴

dt

dq 1 𝜕𝑝

Or = 𝐹𝑠 − 𝜌 𝜕𝑠 ,

dt

𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑝 1 𝜕𝑝

Or + 𝑞 𝜕𝑠 = 𝐹𝑠 − 𝜌 𝜕𝑠 ,

𝜕𝑠

EULER’S FORMULA: The name given to the equation 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 + 𝑖 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 = 𝑒 𝑖𝜃 , a special

case of which gives 𝑒 𝑖𝜋 + 1 = 0.

EULER FORMULA ( DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A formula expressing the normal

curvature of a surface in a given direction l in terms of the principal

curvatures 𝑘1 and 𝑘2 :

𝑘𝑙 = 𝑘1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜙 + 𝑘2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜙,

where ϕ is the angle between the direction 𝑙 and the principal direction corresponding

to the principal curvature 𝑘1 . This formula was established by L. Euler (1760).

EULER’S FUNCTION: For a positive integer 𝑛, let 𝜑(𝑛) be the number of positive integers

less than 𝑛 that are relatively prime to 𝑛. For example, 𝜑(12) = 4, since four numbers,

1, 5, 7 and 11, are relatively prime to 12. This function 𝜑, defined on the set of positive

integers, is Euler’s function. The arithmetic function 𝜙 whose value at 𝑛 is equal to the

number of positive integers not exceeding 𝑛 and relatively prime to 𝑛 . The Euler

function is a multiplicative arithmetic function, that is 𝜙(1) = 1 and 𝜙(𝑚𝑛) =

𝜙(𝑚)𝜙(𝑛) for (𝑚, 𝑛) = 1. The function 𝜙(𝑛) satisfies the relations

𝜙(𝑑) = 𝑛,

𝑑|𝑛

𝜙(𝑛) = 3𝜋 2 𝑥 2 + 𝑂(𝑥𝑙𝑛𝑥).

𝑛≤𝑥

∞ −1

1 1

= 1−

𝑛𝑠 𝑝𝑠

𝑛 =1 𝑝

where 𝑠 > 1 is an arbitrary real number and the product extends over all prime

numbers 𝑝. The Euler identity also holds for all complex numbers 𝑠 = 𝜍 + 𝑖𝑡 with 𝜍 > 1.

∞ −1

1

𝑓(𝑛) = 1−

𝑓(𝑝)

𝑛=1 𝑝

which holds for every totally-multiplicative arithmetic function 𝑓(𝑛) > 0 for which the

∞

series 𝑛=1 𝑓(𝑛) is absolutely convergent.

EULER’S INTEGRALS- BATA AND GAMMA FUNCTIONS: We define the first and second

Eulerian integrals as

1

𝐵 𝐼, 𝑚 = 𝑥 𝑏−1 1 − 𝑥 𝑚 −1

𝑑 𝑥

0

and

∞

𝑇 𝑛 = 𝑒 −𝑥 𝑥 𝑛−1 𝑑 𝑥

0

and refer to them as the Beta and Gamma Functions respectively. These integrals

occupy a very important place in definite integrals and have got wide application in

Mechanics, Physics, Statistics and many other applied sciences.

We shall assume that all the quantities 𝐼, 𝑚, 𝑛 are positive but not necessarily integrals.

i.e.,

𝐵 𝐼, 𝑚 = 𝐵 𝑚, 𝑙

EULER’S METHOD: The simplest numerical method for solving differential equations. If

and an initial condition is known, 𝑦 = 𝑦0 when 𝑥 = 𝑥0 , then Euler’s method generates

a succession of approximations 𝑦𝑛+1 = 𝑦𝑛 + 𝑓 (𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ) where 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑥0 + 𝑛, 𝑛 =

1, 2, 3, …. This takes the known starting point, and moves along a straight line segment

with horizontal distance h in the direction of the tangent at (𝑥0 , 𝑦0 ). The process is

repeated from the new point (𝑥1 , 𝑦1 ) etc. If the step length is small enough, the

tangents are good approximations to the curve. The method provides a reasonably

accurate estimate.

EULER SERIES: The expression

1

,

𝑝

𝑝

where the sum extends over all prime number 𝑝. L. Euler (1748) showed that this series

diverges, thus providing another proof of the fact that the set of prime numbers is

infinite. The partial sums of the Euler series satisfy the asymptotic relation

1 1

= ln

(ln 𝑥) + 𝐶 + 𝑂

𝑝 ln 𝑥

𝑝≤𝑥

where C=0.261497….

EULER’S THEOREM: Let 𝐺 be a connected planar graph drawn in the plane. If there are 𝑣

vertices, 𝑒 edges and 𝑓 faces, then 𝑣 – 𝑒 + 𝑓 = 2.

EVEN FUNCTION: The real function 𝑓 is an even function if 𝑓(– 𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑥) for all 𝑥 in the

domain of the function 𝑓. Thus the graph 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) of an even function has the 𝑦-axis as

a line of symmetry. For example, 𝑓 is an even function when 𝑓(𝑥) is defined as any of the

2

following: 3, 𝑥 4 , 𝑥 6 + 4, 𝑥 4 + 1, 1/(𝑥 5 ), 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4 𝑥.

EVEN PERMUTATION: A rearrangement of the original ordering which can be obtained

by an even number of exchanges of pairs of elements.

EVENT: A subset of the sample space relating to an experiment. It is a set of outcomes of

an experiment; a subset of a sample space. For example, suppose that the sample space

for an experiment in which a coin is tossed three times is {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH,

THT, TTH, TTT}, and let A = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}. Then A is the event in which at

least two ‘heads’ are obtained. If, when the experiment is performed, the outcome is one

that belongs to A, then A is said to have occurred. The intersection A ∩ B of two events is

the event that can be described by saying that ‘both A and B occur’. The union A ∪ B of

two events is the event that ‘either A or B occurs’. Taking the sample space as the

universal set, the complement A′ of A is the event that ‘A does not occur’. The

probability Pr(A) of an event A is often of interest. The following laws hold:

𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵) – 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵).

When 𝐴 and 𝐵 are mutually exclusive events, 𝑃(𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) + 𝑃(𝐵).

When 𝐴 and 𝐵 are independent events, 𝑃(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) = 𝑃(𝐴) 𝑃(𝐵).

𝑃(𝐴′) = 1 – 𝑃(𝐴).

EVOLVENT: An evolvent is a region in the plane that is isometric to a given region on a

developable surface. Example: The evolvent of the side surface of a cone cut along a

generator is a planar sector. The approximate construction of an evolvent can be

achieved graphically by means of descriptive geometry.

EXACT DIFFERENTIAL: If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is a function of two independent variables then

𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

𝑑𝑧 = 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

is the exact differential. For a function of more than two variables the exact differential

will have similar partial derivative terms for each of its independent variables.

EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: An equation in which the exact differential of a

function is equal to zero. If 𝑧 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) then

𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

is an exact differential equation.

EXACT DIVISOR: An exact divisor of a number is a factor of a given number. e.g. 7 is an

exact divisor of 35.

EXACT HOMOMORPHISM: Let 𝑹 be a unital ring, let 𝑭, 𝑮 and 𝑯 be 𝑹-modules, and let

𝒑: 𝑭 → 𝑮 and 𝒒: 𝑮 → 𝑯 be 𝑹-module homomorphisms. The sequence 𝑭(𝒑) −→

𝑮(𝒒) −→ 𝑯 of modules and homomorphisms is said to be exact at 𝑮 if and only if

𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒈𝒆 (𝒑: 𝑭 → 𝑮) = 𝒌𝒆𝒓(𝒒: 𝑮 → 𝑯). A sequence of modules and homomorphisms is

said to be exact if it is exact at each module occurring in the sequence (so that the image

of each homomorphism is the kernel of the succeeding homomorphism). A

monomorphism is an injective homomorphism. An epimorphism is a surjective

homomorphism. An isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism.

EXAMPLE: A particular instance of a generalized statement. A counter-example will

disprove a generalized claim, but examples do not provide proof. EXCELLENT RING: A

commutative Noetherian ring satisfying the three axioms stated below. It is known that

a geometric ring possesses several qualitative properties not inherent in arbitrary

Noetherian rings. The concept of an excellent ring makes it possible to take the most

important properties of geometric rings axiomatically into account.

A1: The ring 𝐴 is a universal chain ring. (A ring 𝐴 is said to be a chain ring if for any two

prime ideals 𝑃 ≠ 𝑃′ of it the lengths of any two saturated chains 𝑃 = 𝑃0 ⊆ 𝑃1 ⊆

𝑃2 … … … ⊆ 𝑃𝑛 = 𝑃′ of prime ideals are the same. A ring 𝐴 is said to be a universal

chain ring if any polynomial ring 𝐴[𝑇1 , 𝑇2 , … … … , 𝑇𝑘 ] is a chain ring.)

A2: The formal fibres of 𝐴 are geometrically regular, i.e. for any prime ideal 𝑃 ⊂ 𝐴 and

any homomorphism from 𝐴 into a field 𝐾, the ring 𝐴𝑝 ⨂𝑘 𝐾 is regular. Here 𝐴𝑝 is the

completion of the local ring 𝐴𝑝 .

A3: For any integral finite 𝐴 -algebra there is a non-zero element 𝑏 ∇ 𝐵 such that the

ring of fractions, 𝐵[𝑏 −1 ], is regular.

1) For an excellent ring 𝐴, the set of regular (normal) points of the scheme 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐 𝐴 is

open.

completion 𝐴.

3) The integral closure of an excellent ring 𝐴 in a finite extension of the field of fractions

of 𝐴 is a finite 𝐴 -algebra.

4) If a ring 𝐴 is excellent, then any 𝐴 -algebra of finite type is also an excellent ring.

Two important examples of excellent rings are the complete local rings (or analytic

rings) and the Dedekind rings with field of fractions of characteristic zero. Therefore,

the class of excellent rings is sufficiently large and contains, in particular, all algebras of

finite type over a field or over the ring 𝑍 of integers.

singularities of the scheme 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐 𝐴.

EXCEPTIONAL ANALYTIC SET: An analytic set in a complex space 𝑿 for which there

exists an analytic mapping 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 such that 𝒇(𝑨) → 𝒀 is a point in the complex

space 𝒀, while 𝒇: 𝑿 − 𝑨 → 𝒀 − 𝒚 is an analytic isomorphism. The modification 𝒇 is

called a contraction of 𝑨 to 𝒚.

EXCLUSIVE DISJUNCTION: The proposition 𝐴 ∨ ˙𝐵, obtained from two

propositions 𝐴 and 𝐵 using the exclusive disjunction ∨ ˙, is taken to be true if 𝐴 is true

and 𝐵 is false, or if 𝐴 is false and 𝐵 is true. In the remaining cases it is taken to be false.

Thus, the exclusive disjunction can be expressed in terms of the ordinary (non-

exclusive) disjunction by the formula

𝐴 ∨ ˙𝐵 ⇔ (𝐴 ∨ 𝐵)&¬(𝐴 ∧ 𝐵).

𝑠(𝑠 ≥ 0) then there exists a space curve for which 𝑘 is the curvature, 𝜏 is the torsion,

and 𝑠 is the arc length measured from some suitable base point.

EXHAUSTIVE EVENTS: A set of events in statistics whose union is the whole probability

space, or a set of sets whose union is the universal set under consideration.

exp: It is the abbreviation for exponential function. (exp x is also written as ex).

EXPANSION OF SOME BASIC FUNCTIONS:

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑒𝑥 = 1 + 𝑥 + + +−−−−

2! 3!

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑒 −𝑥 = 1 − 𝑥 + − +−−−−

2! 3!

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑎 𝑥 = 1 + 𝑥 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎 + (𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)2 + (𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)3 + − − − −

2! 3!

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑎−𝑥 = 1 − 𝑥 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎 + 2!

(𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)2 − 3!

(𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑎)3 + − − − −

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑙𝑜𝑔 1 + 𝑥 = 𝑥 − + −−−−−

2! 3!

𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑙𝑜𝑔 1 − 𝑥 = − 𝑥 + + +−−−−

2! 3!

EXPECTED VALUE: The expected value 𝐸(𝑋) of a random variable 𝑋 is a value that gives

the mean value of the distribution, and is defined as follows. For a discrete random

variable 𝑋, 𝐸(𝑋) = 𝛴 𝑝𝑖 𝑥𝑖 , where 𝑝𝑖 = 𝑃 (𝑋 = 𝑥𝑖 ). For a continuous random variable

𝑋,

∞

𝐸 𝑥 = 𝑥𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

−∞

𝐸(𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌) = 𝑎𝐸(𝑋) + 𝑏𝐸(𝑌).

When 𝑋 and 𝑌 are independent, 𝐸(𝑋𝑌) = 𝐸(𝑋) 𝐸(𝑌).

EXPERIMENT: An action that has measurable or quantifiable results.

EXPLICIT FORMULA: A formula for the nth term of a sequence, written as an expression

of n.

EXPLICIT FUNCTION: If the dependent variable y is expressed in the form 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥)

then 𝑦 is an explicit function of 𝑥. So 𝑦 = 6𝑥 + 15 is explicit but 6𝑥 – 𝑦 + 15 = 0 is

not, though it can be rearranged to be explicit.

EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: The continuous probability distribution with probability

density function 𝑓 given by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝜆 𝑒𝑥𝑝(– 𝜆 𝑥), where 𝜆 is a positive parameter, and

𝑥 ≥ 0. It has mean 1/𝜆 and variance 1/𝜆2 . The time between events that occur

randomly but at a constant rate has an exponential distribution. The distribution is

skewed to the right.

EXPONENTIAL EQUATION: An equation in which the variable occurs in an exponent.

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION: The function 𝑓 such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 𝑥 , or 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑥, for all 𝑥 in 𝑅.

The two notations arise from different approaches described below, but are used

interchangeably. A function of the form y = Abx, where A is a non-zero constant and b >

0 and b ≠ 1, is also called exponential function.

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH: Growth that can be modelled by an exponential function

A process which changes by a fixed factor over a fixed time period: exponential

growth or decay.

a power, such as 𝑥 𝑦 𝑧

= 𝑥 𝑦𝑧 .

A property of sets of maps between sets, such

as 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑋 × 𝑌, 𝑍) ↔ 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑋, 𝑀𝑎𝑝(𝑌, 𝑍)).

A property of sets of continuous maps between topological spaces.

Ext: It is the abbreviation for Ext functor.

EXTENDABLE FUNCTION: A function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 is extendable, 𝑓 ∇ 𝐸𝑥𝑡(𝑋, 𝑌 ), provided

there exists a connectivity function 𝐹 ∶ 𝑋 × [0, 1] → 𝑌 such that 𝑓 (𝑥) = 𝐹 (𝑥, 0) for

every 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋. It is easy to see that 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐸𝑥𝑡(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑛(𝑋, 𝑌 ) ⊂ 𝐷(𝑋, 𝑌 ) for

arbitrary topological spaces, where 𝐶(𝑋, 𝑌 ) stands for the class of all continuous

functions from 𝑋 into 𝑌.

EXTENDED COMPLEX PLANE: It is the set of complex numbers with a point at infinity.

The set can be denoted by 𝑪∞ and can be thought of as a Riemann sphere by means of a

stereographic projection. If a sphere is placed so that a point 𝑆 on the sphere is touching

the complex plane at the origin, then 𝑆 corresponds to the point (0,0) on the complex

plane, which is the complex number 𝑧 = 0. All other points on the sphere, except 𝑁

which is diametrically opposite to 𝑆 on the sphere, are in a one-to-one correspondence

with points on the complex plane through the stereographic projection, and therefore

with a unique complex number. The point 𝑁 is identified with the point at infinity, with

corresponding complex number ∞.

EXTENDED REAL NUMBERS: It is the set of real numbers, with the positive and negative

infinite cardinals.

EXTENSION OF A FIELD: A field extension 𝑲 is a field containing a given field k as a

subfield. The notation 𝑲/𝒌 means that 𝑲 is an extension of the field 𝒌. In this case, 𝑲 is

sometimes called an overfield of the field 𝒌.

Let 𝐾/𝑘 and 𝐿/𝑘 be two extensions of a field 𝑘. An isomorphism of fields 𝜑: 𝐾 → 𝐿 is

called an isomorphism of extensions if 𝜑 is the identity on 𝑘. If an isomorphism of

extensions exists, then the extensions are said to be isomorphic. If 𝐾 = 𝐿, φ is called an

automorphism of the extension 𝐾/𝑘. The set of all automorphisms of an extension

forms a group, 𝐴𝑢𝑡(𝐾/𝑘). If 𝐾/𝑘 is a Galois extension, this group is denoted

by 𝐺𝑎𝑙(𝐾/𝑘) and is called the Galois group of the field 𝐾 over 𝑘, or the Galois group of

the extension 𝐾/𝑘. An extension is called Abelian if its Galois group is Abelian.

EXTENSION OF A MODULE: Any module 𝑿 containing the given module 𝑨 as a

submodule. Usually one fixes a quotient module 𝑿/𝑨, that is, an extension of the

module by the module is an exact sequence

𝟎→𝑨→𝑿→𝑩→𝟎

Such a module 𝑋 always exists (for example, the direct sum of 𝐴 and 𝐵), but need not be

uniquely determined by 𝐴 and 𝐵.

EXTENSION OF AN OPERATOR: A linear operator whose graph contains the graph of the

given linear operator. When the operator 𝑩 is an extension of a given operator 𝑨, one

writes 𝑨 ⊂ 𝑩. The usual problems in the theory of extensions are as follows: extend an

operator maximally while preserving a specific property, or study extensions of an

operator having various additional properties.

For example, let 𝐴 be a given isometric operator on a Hilbert space 𝐻 with domain of

definition 𝐷(𝐴) ⊂ 𝐻 and range of values 𝑅(𝐴) ⊂ 𝐻; then the isometric extensions

of 𝐴 are in one-to-one correspondence with the isometric mappings from 𝐻+ =

𝐷(𝐴)⊥ to 𝐻− = 𝑅(𝐴)⊥ . In particular, 𝐴 has unitary extensions if the dimensions

of 𝐻+and 𝐻− coincide.

If 𝑓(𝑧) is a analytic in a ring shaped region bounded by two closed curves 𝐶1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶2 and

a is a point in the region between 𝐶1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶2 .

1 𝑓(𝑧) 1 𝑓(𝑧)

𝑓 𝑎 = ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧 − ∫𝐶 𝑑𝑧

2𝜋𝑖 2 𝑧 − 𝑎 2𝜋𝑖 1 𝑧 − 𝑎

a simply connected domain 𝐷. Then the integral along any rectifiable curve in 𝐷 joining

any given points of 𝐷 is the same i.e., it does not depend upon the curve joining the two

points.

topological space 𝑿 is an everywhere-dense set. If 𝒀 is a compact space, then it is called

a compact extension, and if 𝒀 is a Hausdorff space, it is called a Hausdorff extension.

EXTERIOR NORMAL TO A CONVEX SURFACE: A vector perpendicular to a supporting

hyperplane and directed towards that half-space defined by the supporting hyperplane

which does not contain the points of the surface.

EXTRAPOLATION: An extension of the function beyond the boundary of its domain of

definition, in which the extended (as a rule) function belongs to a given class. The

extrapolation of functions is usually performed by means of formulas using information

about the behaviour of the function at a finite collection of points (interpolation nodes)

in its domain of definition. The concept of interpolation of functions is used as the

opposite concept to that of extrapolation and consists in constructively (possibly,

approximately) re-establishing the values of functions in their domains of definition.

EXTREMAL FIELD: A domain in the (𝑛 + 1) −dimensional space of the variables

𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 covered without intersections by an 𝑛-parameter family of extremals

of the functional

⌌𝐵⌍

𝐽= 𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 , 𝑦 ′ , … … … , 𝑦𝑛′ 𝑑𝑥

⌌𝐴⌍

where 𝐴 and 𝐵 are the initial and final points through which the extremals of the family

pass. One must distinguish between proper (or general) and central extremal fields. A

proper extremal field corresponds to the case when the extremals of the family are

transversal to some surface

𝜑 𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 = 0.

For a proper extremal field the point 𝐴 (or 𝐵) in (1) belongs to the surface (2) and the

condition (3) is satisfied at it.

A central extremal field corresponds to the case when the extremals of the family

emanate from one point lying outside the field, for example, from a common initial

point 𝐴. The slope of an extremal field is the vector-function

𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 = (𝑢1 𝑥, 𝑦 , … … … , 𝑢𝑛 𝑥, 𝑦 associating with every point

𝑥, 𝑦 = (𝑥, 𝑦1 , 𝑦2 , … … … , 𝑦𝑛 ) of the field the vector 𝑦 𝑥 = (𝑦1′ 𝑥 , … … … . 𝑦𝑛′ 𝑥 ).

open. In a regular extremally-disconnected space there are no convergent sequences

without repeated terms. Therefore, among the metric spaces only the discrete ones are

extremally disconnected. Nevertheless, extremally-disconnected spaces are fairly

widespread: Every Tikonov space can be represented as the image under a perfect

irreducible mapping of some extremally-disconnected Tikonov space. This means that

extremal disconnectedness is not preserved by perfect mappings. However, the image

of an extremally-disconnected space under a continuous open mapping is an

extremally-disconnected space.

EXTREMAL METRIC, METHOD OF THE: One of the fundamental methods in geometric

function theory, closely connected with differential geometry and topology. The method

of the extremal metric is based on the relations between the length of curves belonging

to specific homotopy classes and the areas of the domains filled out by them. Here these

curves and areas are computed in a special metric corresponding to the peculiarities of

the extremal problem under investigation.

The method of the extremal metric has various forms. The original one is Grötzsch's

strip method, which is an essential refinement of the arguments connecting length and

area, operating with the characteristic conformal invariants of doubly-connected

domains and quadrangles. Using his strip method, H. Grötzsch obtained a number of

classical results in the theory of conformal and quasi-conformal mappings

by choosing parameters or functions (controls) from various classes defined by various

conditions (phase, differential, integral, etc.) imposed on the classes over which the

specific value, function or functional is to attain a minimum or maximum.

EXTREMAL PROPERTIES OF FUNCTIONS: Properties of individual functions that

distinguish them as solutions of some extremal problems. The majority of the special

functions arising in mathematical analysis can be characterized by some extremal

property. This applies, for example, to extremal properties of polynomials: the

classical Laguerre polynomials, the Legendre polynomials, the Chebychev polynomials,

the Hermite polynomials. The classical polynomials are usually solutions of various

extremal problems arising not infrequently in remote domains of analysis. For example,

the Chebychev polynomials are extremal in the problem of an inequality for the

derivatives of polynomials. The same can also be said of other special functions. Many of

them are eigen functions of differential operators, that is, they are solutions of

some isoperimetric problem. In this context the best known special functions are

connected in some way with the existence of an invariant structure, when they are eigen

functions of the Laplace–Beltrami equation, which is shift-invariant. This holds for the

trigonometric polynomials, the spherical functions, the cylinder functions, etc. The

majority of extremal properties of functions can be stated in the form of some exact

inequality.

EXTREME POINT OF A CONVEX SET: A point x in a convex set C is called an extreme

point if x cannot be expressed as a convex combination of any two distinct points 𝑥1 and

𝑥2 in C.

Mathematically, a point is a extreme point of a convex set if there do not exist other

points 𝑥1 ,𝑥2 (𝑥1 ≠ 𝑥2 ) in the set , such that

𝑥 = 𝜆𝑐1 + 1 − 𝜆 𝑥2 , 0 ≤ 𝜆 ≤ 1

for 𝑦, 𝑧 ∇ 𝑆, 0 < 𝜃 < 1, then 𝑥 = 𝑦 = 𝑧.

function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 is numeric if 𝐵 is a set of numbers. For a numeric function, it's

possible to compare its values at different points 𝑎 ∇ 𝐴. Extreme is a value which, in

some sense is either maximum or minimum. If 𝑓(𝑎) exceeds all other values of 𝑓 then

we say it's a global extreme, maximum. If it's only larger than values of 𝑓 for points

near 𝑎, the maximum is local.

function 𝑓 is continuous in the closed and bounded interval [𝑎, 𝑏], then 𝑓 must attain

a maximum and a minimum, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers 𝑐 and 𝑑 in

[𝑎, 𝑏] such that:

function 𝑓 in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is bounded on that interval. That is, there exist

real numbers 𝑚 and 𝑀 such that:

EXTREMUM: A point at which a function has a turning point, i.e. at least a local

maximum or minimum. An extremum is a point where a function attains a maximum or

minimum. This article will consider only functions that are continuous and

differentiable. A global maximum is the point where a function attains its highest value.

A local maximum is a point where the value of the function is higher than the

surrounding points. Similar definitions apply to minimum points. Both local maximum

and local minimum points can be found by determining where the curve has a

horizontal tangent, which means that the derivative is zero at that point. If the first

derivative is zero and the second derivative is positive, then the curve is concave up,

and the point is a minimum.

F

FACTORIAL NOTATION: The notation, 𝑛!, used to represent the product of the first n

natural numbers.

FACTORIAL RING: A ring with unique decomposition into factors. More precisely, a

factorial ring 𝑨 is an integral domain in which one can find a system of irreducible

elements 𝑷 such that every non-zero element 𝒂 ∇ 𝑨 admits a unique representation

𝒂=𝒖 𝒑𝒏(𝒑)

𝒑∇𝑷

where 𝑢 is invertible and the non-negative integral exponents 𝑛(𝑝) are non-zero for

only a finite number of elements 𝑝 ∇ 𝑃. Here an element is called irreducible

in 𝐴 if 𝑝 = 𝑢𝑣 implies that either 𝑢 or 𝑣 is invertible in 𝐴, and 𝑝 is not invertible in 𝐴.

FACTOR THEOREM: Suppose that 𝑓(𝑥) represents a polynomial in 𝑥. The factor theorem

says that, if 𝑓 𝑎 = 0, then (𝑥 − 𝑎) is one of the factors of 𝑓(𝑥).

FACTOR SPACE: If 𝑋 is a vector space and 𝑀 is a subspace of 𝑋, then 𝑋/𝑀 is a vector

space, called the factor space (or the quotient space) of 𝑋 with respect to 𝑀.

lattice (or Riesz space) whenever 𝒙 ≤ 𝒚 ( ≤ is the lattice order) implies 𝒙 + 𝒛 ≤ 𝒚 +

𝒛 for all 𝒛 ∇ 𝑨 and 𝜶𝒙 ≤ 𝜶𝒚 for all positive real numbers 𝜶. If 𝑨 is also

an algebra and 𝒛𝒙 ≤ 𝒛𝒚 and 𝒙𝒛 ≤ 𝒚𝒛 for all 𝒛 ∇ 𝑨+, the positive cone of 𝑨, then 𝑨 is

called an 𝒍-algebra (a lattice-ordered algebra, Riesz algebra). A Riesz algebra 𝑨 is called

an 𝒇-algebra whenever

𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝟎 ⇒ 𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒛𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝐢𝐧𝐟 𝒙𝒛, 𝒚 = 𝟎∀𝒛 ∇ 𝑨+

some topological space 𝑋. Other examples are spaces of Baire functions, measurable

functions and essentially bounded functions.

FAMILY OF CURVES: A set of similar curves which are of the same form and

distinguished by the values taken by one or more parameters in their general equation.

In particular, where the solution of a differential equation is obtained, the general

solution will involve one or more constants of integration, giving rise to a family of

curves. A particular member of the family may be identified as the required solution if

boundary conditions are known.

𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑎 = 0

Where ‘𝑎’ is a constant represents a family of surface. If ‘𝑎’ can take all real values i.e. if

‘𝑎’ is parameter, then equation represents one parameter family of surface having ‘𝑎’ as

parameter. By assigning different values to ‘𝑎’ we shall get different surface of this

family of surface.

Similarly the equation of the form 𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑎, 𝑏 =0, where ‘𝑎’ and ‘𝑏’ are parameters

represents the family of surface having ‘𝑎’ and ‘𝑏’ as two parameters.

FARKAS’ LEMMA: Let 𝐶 be a closed convex cone in 𝑅 𝑚 and let 𝑏 be a vector in 𝑅 𝑚 .

Suppose that 𝑏 ∈ 𝐶. Then there exists a linear functional 𝜙: 𝑅 𝑚 → 𝑅 such that

𝜙(𝑣) ≥ 0 for all 𝑣 ∇ 𝐶 and 𝜙(𝑏) < 0.

FATOU LEMMA: If a sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) of µ −summable non-negative functions is such that:

∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑µ ≤ 𝐶 for all 𝑛;

𝑎. 𝑒

𝑓𝑛 𝑓.,

→

F-DISTRIBUTION: The F-distribution is a continuous random variable distribution that

is frequently used in statistical inference. It is used to test the hypothesis that two

normally distributed random variables have the same variance, and in regression to test

the relationship between an explanatory variable and the dependent variable. The

distribution is skewed to the right. Tables relating to the distribution are available.

FEASIBLE SOLUTION OF AN LPP: The feasible solution if a LPP is that set of values

which satisfies both the constraints and the non – negative restrictions of a LPP. A

feasible solution is a set of values for the choice variables in a linear programming

problem that satisfies the constraints of the problem. Some properties of CPF Solutions

are:

feasible (CPF) solution.

Property 2 If there are multiple optimal solutions ≥ 2 and a bounded feasible

region, optimal solutions must be adjacent corner-point feasible (CPF)

solution.

Property 3 There are a finite number of corner-point feasible (CPF) solutions.

Property 4 If a corner-point feasible (CPF) solution. has no adjacent corner-point

feasible (CPF) solution. that are better, then such a corner-point

feasible (CPF) solution. is guaranteed to be an optimal solution.

Each Basic feasible solution has m basic variables, and the rest are non-basic.

The number of non-basic variables equals n + m, where m is number of surplus

variables.

The basic solution is the augmented corner-point solution whose n defining

equations are indicated by the non-basic variables.

A Basic feasible solution is a basic solution where all m basic variables are non-

negative.

A Basic feasible solution is said to be degenerate if any of the m variables equals

zero.

1 𝜋 1 𝑛 𝑘

𝐹𝑛 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−𝜋 𝑓 𝑡 𝐾𝑛 𝑥 − 𝑡 𝑑𝑡, 𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐾𝑛 𝑡 = 𝑛 +1 𝑘=0 𝑚 =−𝑘 𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑡 is the Fejér

kernel.

coefficients of univalent analytic functions found byFekete and Szegő (1933), related to

the Bieberbach conjecture. Finding similar estimates for other classes of functions is

called the Fekete–Szegő problem.

mathematician who developed number theory, worked on ideas that later became

known as calculus, and corresponded with Pascal on probability theory. He is

remembered chiefly for his work in the theory of numbers, including Fermat’s Little

Theorem and what is known as Fermat’s Last Theorem. His work on tangents was an

acknowledged inspiration to Newton in the latter’s development of the calculus. Fermat

introduced coordinates as a means of studying curves. Professionally he was a judge in

Toulouse, and to mathematicians he is the ‘Prince of Amateurs’.

𝑟

FERMAT PRIME: A prime of the form 22 + 1 is called as a Fermat prime as were

informed by Fermat. At present, the only known primes of this form are those given by r

= 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.

FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM: Fermat’s last theorem states that there is no solution to the

equation 𝑎𝑛 + 𝑏 𝑛 = 𝑐 𝑛 where 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, and 𝑛 are all positive integers, and 𝑛 > 2. Fermat

wrote in the margin of a book that he had a proof of this, but as he never repeated the

claim it is likely that he realized the incompleteness of his supposed proof. Much

research was done over centuries until a proof was completed in 1995 by Andrew

Wiles.

FERMAT’S LITTLE THEOREM: Let 𝑝 be a prime, and let 𝑎 be an integer not divisible by

𝑝. Then 𝑎𝑝 – 1 ≡ 1 (𝑚𝑜𝑑 𝑝).

with 𝑥 and 𝑦 integers, if and only if

For example, the primes 5, 13, 17, 29 and 37 are all congruent to 1 modulo 4,

and they can be expressed as sums of two squares in the following ways:

FERRARI METHOD: The Ferrari method is a method for reducing the solution of an

equation of degree 4 over the complex numbers to the solution of one cubic and two

quadratic equations; it was discovered by L. Ferrari.

𝑦 4 + 𝑎𝑦 3 + 𝑏𝑦 2 + 𝑐𝑦 + 𝑑 = 0

consists in the following. By the substitution 𝑦 = 𝑥 − 𝑎/4 the given equation can be

reduced to

𝑥 4 + 𝑝𝑥 2 + 𝑞𝑥 + 𝑟 = 0, (1)

side of (1) can be written as

𝑝2

𝑥 4 + 𝑝𝑥 2 + 𝑞𝑥 + 𝑟 = (𝑥 2 + 𝑝2 + 𝛼)2 − [2𝛼𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑥 + (𝛼 2 + 𝑝𝛼 + − 𝑟)]. (2)

4

One then chooses a value of α such that the quadratic trinomial in square brackets is a

perfect square. For this the discriminant of the quadratic trinomial must vanish. This

gives a cubic equation for 𝛼,

𝑝2

𝑞 2 − 4 ⋅ 2𝛼(𝛼 2 + 𝑝𝛼 + − 𝑟) = 0.

4

Let α0 be one of the roots of this equation. For 𝛼 = 𝛼0 the polynomial in square brackets

in (2) has one double root,

𝑞

𝑥0 = ,

4𝛼0

which leads to the equation

(𝑥 2 + 𝑝2 + 𝛼0 )2 − 2𝛼0 (𝑥 − 𝑥0 )2 = 0.

This equation of degree 4 splits into two quadratic equations. The roots of these

equations are also the roots of (1).

one of those who introduced the Hindu–Arabic number system to

Europe. He strongly advocated this system in Liber abaci, published in 1202, which also

contained problems including one that gives rise to the Fibonacci numbers.

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE: The first two numbers of the Fibonacci sequence are 1; every

other number is the sum of the two numbers that immediately precede it. Therefore, the

first 14 numbers in the sequence are: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,

610, 987, 1597,….. This sequence has many interesting properties. For instance, the

sequence consisting of the ratios of one Fibonacci number to the previous one, , has the

limit τ, the golden ratio.

FIELD: A field is a set of elements having two binary operations defined on it with

following properties:

—It is an Abelian group with respect to one operation called addition (with an identity

element designated 0).

—It is also an Abelian group with respect to another operation called multiplication.

—The distributive property holds: 𝑎 𝑏 + 𝑐 = 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑎𝑐.

Roughly speaking, S is a field if addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (except

by zero) are all possible in S. We normally use the letter K for a general field. For

example, the real numbers are an example of a field, with addition and multiplication

defined in the traditional manner. The concept can also be generalized to other types of

objects.

There are many other fields, including some finite fields. For example, for each prime

number p, there is a field 𝔽𝑝 = 0,1,2, ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑝 − 1 with 𝑝 elements, where addition and

multiplication are carried out modulo 𝑝. Thus, in 𝔽7 , we have 5 + 4 = 2 ,5 × 4 =

6 𝑎𝑛𝑑 5−1 = 3 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 5 × 3 = 1.The smallest such field 𝔽2 has just two elements 0 and

1 where 1 + 1 = 0.

0𝛼 = 0, −𝛼 𝛽 = − 𝛼𝛽 , −𝛼 −𝛽 = 𝛼𝛽, −1 𝛼 = −𝛼 , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝛼, 𝛽 𝜖 𝑆

However, occasionally you need to be very careful. For example in 𝔽2 we have 1+1=0,

and so it is not possible to divide by 2 in this field.

some larger field 𝐿.

FIELD OF EXTREMALS: A central field (Proper) is called a field of extremals, if it is

formed by a family of extremals.

FILTERS: A filter on a set 𝑀 is a non-empty family 𝐹 ∇ 𝑃(𝑀) such that:

𝐴, 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹 ⇒ 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹;

𝐴 ∇ 𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐵 ⇒ 𝐵 ∇ 𝐹;

𝜑 ∈ 𝐹.

A filter is called free if ∩ 𝐹 = 𝜑.

FINITE ABELIAN GROUPS: An Abelian group 𝐺 of order 𝑝, where 𝑝 is a prime number, is

a direct product of cyclic subgroups 𝑍1 , . . . , 𝑍𝑟 , : 𝐺 = 𝑍1 × … × 𝑍𝑟 . If 𝑍𝑖 is of order 𝑝𝑛 𝑖 ,

then 𝑛 = 𝑛1 + − − − + 𝑛𝑟 , and we can assume that 𝑛𝑖 ≥ 𝑛𝑖+1 . A direct product

decomposition of 𝐺, as above, is not unique, but 𝑛1 , − − −, 𝑛𝑟 are determined uniquely

by 𝐺. The system {𝑝𝑛 1 , − − −, 𝑝𝑛 𝑟 } or {𝑛1 , − − −, 𝑛𝑟 } is called the system of invariants

(or type) of 𝐺, and a system of generators {𝑧1 , , − − −, 𝑧𝑟 } of 𝑍1 × … × 𝑍𝑟 is called a basis

of 𝐺. An Abelian group of type (𝑝, 𝑝, − − −, 𝑝) is called an elementary Abelian group.

FINITE AND 𝝈 −FINITE MEASURES: A measure µ is finite if µ(𝐴) < ∞ for all 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋. A

measure µ is 𝜍 −finite if 𝑋 is a union of countable number of sets 𝑋𝑘 , such that the

restriction of µ to each 𝑋𝑘 is finite.

For a measure µ on a 𝜍 −algebra R, we have the following results

µ(⋃𝑛 𝐴𝑛 )

then

lim𝑛→∞ µ 𝐴𝑛 = µ(⋂𝑛 𝐴𝑛 ).

ring 𝑅(𝑆). If the initial measure was 𝜍 −additive, then the extension is 𝜍 −additive as

well.

derivatives are no longer small is called finite deformation.

every element of it can be expressed as a linear combination of a finite set of linearly

independent vectors.

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD: A numerical method of solving partial differential equations

with boundary conditions by considering a series of approximations which satisfy the

differential equation and boundary conditions within a small region

FINITE FOURIER COSINE TRANSFORM: Let f(t) be a function defined on 0, ℓ and

satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier cosine transform of

𝑓 𝑡 , 𝑜 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠

𝓵

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜋𝑆𝑡

𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁

𝟎 ℓ

satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier sine transform of

𝑓 𝑡 , 0 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 is defined as

𝓵

𝜋𝑆𝑡

𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁

𝟎 ℓ

FINITE INTERSECTION PROPERTY: A space has the finite intersection property when

every family of closed subsets such that all finite sub collections have non-empty

intersections means that the entire family also has a non-empty intersection. It can be

shown that this property is equivalent to the space being compact.

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS: The theory of finitely generated Abelian

groups, i.e., Abelian groups generated by a finite number of elements, is as old as that of

finite Abelian groups. The direct product of infinite cyclic groups is called a free Abelian

group. A finitely generated Abelian group G is the direct product of a finite Abelian

group and a free Abelian group. The finite factor is the torsion subgroup of G. The free

factor of the group G is not necessarily unique; however, the number of infinite cyclic

factors of the free factor is uniquely determined and is called the rank of G. Two finitely

generated Abelian groups are isomorphic if they have isomorphic maximal torsion

subgroups and the same rank.

FINITELY GENERATED IDEAL: An ideal 𝑰 of the ring 𝑹 is said to be finitely generated if

there exists a finite subset of 𝑹 which generates the ideal 𝑰. Every ideal of the ring 𝒁 of

integers is generated by some non-negative integer 𝒏.

FINITE MATHEMATICS: The branch of mathematics concerned with the study of

properties of structures of finite character, that arise both within mathematics and in

applications. Among these structures one has, e.g., finite groups, finite graphs, and also

certain mathematical models of information processing, finite automata, Turing

machines, etc.. Sometimes the subject of finite mathematics is assumed to extend to

arbitrary discrete structures, and this leads to discrete mathematics, identifying the

latter with finite mathematics. Certain algebraic systems, infinite graphs, definite forms

of computing schemes, cellular automata, etc., can be regarded as belonging to this area.

The term discrete analysis sometimes serves as a synonym for the concepts of "finite

mathematics" and "discrete mathematics" .

FINITE RANK OPERATOR: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be normed spaces, 𝑇 ∇ 𝐵 𝑋, 𝑌 is a finite rank

operator if 𝐼𝑚 𝑇 is a finite dimensional subspace of 𝑌.

FINITE SEQUENCE: A sequence that has a last term.

FINSLER MANIFOLD: A Finsler manifold allows the definition of distance but does not

require the concept of angle; it is an analytic manifold in which each tangent space is

equipped with a norm, || · ||, in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point.

This norm can be extended to a metric, defining the length of a curve; but it cannot in

general be used to define an inner product. Any Riemannian manifold is a Finsler

manifold.

FIRST-COUNTABLE SPACES: The space (𝑋, 𝑇) is first countable if each point has a

countable base of neighborhoods, i.e., for each point 𝑝 in 𝑋 there is a countable

collection of open sets such that each neighborhood of 𝑝 contains at least one of them,

for all 𝑝 ∇ 𝑋 : ∃ {𝑂𝑛 | 𝑛 ∇ 𝐍, 𝑂𝑛 ∇ 𝑇 for all 𝑛}, such that for all 𝑈, 𝑝 ∇ 𝑈 ∇

𝑇 : ∃ 𝑂𝑛 ⊂ 𝑈 . All metric spaces are first countable (the countable bases of

neighborhoods are the balls of radius 1/𝑛).

immersion is the pullback of the metric tensor. Let 𝑟 = 𝑟(𝑢, 𝑣) be the equation of a

surface and let 𝐸 = 𝑟12 = 𝑟1 . 𝑟1 , 𝐹 = 𝑟1 . 𝑟2 and 𝐺 = 𝑟22 = 𝑟2 . 𝑟2 . The quadratic

differential form

is 𝑑𝑢, 𝑑𝑣 is called metric or first fundamental form of the surface and the quantities

𝐸, 𝐹, 𝐺 are called first fundamental coefficients or first order fundamental magnitudes.

Since 𝐸, 𝐹 and 𝐺 are functions of 𝑢, 𝑣 the quantities will generally vary form point to

point on the surface.

a normal subgroup of 𝐺. Then 𝐻𝑁/ 𝑁 ≅ 𝐻 /𝑁 ∩ 𝐻 .

FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A differential equation containing only the

differential coefficients of the first order. For example,

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

= 7𝑦, 𝑦 + 3𝑥 = 0

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

etc are first-order differential equations.

FISHER, RONALD AYLMER (1890–1962): Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British statistician

who established methods of designing experiments and analysing results that have been

extensively used ever since. He developed the t-test and the use of contingency tables,

and is responsible for the method known as ANOVA.

FIXED FIELD OF A GROUP: Let 𝐿 be a field, and let 𝐺 be a group of automorphisms of 𝐿.

The fixed field of 𝐺 is the subfield 𝐾 of 𝐿 defined by 𝐾 = {𝑎 ∇ 𝐿 ∶ 𝜍(𝑎) = 𝑎 for

all 𝜍 ∇ 𝐺}.

FIXED POINTS: The points which coincide with their transformation are called invariant

or fixed points of the transformation that is to say, fixed points of a transformation

𝑤 = 𝑓(𝑧) are obtained by the equation 𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑧 .

FIXED POINT THEOREM: Any theorem which gives conditions, under which a mapping

must have a fixed point, is known as Fixed point theorem. They have been important in

the development of mathematical economics.

FLOOR: For a real number 𝑟, its floor value [𝑟] is defined as the largest integer not

greater than 𝑟. Thus [5] = [5.1] = 5 and [−5] = −5 while [−5.1] = −6. A more recent

notation ⌊𝑟⌋ allows to distinguish with another frequently used function - ceiling -

⌈𝑟⌉ which is defined as the smallest integer not less than 𝑟.

𝑑𝑥

FLOQUET'S THEOREM: Let 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑥 be a linear first order differential equation,

period 𝑇. Let 𝜑(𝑡) be a fundamental matrix solution of this differential equation. Then,

for all 𝑡 ∇ ℝ,

FLOQUET THEORY: A theory concerning the structure of the space of solutions, and the

properties of solutions, of a linear system of differential equations with periodic

coefficients

𝒙′ = 𝑨 𝒕 𝒙; 𝒕 ∇ 𝑹, 𝒙 ∇ 𝑹𝒏 (𝟏)

the matrix 𝐴(𝑡) is periodic in 𝑡 with period 𝜔 > 0 and is summable on every compact

interval in 𝑅.

𝑋 𝑡 = 𝐹 𝑡 exp

(𝑡𝐾)

called the Floquet representation, where 𝐹 𝑡 is some 𝜔-periodic matrix and 𝐾 is some

constant matrix. There is a basis 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … … … , 𝑥𝑛 of the space of solutions of (1) such

that 𝐾 has Jordan form in this basis; this basis can be represented in the form

where 𝜓𝑘𝑖 are polynomials in 𝑡 with 𝜔-periodic coefficients, and the 𝛼𝑖 are the

characteristic exponents of the system (1). Every component of a solution of (1) is a

linear combination of functions of the form (of the Floquet solutions) 𝜓𝑘𝑖 exp( 𝛼𝑖 𝑡). In

the case when all the characteristic exponents are distinct, the 𝜓𝑘𝑖 are simply 𝜔-

periodic functions. The matrices 𝐹(𝑡) and 𝐾 in the representation (2) are, generally

speaking, complex valued. If one restricts oneself just to the real case, then 𝐹(𝑡) does

not have to be 𝜔-periodic, but must be 2𝜔-periodic.

FLUID: By definition, a fluid cannot withstand any tendency for applied forces to deform

it in such a way that volume is left unchanged. Such deformation may be resisted, but

not prevented, by a fluid. Ordinary gases and liquids are fluids.

FOCI “Foci” is the plural of “focus.”

FOCUS (1) A parabola is the set of points that are the same distance from a fixed point

(the focus) and a fixed line (the directrix). The focus, or focal point, is important

because starlight striking a parabolically shaped telescope mirror will be reflected back

to the focus.

(2) An ellipse is the set points such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is a

constant. The two points are called foci. Planetary orbits are shaped like ellipses, with

the sun at one focus.

FOCUS OF A CURVE :A point 𝑭 lying in the plane of the second-order curve such that the

ratio of the distance of any point of the curve from 𝑭 to its distance from a given line

(the directrix) is equal to a constant (the eccentricity). The foci of a second-order curve

can be defined as the points of intersection of the tangents to that curve from

the circular points of the plane. This definition can also be extended to algebraic curves

of order 𝒏.

FOL: It is the abbreviation for first-order logic.

FOREST: A forest is an acyclic graph.

FORT’S THEOREM: If f is discontinuous at the points of a dense set, show that the set of

points x, where f′(x) exists, is of the first category.

FORWARD DIFFERENCE: If {(𝑥𝑖 , 𝑓𝑖 )}, 𝑖 = 0, 1, 2, … is a given set of function values with

𝑥𝑖+1 = 𝑥𝑖 + , 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ) then the forward difference at 𝑓𝑖 is defined by 𝑓𝑖+1 – 𝑓𝑖 =

𝑓 𝑥𝑖+1 − 𝑓(𝑥𝑖 ).

FOURIER INTEGRAL FORMULA: Let 𝑓 𝑥 be a function satisfying Dirichlet’s Conditions

∞

and is absolutely integrable in −∞ ∞ i.e. ∫−∞ f x dx converges,

∞

Then 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫0 𝐹 𝑠 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠

∞ ∞

Where 𝜋 𝐹 𝑠 = ∫−∞ f w cos s w dw, π G s = ∫−∞ f w sin s w dw

Also then 𝑓 𝑥 can be re-written as

∞ ∞ ∞

1 1

𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝑓 𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠

0 𝜋 −∞ 𝜋 −∞

𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞

1

= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + sin 𝑠 𝑤 sin 𝑠𝑥 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠

𝜋 𝑠=0 𝑤=−∞

𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞

1

= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠

𝜋 𝑠=0 𝑤=−∞

𝑠=∞ 𝑤=∞

1

= 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠

2𝜋 𝑠= −∞ 𝑤=−∞

𝑓 𝑥+0 + 𝑓 𝑥−𝑜

However if 𝑥 is a point of discontinuity, then 𝑓 𝑥 is replaced by as in case

2

of Fourier series. As for Fourier series, the above conditions are necessary but not

sufficient.

∞

Also ∫0 𝐹 𝑠 cos 𝑠 𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠 sin 𝑠 𝑥 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier integral expansion of 𝑓 𝑥

or simply Fourier integral.

1 ∞ ∞

(A) 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫−∞ 𝑓 𝑤 ∫0 cos 𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑤 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑤 is known as General Form

𝜋

2 ∞ ∞

(B) 𝑓 𝑥 = ∫0 sin 𝑠 𝑥 ∫0 𝑓 𝑤 sin 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier sine

𝜋

2 ∞ ∞

(C) 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝜋 ∫0 cos 𝑠 𝑥 ∫0 𝑓 𝑤 cos 𝑠 𝑤 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑠 is known as Fourier cosine

1 ∞ ∞

(D)𝑓 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−∞ e𝒊 𝒔 𝒙 ∫−∞ f w e−i s w dw ds or

1 ∞ ∞

𝑓 𝑥 = 2𝜋 ∫−∞ e−𝒊 𝒔 𝒙 ∫−∞ f w ei s w dw ds is known as Complex or

French mathematician who studied differential equations of heat conduction, and

developed the concept now known as Fourier series. These so-called Fourier series are

of immense importance in physics, engineering and other disciplines, as well as being of

great mathematical interest.

FOURIER SERIES: Any periodic function can be expressed as a series involving sines and

cosines, known as a Fourier series. Assume that units are chosen so that the period of

the function is 2𝜋. Then:

𝑎0

𝑓 𝑥 = + 𝑎1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 + 𝑏1 sin 𝑥 + 𝑎2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2𝑥 + 𝑏2 sin 2𝑥 + 𝑎3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3𝑥 + 𝑏3 sin 3𝑥 + −

2

−−−

where the Fourier coefficients are found from these integrals:

𝜋 𝜋

1 1

𝑎𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑥 cos 𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥 , 𝑏𝑛 = 𝑓 𝑥 sin 𝑛𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝜋 𝜋

−𝜋 −𝜋

The derivation of theses coefficients requires some knowledge about the orthogonality

properties of the trigonometric functions. The main properties that we need are given

by the following integrals,

𝐿 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0

𝐿 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑚 ≠ 0

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳

𝒙𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑚 ≠ 𝑛

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳

𝒙𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑚 ≠ 𝑛

𝐿 𝑚𝝅 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑳

𝒙𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 0,

𝐿 𝒏𝝅 𝐿 𝒏𝝅

∫−𝐿 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = ∫−𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑳

𝒙𝑑𝑥 = 𝐿

∞

𝐹 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥)𝑒 𝑖𝑦𝑥 𝑑𝑥

−∞

is called the Fourier transformation. The function 𝐹 is said to be the Fourier transform

of the function 𝑓. Let 𝑓 𝑡 be a function defined and piecewise continuous on −∞ ∞

∞

and is absolutely convergent on −∞ ∞ i.e. ∫−∞ 𝒇 t dt converges. Then Fourier

transform of 𝑓 𝑡 , denoted by

∞

𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 and is defined as 𝐹 𝑓 𝑡 = ∫−∞ 𝒇 𝒕 ei s t dt = G s say

𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹 −1 𝐺 𝑠 ,

and defined as

∞

1

𝑓 𝑡 = G s

2𝜋 −∞

𝑒 −𝑎 𝑡 𝑔 𝑡 , 𝑡 > 0

𝑓 𝑡 =

0, 𝑡<0

∞

= 𝒇 𝒕 ei b t dt

−∞

𝟎 ∞

ibt

= 𝒇 𝒕 e dt + 𝒇 𝒕 ei b t dt

−∞ −∞

𝟎 ∞

= 𝟎. ei b t dt + e−at g t ei b t dt

−∞ 𝟎

∞

= 0+ e− −a−i b t g t dt

𝟎

∞

= 𝑒 −𝑠 𝑡 g t dt, where s = a − i b

𝟎

=𝐿 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝐿𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑔 𝑡 .

FOUR SQUARES THEOREM: Any positive integer can be expressed as the sum of not

more than four positive integers.

FOUR-VERTEX THEOREM: Four-vertex theorem states that the curvature function of a

simple, closed, smooth plane curve has at least four local extrema (specifically, at least

two local maxima and at least two local minima). The name of the theorem derives from

the convention of calling an extreme point of the curvature function a vertex.

FRACTION: A fraction is a rational number expressed in the form 𝑛/𝑑, where 𝑛 is

designated the numerator and 𝑑 the denominator. The slash between them is known as

a solidus when the fraction is expressed as 𝑛/𝑑. If 𝑛/𝑑 < 1, then 𝑛/𝑑 is known as a

proper fraction. Otherwise, it is an improper fraction. If 𝑛 and 𝑑 are relatively prime,

then 𝑛/𝑑 is said to be in lowest terms. To get a fraction in lowest terms, simply divide

the numerator and the denominator by their greatest common divisor.

FRACTIONAL IDEAL: A fractional ideal of 𝑅 is a subset of the field 𝐾 of fractions of 𝑅 that

is of the form 𝑐𝐼, where 𝑐 is a non-zero element of 𝐾 and 𝐼 is an ideal of 𝑅. A fractional

ideal of 𝑅 is not an ideal of 𝑅 unless it is contained in 𝑅. If 𝑅 is not itself a field, then the

field 𝐾 of fractions of 𝐾 will contain fractional ideals of 𝑅 that are not ideals of 𝑅. Indeed,

given any element 𝑐 of 𝐾 \ 𝑅, the subset 𝑐𝑅 of 𝐾 is a fractional ideal of 𝐾, where

𝑐𝑅 = {𝑐𝑟 ∶ 𝑟 ∇ 𝑅}, but it is not an ideal of 𝑅. However any fractional ideal of 𝑅 that is

contained in 𝑅 is an ideal of 𝑅.

FREDHOLM EQUATION, NUMERICAL METHODS: Approximation methods for solving

Fredholm integral equations of the second kind, amounting to performing a finite

number of operations on numbers.

Let

𝜑 𝑥 − 𝜆 ∫ 𝐾 𝑥, 𝑠 𝜙 𝑠 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑓(𝑥) (1)

number, 𝑓(𝑥) is a known vector function, 𝜙(𝑥) is an unknown vector function, 𝐾(𝑥, 𝑠) is

the kernel of equation (1), and 𝐷 is a domain in some 𝑚-dimensional Euclidean space.

Below it is assumed that 𝜆 does not belong to the spectrum of the integral operator with

kernel 𝐾 (that is, for the given 𝜆 equation (1) has a unique solution in some class of

functions corresponding to the degree of smoothness of 𝐾). The expression (1)

naturally includes the case of a system of Fredholm equations.

FREDHOLM OPERATOR: A linear normally-solvable operator 𝑩 acting on a Banach

space 𝑬 with index 𝝌𝑩 equal to zero. The classic example of a Fredholm operator is an

operator of the form

𝑩=𝑰+𝑻

space of 𝑀 is the null space of 𝑀:

Similarly, the orthogonal complement of the column space of 𝑀 is the null space of the

adjoint:

FREE AND BOUND VARIABLES: Any function whose values are propositions is called a

propositional function. ∀𝑥 and ∃𝑥 can be regarded as operators that transform any

propositional function 𝐹(𝑥) into the propositions ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) and ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥), respectively.

∀𝑥 and ∃𝑥 are called quantifiers; the former is called the universal quantifier and the

latter the existential quantifier. F(x) is transformed into ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) or ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) just as a

1

function 𝑓(𝑥) is transformed into the definite integral ∫0 𝑓(𝑥)𝑑𝑥; the resultant

propositions ∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥) and ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) are no longer functions of 𝑥. The variable 𝑥 in∀𝑥𝐹(𝑥)

and in ∃𝑥𝐹(𝑥) is called a bound variable, and the variable 𝑥 in 𝐹(𝑥), when it is not

bound by ∀𝑥 or ∃𝑥, is called a free variable.

FREE BASIS OF A MODULE: Let 𝑴 be a module over a unital commutative ring 𝑹.

Elements 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , . . . , 𝒙𝒌 of 𝑴 are said to constitute a free basis of 𝑴 if these elements are

distinct, and if the 𝑹-module 𝑴 is freely generated by the set {𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , . . . , 𝒙𝒌 }.

FREE BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: A Boolean algebra with a system of generators such that

every mapping from this system into a Boolean algebra can be extended to a

homomorphism. Every Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a quotient algebra of some free

Boolean algebra.

For any cardinal number 𝛼 there is a unique (up to an isomorphism) free Boolean

algebra with 𝛼 generators. A finite Boolean algebra is free if and only if its number of

𝑛

elements is of the form 2𝑛 , where 𝑛 is the number of generators. Such a free Boolean

algebra is realized as the algebra of Boolean functions of 𝑛 variables. A countable free

Boolean algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of open-closed subsets of the Cantor set.

Every set of pairwise-disjoint elements of a free Boolean algebra is finite or countable.

An infinite free Boolean algebra cannot be complete. On the other hand, the cardinality

of any infinite complete Boolean algebra is the least upper bound of the cardinalities of

its free subalgebras.

FREE GROUP: A group 𝐹 with a system 𝑋 of generating elements such that any mapping

from 𝑋 into an arbitrary group 𝐺 can be extended to a homomorphism from 𝐹 into 𝐺.

Such a system 𝑋 is called a system of free generators; its cardinality is called the rank

of . The set 𝑋 is also called an alphabet. The elements of 𝐹 are words over the

alphabet 𝑋.

In other terms, Groups have generators, such elements that all other elements of a

group could be obtained from generators and their inverses using the group operation.

A group is said to be free if no relation exists between its generators other than between

an element and its inverse. The additive group of integers is free with a single generator

1. The multiplicative group of all positive rational numbers has prime numbers as its

generators. From the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic representation of integers in

the form 𝑝𝑎 𝑞 𝑏 . . . 𝑟 𝑐 where 𝑝, 𝑞, . . . , 𝑟 are all different primes, is unique. Therefore the

group is free.

FREE MODULE: A module over a unital commutative ring is said to be free if there exists

some subset of the module which freely generates the module.

free module of finite rank if there exist elements 𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , . . . , 𝑏𝑘 ∇ 𝑀 that constitute a free

basis for 𝑀. These elements constitute a free basis if and only if, given any element 𝑚 of

𝑀, there exist uniquely-determined elements 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , . . . , 𝑟𝑘 of R such that 𝑚 = 𝑟1 𝑏1 +

𝑟2 𝑏2 + · · · + 𝑟𝑘 𝑏𝑘 .

and let 𝑋 be a subset of 𝑀. The module 𝑀 is said to be freely generated by the set 𝑋 if

the following conditions are satisfied:

(ii) the module 𝑀 is generated by the subset 𝑋.

FRITZ JOHN STATIONARY-POINT NECESSARY OPTIMALITY THEOREM: Let x be a local

solution of the problem: Minimize 𝜃 x , subject to x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0, where X 0 is open set

in Rn and 𝜃𝑖 : X 0 → R, g: X 0 → Rm are differentiable at x. Then there exists an r0 ∇ R and

an r0 ∇ Rm such that x, r0 , r solves the problem r0 ∆θ x) + r ∆g(x = 0 subject to

g(x) ≤ 0, r g x = 0,(r0 , rw ) ≥ 0 where

W = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x

FRITZ JOHN STATIONARY- POINT PROBLEM (FJP): The Fritz John stationary- point

problem means to find x ∇ X 0 , r0 ∇ Rm if they exist, such that ∆x ∅ x, r0 , r = 0,

∆r ∅ x, r0 , r ≤ 0, r∆r ∅ x, r0 , r = 0, r0 , r ≥ 0 and ∅ x, r0 , r = r0 ∅ x) + rg(x or

equivalently, r0 ∆θ x) + r ∆g(x = 0, g(x) ≤ 0, r g x = 0, (r0 , r) ≥ 0.

FRONTIER (BOUNDARY) POINTS: The set of points which are members of the closure of

a set and also of the closure of its complement. For example, for an open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)

or closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏], the values 𝑎 and 𝑏 are the frontier or boundary points.

FRUSTUM: A frustum is a portion of a cone or a pyramid bounded by two parallel

planes. A frustum of a right-circular cone is the part between two parallel planes

perpendicular to the axis. Suppose that the planes are a distance apart and that the

circles that form the top and bottom of the frustum have radii 𝑎 and 𝑏. Then the volume

1

of the frustum equals 3 𝜋 𝑎2 + 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2 . Let 𝑙 be the slant height of the frustum; that is,

the length of the part of a generator between the top and bottom of the frustum. Then

the area of the curved surface of the frustum equals 𝜋 (𝑎 + 𝑏)𝑙.

F-SIGMA: In a topological space 𝑿, a subset which is the countable union of closed sets.

FUBINI'S THEOREM: Suppose 𝑋 and 𝑌 are measure spaces, and suppose that 𝑋 × 𝑌 is

given the maximal product measure (which is the only product measure if 𝑋 and 𝑌 are

𝜍-finite). Fubini's theorem states that if 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) is 𝑋 × 𝑌 integrable, meaning that it is

measurable and

then

The first two integrals are iterated integrals with respect to two measures, respectively,

and the third is an integral with respect to the maximal product of these two measures.

For any point 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀 and for any finite family 𝑶𝟏 , 𝑶𝟐 , … … … , 𝑶𝒔 of open subsets of the

𝒔

space 𝑿 such that 𝒇−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝒊=𝟏 𝑶𝒊 , the set {𝒚} ∪ ⋃𝒔𝒊=𝟏 𝒇# 𝑶𝒊 is open.

Here 𝒇# 𝑶𝒊 denotes the small image of the set 𝑶𝒊 under the mapping 𝒇. Any fully-closed

mapping is closed. The inequality 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝑿 ≤ 𝐦𝐚𝐱{𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒀, 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒇} is valid for any fully-

closed mapping 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 of a normal space 𝑿. For this reason, fully-closed mappings can

be employed to isolate fairly wide classes of compacta with non-coinciding dimensions

𝒅𝒊𝒎 and 𝒊𝒏𝒅. Moreover, 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝒀 ≤ 𝐝𝐢𝐦 𝑿 + 𝟏 irrespective of the multiplicity of the

mapping 𝒇. Let 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀, let 𝒇: 𝑿 → 𝒀 be a fully-closed mapping and let 𝑹(𝒇, 𝒀) be the

decomposition of 𝑿 the elements of which are all pre-images 𝒇−𝟏 (𝒚′ ) of the points, and

all points of 𝒇−𝟏 (𝒚). Then, for a regular space 𝑿, the quotient space 𝑿𝒀𝒇 of 𝑿 with respect

to the decomposition 𝑹(𝒇, 𝒀) is also regular; this property is characteristic of fully-

closed mappings in the class of closed mappings.

FUNCTION: A function is a rule that associates each member of one set with a unique

member of another set. The input number to the function is called the independent

variable, or argument. The set of all possible values for the independent variable is

called the domain. The output number is called the dependent variable. The set of all

possible values for the dependent variable is called the range. An important property of

functions is that for each value of the independent variable there is one and only one

value of the dependent variable. The notation 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇, read as ‘𝑓 from 𝑆 to 𝑇′, is used.

If 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆, then 𝑓(𝑥) is the image of 𝑥 under 𝑓. The subset of 𝑇 consisting of those

elements that are images of elements of 𝑆 under 𝑓, that is, the set {𝑦 | 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), for

some 𝑥 in 𝑆}, is the range of 𝑓. If 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑦, it is said that 𝑓 maps 𝑥 to 𝑦, written

𝑓: 𝑥 → 𝑦. If the graph of 𝑓 is then taken to be 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), it may be said that 𝑦 is a

function of 𝑥.

FUNCTIONAL: The functional Φ is an assignment of a scalar Φ (𝑓) to every vector 𝑓 in a

certain subset 𝐷Φ of the normed linear space 𝑁. 𝐷Φ is the domain of Φ.

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS: The part of modern mathematical analysis in which the basic

purpose is to study functions 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) for which at least one of the

variables 𝒙 or 𝒚 varies over an infinite-dimensional space. In its most general form such

a study falls into three parts:

1) the introduction and study of infinite-dimensional spaces as such;

2) the study of the simplest functions, namely, when takes values in an infinite-

dimensional space and in a one-dimensional space (these are called functionals,

whence the name "functional analysis" ); and

3) the study of general functions of the type indicated — operators.

Linear functions 𝒙 ∇ 𝑿 ⇒ 𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒚 ∇ 𝒀 , i.e. linear operators, have been most

completely studied. Their theory is essentially a generalization of linear algebra to the

infinite-dimensional case. A combination of the approaches of classical analysis and

algebra is characteristic for the methods of functional analysis, and this leads to

relations between what are at first glance very distant branches of mathematics.

FUNCTIONAL EQUATION: An equation (linear or non-linear) in which the unknown is

an element of some specific (function) or abstract Banach space, that is, an equation of

the form

𝑃 𝑥 =𝑦

a 𝐵-space 𝑋 into elements of a space 𝑌 of the same type. If the functional equation

contains another numerical (or, in general, functional) parameter 𝜆, then instead of (1)

one writes

𝑃 𝑥, 𝜆 = 𝑦

curve through two points 𝑥1 , 𝑦1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑦2 whose length is minimum.

In general ,we wish to find a curve C joining the points 𝑥1 , 𝑦1 and 𝑥2 , 𝑦2 and having

equation 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥 ,where 𝑦 𝑥1 = 𝑦1 and 𝑦 𝑥2 = 𝑦2 such that for a given function

𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ .

𝑥2

∫𝑥 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 is a stationary value or an extremum.

1

An integral such as above, which assume a definite value for functions of the type

𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥 is called a functional.

FUNCTIONAL RELATION: A binary relation 𝑹 on a set 𝑨 satisfying 𝑹−𝟏 ∘ 𝑹 ⊆ 𝜟,

where 𝜟 is the diagonal of 𝑨. This means that (𝒂, 𝒃) ∇ 𝑹 and (𝒂, 𝒄) ∇ 𝑹 imply that 𝒃 = 𝒄,

that is, for each 𝒂 ∇ 𝑨 there is at most one 𝒃 ∇ 𝑨 such that (𝒂, 𝒃) ∇ 𝑹.

Thus, 𝑹 determines a function on 𝑨. When it satisfies 𝑹−𝟏 ∘ 𝑹 = 𝜟, this function is well-

defined everywhere and is one-to-one.

FUNCTION ELEMENT: An analytic function 𝑓 with domain 𝐷 is called a function element

and is denoted by 𝑓, 𝐷 .

FUNCTION FIELD ANALOGY: It was realized in the nineteenth century that the ring of

integers of a number field has analogies with the affine coordinate ring of an algebraic

curve or compact Riemann surface, with a point or more removed corresponding to the

'infinite places' of a number field. This thought is more precisely encoded in the theory

that global fields should all be treated on the same basis. The scheme goes further. Thus

elliptic surfaces over the complex numbers, also, have some quite strict analogies with

elliptic curves over number fields.

FUNCTION F SUMMABLE BY A MEASURE: A function 𝑓 is summable by a measure µ if

there is sequence (𝑓𝑛 ) ⊂ 𝑆(𝑋) such that

𝑎. 𝑒

2. 𝑓𝑛 𝑓.

→

Note that

well. Set of equivalent classes will be denoted by L1(X).

If the measure µ is finite then any bounded measurable function is summable.

This Lemma can be extended to the space of essentially bounded functions

𝐿∞ (𝑋), in other words 𝐿∞ (𝑋) ⊂ 𝐿1 (𝑋) for finite measures.

If the measure µ is finite and 𝑓𝑛 ⇒ 𝑓 then 𝑑1 (𝑓𝑛 , 𝑓) → 0.

Let (𝑓𝑛 ) and (𝑔𝑛 ) be Cauchy sequences in 𝑆(𝑋) with the same limit a.e., then

𝑑1 (𝑓𝑛 , 𝑔𝑛 ) → 0.

FUNCTIONS OF CLASS 𝒎: Let 𝐼 denote a real interval and let 𝑚 be a positive integer.

Then we say that a real-valued function 𝑓 defined on 𝐼is of class 𝑚 (or simple a Cm

function) if 𝑓 has a continuous derivative of 𝑚𝑡 order at every point 𝐼. In case 𝑓 is

differentiable an infinitely many number of times, it is said to be of class ∞ or a 𝐶 ∞ -

function. Also, the function 𝑓 is said to be analytic over 𝐼 if 𝑓 is single-valued and

possesses continuous derivatives of all orders at every point of 𝐼. An analytic function is

said to be of class ω or simply a 𝐶 ∞ - function.

FUNCTION THEORY: A branch of mathematics in which one studies the general

properties of functions. Function theory splits into two parts: the theory of functions of

a real variable and the theory of functions of a complex variable.

FUNDAMENTAL AXIOM OF ANALYSIS: If 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , . ..is an increasing sequence in 𝑅 and

there exists an 𝐴 ∇ 𝑅 such that 𝑎𝑛 ≤ 𝐴 for all 𝑛, then there exists an 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 such that

𝑎𝑛 → 𝑎 𝑎𝑠 𝑛 → ∞.

FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE: It is defined as the law for determining the

number of ways two or more operations can be performed together. If one operation

can be performed in 𝑚 ways and a second in 𝑛 ways, together they can be performed in

𝑚𝑛 ways.

FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX: The transition matrix 𝑋(𝑡) of solutions of a system of linear

ordinary differential equations

𝑥 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑥; 𝑥 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛

normalized at the point 𝑡0 . The fundamental matrix is the unique continuous solution of

the matrix initial value problem

𝑋 = 𝐴 𝑡 𝑋; 𝑋 𝑡0 = 1

over some interval 𝐽 ⊂ 𝑅, 𝑡 ∇ 𝐽.

a natural number, is expressible as 𝑀 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑡 𝑀(𝑡0 ) . In particular, every

solution 𝑥(𝑡) of system can be written in the form 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑋 𝑡 𝑥0 .

FUNDAMENTAL PLANES: The three planes, osculating plane, normal plane and

rectifying plane associated with each point of a curve are called as fundamental planes.

These planes are mutually perpendicular and are determined by moving trihedral 𝑡, 𝑛, 𝑏

at the point.

The equations of fundamental planes are:

Osculating plane: it contains 𝑡 and 𝑛 is normal to 𝑏, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑏 = 0.

Normal plane: It contains 𝑛 and 𝑏 and is normal to 𝑡, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑡 = 0.

Rectifying plane: It contains 𝑏 and 𝑡 and is normal to 𝑛, its equation is 𝑅 − 𝑟 ∙ 𝑛 = 0.

FUNDAMENTAL SEQUENCE: A sequence 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , … of vectors of a normed linear space 𝑁

is said to be fundamental if given any real number 𝜀 > 0, a natural number 𝑁 (𝜀) can be

indicated such that

𝑓𝑛 − 𝑓𝑛 +𝑚 < 𝜀, 𝑚 ≥ 0.

Whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 𝜀 .

the coefficient matrix 𝐴 is less than the number of unknowns 𝑛. In this case the given

equations have a set of 𝑛 − 𝑟 linearly independent solutions and every possible solution

is a linear combination of these 𝑛 − r solutions . This set of 𝑛 − r solutions is called a

fundamental set of solutions of the equation 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂.

equations 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂 is called the fundamental system solution of 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂, if every solution

𝑋 of 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑂 can be written as a linear combination of these vectors i.e., in the form

X=c1 x1 + c2 x2 + ⋯ + ck xk , where c1 , c2 , … , ck are suitable numbers.

an nth-degree polynomial equation has at least one root among the complex numbers. It

has exactly n roots when you include complex roots and you realize that a root may

occur more than once.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC: The fundamental theorem of arithmetic

says that any natural number can be expressed as a unique product of prime numbers.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS ALONG CURVES: Let 𝑈 ⊆ 𝐶 be a domain and

let 𝛾 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑈 be a 𝐶1 curve. If 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶1 (𝑈), then

𝑏

𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝛾1 𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝛾2

𝑓(𝛾(𝑏)) − 𝑓(𝛾(𝑎)) = (𝛾(𝑡)) · + (𝛾(𝑡)) · 𝑑𝑡.

𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑡

𝑎

[𝑎, 𝑏]. Let 𝜑 be a differentiable function on [𝑎, 𝑏] such that 𝜑 ′ 𝑥 = 𝑓 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑎, 𝑏 .

Then

𝑏

𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝜑 𝑏 − 𝜑(𝑎)

𝑎

the expectation, where x and y are mixed strategies for the two players. Then

max min 𝐸(𝒙, 𝒚) = min max 𝐸(𝒙, 𝒚) .

𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥

THEOREM): Given two groups 𝐺 and 𝐻 and a group homomorphism 𝑓 : 𝐺 → 𝐻, let 𝐾 be

a normal subgroup in 𝐺 and 𝜑 the natural surjective homomorphism 𝐺 → 𝐺/𝐾. If 𝐾 is a

subset of 𝑘𝑒𝑟(𝑓) then there exists a unique homomorphism : 𝐺/𝐾 → 𝐻 such

that 𝑓 = 𝜑.

membership function is defined as

𝝁𝑨 𝑥 = 1 − 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝐴.

FUZZY EQUAL SETS: We say fuzzy sets A and B are equal if and only if 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 =

𝝁𝑩 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑈.

FUZZY NUMBER: A fuzzy number 𝑀 is a convex normalized fuzzy set ˜M of the real line R

such that

it exists exactly one 𝑥0 ∇ 𝑅, 𝜇𝑀 (𝑥0 ) = 1 (𝑥0 is called the mean value of 𝑀 ).

𝜇𝑀 (𝑥) is piecewise continuous.

In other words, A fuzzy number 𝐴 is a fuzzy set of the real line with a normal, (fuzzy)

convex and continuous membership function of bounded support. The family of fuzzy

numbers will be denoted by 𝐹.

FUZZY NUMBER OF LR-TYPE: A fuzzy number 𝑀 is of LR-type if there exist reference

functions L (for left) and R (for right), and scalars 𝛼 > 0, 𝛽 > 0, with

𝑚−𝑥

𝐿 ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 𝑚

𝛼

𝜇𝑀 𝑥 = 𝑥−𝑚

𝑅 ; 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≥ 𝑚

𝛽

FUZZY POINT: Let 𝐴 be a fuzzy number. If 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝(𝐴) = {𝑥0 } then A is called a fuzzy point

and we use the notation 𝐴 = 𝑥0 .

FUZZY SET: A fuzzy set in a universe of discourse U is characterized by a membership

function 𝝁𝑨 (𝑥) that takes values in the interval 0, 1 . Therefore, a fuzzy set is a

generalization of a classical set by allowing the membership function to take any values

in the interval 0, 1 . In other words, the membership function of a classical set can only

take two values-zero and one, whereas the membership function of a fuzzy set is a

continuous function with range [0, 1]. A fuzzy set A in U may be represented as a set of

ordered pairs of a generic element x and its membership value, that is,

𝑨 = (𝑥, 𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ; 𝑥 ∇ 𝑼

FUZZY SUBSET: We say in fuzzy theory, 𝐵 contains 𝐴, denoted by 𝐴 ⊆ 𝐵, if and only if

𝝁𝑨 𝑥 ≤ 𝝁𝑩 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 𝑈.

G

Gal: It is the abbreviation for Galois group. (Also written as Γ .

GALOIS CORRESPONDENCE: Let 𝐾, 𝐿 and 𝑀 be fields satisfying 𝐾 ⊂ 𝑀 ⊂ 𝐿. Suppose

that 𝐿: 𝐾 is a Galois extension. Then so is 𝐿: 𝑀 . If in addition 𝑀: 𝐾 is normal, then

𝑀: 𝐾 is a Galois extension.

GALOIS, EVARISTE: Evariste Galois (1811 to 1832) was French mathematician who

made crucial contributions to group theory and applied this to the study of the

solvability of polynomial equations. He made major contributions to the theory of

equations before he died at the age of 20, shot in a duel. His work developed the

necessary group theory to deal with the question of whether an equation can be solved

algebraically.

GALOIS EXTENSIONOF A FIELD: A Galois extension is an algebraic extension of a

field that is normal and separable. The study of the automorphism group of such an

extension forms part of Galois theory.

GALOIS FIELD: A field with a finite number of elements. First considered by E. Galois.

GALOIS GROUP OF A FIELD EXTENSION: The Galois group 𝜞(𝑳: 𝑲) of a field extension

𝑳: 𝑲 is the group of all automorphisms of the field 𝑳 that fix all elements of the subfield

𝑲.

GALOIS GROUP OF A POLYNOMIAL: Let f be a polynomial with coefficients in some field

𝑲. The Galois group 𝜞𝑲(𝒇) of 𝒇 over 𝑲 is defined to be the Galois group 𝜞(𝑳: 𝑲) of the

extension 𝑳: 𝑲 , where 𝑳 is some splitting field for the polynomial 𝒇 over 𝑲.

GALOIS THEORY: In the most general sense, Galois theory is a theory dealing with

mathematical objects on the basis of their automorphism groups. For instance, Galois

theories of fields, rings, topological spaces, etc., are possible. In a narrower sense Galois

theory is the Galois theory of fields. The theory originated in the context of finding roots

of algebraic equations of high degrees. The familiar formula for solving equations of

degree two dates back to early Antiquity. Methods for solving cubic and quartic

equations were discovered in the 16th century. Unsuccessful attempts to find formulas

for solving quintic and higher-degree equations were made during the three centuries

which followed. It was finally proved by N.H. Abel in 1824 that there are no solutions in

radicals of the general equation of degree ≥ 𝟓. The next problem was to find necessary

and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by the coefficients of an equation for the latter

to be solvable in radicals, i.e. for it to be reducible to a chain of two-term equations of

the form 𝒙𝒏 − 𝒂 = 𝟎. This problem was solved by E. Galois; his results were exposed in

a letter on the eve of his death (1832), and published in 1846.

GAME THEORY: Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy games whose results

can be represented by a matrix showing the decisions of each player. Games may be

used to investigate problems in business, personal relationships, military manoeuvres

and other areas involving decision-making. One particular kind of game for which the

theory has been well developed is the matrix game.

GAMMA DISTRIBUTION: If 𝑥 is a random variable with p.d.f. given by

𝜆𝑣 𝑥 𝑣−1 𝑒 −𝜆𝑥

𝑓 𝑥 =

Γ(𝑣)

where 𝛤(𝑛) is a gamma function and 𝜆, 𝜈, 𝑥 > 0, then we say that X has a gamma

distribution with parameters 𝜆, 𝜈.

When 𝜈 = 1, 𝑥 𝜈−1 = 1, and 𝛤(𝜈) = 𝛤(1) = 1, so 𝑓(𝑥) reduces to 𝜆𝑒 −𝜆𝑥 which is the

exponential distribution.

∞

GAMMA FUNCTION: The function defined by 𝛤 𝑥 = ∫0 𝑡 𝑥 −1 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑑𝑡 for 𝑥 > 0.

Integration by parts yields 𝛤(𝑥 + 1) = 𝑥𝛤(𝑥), and 𝛤(1) = 1 so if 𝑛 is an integer

𝛤(𝑛) = (𝑛 − 1)!

GAUSS BONNET THEOREM: (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): Let a simply connected

region R be enclosed by a closed curve Γ composed of n smooth arcs

𝐴0 𝐴1 , 𝐴1 𝐴2, … , 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐴𝑛 𝐴𝑛 = 𝐴0 , making at the vertices exterior angles 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , … , 𝛼𝑛 ;

then the excess of Γ defined as

𝑟=1

Where 𝜅 is some function of 𝑢, 𝑣 called the Gaussian Curvature and 𝜅𝑔 is the geodesic

curvature of the arcs.

GAUSS, CARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS: Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 to 1855), perhaps the

greatest pure mathematician of all time, was a German mathematician who studied

errors of measurement (so the normal curve is sometimes called the Gaussian error

curve); developed a way to construct a 17-sided regular polygon with geometric

construction; developed a law that says the electric flux over a closed surface is

proportional to the charge inside the surface and studied the theory of complex

numbers. By the age of 24, he was ready to publish his Disquisitiones arithmeticae, a

book that was to have a profound influence on the theory of numbers. In this, he proved

the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. In

later work, he developed the theory of curved surfaces using methods now known as

differential geometry. His work on complex functions was fundamental but, like his

discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, it was not published at the time. He introduced

what is now known to statisticians as the Gaussian distribution.

GAUSSIAN CURVATURE OF A SURFACE: The product of the principal curvatures of a

regular surface at a given point. If

𝒅𝒔𝟐 = 𝑬𝒅𝒖𝟐 + 𝟐𝑭𝒅𝒖𝒅𝒗 + 𝑮𝒅𝒗𝟐

is the first fundamental form of the surface and

is the second fundamental form of the surface, then the Gaussian curvature can be

computed by the formula

𝐿𝑁 − 𝑀2

𝐾=

𝐸𝐺 − 𝐹 2

2

GAUSSIAN FUNCTION: The function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑒 –𝑥 which has the property which is the

function underlying the normal distribution.

GAUSSIAN INTEGER: A complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both

integers, so 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑖𝑏 is known as a Gaussian integer if 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑍.

GAUSSIAN RING: The ring of Gaussian integers or Gauss numbers, Z[i].

GAUSS HYPERGEOMETRIC EQUATION: The differential equation

d2 y dy

𝑥 1−𝑥 2

+ 𝑐− 𝑎+𝑏+1 𝑥 − aby = 0

dx dx

Gauss’a equation.

system of linear equations. The method involves transforming the system so that the

last equation contains only one variable, the next-to- last equation contains only two

variables, and so on.. The result of this systematic method is that the augmented matrix

is transformed into reduced echelon form. As a method for solving simultaneous linear

equations, Gauss–Jordan elimination in fact requires more work than Gaussian

elimination followed by back-substitution, and so it is not in general recommended.

all zeros of 𝑃′ belong to the convex hull of the set of zeros of 𝑃.

GAUSS–MARKOV THEOREM: In a linear regression model in which the errors have zero

mean, are uncorrelated, and have equal variances the best linear unbiased estimators of

the coefficients are the least squares estimators. Here, ‘best’ means that it has minimum

variance amongst all linear unbiased estimators.

GAUSS MEAN VALUE THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in a domain 𝐷

and if the circular domain 𝑧 − 𝑧0 ≤ 𝜌 is contained in 𝐷, then

2𝜋

1

𝑓 𝑧0 = 𝑓 𝑧0 + 𝜌𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃

2𝜋 0

That is to say, the value of 𝑓 𝑧 𝑎𝑡 𝑧0 is equal to the average of its value of the boundary

of the circle 𝑧 − 𝑧0 = 𝜌

GAUSS NUMBER: A complex integer 𝒂 + 𝒃𝒊, where 𝒂 and 𝒃 are arbitrary rational

integers. Geometrically, the Gauss numbers form the lattice of all points with integral

rational coordinates on the plane. Such numbers were first considered in 1832 by C.F.

Gauss in his work on biquadratic residues. He also discovered the properties of the

set 𝜞 of complex integers.

𝛤 is an integral domain; its units (i.e. divisors of the unit element) are 1, −1, 𝑖, −𝑖 and

there are no other units. One kind of primes (i.e. numbers that cannot be decomposed

into a non-trivial product) of 𝛤 (the Gaussian primes) are the numbers of the form

𝛼 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖, the norms (moduli) 𝑁(𝛼) = 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 = 𝑝 of which are rational prime

numbers 𝑝 of the form 4𝑛 + 1 or 𝑝 = 2; the other kind are rational prime numbers of

the form 4𝑛 + 3. Examples of Gaussian primes are 1 + 𝑖, 1 + 2𝑖, 3 + 4𝑖, 3, 7, etc.

Any number in 𝛤 can be uniquely decomposed into a product of primes in 𝛤, up to units

and ordering. Domains with this property are called unique factorization domains or

Gaussian rings.

In the theory of biquadratic residues the Gaussian numbers were the first simple and

important instance of an extension of the field of rational numbers.

general differential variational principles of classical mechanics, established by C.F.

Gauss and expressing an extremum property of a real motion of a system in the class of

admissible motions, corresponding to the ideal constraints imposed on the system and

to the conditions of constancy of positions and velocities of the points in the system at a

given moment of time.

According to the Gauss principle, "the motion of a system of material points, constrained

in an arbitrary manner, and subjected to arbitrary forces at any moment of time, takes

place in a manner which is as similar as possible to the motion that would be performed

by these points if they were free, i.e. with least-possible forcing — the measure of

forcing during the time dt being defined as the sum of the products of the mass of each

point and the square of the distance of the point from the position which it would

occupy if it were free".

applicable both to holonomic and to non-holonomic systems. It has been generalized in

various ways such as to systems subject to non-ideal constraints, as well as to the case

of continuous media.

GAUSS RECIPROCITY LAW: A relation connecting the values of the Legendre symbols

(𝒑/𝒒) and (𝒒/𝒑) for different odd prime numbers 𝒑 and 𝒒 . In addition to the principal

reciprocity law of Gauss for quadratic residues, which may be expressed as the relation

(𝑝𝑞)(𝑞𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝−1)/2⋅(𝑞−1)/2 ,

2 −1)/8

(−1/𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝−1)/2 𝑎𝑛𝑑(2/𝑝) = (−1)(𝑝 .

The reciprocity law for quadratic residues was first stated in 1772 by L. Euler. A.

Legendre in 1785 formulated the law in modern form and proved a part of it. C.F. Gauss

in 1801 was the first to give a complete proof of the law ; he also gave no less than eight

different proofs of the reciprocity law, based on various principles, during his lifetime.

Attempts to establish the reciprocity law for cubic and biquadratic residues led Gauss to

introduce the ring of Gaussian integers.

in 𝑛 unknowns. If the system is summarized by 𝑨𝒙 = 𝒃, then taking initial values as

(1) 𝑏

𝑥𝑖 = 𝑎 𝑖 , it uses the iterative relation

𝑖𝑖

(𝑘) (𝑘−1)

(𝑘)

𝑏𝑖 − 𝑗 <𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑗 − 𝑗 >𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑥𝑗

𝑥𝑖 =

𝑎𝑖𝑗

so it uses the new values immediately they are available, unlike the Jacobi method.

GAUSS’S LEMMA: (a) Let p(x) be a polynomial with integer coefficients. Then if p(x) can

be factorized using rational numbers, p(x) can be factorized using only integers.

(b) Let 𝑔 and be polynomials with integer coefficients. If 𝑔 and are both primitive

then so is 𝑔.

GAUSS TEST: Let 𝑢𝑛 be a series of positive terms such that

𝑢𝑛 𝑎 𝑏

= 1+ +

𝑢𝑛 +1 𝑛 𝑜(𝑛2 )

Then

1. 𝑢𝑛 converges if 𝑎 > 1 or 𝑎 = 1 and 𝑏 > 1.

2. 𝑢𝑛 diverges if 𝑎 < 1 or 𝑎 = 1 and 𝑏 ≤ 1.

G-DELTA SET: In a topological space 𝑿 a subset which is the countable intersection of

open sets.

GELFAND–MAZUR LEMMA: If 𝑋 is a complex Banach division algebra, then 𝑋 is

isometrically isomorphic to 𝐶.

GENERAL ABELIAN GROUPS: An Abelian group is, in general, an extension of a torsion

group by a torsion-free group. A torsion group T is called bounded if there is an integer

𝑛 such that 𝑡 𝑛 = 1 for all 𝑡 ∇ 𝑇. Suppose there is a torsion group T. Then T is a direct

summand of an Abelian group G which contains T as its maximal torsion subgroup if

and only if T is the direct product of a divisible group and a bounded group.

GENERAL ASSOCIATIVE LAW: Let 𝑨,∗ be a semigroup, and let 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 and w be elements

of A. We can use the associative property of ∗ to show that the value of a product

involving 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛, 𝒘 is independent of the manner in which that product is bracketed,

though it generally depends on the order in which 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 and 𝒘 occur in that product

(unless that binary operation is also commutative). For example,

(𝒙 ∗ (𝒚 ∗ 𝒛)) ∗ 𝒘 = ((𝒙 ∗ 𝒚) ∗ 𝒛) ∗ 𝒘 = (𝒙 ∗ 𝒚) ∗ (𝒛 ∗ 𝒘)

= 𝒙 ∗ (𝒚 ∗ (𝒛 ∗ 𝒘)) = 𝒙 ∗ ((𝒚 ∗ 𝒛) ∗ 𝒘)

GENERALIZED ANALYTIC FUNCTION: A function 𝒘 𝒛 = 𝒖 𝒙, 𝒚 + 𝒊𝒗(𝒙, 𝒚) satisfying a

system

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒗 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒚

− + 𝒂𝒖 + 𝒃𝒗 = 𝟎, + + 𝒄𝒖 + 𝒅𝒗 = 𝟎

𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒙

with real coefficients 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑 that are functions of the real variables 𝑥 and 𝑦.

convex functional on a real linear space 𝑆, and Φ be a linear functional defined on a

subspace 𝑀 of 𝑆, such that

Φ 𝑓 ≤𝑞 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 𝜖 𝑀.

Then Φ can be extended to a linear functional Ψ defined on the whole of 𝑆, much that

Ψ ≤ 𝑞 , for every ∇ 𝑀.

of groups. A class of groups is called generalized nilpotent if it contains all nilpotent

groups and if its intersection with the class of finite groups is the class of all finite

nilpotent groups. Quite a number of classes of generalized nilpotent groups have been

considered; principally, the connections between them have been studied. The most

important classes of generalized nilpotent groups are the class of locally nilpotent

groups, the classes of nil groups and groups with a normalizer condition. The majority

of classes of generalized nilpotent groups were introduced in studying various

properties of central or normal series and systems of subgroups.

GENERALIZED SOLVABLE GROUP: A group from one of the generalized solvable classes

of groups. A class of groups is called generalized solvable if it contains all solvable

groups and if its intersection with the class of finite groups is the class of all finite

solvable groups. Quite a number of classes of generalized solvable groups have been

considered; principally, the connections between them have been studied. The most

important class of generalized solvable groups is the class of locally solvable. Other

classes have been introduced in the study of various properties of normal and

subnormal series.

GENERAL LINEAR GROUP: The general linear group of degree 𝒏 is the group of

all (𝒏 × 𝒏) invertible matrices over an associative ring 𝑲 with a unit; the usual symbols

are 𝑮𝑳𝒏 (𝑲) 𝒐𝒓 𝑮𝑳(𝒏, 𝑲).

GENERAL SOLUTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: A function containing 𝑛 distinct

arbitrary constants which satisfies an 𝑛-th order differential equation is said to be a

general solution. It is obtained as the sum of the complementary function and a

particular integral.

GENERATING FUNCTION OF AN INFINITE SEQUENCE: The power series 𝐹(𝑥), where

𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑓0 + 𝑓1 𝑥 + 𝑓2 𝑥 2 + 𝑓3 𝑥 3 + …, is the generating function for the infinite

sequence ⌌𝑓𝑛 ⌍. Note that the generating function for this sequence is 1/(1 − 𝑥 − 𝑥 2 ). The

use of generating functions enables sequences to be handled concisely and algebraically.

A difference equation for a sequence can lead to an equation for the corresponding

generating function, and the use of partial fractions, for example, may then lead to a

formula for the n-th term of the sequence.

GENERATOR MATRIX (CODING THEORY): A generator matrix G for a linear code 𝐶 is a

matrix whose rows form a basis for 𝐶. A generator matrix is said to be in standard form

if it is of the form (𝐼𝑘 | 𝑋), where 𝐼𝑘 denotes the 𝑘 × 𝑘 identity matrix.

GENUS: Genus is the maximum number of times a surface can be cut along simple closed

curves without the surface separating into disconnected parts.

Genus of an entire function: The integer equal to the larger of the two

numbers 𝒑 and 𝒒 in the representation of the entire function 𝒇(𝒛) in the form

∞

𝝀 𝑸(𝒛)

𝒛 𝒛 𝒛𝟐 𝒛𝒑

𝒇 𝒛 =𝒛 𝒆 𝟏− 𝒆𝒙𝒑 + 𝟐 + ⋯+ 𝒑

𝜶𝒌 𝜶𝒌 𝟐𝜶𝒌 𝒑𝜶𝒌

𝒌=𝟏

where 𝑞 is the degree of the polynomial 𝑸(𝒛) and 𝑝 is the least integer satisfying the

condition

∞

1

𝑝+1

<∞

𝛼𝑘

𝑘=1

distance from a fixed point 𝑶 is a constant 𝒓. A special case is a circle in the Euclidean

plane.

Riemannian space is a simple closed curve (not necessarily of a constant geodesic

curvature); each one of its points may be connected with 𝑂 by a unique shortest line

(the radius or radial geodesic), forming a right angle with the geodesic circle; a geodesic

circle bounds a convex region. If 𝑟 → 0, the length 𝑙 of a geodesic circle is connected with

the Gaussian curvature 𝐾 at the point 𝑂 by the relation

2𝜋𝑟 − 𝑙 𝜋𝐾

→

𝑟3 3

If 𝑟 is large, more than one radial geodesic may lead to the same point on the geodesic

circle, the circle may bound a non-convex region and may consist of several

components. A geodesic circle is frequently employed in studies in global geometry. A

geodesic circle in the sense of Darboux is a closed curve of constant geodesic curvature.

It is a stationary curve for the isoperimetric problem. It coincides with an ordinary

geodesic circle on surfaces of constant curvature.

GEODESIC CO-ORDINATES: If the parametric curves are orthogonal and one of the

families of parametric curves is geodesic then the co-ordinates of the any point on the

surface are called a set of geodesic co-ordinates. Since one of the parametric curves is

assumed to be geodesic and other is arbitrary therefore the geodesic co-ordinate can be

introduced in an arbitrary number of ways.

rotation of the tangent to 𝛾 around the normal 𝒏 to 𝐹, i.e. the projection on 𝒏 of the

vector of the angular rate of rotation of the tangent moving along 𝛾. It is assumed

that 𝛾 and 𝐹 are regular and oriented, and that the velocity is taken relative to the arc

length 𝑠 along 𝛾. The geodesic curvature can be defined as the curvature of the

projection of 𝛾 on the plane tangent to 𝐹 at the point under consideration. The geodesic

curvature is

𝒓′ , 𝒓′′ , 𝒏

𝒌𝒈 =

𝒓′ 𝟑

between two points through a particular space. For example, in Euclidian space a

straight line is the geodesic between two points. Along the surface of the Earth, a great

circle route is the geodesic. Therefore, a curve on a surface, joining two given points,

that is the shortest curve between the two points is called a geodesic. On a sphere, a

geodesic is an arc of a great circle through the two given points. This arc is unique

unless the two points are antipodal.

bundle TM of a manifold M, generated by a vector field whose trajectories are of the

generalization of the concept of a straight line in Euclidean geometry to spaces of a

more general type. The definitions of geodesic lines in various spaces depend on the

particular structure (metric, line element, linear connection) on which the geometry of

the particular space is based. In the geometry of spaces in which the metric is

considered to be specified in advance, geodesic lines are defined as locally shortest. In

spaces with a connection, a geodesic line is defined as a curve for which the tangent

vector field is parallel along this curve. In Riemannian geometry, where a metric in the

tangent space at each point of the considered manifold is given, while the lengths of

lines are obtained by subsequent integration, geodesic lines are defined as extremals of

the length functional.

GEODESIC MANIFOLD AT A POINT x: A submanifold 𝑴𝒌 of a smooth

manifold 𝑴𝒏 (Riemannian or with an affine connection) such that the geodesic lines

of 𝑴𝒏 that are tangent to 𝑴𝒌 at x have a contact of at least the second order with 𝑴𝒌 .

This requirement is fulfilled at all points if any geodesic in 𝑴𝒌 is also a geodesic in 𝑴𝒏 .

Such geodesic manifolds 𝑴𝒌 are called totally geodesic manifolds.

GEODESIC MAPPING (DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): A surface S is said to be mapped

geodesically onto a surface S* if there is a differentiable homemorphism of S onto S*

such that geodesic on S go over into geodesic on S*.

Then geodesic tangent of curve 𝐶 at point 𝑃 is the geodesic which touches the curve at

𝑃. Thus geodesic tangent at any point on a curve is the geodesic which touches the curve

at the point.

GEODESIC (TENSORS): We have ds 2 = g ij dx i dx j . The length of are from the point P0(t0)

to the point P1(t1) is given by

1/2

t dx i dx j

s = ∫t 1 g ij dt.

0 dt dt

Consider all the curves passing through two fixed point P0 and P1. If any of these curves

for which the distance P0P1 measured along the curve is stationary, then that curve is

called geodesic.

GEODESIC TRIANGLE: A figure consisting of three different points together with the

pairwise-connecting geodesic lines. The points are known as the vertices, while the

geodesic lines are known as the sides of the triangle. A geodesic triangle can be

considered in any space in which geodesics exist. If the sides of a geodesic triangle

situated in a region homeomorphic to an open disc constitute a simply-closed contour,

then the interior domain is added to the geodesic triangle. On a regular surface the sum

of the angles of a geodesic triangle minus π (the excess of the triangle) is equal to the

total curvature of the interior region.

Given a geodesic triangle in a metric space, a plane triangle with the same side lengths is

often considered. This makes it possible to introduce various concepts of an angle

between two shortest lines in metric spaces. In the two-dimensional case, after an angle

measurement has been introduced, it is possible to introduce the total curvature as a set

function expressed in terms of the excess of geodesic triangles. Nets of geodesic

triangles serve as a source of the approximation of metrics by the polyhedral metrics.

Estimates are available of the difference between the angle of a geodesic triangle in the

space under consideration and the respective angle in a triangle with the same side

lengths in a plane or on a surface of constant curvature

experiments required to achieve the first success in a sequence of independent

experiments, all with the same probability p of success. Consider a random experiment

where the probability of success on each trial is 𝑝. We will keep conducting the

experiment until you see the first success; let 𝑋 be the number of failures that occur

before the first success. Then 𝑋 is a discrete random variable with the geometric

distribution. Its probability function is:

𝑃 𝑋 = 𝑖 = 𝑝 (1 − 𝑝)𝑖

The expectation of 𝑋 is (1 − 𝑝)/𝑝, and the variance is (1 − 𝑝)/𝑝2 .

GEOMETRIC MEAN: The geometric mean of a group of 𝑛 numbers (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , 𝑎3 , . . . 𝑎𝑛 ) is

equal to 𝑛 (𝑎1 𝑎2 𝑎3 . . . 𝑎𝑛 )

GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE: A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers of the form

𝑎, 𝑎𝑟, 𝑎𝑟 2 , 𝑎𝑟 3 , . . . 𝑎𝑟 𝑛

The ratio between any two consecutive terms is a constant.

GEOMETRIC SERIES A geometric series is a sum of a geometric sequence:

𝑆 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑟 + 𝑎𝑟 2 + 𝑎𝑟 3 + . . . +𝑎𝑟 𝑛

In a geometric series the ratio of any two consecutive terms is a constant (𝑟). The sum

of the 𝑛 terms of the geometric series above is

𝑎 1 − 𝑟𝑛

𝑆𝑛 = 𝑎 + 𝑎𝑟 + 𝑎𝑟 2 + 𝑎𝑟 3 + . . . +𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1 =

1−𝑟

GEOMETRY: Geometry is the area of mathematics related to the study of points and

figures, and their properties. Geometry is the study of shape and size. Euclidian

geometry has a rigorously developed logical structure. Three basic undefined terms are

point, line, and plane. A point is like a tiny dot: it has zero height, zero width, and zero

thickness. A line goes off straight in both directions. A plane is a flat surface, like a

tabletop, extending off to infinity. Euclid developed some basic postulates and then

proved theorems based on these. Examples of postulates used in modern versions of

Euclidian geometry are “Two distinct points are contained in one and only one line” and

“Three distinct points not on the same line are contained in one and only one plane.”

The geometry of flat figures is called plane geometry, because a flat figure is contained

in a plane. The geometry of figures in three dimensional space is called solid geometry.

Geometry of numbers

GEOMETRIC NUMBER THEORY: The branch of number theory that studies number-

theoretical problems by the use of geometric methods. Geometry of numbers in its

proper sense was formulated by H. Minkowski in 1896 in his fundamental monograph.

The starting point of this science, which subsequently became an independent branch of

number theory, is the fact that certain assertions which seem evident in the context of

figures in an 𝑛-dimensional Euclidean space have far-reaching consequences in number

theory.

GL: It is the abbreviation for general linear group.

glb: It is the abbreviation for greatest lower bound. (Also written as inf).

GÖDEL, KURT (1906–78): Kurt Gödel was born in Brno, was at the University of Vienna

from 1930 until he immigrated to the United States in 1940. Kurt Gödel was a

mathematician who showed that the consistency of elementary arithmetic could not be

proved from within the system itself. This result followed from his proof that any formal

axiomatic system contains undecidable propositions. It undermined the hopes of those

who had been attempting to determine axioms from which all mathematics could be

deduced.

GOLAY CODES: Let 𝐺 be a 12 × 24 matrix 𝐺 = (𝐼12 | 𝐴) where 𝐴 is a special 12 × 12

matrix containing only 0’s and 1’s. Then a linear binary code with generator matrix 𝐺 is

called an extended binary Golay code and is denoted as 𝐺24 . Let 𝐺 be the 12 × 23

matrix defined by 𝐺 = (𝐼12 | 𝐴) where 𝐴 is obtained from 𝐴 by deleting the last column

of 𝐴. The binary linear code with generator 𝐺 is called the binary Golay code and is

denoted as 𝐺23 .

GOLDBACH, CHRISTIAN (1690–1764): Christian Goldbach was a Mathematician born in

Prussia, who later became professor in St Petersburg. Goldbach’s conjecture, for which

he is remembered, was proposed in 1742 in a letter to Euler.

GOLDBACH CONJECTURE: The conjecture that every even integer greater than 2 is the

sum of two primes. Till now, it is neither proved nor disproved, Goldbach’s conjecture

remains one of the most famous unsolved problems in number theory.

GOLDBACH PROBLEM: One of the well-known problems in number theory: To give a

proof that every odd integer equal to or larger than 7 can be written as the sum of three

prime numbers. It was posed in 1742 by Goldbach in a communication to L. Euler. Euler

replied by pointing out that in order to solve this problem it is sufficient to prove that

every even number greater than 4 is the sum of two prime numbers. All attempts to

solve the problem remained unsuccessful for a long time. G.H. Hardy and J.E. Littlewood

in 1923 succeeded in showing that if certain theorems concerning Dirichlet L-

functions (which have not been proved till now) are valid, then any sufficiently large

odd number is the sum of three prime numbers. I.M. Vinogradov in 1937 discovered a

new method in analytic number theory — the method of estimating trigonometric sums

involving prime numbers — and applied this method to prove an asymptotic formula

for the number of representations of odd numbers as sums of three prime numbers.

This formula implies that each sufficiently large odd number is the sum of three prime

numbers. This is one of the major achievements of modern mathematics. Vinogradov's

method offers a way for solving several problems of a much more general nature.

GOLDEN RATIO: The division of a line segment 𝒂 into two parts the greater of which, 𝒙,

is the mean proportional between the whole segment a and the smaller part 𝒂 − 𝒙, i.e.

𝑎: 𝑥 = 𝑥: (𝑎 − 𝑥).

𝑥 2 + 𝑎𝑥 − 𝑎2 = 0,

−1 + 5𝑎

𝑥= ≈ 0.62𝑎.

2

𝑥 𝑥 𝑎

1+ = 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑥

𝑎 𝑎 1+𝑎

or

1

𝑥=𝑎 ,

1

1+ 1

1+1+⋯

1 1 2 3 5 8 13

, , , , ,

1 2 3 5 8 13 21

, , …,where 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21, …, are the Fibonacci numbers.

by Golden (1965) and Thompson (1965), says that for Hermitian matrices A and B,

GOLDSTINE THEOREM: Let 𝑋 be a Banach space, then the image of the closed unit

ball 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑋 under the canonical imbedding into the closed unit ball 𝐵′′ of the bidual

space 𝑋 ′′ is weakly-dense.

GOOGOL: A fanciful name for the number 10100, written in decimal notation as a 1

followed by 100 zeros.

GOSSET, WILLIAM SEALY (1876–1937): William Sealy Gosset was a British statistician

best known for his discovery of the t-distribution.

GOURSET LEMMA (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Give 𝜀 > 0 it is possible to divide the region

inside 𝐶 into finite number of meshes either complete square 𝐶𝑛 or partial square 𝐷𝑛

such that within each mesh there exists a point 𝑧0 for which

𝑓 𝑧 −(𝑧0 )

− 𝑓 ′ (𝑧0 ) < 𝜀 ∀𝑧 in the mesh.

𝑧−𝑧0

GRADIENT: The gradient of a curve at a point 𝑃 may be defined as equal to the gradient

of the tangent to the curve at 𝑃. The gradient of a multivariable function is a vector

consisting of the partial derivatives of that function. If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is a function of three

variables, then the gradient of 𝑓, written as ∆𝑓, is the vector

𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓

∆𝑓 = , ,

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

GRADIENT METHOD: A method for the minimization of a function of several variables. It

is based on the fact that each successive approximation of the function 𝐹 is obtained

from the preceding one by a shift in the direction of the gradient of the function:

𝑥 𝑛 +1 = 𝑥 𝑛 − 𝛿𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐹 𝑥 𝑛

The parameter 𝛿𝑛 can be obtained, e.g., from the condition of the magnitude

𝐹 𝑥 𝑛 − 𝛿𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝐹 𝑥 𝑛 being minimal.

Gram’s determinant ℸ (𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 ), is

𝑔1 , 𝑔1 𝑔2 , 𝑔1 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔1

𝑔1 , 𝑔2 𝑔2 , 𝑔2 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔2

⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

𝑔1 , 𝑔𝑛 𝑔2 , 𝑔𝑛 ⋯ 𝑔𝑛 , 𝑔𝑛

dependent, if and only if

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 = 0.

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 ≠ 0,

ℸ 𝑔1 , 𝑔2 , … , 𝑔𝑛 > 0.

sequence of linearly independent vectors in a linear inner product space, than an

equivalent orthonormal sequence 𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , 𝑒3 , …, can be formed.

inner product space 𝑉. Then there exists orthonormal sequence ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍1∞ such that

𝐿{𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 } = 𝐿{𝑒1 , 𝑒2 , … , 𝑒𝑛 } for all n. A separable Hilbert space can be identified

with either 𝑙2𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑙2 , in other words it has an orthonormal basis ⌌𝑒𝑛 ⌍ (finite or infinite)

such that

∞ ⌌𝑥, 2 ∞ ⌌𝑥, 𝑒𝑛 ⌍ 2 .

𝑥= 𝑛=1 𝑒𝑛 ⌍𝑒𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥 = 𝑛=1

GRAPH: A number of vertices (nodes), some of which are joined by edges. The edge

joining the vertex 𝑈 and the vertex 𝑉 may be denoted by (𝑈, 𝑉) or (𝑉, 𝑈). The vertex-set,

that is, the set of vertices, of a graph 𝐺 may be denoted by 𝑉(𝐺) and the edge-set by

𝐸(𝐺). For example, the graph shown here on the left has 𝑉(𝐺) = {𝑈, 𝑉, 𝑊, 𝑋} and

𝐸(𝐺) = {(𝑈, 𝑉), (𝑈, 𝑊), (𝑉, 𝑊), (𝑊, 𝑋)}. In general, a graph may have more than one

edge joining a pair of vertices; when this occurs, these edges are called multiple edges.

Also, a graph may have loops—a loop is an edge that joins a vertex to itself.

GRAPH HOMEOMORPHISM: An equivalence relation on the set of graphs, characterizing

their geometric properties. The notion of a graph homeomorphism is defined as follows.

Subdivision of an edge (𝑎, 𝑏) of a graph 𝐺 is an operation involving the addition of a new

vertex 𝑣, the removal of (𝑎, 𝑏), and the addition of two new edges (𝑎, 𝑣) and (𝑣, 𝑏).

Geometrically, this operation consists in addition of some (interior) point 𝑣 on the

line (𝑎, 𝑏); this point then becomes a new vertex. A graph 𝐺′ is called a subdivision of a

graph 𝐺 if it can be obtained from 𝐺 by repeating the operation of edge subdivision

several times. Two graphs 𝐺1 and 𝐺2 are said to be homeomorphic if they have

isomorphic subdivisions.

GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF AN LPP: The solution of a LPP obtained by graphical method

is called the graphical solution of LPP.

mapping of a non-oriented graph to another one is a one-to-one mapping of the vertices

and the edges of one graph onto the vertices and the edges, respectively, of the other,

the incidence relation being preserved. Two graphs are said to be isomorphic if there

exists an isomorphic mapping of one of these graphs to the other. Isomorphic graphs

are usually not distinguished from one another. The number of pairwise non-

isomorphic graphs with a given number of vertices and a given number of edges is

finite. Isomorphism of oriented graphs, hypergraphs and networks can be defined in a

similar manner.

GRAPH OF A FUNCTION: For a real function 𝑓, the graph of 𝑓 is the set of all pairs (𝑥, 𝑦)

in 𝑹 × 𝑹 such that 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑥 is in the domain of the function. For many real

functions of interest, this gives a set of points that form a curve of some sort, possibly in

a number of parts that can be drawn in the plane. Such a curve defined by 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) is

also called the graph of 𝑓 .

GRAPH OF A RELATION: Let 𝑅 be a binary relation on a set 𝑆, so that, when 𝑎 is related

to 𝑏, this is written 𝑎 𝑅 𝑏. The graph of 𝑅 is the corresponding subset of the Cartesian

product 𝑆 × 𝑆, namely, the set of all pairs (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑎 𝑅 𝑏.

GRAPH THEORY: A branch of discrete mathematics, distinguished by its geometric

approach to the study of various objects. The principal object of the theory is a graph

and its generalizations. The first problems in the theory of graphs were solutions of

mathematical puzzles (the problem of the bridges of Königsberg, the disposition of

queens on a chessboard, transportation problems, the travelling-salesman problem,

etc.). One of the first results in graph theory was a criterion on the possibility of

traversing all edges of a graph without passing through any edge more than once; it was

obtained by L. Euler in 1736 in solving the problem of the bridges of Königsberg.

The four-colour problem, formulated in the mid-19th century, though a mere

amusement puzzle at first sight, led to studies of graphs of both theoretical and applied

interest. Certain studies in the mid-19th century contain results of importance to graph

theory, obtained by solving practical problems. In the 20th century, problems involving

graphs began to arise not only in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, biology,

economics, sociology, etc., but also in mathematics itself — in topology, algebra,

probability theory, and number theory. At the beginning of the 20th century, graphs

were used to represent certain mathematical objects and to formally state various

discrete problems; besides the term "graph" , other terms such as map, complex,

diagram, network, labyrinth, were also employed. The first results, concerning

connectivity properties, planarity, and graph symmetry, which paved the way for a

number of novel directions of study in graph theory, appeared in the 1920s and 1930s.

The scope of research in graph theory was considerably extended in the late 1940s and

early 1950s, mainly as a result of the development of cybernetics and calculation

techniques. Interest in graph theory increased, and the range of problems dealt with by

the theory was considerably extended. It was shown, for individual classes of graphs

(trees, planar graphs, etc.), which had been studied before, that the solution of certain

problems was simpler for such graphs than for arbitrary graphs (finding conditions for

the existence of graphs with certain properties, establishment of graph isomorphism,

etc.).

GREAT CIRCLE: A great circle is a circle that is formed by the intersection of a sphere

and a plane passing through the center. A great circle is the largest circle that can be

drawn on a given sphere, and the shortest path along the sphere between two points is

a great circle. This great circle is unique unless the two points are antipodal.

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR: The greatest common divisor of two natural numbers a

and b is the largest natural number that divides both a and b evenly (that is, with no

remainder) and is usually denoted as (𝑎, 𝑏). The greatest common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑏 has

the property of being divisible by every other common divisor of 𝑎 and 𝑏. It is an

important theorem that there are integers 𝑠 and 𝑡 such that the greatest common

divisor can be expressed as 𝑠𝑎 + 𝑡𝑏. If the prime decompositions of 𝑎 and 𝑏 are known,

the greatest common divisor is easily found.

GREAT PICARD'S THEOREM: If an analytic function 𝑓 has an essential singularity at a

point 𝑤, then on any punctured neighborhood of 𝑤, 𝑓(𝑧) takes on all possible complex

values, with at most a single exception, infinitely often.

GREAT MEROMORPHIC PICARD'S THEOREM: If 𝑀 is a Riemann surface, 𝑤 a point

on 𝑀, 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) = 𝑪 ∪ {∞} denotes the Riemann sphere and 𝑓 : 𝑀\{𝑤} → 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) is a

holomorphic function with essential singularity at 𝑤, then on any open subset

of 𝑀 containing 𝑤, the function 𝑓(𝑧) attains all but at most two points of 𝑷𝟏 (𝑪) infinitely

often.

GREEDY ALGORITHM FOR THE MINIMAL SPANNING TREE PROBLEM:

Select any node randomly, then connect it to the nearby distinct node.

Recognize the unconnected node that is nearby to a connected node, put in this

arc to the network.

Ties can be broken randomly. Such ties may point towards multiple optimal

solutions.

GREEN, GEORGE (1793–1841): George Green was a British mathematician who

developed the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism. He had worked as a

baker, and was self-taught in mathematics; he published other notable mathematical

papers before beginning to study for a degree at Cambridge at the age of 40.

GREEN’S THEOREM:

1. Let 𝒇 𝑥, 𝑦 = [u(𝑥, 𝑦), 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦)] be a two-dimensional vector field, and let 𝐶 be a

closed path in the 𝑥, 𝑦 plane. Green’s theorem states that the line integral of 𝑓

around this path is equal to the following integral over the interior of the path 𝐶:

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣

𝒇 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝐶 = − 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

𝐶 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝐶

2. If ∅, ∅′ are both single-valued and continuously differentiable scalar point

function such that ∆∅ and ∆∅’ are also continuously differentiable,

Then

∂∅

∆∅ . ∆∅′ dv = − ∅∆2 ∅′ dv − ∅ dS

V V S ∂n

∂∅

=− ∅′ ∆2 ∅ dv − ∅′ dS

V S ∂n

where S is closed surface bounding any simple- connected region, δn is an

element of the normal at any point on the boundary drawn into the region

considered, and V is the volume enclosed by 𝑆.

GREGORY, JAMES (1638–75): James Gregory was a Scottish mathematician who studied

in Italy. He obtained infinite series for certain trigonometric functions and was one of

the first to appreciate the difference between convergent and divergent series. He died

at the age of 36.

any two points are the endpoints of a minimizing geodesic.

GRONWALL'S INEQUALITY : Gronwall's inequality also called Grönwall's lemma

or Gronwall–Bellman inequality allows one to bound a function that is known to satisfy

a certain differential or integral inequality by the solution of the corresponding

differential or integral equation.

Let 𝐼 denote an interval of the real line of the form [𝑎, ∞) or [𝑎, 𝑏] or [𝑎, 𝑏)

with 𝑎 < 𝑏. Let 𝛽 and 𝑢 be real-valued continuous functions defined on 𝐼.

If 𝑢 is differentiable in the interior 𝐼 and satisfies the differential inequality

then 𝑢 is bounded by the solution of the corresponding differential equation

𝑦 ′(𝑡) = 𝛽(𝑡) 𝑦(𝑡):

for all t ∇ I.

functions on one real variable satisfying a certain differential inequality. The lemma is

extensively used in several areas of mathematics where evolution problems are studied

(e.g. partial and ordinary differential equations, continuous dynamical systems) to

bound quantities which depend on time. The most elementary version of the inequality

is stated in the following:

Let 𝜙: [0, 𝑇] → 𝑅 be a nonnegative differentiable function for which there exists a

constant 𝐶 such that 𝜙′(𝑡) ≤ 𝐶𝜙(𝑡)for all 𝑡 ∇ [0, 𝑇].

Then 𝜙(𝑡) ≤ 𝑒𝐶𝑡𝜙(0)for all 𝑡 ∇ [0, 𝑇].

GROUP: A group is a set 𝐺 of elements for which an operation ⊚ is defined that meets

the following properties:

(1) 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺 ⇒ 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺. (Closure Axiom)

(2) The associative property holds:

𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑐 = 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑐 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 ∇ 𝐺

(3) There is an identity element 𝑒 ∇ 𝐺 such that

𝑎⊚𝑒 =𝑎 = 𝑒⊚𝑎∀𝑎 ∇𝐺

(4) Each element 𝑎 ∇ 𝐺 has an inverse 𝑎 −1 ∇ 𝐺 such that

𝑎 ⊚ 𝑎−1 = 𝑒 = 𝑎−1 ⊚ 𝑎

If ⊚ is also commutative (that is, 𝑎 ⊚ 𝑏 = 𝑏 ⊚ 𝑎 ∀ 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝐺), then the group is called an

Abelian group.

For example, the real numbers form an Abelian group with respect to addition, and the

nonzero real numbers form an Abelian group with respect to multiplication.

The theory of groups can be applied to many sets other than numbers, and to operations

other than conventional multiplication.

GROUP ACTION OF A GROUP G ON A SET X: A map from 𝑿 × 𝑮 → 𝑿, written (𝒙, 𝒈) or 𝒙𝒈

satisfying

(𝑥, 1𝐺 ) = 𝑥

symmetric group on 𝑋: conversely, every such homomorphism gives rise to an

action (𝑥, 𝑔) ↦ (𝑥)𝜌𝑔 . If the homomorphism 𝜌 is injective the action is faithful: 𝐺 may be

regarded as a subgroup of 𝑆𝑋 . In any case, the image of ρ is a permutation group on X.

is transitive if 𝑋 consists of a single orbit. An action is 𝑘 −fold transitive if for any

two 𝑘 −tuples of distinct elements (𝑥1 , … , 𝑥𝑘 ) and (𝑦1 , … , 𝑦𝑘 ) there is 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺 such

that 𝑦𝑖 = (𝑥𝑖 , 𝑔), 𝑖 = 1, … , 𝑘. An action is primitive if there is no non-trivial partition

of 𝑋 preserved by 𝐺. A doubly transitive action is primitive, and a primitive action is

transitive, but neither converse holds. 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, the stabiliser of 𝑥 is the subgroup 𝐺𝑥 =

{𝑔 ∇ 𝐺: (𝑥, 𝑔) = 𝑥}.

Burnside's Lemma states that the number 𝑘 of orbits is the average number of fixed

points of elements of 𝐺, that is, 𝑘 = |𝐺|−1 𝑔∇𝐺 |𝐹𝑖𝑥(𝑔)|, where 𝐹𝑖𝑥(𝑔) = {𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑥𝑔 =

𝑥} and the sum is over all 𝑔 ∇ 𝐺.

GROUPED DATA: Grouped data is a set of data is said to be grouped when certain groups

or categories are defined and the observations in each group are counted to give the

frequencies. For numerical data, groups are often defined by means of class intervals.

GROUPOID: A universal algebra with one binary operation. An important concept in the

theory of groupoids is that of isotopy of operations. On a set 𝑮, let there be defined two

binary operations, denoted by (⋅) and (∘); they are isotopic if there exist three one-to-

one mappings 𝜶, 𝜷 and 𝜸 of 𝑮 onto itself such that 𝒂 ⋅ 𝒃 = 𝜸 − 𝟏(𝜶𝒂 ∘ 𝜷𝒃) for

all 𝒂, 𝒃 ∇ 𝑮. A groupoid that is isotopic to a quasi-group is itself a quasi-group; a

groupoid with a unit element that is isotopic to a group, is also isomorphic to this group.

For this reason, in group theory the concept of isotopy is not used: For groups isotopy

and isomorphism coincide.

A groupoid with cancellation is a groupoid in which either of the equations 𝑎𝑏 =

𝑎𝑐, 𝑏𝑎 = 𝑐𝑎 implies 𝑏 = 𝑐, where 𝑎, 𝑏 and 𝑐 are elements of the groupoid. Any groupoid

with cancellation is imbeddable into a quasi-group. A homomorphic image of a quasi-

group is a groupoid with division, that is, a groupoid in which the equations 𝑎𝑥 =

𝑏 and 𝑦𝑎 = 𝑏 are solvable.

GROUP WITH UNIQUE DIVISION (R-GROUP): A group in which the equality 𝒙𝒏 =

𝒚𝒏 implies 𝒙 = 𝒚, where 𝒙, 𝒚 are any elements in the group and 𝒏 is any natural number.

A group 𝑮 is an R-group if and only if it is torsion-free and is such that 𝒙𝒏 𝒚 =

𝒚𝒙𝒏 implies 𝒙𝒚 = 𝒚𝒙 for any 𝒙, 𝒚 ∇ 𝑮 and any natural number 𝒏. An R-group splits into

the set-theoretic union of Abelian groups of rank 1 intersecting at the unit element. A

group is an R-group if and only if it is torsion-free and if its quotient group by the centre

is an R-group. Subgroups of an R-group, as well as direct and complete direct products

of R-groups, are R-groups. The following local theorem is valid for the class of R-groups:

If all finitely-generated subgroups of a group 𝑮 are R-groups, then 𝑮 itself is an R-group.

Free groups, free solvable groups and torsion-free locally nilpotent groups are R-

groups.

disc 𝐷 such that 𝑓(0) = 0. Then for all 𝑟 ≤ 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜋/4, the image of the disc |𝑧| <

𝑟 is starlike with respect to 0, , i.e. it is invariant under multiplication by real numbers

in (0,1).

H

HADAMARD CODE: Let 𝐻𝑛 be a Hadamard matrix. A Hadamard code of length 𝑛, denoted

𝐻𝑎𝑑𝑛 , is the binary code derived from 𝐻𝑛 by replacing all −1 values with 0 in 𝐻𝑛 and

then taking all the rows of 𝐻𝑛 and their complements as codewords.

HADMARD FACTORIZATION THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is an entire

function of infinite order 𝜌, then

𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑧 𝑚 𝑒 𝑔(𝑧) 𝑃 (𝑧)

not exceeding 𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃(𝑧) is the canonical product associated with the sequence of non-

zeros of 𝑓 𝑧 .

matrix if all of its entries are in {−1, 1} and it holds that 𝐻𝑛 · 𝐻𝑛𝑇 = 𝑛𝐼𝑛 .

HADAMARD MULTIPLICATION: The Hadamard product, or Schur product, of two 𝒎 ×

𝒏 matrices 𝑨 and 𝑩 is the 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix 𝑨𝑩 with

nonpositive curvature.

HADAMARD THEOREM: The function 𝜁(𝑠) has infinitely many zeros in the critical strip.

analytic in the closed ring 𝑟1 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 𝑟3.

Let 𝑟1 < 𝑟2 < 𝑟3 and 𝑀𝑖 be the maximum value of 𝑓(𝑧) on the circles 𝑧 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑖 =

1,2,3 . Then

𝑟 𝑟 𝑟

log ( 3 ) log ( 3 ) log ( 2 )

𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟1

𝑀2 ≤ 𝑀1 . 𝑀3

The three circles theorem as a convexity theorem: Suppose 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in the closed

ring 𝑟1 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 𝑟2 . Let 𝑟1 < 𝑟2 < 𝑟3 and 𝑀 (𝑟𝑖 ) be the maximum value of 𝑓(𝑧) on the

circles 𝑧 = 𝑟𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2,3 . Then

log 𝑀 𝑟2 ≤ log 𝑀 𝑟1 + log 𝑀 𝑟3

log 𝑟3 − log 𝑟1 log 𝑟3 − log 𝑟1

subspace. Let 𝜑 ∇ 𝐹 ∗ . Then there exists 𝜓 ∇ 𝐸 ∗ with ||𝜓|| ≤ ||𝜑|| and 𝜓(𝑥) = 𝜑(𝑥) for

each 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹.

Let 𝐸 be a normed vector space, and let 𝐹 be a subspace of 𝐸. For 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸, the following

are equivalent:

1. 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹 the closure of 𝐹;

In simple words, let 𝑀 be a linear subspace of a normed linear space 𝑁 and let Φ be a

functional defined on 𝑀. Then Φ can be extended to a functional Φ0 defined on the

whole space 𝑁 such that Φ0 = Φ .

decomposition of (𝑋, 𝜈), with 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = ∅, 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑋 and s.t. for any 𝐸 ∇ 𝐿, 𝜈 (𝐴⋂ 𝐸) ≥

0, 𝜈(𝐵⋂ 𝐸) ≤ 0. This need not be unique.

measure 𝜇 defined on the ς-algebra 𝛴, there exist two measurable sets 𝑃 and 𝑁 in 𝛴

such that:

1. 𝑃 ∪ 𝑁 = 𝑋 and 𝑃 ∩ 𝑁 = ∅.

2. For each 𝐸 in 𝛴 such that 𝐸 ⊆ 𝑃 one has 𝜇(𝐸) ≥ 0; that is, 𝑃 is a positive

set for 𝜇.

3. For each 𝐸 in 𝛴 such that 𝐸 ⊆ 𝑁 one has 𝜇(𝐸) ≤ 0; that is, 𝑁 is a negative set

for 𝜇.

HALF-LIFE: The time it takes for a radioactive substance to decay to one-half its original

amount.

HALF PLANE: A half plane is the set of all points in a plane that lie on one side of an axis.

HALF-RANGE EXPANSIONS: In many physical problems, the function 𝑓(𝑥) is only known

over a finite interval, say 0 < 𝑥 < 𝐿. To express 𝑓(𝑥) as a Fourier series means that we

need to extend the function to be valid over all 𝑥. We can also extend the function in an

even manner to get a cosine series or as an odd function to get a sine series.

Figures:

(b) The even extension of the function onto the interval 0 < 𝑥 < 𝐿 is shown as a solid

curve and the periodic extension of period 2𝐿 is shown as a dot-dash curve.

(c) The odd extension of the function, solid curve, and the periodic extension of period

2𝐿, dot-dash curve.

The odd extension of 𝑓(𝑥) will generate a Fourier series that only involves sine terms

and is called the sine half-range expansion. It is given by

∞ 𝒏𝝅

𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒏=𝟏 𝒃𝒏 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝑳 𝒙

2 𝐿 𝒏𝝅

where 𝑏𝑛 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝒙𝑑𝑥 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.

𝑳

On the other hand, the even extension generates the cosine half-range expansion

∞ 𝒏𝝅

𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒂𝟎 + 𝒏=𝟏 𝒂𝒏 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝑳 𝒙

1 𝐿 2 𝐿 𝒏𝝅

where 𝑎0 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 and 𝑎𝑛 = 𝐿 ∫0 𝑓 𝑥 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝒙𝑑𝑥 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.

𝑳

HALL'S MARRIAGE THEOREM: Let 𝑆 be a family of finite sets, where the family may

contain an infinite number of sets and the individual sets may be repeated multiple

times.

A transversal for 𝑆 is a set T and a bijection 𝑓 from 𝑇 to 𝑆 such that for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, 𝑡 is a

member of 𝑓(𝑡). An alternative term for transversal is system of distinct

representatives or "SDR".

The collection 𝑆 satisfies the marriage condition (MC) if and only if for each

subcollection , we have

In other words, the number of sets in each subcollection 𝑊 is less than or equal to the

number of distinct elements in the union over the subcollection 𝑊. Hall's theorem states

that 𝑆 has a transversal (SDR) if and only if 𝑆 satisfies the marriage condition.

HAMEL BASE: A subject 𝐵 of 𝑆 is called a Hamel base (or simply base) for 𝑆 if and only if

𝐵 is a linealy independent set and 𝐿𝑀 𝐵 = 𝑆.

finite set which is a Hamel base. If 𝑆 is not finite dimensional it is called infinite

dimensional. 𝐿𝑀 (𝐵) means linear manifold spanned by B.

through every vertex of the graph. Thus a circuit 𝒗𝟎 𝒗𝟏 𝒗𝟐 . . . 𝒗𝒏−𝟏 𝒗𝟎 in a graph (𝑽, 𝑬) is a

Hamiltonian circuit if and only if every vertex of the graph occurs exactly once in the list

𝒗𝟎 , 𝒗𝟏 , 𝒗𝟐 , . . . 𝒗𝒏−𝟏 .

HAMILTONIAN PATH: A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path that passes (exactly once)

through every vertex of the graph. Thus a path 𝒗𝟎 𝒗𝟏 𝒗𝟐 . . . 𝒗𝒏 in a graph (𝑽, 𝑬) is a

Hamiltonian path if and only if 𝑽 = {𝒗𝟎 , 𝒗𝟏 , 𝒗𝟐 , . . . 𝒗𝒏 }. A Hamiltonian path passes can

have no repeated vertices (since it is a path) and therefore passes through each vertex

of the graph exactly once.

unknowns and 𝒒 = 𝒒𝟏 , 𝒒𝟐 , … , 𝒒𝒏 , of the form

𝒅𝒑𝒍 𝝏𝑯 𝒅𝒒𝒍 𝝏𝑯

=− , = : 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … . , 𝒏

𝒅𝒕 𝝏𝒒𝒊 𝒅𝒕 𝝏𝒑𝒊

where 𝑯 is some function of (𝒑, 𝒒, 𝒕), known as the Hamilton function, or Hamiltonian,

of the system (1). A Hamiltonian system is also said to be a canonical system and in the

autonomous case it may be referred to as a conservative system, since in this case the

function 𝑯 (which often has the meaning of energy) is a first integral (i.e. the energy is

conserved during motion).

HAMILTON-JACOBI THEORY:A branch of classical variational calculus and analytical

mechanics in which the task of finding extremals (or the task of integrating a

Hamiltonian system of equations) is reduced to the integration of a first-order partial

differential equation — the so-called Hamilton–Jacobi equation. The fundamentals of

the Hamilton–Jacobi theory were developed by W. Hamilton in the 1820s for problems

in wave optics and geometrical optics. In 1834 Hamilton extended his ideas to problems

in dynamics, and C.G.J. Jacobi (1837) applied the method to the general problems of

classical variational calculus.

HAMILTON OPERATOR: A symbolic first-order differential operator, used for the

notation of one of the principal differential operations of vector analysis. In a

rectangular Cartesian coordinate system 𝒙 = 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , … … … , 𝒙𝒏 with unit

vectors 𝒆𝟏 , 𝒆𝟐 , … … … , 𝒆𝒏 , the Hamilton operator has the form

𝒏

𝝏

𝛁= 𝒆𝒋

𝝏𝒙𝒋

𝒋=𝟏

multiplication of the "vector" ∆ by the scalar 𝑓(𝑥), yields the gradient of 𝑓:

𝑛

𝜕𝑓

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑓 = ∆𝑓 = 𝒆𝒋

𝜕𝑥𝒋

𝑗 =1

classical mechanics, established by 𝑊. Hamilton for holonomic systems restricted by

ideal stationary constraints, and generalized by M.V. Ostrogradski to non-stationary

geometrical constraints. According to this principle, in a real motion of the system acted

upon by potential forces,

𝑡1 𝑡1

𝑆= (𝑇 − 𝑈)𝑑𝑡 = 𝐿𝑑𝑡

𝑡0 𝑡0

has a stationary value as compared with near, kinetically-possible, motions, with initial

and final positions of the system and times of motion identical with those for the real

motion. Here, 𝑇 is the kinetic energy, 𝑈 is the potential energy and 𝐿 = 𝑇 − 𝑈 is the

Lagrange function of the system.

HAMILTON’S PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION: A particle moves in a conservative field in

𝑡

such a way that ∫𝑡 2 𝑇 − 𝑉 𝑑𝑡 is a minimum, where T is the total Kinetic energy and V is

1

HAMMING CODE WEIGHT: Let 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹𝑞𝑛 . The Hamming weight of 𝑥, denoted 𝑤𝑡(𝑥) is

defined to be the number of coordinates that are not zero. That is, 𝑤𝑡(𝑥) = 𝑑(𝑥, 0).

HAMMING DISTANCE: Let 𝑥 = 𝑥1 , . . . , 𝑥𝑛 and 𝑦 = 𝑦1 , . . . , 𝑦𝑛 . Then, for every 𝑖, we

define

1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑖 ≠ 𝑦𝑖

𝑑 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖 =

0 𝑖𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑦𝑖

and we define

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑑 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑦𝑖

This distance is called Hamming distance. Note that that the Hamming distance is not

dependent on the actual values of 𝑥𝑖 and 𝑦𝑖 but only if they are equal to each other or

not equal.

HANKEL MATRIX: A matrix whose entries along a parallel to the main anti-diagonal are

equal, for each parallel. Equivalently, 𝑯 = (𝒉𝒊,𝒋 ) is a Hankel matrix if and only if there

exists a sequence 𝒔𝟏 , 𝒔𝟐 , … , such that 𝒉𝒊,𝒋 = 𝒔𝒊+𝒋−𝟏 . If 𝒔𝒌 are square matrices, then 𝑯 is

referred to as a block Hankel matrix. Infinite Hankel matrices are associated with the

representation of Hankel operators acting on the Hilbert space of square summable

complex sequences.

HANSON- HUARD STRICT CONVERSE DUALITY THEOREM: Let X 0 be an open set in Rn

and let 𝜃 and 𝑔 be differentiable on X 0 . Let x, u be a solution of the dual

(maximization) problem and let 𝜃 and 𝑔 be convex at 𝑥 if either.

∆2x Ψ(x, u) is non singular, or

There exists an open set ⋀ ⊂ 𝑅 𝑚 containing 𝑢 and an 𝑛-dimensional

differentiable vector function 𝑒(𝑢) on ⋀ such that x = 𝑒(u) and 𝑒 u ∇

X 0 , ∆x Ψ(x, u) 𝑥=𝑒(𝑢) = 0 for 𝑢 ∇ ⋀

then 𝑥 solves the (primal) minimization problem (MP) and θ x = Ψ(x, u).

∞ ∞

𝑥𝑛 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝

< 𝑎𝑛𝑝

𝑛 𝑝−1

𝑛=1 𝑛=1

𝑝 𝑝

except when all the 𝑎𝑛 are zero. The constant in this inequality is best possible.

𝑝−1

measurable real functions vanishing at infinity that are defined on 𝑛-

dimensional Euclidean space 𝑹𝒏 then

where 𝑓 * and 𝑔∗ are the symmetric decreasing rearrangements of 𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑔(𝑥),

respectively.

HARDY-RAMANUJAN THEOREM: For any integer 𝒏 ≥ 𝟐 , let 𝝎(𝒏) denote the number of

distinct prime factors of 𝒏. The Hardy–Ramanujan theorem states that the

function 𝝎(𝒏) has normal order 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝒍𝒐𝒈 𝒏 in the sense that, given any 𝜺 > 0, almost all

positive integers 𝒏 satisfy

𝝎 𝒏 − 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝒏 ≤ 𝜺 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝒏

Here, "almost all" means that the number of positive integers 𝑛 ≤ 𝑥 for which the

indicated property holds is asymptotically equal to 𝑥 as 𝑥 → ∞. A stronger, and best-

possible, version of this result shows that, given any real-valued function 𝜑(𝑛) tending

to infinity as 𝑛 → ∞, almost all positive integers 𝑛 satisfy

𝜔 𝑛 − log log 𝑛 ≤ 𝜑(𝑛) 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑛

after G. H. Hardy. It states that if is a sequence of non-negative real

numbers which is not identically zero, then for every real number p > 1 one has

HARDY'S THEOREM: Let 𝑓 be a holomorphic function on the open ball centered at zero

and radius 𝑅 in the complex plane, and assume that 𝑓 is not a constant function. If one

defines

for 0 < 𝑟 < 𝑅 then this function is strictly increasing and logarithmically convex.

method. Harmonic analysis as a branch of mathematics is usually understood to include

the theory of trigonometric series; Fourier transforms; almost-periodic

functions; Dirichlet series; approximation theory; abstract harmonic analysis; and

certain other related mathematical disciplines. The method consists in reducing certain

problems from various fields of mathematics to problems in harmonic analysis, which

are then solved.

HARMONIC COORDINATES: Coordinates in which the metric tensor 𝒈𝒊𝒌 satisfies the

condition

𝜕

(|𝑔| − − 𝒈𝒊𝒌 ) = 0,

𝜕𝑥𝑘

where 𝑔 is the determinant defined by the components of the tensor 𝒈𝒊𝒌 In several cases

use of harmonic coordinates leads to a considerable simplification of the calculations:

an example is the derivation of the equations of motion in general relativity.

HARMONIC FUNCTION: A function 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 is called harmonic function if first and second

order partial derivatives of 𝑢 are continuous and 𝑢 satisfies Laplace’s equations ∆2 V =

0.

HARMONIC SEQUENCE: A sequence of numbers is a harmonic sequence if the

reciprocals of the terms form an arithmetic sequence.

HCF: It is the abbreviation for highest common factor of two numbers. (Also written as

gcd).

HEAVISIDE UNIT FUNCTIONS (OR THE UNIT STEP FUNCTION): The Heaviside unit step

function by H(x) is defined as

1 if x ≥ 𝑎

H x =

0 if x < 𝑎

If 𝑎 > 0, then

1 if x ≥ 𝑎

H x−𝑎 =

0 if x < 𝑎

HEIGHT OF A FUZZY SET: The height of a fuzzy set is the largest membership value

attained by any point.

HELICOID: A surface generated by a curve which is simultaneously rotated about a fixed

axis and translate in the direction of the axis with a velocity proportional to the velocity

of rotation, is called helicoids.

denote the time average. Let

Then

possesses this property. Being countable is a hereditary property.

d2 y dy

2

− 2𝑥 + 2λy = 0

dx dx

if a function ƒ : [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑹 is convex, then the following chain of inequalities hold:

th

HERMITIAN MATRIX: A square matrix A = aij is said to be Hermitian if the i, j

th

element A is equal to the conjugate complex of the j, i element A i.e., if aij = aji for all

i and j.

1 2 − 3i 3 + 4i

a b + ic

For example, , 2 + 3i 0 4 − 5i are Hermitian matrices. If A is a

b − ic d

3 − 4i 4 + 5i 2

Hermitian matrix, then

A Hermitian matrix over the field of real number is nothing but a real symmetric matrix.

Obviously, a necessary and sufficient condition for a matrix A to be Hermitian is that A

= A°.

HERMITIAN OPERATOR OR SELF-ADJOINT OPERATOR: An operator 𝑇: 𝐻 → 𝐻 is a

Hermitian operator or self-adjoint operator if

𝑇 = 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑖. 𝑒. ⟨ 𝑇𝑥, 𝑦 ⟩ = ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑇𝑦 ⟩ 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐻.

symmetric matrix of second partial derivatives. If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is a function of three

variables, its Hessian matrix is

𝑓𝑥𝑥 𝑓𝑥𝑦 𝑓𝑥𝑧

𝑓𝑦𝑥 𝑓𝑦𝑦 𝑓𝑦𝑧

𝑓𝑧𝑥 𝑓𝑧𝑦 𝑓𝑧𝑧

HEWITT- SAVAGE ZERO-ONE LAW: Every symmetric event concerning a sequence of

independent and identically distributed random variables has probability 0 or 1.

contour 𝐶 and a is any point within 𝐶 then derivatives of all orders are analytic and are

given by

𝑛! 𝑓 𝑧 𝑑𝑧

𝑓 (𝑛) 𝑎 = ∫𝐶

2𝜋𝑖 (𝑧 − 𝑎)𝑛+1

HILBERT, DAVID: David Hilbert (1862 to 1943) was a mathematician whose work

included a modern, rigorous, axiomatic development of geometry.

HILBERT'S BASIS THEOREM: If is a Noetherian ring, then 𝑅[𝑋] is a Noetherian ring.

2 ∞ 2

operator 𝐴 by 𝐴 𝐻𝑆 = 𝑛=1 𝐴𝑒𝑛 . The set of Hilbert–Schmidt operators with this

norm is a Hilbert space.

Hilbert spaces. Then 𝑇 is said to be Hilbert–Schmidt operator if there exists an

∞ 2

orthonormal basis in 𝐻 such that the series 𝑘=1 ||𝑇 𝑒𝑘 || is convergent.

Note that

2

Then 𝑇𝑒𝑛 2

= 𝑛−2 = 𝜋 6 is finite.

The identity operator 𝐼𝐻 is not a Hilbert–Schmidt operator, unless 𝐻 is finite

dimensional.

All Hilbert–Schmidt operators are compact.

Integral operator is Hilbert–Schmidt.

HILBERT SPACE: An (abstract) Hilbert space is a linear inner product space which is

complete with respect to the norm generated by its inner product.

HINGE THEOREM: It states that if two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of

another triangle, and the included angle of the first is larger than the included angle of

the second, then the third side of the first triangle is longer than the third side of the

second triangle.

HISTOGRAM: A histogram is a bar diagram where the horizontal axis shows different

categories of values and the height of each bar is related to the number of observations

in the corresponding category. If all categories are the same width, then the height of

each bar is proportional to the number of observations in the category. If the categories

are of unequal width, then the height of the bar is proportional to the number of

observations in the category divided by the width of the category

HÖLDER’S INEQUALITY: For 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, let 𝑞 ∇ (1, ∞) be such that

1 1

+ = 1.

𝑝 𝑞

For 𝑛 ≥ 1 and 𝑢, 𝑣 ∇ 𝐾 𝑛 , we have that

1 1

𝑛 𝑛 𝑝 𝑛 𝑞

𝑝 𝑞

𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖 ≤ 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖

𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1

than 1, with the added property that

1 1

+ =1

𝑝 𝑞

And = 𝑔 1 , 𝑔 2 , … ∇ 𝑙 𝑞 ,

∞ ∞ 1/𝑝 ∞ 1/𝑝

𝑃 𝑞

𝑓 𝑘 𝑔(𝑘) ≤ 𝑓(𝑘) . 𝑔(𝑘)

𝑘=1 𝑘=1 𝑘=1

HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION: Functions f that satisfy (𝜕/𝜕𝑧)𝑓 ≡ 0 are the main concern

of complex analysis. A continuously differentiable function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑈 → 𝐶 defined on an

open subset 𝑈 of 𝐶 is said to be holomorphic if 𝜕𝑓/ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 at every point of 𝑈. Note

that this last equation is just a reformulation of the Cauchy-Riemann equations.

HOMEOMORPHISM: (a) A continuous bijective map 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌, such that 𝑓 −1 ∶ 𝑌 → 𝑋

is also continuous is called a homeomorphism (or a bicontinuous bijection) and denoted

by 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 . Two spaces 𝑋, 𝑌 are homeomorphic, written 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 , if there is a

homeomorphism 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 ≅ 𝑌 .

(b) Let (𝐴,∗) and (𝐵,∗) be semigroups, monoids or groups. A function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 from 𝐴

to 𝐵 is said to be a homomorphism if 𝑓(𝑥 ∗ 𝑦) = 𝑓(𝑥) ∗ 𝑓(𝑦) for all elements 𝑥 and 𝑦

of 𝐴. Let 𝑞 be an integer, and let 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑍 be a the function from the set of integers to

itself defined by 𝑓(𝑛) = 𝑞 𝑛 for all integers 𝑛. Then 𝑓 is a homomorphism from the

group (𝑍, +) to itself, since 𝑓(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑞(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑞 𝑚 + 𝑞 𝑛 = 𝑓(𝑚) + 𝑓(𝑛) for

all integers 𝑚 and 𝑛. Example Let 𝑅 ∗ denote the set of non-zero real numbers, let 𝑎 be a

nonzero real number, and let 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑅 ∗ be the function defined by 𝑓(𝑛) = 𝑎𝑛 for all

integers 𝑚 and 𝑛. Then 𝑓: 𝑍 → 𝑅 ∗ is a homomorphism from the group (𝑍, +) of integers

under addition to the group (𝑅 ∗ ,×) of non-zero real numbers under multiplication,

since 𝑓(𝑚 + 𝑛) = 𝑎 𝑚 +𝑛 = 𝑎𝑚 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑓(𝑚)𝑓(𝑛) for all integers 𝑚 and 𝑛.

HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS: Suppose

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ⋯ + a2n xn = 0,

…………………………………… …1

……………………………………

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + ⋯ + amn xn = 0

𝑥1 0

a11 a12 … a1n 𝑥2 0

a21 a22 … a2n 𝑥

X= ⋯ 3 0

O= ⋯ where A, X, O are m × n, n × 1, m × 1

… … … …

am1 am2 … amn m×n, ⋯ ⋯

𝑥𝑛 n×1, 0 m×1,

matrices respectively. Then obviously we can write the system of equations (1) in the

form of a single matrix equation

𝐴𝑋 = 0. … 2

The matrix 𝐴 is called the coefficient matrix of the system of equation (1).

obvious) solution of (1).

Again suppose x1 and x2 are two solutions of (2). Then their linear combination,

k1 x1 + k 2 x2 , where k1 and k 2 are any arbitrary numbers, is also a solution of (2).

We have

Therefore the collection of all solution of the system of equation AX = O forms a sub-

space of the n variable, AX = O, is n − r , where r is the rank of the matrix A.

the quotient group 𝑍𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ )/𝐵𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ), where 𝑍𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ) is the kernel of 𝜕𝑖 ∶ 𝐶𝑖 → 𝐶𝑖−1 and

𝐵𝑖 (𝐶 ∗ ) is the image of 𝜕𝑖+1 ∶ 𝐶𝑖+1 → 𝐶𝑖 . Note that if the modules 𝐶 ∗ occuring in a chain

complex 𝐶 ∗ are modules over some unital ring 𝑅 then the homology groups of the

complex are also modules over this ring 𝑅.

HOMOMORPHISMS OF LIE GROUPS: Let 𝐺, 𝐻 be Lie groups. A map 𝜑: 𝐺 → 𝐻 which is

smooth and a homomorphism in the group theoretical sense, that is, which satisfies

𝜑(𝑥𝑦) = 𝜑(𝑥)𝜑(𝑦) ∀𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝐺,

HOOKE’s LAW: Theory of elasticity deals with a study of the behavior of those

substances that possess the property of recovering their size and shape, when the forces

producing deformations are removed. The elastic response of a body to an applied load

is analyzed best through the introduction of the stress tensor. Deformations produced

are naturally relate to the applied loads and therefore to the stress tensor. These

relations are the stress- strain relations or the constitutive equations of the material.

In 1676, Robert Hooke, who as a result of his experiments with metallic rods under

axially applied tensile loads, concluded that “the extension is proportional to the force”,

a relation known as Hooke’s Law.

Mathematically it is expresses as T=𝐸ℯ, until the stress reaches the proportional limit.

The proportional limit means the stress at which the linear relationship between stress

and strains ceases. Its value, however, is not easily measured. The constant of

proportionality E is known as Young’s modulus of elasticity.

The stress T is assumed to vanish when ℯ vanishes. Since T and ℯ uniquely related, there

cannot be energy dissipation by the stress component during a loading and unloading

cycle. Such a solid, which allows linear stress-strain law for deformation without any

dissipation of energy, is called a linear elastic solid or Hookean solid.

HOROSPHERE: Horosphere is a level set of Busemann function.

HURWITZ'S THEOREM (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Let {𝑓𝑘 } be a sequence of holomorphic

functions on a connected open set 𝐺 that converge uniformly on compact subsets of 𝐺 to

a holomorphic function 𝑓. If 𝑓 has a zero of order 𝑚 at 𝑧0 then for every small enough

𝜌 > 0 and for sufficiently large 𝑘 ∇ 𝑵 (depending on 𝜌), 𝑓𝑘 has precisely 𝑚 zeroes in

the disk defined by |𝑧 − 𝑧0 | < 𝜌, including multiplicity. Furthermore, these zeroes

converge to 𝑧0 as 𝑘 → ∞.

HURWITZ'S THEOREM (NUMBER THEORY): For every irrational number 𝜉 there are

infinitely many relatively prime integers 𝑚, 𝑛 such that

The hypothesis that 𝜉 is irrational cannot be omitted. Moreover the constant 5 is the

1+ 5

best possible; if we replace 5 by any number 𝐴 > 5 and we let 𝜉 = (the golden

2

ratio) then there exist only finitely many relatively prime integers 𝑚, 𝑛 such that the

formula above holds.

HYPERBOLA: A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane such that the difference

between the distances to two fixed points is a constant. A hyperbola has two branches

that are mirror images of each other. Each branch looks like a misshaped parabola. The

general equation for a hyperbola with center at the origin is

𝑥2 𝑦2

− =1

𝑎2 𝑏 2

The two diagonal lines are called asymptotes, which are determined by the equations

𝑏𝑦 + 𝑎𝑥 = 0 = 𝑏𝑦 − 𝑎𝑥.

the Gaussian curvature 𝜅 is negative i.e, 𝐿𝑁 − 𝑀² < 0 are called hyperbolic points. In

this case principal curvatures at the points are of opposite signs.

𝑇 α+r

α r = α α + 1 (α + 2)……….. α + r − 1 = (where r is a+ve integer)

𝑇 α

and α 0 = 1.

by

∞ α 1 r α 2 r … α m r xT

mFn (α1 , α2 …………..αm ; β1 , β2 ………,βn ; x)= r=0 β

1 r β2 r … βn r r !

α1 , α2 … αm ;

mFn = β , β … β 𝑥

1 2 n

ab a a + 1 b(b + 1) 2 a a + 1 a + 2 b b + 1 (b + 2) 3

1+ x+ x + x +

1! c 2! c(c + 1) 3! c c + 1 (c + 2)

is called the hypergeometric series.

It can be shown that the series converges absolutely if x < 1 and if x = 1, and series

converges absolutely if c − a − b > 0 or c > 𝑎 + 𝑏. Hypergeometric series is frequently

used in connection with the theory of Spherical Harmonics.

𝐶1 𝑥1 + 𝐶2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝐶𝑛 𝑥𝑛 =Z (not all 𝐶𝑖 = 0)

𝐶

The vector C is called vector normal to hyperplane and ± are called unit normals.

𝐶

A hyper plane divides the whole space 𝐸 𝑛 into three mutually disjoint sets given by

𝑋1 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 > 𝑍

𝑋2 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 = 𝑍

𝑋3 = 𝑥: 𝐶𝑥 < 𝑍

HYPER SPHERE: A hyper sphere in 𝐸 𝑛 with the centre at a and radius 𝜀 > 0 is defined to

be the set of points

𝑋 = 𝑥: 𝑥 − 𝑎 = 𝜀

2 2 2

𝑥1 − 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 − 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 = 𝜀2

where 𝑎 = 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 , 𝑋 = 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛

proved.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING: A situation often arises in which a researcher needs to test a

hypothesis about the nature of the world. Frequently it is necessary to use a statistical

technique known as hypothesis testing for this purpose. The hypothesis that is being

tested is termed the null hypothesis. The other possible hypothesis, which says “The

null hypothesis is wrong,” is called the alternative hypothesis.

I

IDEA: IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption

algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. It uses a block cipher with a 128-

bit key, and is generally considered to be very secure. It is considered among the best

publicly known algorithms. In the several years that it has been in use, no practical

attacks on it have been published despite of a number of attempts to find some.

IDEAL CLASS: Suppose that 𝐾 is an algebraic number field. Two fractional ideals 𝐴 and 𝐵

in 𝐾 are said to be equivalent, denoted by 𝐴 ∼ 𝐵, if there is a principal fractional ideal

⌌𝑤⌍ ≠ ⌌0⌍ such that 𝐴 = ⌌𝑤⌍𝐵. The equivalence of non-zero fractional ideals in an

algebraic number field is an equivalence relation. The equivalence classes are called the

ideal classes. Furthermore, all non-zero principal fractional ideals are equivalent to each

other. They form the principal class.

INCOMPRESSIBLE): The ideal fluid is one which is incapable of sustaining any tangential

stress or action in the form of a shear but the normal force (pressure) acts between the

adjoining layers of fluid. The pressure at every point of an ideal fluid is equal in all

directions, whether the fluid is at rest or in motion. This theory defines some concepts

of the flow such as wave motion. The lift and the induced drag of an airfoil etc., but it

fails to define the phenomena such as skin friction, drag of a body etc.

IDEALS: A subset of a ring 𝐴 is called a left (right) ideal of 𝐴 it is submodule of the left

(right) 𝐴- module of 𝐴. In otherwords, a left (right) ideal 𝐽 of 𝐴 is an additive subgroup

of 𝐴 such that 𝐴𝐽 ⊂ 𝐽(𝐽𝐴 ⊂ 𝐽). Under the operations induced from 𝐴, 𝐽 is a ring

(however, 𝐽 is not necessarily unitary). A subset if 𝐴 is called a two sided ideal or simple

an ideal of 𝐴 if it is a left and right ideal.

equivalence relation that is compatible with the operations of 𝐴. Each equivalence class

is called a residue class modulo 𝐽, and the quotient ring 𝐴/𝑅 is denoted by 𝐴/𝐽 and

called the residue (class) rise (or factor ring) modulo 𝐽. If it is a field, it is called a

residue (class) field. conversely, given an equivalence relation 𝑅 that is compatible with

the operations of 𝐴, the equivalence class of 0 forms an ideal 𝐽 of 𝐴 and the equivalence

relation defined by 𝐽 coincides with 𝑅.

A left (right) ideal of a ring 𝐴 is said to be maximal if it is not equal to 𝐴 and is properly

contained in no left (right) ideal of 𝐴 other than 𝐴. Similarly, a left (right) ideal of 𝐴 is

said to be minimal if it is nonzero left (right) ideal of 𝐴.

idempotent elements, and 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑒 + 𝐴(1 − 𝑒) is the direct sum of left ideals. This is

called Peirce’s left decomposition. Peirce’s right decomposition is defined similarly.

IDEALS IN AN ALGEBRAIC NUMBER FIELD: Let 𝐾 be an algebraic number field, with ring

of integers 𝑂. A subset 𝐴 of 𝑂 is an ideal in 𝐾 if the following condition is satisfied:

If 𝛼, 𝛽 ∇ 𝐴, then 𝜆𝛼 + µ𝛽 ∇ 𝐴 for every 𝜆, µ ∇ 𝑂.

We denote by {0}, the zero ideal.

IDENTITY ELEMENT: If ⟪ stands for an operation (such as addition, subtraction,

multiplication), then the identity element (called 𝑒) for the operation is the number

such that 𝑒 ⟪ 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all a. For example, zero is the identity element for addition,

because 0 + 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅 . 1 is the identity element for multiplication, because

1 × 𝑎 = 𝑎, for all 𝑎 ∇ 𝑅.

IDENTITY MATRIX: An identity matrix is a square matrix with ones along the diagonal

and zeros everywhere else and is denoted 𝐼𝑛 as where n is the order of the matrix 𝐼𝑛 .

For example:

1 0 0

1 0

𝐼2 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐼3 = 0 1 0

0 1

0 0 1

IDENTITY THEOREM: If 𝑓, 𝑔 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 are holomorphic near 𝑝, and there is a sequence

𝑝 ≠ 𝑧𝑛 → 𝑝 with 𝑓(𝑧𝑛 ) = 𝑔(𝑧𝑛 ), then 𝑓 = 𝑔 near 𝑝.

IMAGE OF A FILTER: If f is a mapping of a set 𝐸 into a set 𝐸0 :

1. The image by 𝑓 of a filter on 𝐸 is a filter on 𝐸0 ,

2. The inverse image by 𝑓 of a filter 𝐹0 on 𝐸0 is a filter on 𝐸 if every set of 𝐹0 meets 𝑓(𝐸).

In particular, if 𝑓 is a mapping of 𝐸 onto 𝐸0 the direct and inverse images of filters are

again filters.

IMAGE OF A POINT: The image of a point is the point that results after the original point

has been subjected to a transformation.

IMMERSED SUBMANIFOLD: Let 𝑀 be an abstract smooth manifold. An immersed

submanifold is a subset 𝑁 ⊂ 𝑀 equipped as a topological space (but not necessarily

with the topology induced from 𝑀) and a smooth structure such that the inclusion map

𝑖: 𝑁 → 𝑀 is smooth with a differential 𝑑𝑖𝑝 : 𝑇𝑝 𝑁 → 𝑇𝑝 𝑀 which is injective for each

𝑝 ∇ 𝑁.

IMMERSION: Let 𝑀 and 𝑁 be abstract manifolds, and let 𝑓: 𝑁 → 𝑀 be a map. Then 𝑓 is

called an embedding/immersion if its image 𝑓(𝑁) can be given the structure of an

embedded/immersed submanifold of 𝑀 onto which 𝑓 is a diffeomorphism.

IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION: Implicit differentiation provides a method for finding

derivatives if the relationship between two variables is not expressed as an explicit

function. For example, consider the equation 𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎. This equation defines a

relationship between 𝑥 and 𝑦, but it does not express that relationship as an explicit

function. To find the derivative 𝑑𝑦/𝑑𝑥, take the derivative of 𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎

𝑑 2 𝑑

𝑥 + 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 = 𝑎

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

⇒ 2𝑥 + 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 2𝑦 =0

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑𝑦 2𝑥 + 𝑦

⇒ =−

𝑑𝑥 𝑥 + 2𝑦

IMPOSSIBILITY OF CIRCLE SQUARING: We cannot construct a square of area equal to a

given circle by a ruler and compass construction.

IMPUTATION: Imputation, in statistics, is the insertion of a value to stand in for missing

data. Analytics programs and methods don't function properly with missing data.

Statistical packages, for example, commonly delete any case with data missing.

INCENTER: The incenter of a triangle is the center of the circle inscribed inside the

triangle. It is the intersection of the three angle bisectors of the triangle.

INCIDENT EDGE: If 𝑣 is a vertex of some graph, if 𝑒 is an edge of the graph, and if

𝑒 = 𝑣 𝑣 ′ for some vertex 𝑣 ′ of the graph, then the vertex 𝑣 is said to be incident to the

edge 𝑒, and the edge e is said to be incident to the vertex 𝑣.

INCIRCLE: The incircle of a triangle is the circle that can be inscribed within the triangle.

INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM: The Incompleteness Theorem is a pair of logical proofs

that revolutionized mathematics. The first result was published by Kurt Gödel (1906-

1978) in 1931 when he was 24 years old. The First Incompleteness Theorem states that

any contradiction-free rendition of number theory contains propositions that cannot be

proven either true or false on the basis of its own postulates. The Second

Incompleteness Theorem states that if a theory of numbers is contradiction-free, then

this fact cannot be proven with common reasoning methods.

other and therefore cannot be solved simultaneously.

INCREASING FUNCTION: A function 𝑓(𝑥) is an monotonically increasing function if

𝑓 (𝑎) ≤ 𝑓 (𝑏) when 𝑎 ≤ 𝑏. A function 𝑓(𝑥) is an strictly increasing function if

𝑓 𝑎 < 𝑓 (𝑏) when 𝑎 < 𝑏 .

INDECOMPOSABLE MODULE: A non-trivial module over a ring 𝑅 is called

indecomposable if whenever 𝑀 = 𝑀1 ⊕ 𝑀2 with 𝑀1 , 𝑀2 submodules then either

𝑀1 = {0} or 𝑀2 = {0}.

INDEPENDENT EVENTS: Two events are independent if they do not affect each other.

For example, the probability that a new baby will be a boy is not affected by the fact that

a previous baby was a girl. Therefore, these two events are independent. If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are

two independent events, the conditional probability that 𝐴 will occur, given that 𝐵 has

occurred, is just the same as the unconditional probability that 𝐴 will occur:

𝑃 𝐴 ∕ 𝐵 = 𝑃(𝐴)

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: The independent variable is the input number to a function.

In the equation 𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), 𝑥 is the independent variable and 𝑦 is the dependent

variable. An independent variable is a variable that is manipulated to determine the

value of a dependent variable s. The dependent variable is what is being measured in an

experiment or evaluated in a mathematical equation and the independent variables are

the inputs to that measurement. In a simple mathematical equation, for example:

𝑎 = 𝑏/𝑐 the independent variables, 𝑏 and 𝑐 , determine the value of a . Here's a simple

example: A teacher wishes to compare the number of tardy students wearing black with

the number of tardy students wearing pink. In this scenario, clothing color is the

independent variable and the difference in the number of students, categorized by

clothing color, is the dependent variable.

INDISCRETE TOPOLOGY: Let 𝑋 be any non-empty set and ℐ = 𝑋; 𝜑 . Then ℐ is called

the indiscrete topology and (𝑋; ℐ) is said to be an indiscrete space.

INDUCTIVE REASONING: Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple

premises, all believed true or found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a

specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning is often used in applications that involve

prediction, forecasting, or behavior.

Inductive reasoning is, unlike deductive reasoning, not logically rigorous. Imperfection

can exist and inaccurate conclusions can occur, however rare; in deductive reasoning

the conclusions are mathematically certain. Inductive reasoning is sometimes confused

with mathematical induction, an entirely different process. Mathematical induction is a

form of deductive reasoning, in which logical certainties are "daisy chained" to derive a

general conclusion about an infinite number of objects or situations.

∞

continuous on 0, ∞ and is absolutely convergent on 0, ∞ i.e. ∫𝟎 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑠.

∞

𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 cos 𝑠 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐺𝑐 𝒔

𝟎

defined as

∞

2

𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐺𝑐 𝒔 cos s t ds

𝜋 𝟎

∞

continuous on 0, ∞ and is absolutely convergent on 0, ∞ i.e. ∫𝟎 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 converges

∞

𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 sin 𝑠 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐺𝑠 𝒔

𝟎

and the function 𝒇 𝒕 is inverse fourier sine transform of 𝐺𝑠 𝑠 or 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 and defined

as

∞

2

𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐺𝑠 𝒔 sin s t ds

𝜋 𝟎

The second is also known as Inversion Formula for Fourier sine transform.

INFINITE PRODUCT: Let 𝑎𝑛 be a given sequence with terms 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0(𝑛 = 1,2, … 1). The

∞

dormal infinite product 𝑎1 . 𝑎2 . 𝑎3 … is denoted by n=1 𝑎𝑛 . We call 𝑝𝑛 = 𝑎1 . 𝑎2 … … 𝑎𝑛 its

𝑛𝑡 partial product. If the sequence 𝑝𝑛 is convergent to a nonzero limit 𝑝, then this

infinite product is said to converge to 𝑝, and 𝑝 is called the value of the infinite product.

We write 𝑎𝑛 = p. if 𝑝𝑛 is not convergent or is convergent to 0, then the infinite

product is called divergent.

zero. In calculus ∆𝑥 is usually used to represent an infinitesimal change in 𝑥.

INFINITESIMAL AFFINE DEFORMATION: A transformation of the type

In which the co-efficient are so small that their products can be neglected in comparison

with the linear terms is called an infinitesimal affine transformations.

INFLECTION POINT: An inflection point on a curve is a point such that the curve is

oriented concave-upward on one side of the point and concave-downward on the other

side of the point. If the curve represents the function 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥), then the second

derivative is equal to zero at the inflection point.

INITIAL-BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS: This time the infinite 𝒙 plane is replace by the

semi-infinite plane, with a boundary condition imposed on 𝒙 = 𝟎.

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

𝒄 + = 𝟎, 𝒙 > 0, 𝑡 > 0

𝝏𝒙 𝝏𝒕

𝒖 𝒙, 𝟎 = 𝒇(𝒙)

𝒖 𝟎, 𝒕 = 𝒈(𝒕)

.

Consider the case c>0, so that the waves are travelling from small 𝑥 to large 𝑥. The

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

characteristics are again given by = 𝑐, = 1 ⇒ 𝑥 = 𝑐𝑡 + 𝑥0 . The characteristic

𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑟

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

Example: 2 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with

𝝏𝒕

1 − 𝑥, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 1

𝑢 𝑥, 0 = , 𝑢 0, 𝑡 = 𝑒 −𝑡 , 𝑡 > 0.

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 1

Therefore the plane is split into three regions and the solution is

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 − 2𝑡 > 1,

𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 1 − 𝑥 − 2𝑡 , 𝑖𝑓 0 < 𝑥 − 2𝑡 ≤ 1,

𝑥

𝑒− 𝑡− ,

2 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 − 2𝑡 < 0

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

Example: 2𝑥𝑡 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝑢, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition 𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 𝑥.

𝝏𝒕

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

= 2𝑥𝑡 ⇒ = 2𝑡𝑑𝑡 ⇒ log 𝑥 = 𝑡 2 + 𝑐 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟.

𝑑𝑟 𝑥

2 2 2

and rearranging we obtain 𝑥 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑡 ⇒ 𝑥 = 𝑥0 𝑒 𝑡 . Thus, 𝑥0 = 𝑥𝑒 −𝑡

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑢 𝑑𝑢

On using = 𝑑𝑟 + 𝑑𝑟 , we can write = 𝑢 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑟 , where the constant 𝐴 is

𝑑𝑟 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡 𝑑𝑟

actually constant along the characteristic defined by the value of 𝑥0 . Thus, 𝑥0 is really a

function of 𝑥0 and we write 𝑢 = 𝐹(𝑥0 )𝑒 𝑡 , since 𝑡 = 𝑟 and the function 𝐹 is determined

by the initial conditions. At 𝑡 = 0 , we have 𝑥 = 𝑥0 and 𝑢 𝑥0 , 0 = 𝑥0 so that 𝐹 𝑥0 = 𝑥0 .

Replacing 𝑥0 by the above expression involving 𝑥 and 𝑡, we obtain the final solution

2 2

𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑥0 𝑒 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑒 𝑡−𝑡

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

Example: Consider the initial-boundary-value problem 𝑢2 𝝏𝒙 + = 0, 𝒙 > 0, 𝒕 > 0 with

𝝏𝒕

𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 𝑥, 𝑥 > 0, 𝑢 0, 𝑡 = 0, 𝑡 > 0.

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑢

= 𝑢2 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟 and 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 =constant on characteristic = 𝐹 𝑥0 .

𝑑𝑟

the derivative of 𝑥 along the characteristic curve.

Therefore, we have 𝑥0 = 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡.

Thus, substituting for 𝑥0 into 𝐹(𝑥0 ) we obtain the implicit solution 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝐹(𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡),

where 𝐹 is determined by the initial condition, namely, 𝑡 = 0, 𝑥 = 𝑥0 , and 𝑢 = 𝑥0 .

Squaring both sides, we can manipulate this solution into an explicit solution for 𝑢 in

terms of 𝑥 and 𝑡.

𝑥 𝑥

𝑢2 = 𝑥 − 𝑢2 𝑡, 𝑢2 1 + 𝑡 = 𝑥, 𝑢2 = 1+𝑡 and so the final solution is 𝑢 = , 𝑥 > 0, 𝑡 >

1+𝑡

0.

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢

= 𝑐 2 𝜕𝑥 2 (one dimensional wave equation),

𝜕𝑡 2

𝜕𝑢 𝜕2𝑢

= 𝑘 2 𝜕𝑦 2 one dimensional heat or diffusion equation ,

𝜕𝑡

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 2 = 0 two dimensional Laplace equation .

𝜕𝑥 2

An example of an inhomogeneous equation is the two dimensional Poisson equation,

namely

𝜕2𝑢 𝜕2𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 2 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 .

𝜕𝑥 2

If 𝑢1 (𝑥, 𝑦) and 𝑢2 (𝑥, 𝑦) are both solutions to a partial differential equation, then

second order ordinary differential equations where there are two linearly independent

solutions and two arbitrary constants, linear partial differential equations may well

have an infinite number of linearly independent solutions and we may have to add

together solutions involving an infinite number of constants.

into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.

The theory is devoted to the discovery and exploration of mathematical laws that

govern the behavior of data as it is transferred, stored, or retrieved.

INITIAL-VALUE PROBLEMS: Here the problem is defined over an infinite range in 𝒙. The

general statement of the problem is

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

𝒄 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0. (1)

𝝏𝒕

𝒖 𝒙, 𝟎 = 𝒇 𝒙 . (2)

The initial value problem (IVP) defined in Equations (1) and (2), is also referred to as a

Cauchy problem and the solution is determined uniquely by the single condition at

𝑡 = 0. Also, we have

𝝏𝒖

𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 = 𝑓(𝑥0 ). If 𝑓 is continuously differentiable, then 𝝏𝒙 = 𝑓 ′′ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡) and

𝝏𝒖

= −𝑐𝑓 ′ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡) are continuous. Thus, 𝑢 = 𝐹 𝑥0 = 𝐹 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 is a classical solution of

𝝏𝒕

e.g.

1 − (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 , 𝑖𝑓 0 ≤ (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 ≤ 1

𝑢= , then 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡 is called a weak

0, 𝑖𝑓 (𝑥 − 𝑐𝑡)2 > 1

solution.

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖 1

Example: 2 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition 𝑢 𝑥, 0 = 1+𝑥 2 .

𝝏𝒕

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

= 2 ⇒ 𝑥 = 2𝑟 + 𝑥0 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟. Hence, 𝑥 = 2𝑡 + 𝑥0 ⇒ 𝑥0 = 𝑥 − 2𝑡.

𝑑𝑟

𝑑𝑢

The partial differential equation becomes 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝑢(𝑥0 ).

1 1

At 𝑡 = 0, 𝑥 = 𝑥0 and 𝑢 = 1+𝑥 2 . Therefore, 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 1+(𝑥−2𝑡)2 .

0

𝝏𝒖 𝝏𝒖

Example: − 𝝏𝒙 + = 𝟎, −∞ < 𝑥 < ∞, 𝑡 > 0 with the initial condition

𝝏𝒕

1 − 𝑥 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 ≤ 1

𝑢 𝑥, 0 = .

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 1

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

= −1 ⇒ 𝑥 = −𝑟 + 𝑥0 and 𝑑𝑟 = 1 ⇒ 𝑡 = 𝑟.

𝑑𝑟

𝑑𝑢

The partial differential equation reduces to the ODE 𝑑𝑟 = 0 ⇒ 𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥0 .

1 − 𝑥0 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥0 ≤ 1 1 − 𝑥 + 𝑡 , 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑡 ≤ 1

𝑢(𝑥0 , 0) = and so 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = .

0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥0 > 1 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 + 𝑡 > 1

𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑓(𝑦) implies 𝑥 = 𝑦, or equivalently, whenever 𝑥 ≠ 𝑦, then 𝑓(𝑥) ≠ 𝑓(𝑦).

INNER PRODUCT: An inner product (or scalar product) is an assignment of a scalar

(𝑓, 𝑔) to every two vectors 𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 of a linear space 𝑆, in such a way that

𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑔, 𝑓 ,

(𝑓1 + 𝑓2 , g) = (𝑓1 , 𝑔) + 𝑓2 , 𝑔 ,

𝑎𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑎 𝑓, 𝑔 ,

𝑓, 𝑓 > 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑓 ≠ 0

INNER PRODUCT SPACE: The linear space 𝑆 in which an inner product has been defined

is called an inner product space.

subring of 𝑇. The integral closure 𝑅 of 𝑅 in 𝑇 is the subring of 𝑅 consisting of all

elements of 𝑇 that are integral over 𝑅.

product of any two non-zero elements of 𝑅 is itself non-zero. A field is an integral

domain.

INTEGRAL ELEMENT OVER R: Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, and let 𝑅 be a unital

subring of 𝑇. An element 𝛼 of 𝑇 is said to be integral over 𝑅 if 𝛼 is the root of some

monic polynomial with coefficients in 𝑅.

INTEGRAL HÖLDER INEQUALITY: Let 1 < 𝑝 < ∞, let 𝑞 ∇ (1, ∞) be such that

1/𝑝 + 1/𝑞 = 1. For 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿𝑝 (µ) and 𝑔 ∇ 𝐿𝑞 (µ), we have that 𝑓𝑔 is integrable, and

∫𝑋 𝑓𝑔 𝑑𝜇 ≤ 𝑓 𝑝 𝑔 𝑞

1. ||𝑎𝑓||𝑝 = | 𝑎 | ||𝑓||𝑝 ;

For 1 ≤ 𝑝 < ∞, the collection of equivalence classes 𝐿𝑝 (µ) / ∼ is a vector space, and

|| · ||𝑝 is a well-defined norm on 𝐿𝑝 (µ) / ∼.

INTEGRALLY CLOSED SUBRING: Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, and let 𝑅 be a unital

subring of 𝑇. The subring 𝑅 of 𝑇 is said to be integrally closed in 𝑇 if every element of 𝑇

that is integal over 𝑅 is an element of 𝑅. Let 𝑇 be a unital commutative ring, let 𝑅 be a

unital subring of 𝑇, and let 𝑅 be the integral closure of 𝑅 in 𝑇. R is an integrally-closed

subring of 𝑇. Moreover 𝑅 is integrally closed in 𝑇 if and only if 𝑅 = 𝑅 . An integral

domain is said to be integrally closed if it is integrally closed in its field of fractions.

𝐴

∞

𝑘=1 𝑡𝑘 𝜇 𝐴𝑘 ∩ 𝐴 . The value of integral of a summable function is independent from

its representation by the sum of indicators over pair-wise disjoint sets.

𝐴 𝐴 𝐴

𝐴

𝐴

on 𝑆(𝑋) probably except separation.

2𝑥+3 2𝑥+3

∫ 𝑑𝑥, the function is the integrand.

𝑥+21 𝑥+21

INTERCEPT: The 𝑥- intercept is the value of 𝑥 where the curve crosses the 𝑥-axis and 𝑦-

intercept of a curve is the value of 𝑦 where it crosses the 𝑦-axis. For the line

𝑐

𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐, the 𝑥- intercept is − 𝑚 and the 𝑦-intercept is 𝑐.

point of 𝑆 if there exists a nbd (𝑝−∇, 𝑝+∇) of 𝑝 which is entirely contained in 𝑆.

following: Consider an interval 𝐼 = [𝑎, 𝑏] in the real numbers ℝ and a continuous

function 𝑓 : 𝐼 → ℝ. Then,

INTERPOLATION: Interpolation provides a means of estimating the value of a function

for a particular number if we know the value of the function for two other numbers

above and below that number. The general formula of interpolation is

𝑐−𝑎

𝑓 𝑐 =𝑓 𝑎 + 𝑓 𝑏 − 𝑓(𝑎)

𝑏−𝑎

For example, if 𝑓(26) = 655 and 𝑓(29) = 733, then

28 − 26

𝑓 28 = 𝑓 26 + 𝑓 29 − 𝑓(26)

29 − 26

2 2

= 655 + (733 − 655) = 655 + 78 = 655 + 52 = 707

3 3

INTERSECTION OF FUZZY SETS: The intersection of fuzzy sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is a fuzzy set

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 in 𝑈 with membership function

𝜇𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 (𝑥) = 𝑚𝑖𝑛[𝜇𝐴 (𝑥), 𝜇𝐵 (𝑥)]

INTERSECTION OF SETS: The intersection of two sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 is the set of all elements

contained in both sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 and is denoted as 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵. For example, the intersection of

the sets 𝐴 = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and 𝐵 = {3,6,9,12,15,18,21} is the set 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = {3,6,9}.

INTERSECTION OF SUBSPACES: If 𝑆 and 𝑇 be two subspaces of 𝑉𝑛 , then the vectors

common to both 𝑆 and 𝑇 also constitute a subspace. This subspace is called the

intersection of the subspaces 𝑆 and 𝑇.

INTERVAL: The interval [𝑎, 𝑏] is the set of points between 𝑎 and 𝑏 including both

endpoints 𝑎 and 𝑏 themselves and is called a closed interval. The interval (𝑎, 𝑏) is the set

of points between 𝑎 and 𝑏 excluding both endpoints 𝑎 and 𝑏 themselves and is called an

open interval.

ij ….k

INTRISIC DERIVATIVE (TENSORS): Consider a tensor 𝐴 ab ….p

defined along a curve

ij ….k

δA ab ….p dx P

= A abij….k

….,p

. It means that the intrinsic derivative of a tensor is a tensor of the

δt dt

δ∅ 𝜕∅ dx i dx i 𝜕∅ d∅

Similarly intrinsic derivative of ∅ is = = ∅, i . Also = . Thus intrinsic

δt 𝜕𝑥 𝑖 dt dt 𝜕𝑡 dt

example, the distance between two points in Euclidian space is invariant if we rotate or

translate the coordinate system used to express those points.

INVENTORY: The inventory can be defined as a stock of goods which is kept for the

future purpose.

TYPES OF INVENTORY:

(i) RAW MATERIALS: The material used in manufacture of the products such as

fuels etc. is called raw material

(ii) PARTLY FINISHED ITEMS: The material which held between manufacturing stage

is called partly finished items.

(iii) FINISHED GOODS: The products which are ready for sale or distribution called

finished goods.

(iv) SPARE PARTS: The spare parts used in the production process but do not become

part of the product.

INVENTORY CONTROL: Inventory control is the process of deciding what and how much

of various terms are to be kept in stock. It also use to determines the time and quantity

of various items to be procured. It is useful to reduce investment in inventories and

ensuring that production process does not suffer at the same time.

etc), and 𝑒 represents the identity element of that operation, then the inverse of a

number 𝑎 is denoted as 𝑎−1 and is the number that satisfies 𝑎 ⟪ 𝑎−1 = 𝑒. For example,

the additive inverse of a number 𝑥 is −𝑥 (also called the negative of x) because

𝑥 + −𝑥 = 0. The multiplicative inverse of 𝑥 is 1/𝑥 (also called the reciprocal of 𝑥)

1

because 𝑥 × 𝑥 = 1(assuming 𝑥 ≠ 0).

inverse finite Fourier cosine transform of 𝐹𝑐 𝑓 𝑡 𝑜𝑟𝐹𝑐 𝑠 and is defined as

∞

1 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜋 𝑠 𝑡

𝐹𝐶−1 𝐹𝐶 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹𝑐 0 + 𝐹𝑐 𝑠

ℓ ℓ ℓ

𝑠=1

∞

𝑎0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡

𝑓 𝑡 = + 𝑎𝑛 .

2 ℓ

𝑛=1

INVERSE FINITE FOURIER SINE TRANSFORM: Let f(t) be a function defined on 0, ℓ and

satisfying Dirichlet’s conditions on 0, ℓ . The finite Fourier sine transform of

𝑓 𝑡 , 𝑜 < 𝑡 < 𝑙 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠

𝓵

𝜋𝑆𝑡

𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑡; 𝑠 𝜖 𝑁

𝟎 ℓ

and is defined as

∞

2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡

𝐹𝑆−1 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 =𝑓 𝑡 = 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡

ℓ ℓ

𝑠=1

∞ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑛 𝑡

𝑇𝑖𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑜𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑛=1 𝑏𝑠 .

ℓ

∞ 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑠𝑡

Hence 𝑓 𝑡 = 𝑠=1 ℓ 𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡 ℓ

∞

2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜋 𝑠𝑡

𝐹𝑠 𝑓 𝑡

ℓ ℓ

𝑠=1

INVERSE FUNCTION: An inverse function of a function is a function that does exactly the

opposite of the original function. If the function 𝑔 is the inverse of the function 𝑓 , and if

𝑦 = 𝑓 (𝑥), then 𝑥 = 𝑔(𝑦). It is to be noted that

1. The inverse function of a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 exists if and only if 𝑓 is a bijection, that

is, 𝑓 is an injection and a surjection.

2. When an inverse function exists, it is unique.

3. The inverse function and the inverse image of a set coincide in the following sense.

Suppose 𝑓 −1 (𝐴) is the inverse image of a set 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑌 under a function 𝑓 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌. If 𝑓 is

a bijection, then 𝑓 −1 (𝑦) = 𝑓 −1 ({𝑦}).

INVERSE FUNCTION THEOREM: For a holomorphic function 𝑓 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 defined near 𝑝,

if 𝑓 ′ (𝑝) ≠ 0 then 𝑓 is a local biholomorphism near 𝑝. The theorem hands us a unique

holomorphic function 𝑔 ∶ 𝐶 → 𝐶 defined near 𝑓(𝑝) such that 𝑓(𝑔(𝑤)) = 𝑤 and

𝑔(𝑓(𝑧)) = 𝑧 (for all 𝑧, 𝑤 close enough to 𝑝, 𝑓(𝑝) respectively).

INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL: If the variables 𝑦 and 𝑥 are related by the equation

𝑦 = 𝑘/𝑥, where 𝑘 is a constant, then 𝑦 is said to be inversely proportional to 𝑥.

INVERSE MATRIX: The inverse of a square matrix 𝑨 is the square matrix of same order

that, when multiplied by 𝑨, gives the identity matrix 𝑰. Inverse of the matrix 𝑨 is written

as 𝑨−𝟏 . Note that 𝑨𝑨−𝟏 = 𝑰 = 𝑨−𝟏 𝑨. 𝑨−𝟏 exists if 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑨 ≠ 0.

The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix can be found from the formula:

𝑎 𝑏 1 𝑑 −𝑏

=

𝑐 𝑑 𝑎𝑑 − 𝑏𝑐 −𝑐 𝑎

INVERSE OF A FUNCTION: Let 𝐴 and 𝐵 be sets, and let 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 be a function from 𝐴 to

𝐵. A function 𝑔: 𝐵 → 𝐴 from 𝐵 to 𝐴 is said to be the inverse of the function 𝑓 if

𝑔(𝑓(𝑎)) = 𝑎 for all elements 𝑎 of 𝐴 and 𝑓(𝑔(𝑏)) = 𝑏 for all elements 𝑏 of 𝐵. If there

exists a function 𝑔: 𝐵 → 𝐴 that is the inverse of 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵, then the function 𝑓 is said to

be invertible and the inverse of a function 𝑓: 𝐴 → 𝐵 is denoted by 𝑓 −1 ∶ 𝐵 → 𝐴.

INVERSE POINTS W.R.T. A CIRCLE: Two points 𝐴(𝑧 = 𝑎) and 𝐵(𝑧 = 𝑏)are said to be

inverse points of a circle with centre 𝑂(𝑧 = 𝑧0 ) and radius 𝑟 if 𝑂. 𝐴, 𝐵 are collinear and

𝑂𝐴. 𝑂𝐵 = 𝑟 2

So that a − z0 ∙ b − z0 = r 2

INVERSE RULE: Suppose 𝑓 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → 𝑅 is differentiable on [𝑎, 𝑏] and 𝑓 ′ (𝑥) > 0 for all

𝑥 ∇ [𝑎, 𝑏]. Let 𝑓(𝑎) = 𝑐 and 𝑓(𝑏) = 𝑑. Then the map 𝑓 ∶ [𝑎, 𝑏] → [𝑐, 𝑑] is bijective

1

and 𝑓 −1 is differentiable on [𝑐, 𝑑] with 𝑓 −1 ′ (𝑥) = .

𝑓 ′ (𝑓 −1 (𝑥))

𝑧 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 are mapped upon the reciprocal figures in 𝑤 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒.

exists, such that A= 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐼𝑛 is called inverse of A.

IRRATIONAL NUMBER: An irrational number is a real number that is not a rational

number (i.e., it cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers). Irrational numbers can

be represented by decimal fractions in which the digits go on forever without ever

repeating a pattern. Some of the most common irrational numbers are square roots of

positive integers, such as 3 = 1.732505 . . .. 𝜋 and 𝑒 are also irrational.

IRREDUCIBLE POLYNOMIALS: Let 𝑘 be a field. A polynomial 𝑓 𝑋 𝜖𝑘[𝑋] of degree 𝑛 is

said to be reducible over 𝑘 𝑖𝑓 𝑓 is divisible by a polynomial of degree 𝑣 < 𝑛 in

𝑘 𝑋 𝑣 ≠ 0 ; otherwise, it is said to be irreducible over 𝑘. Any polynomial of degree 1 is

irreducible. A polynomial 𝑓 is a prime element of 𝑘 𝑋 if and only if 𝑓 is irreducible over

𝑘. Let 𝐼 be a unique factorization domain. If 𝑓(𝑋) is a polynomial (1) in 𝐼 𝑋 such that for

a prime element 𝑝 in 𝐼, 𝑎𝑛 ≢ 0 (mod 𝑝), 𝑎𝑛−1 ≡ 𝑎𝑛−2 ≡ ⋯ ≡ 𝑎0 ≡ 0 mod 𝑝 but 𝑎0 ≢

0 mod 𝑝2 , then 𝑓(𝑋) is irreducible over the field of quotients of 𝐼 Eisenstein’s

theorem). If a polynomial (2) in 𝑚 variables over an algebraic number field 𝑘 is

irreducible, we can obtain an irreducible polynomial in 𝑋1 , … , 𝑋𝜇 (0 < 𝜇 < 𝑚) from the

polynomial 𝐹(𝑋1 , … , 𝑋𝑚 ) by assigning appropriate values in 𝑘 to 𝑋𝜇 +1 , … , 𝑋𝑚 .

Two lines through a vertex of a triangle are isogonal conjugate if they are

symmetric in the bisector of the triangle's angle at this vertex.

conjugate if they are symmetric in the bisector of the triangle's angle at this vertex. If

three cevians in a triangle are concurrent in a point, their isogonal conjugates are also

concurrent in a point that is known as its isogonal conjugate.

ISOLATED POINT: Let 𝑋 be a topological space, let 𝑆 ⊆ 𝑋, and let 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆. The point 𝑥 is

said to be an isolated point of 𝑆 if there exists an open set 𝑈 ⊆ 𝑋 such that 𝑈 ∩ 𝑆 =

{𝑥}.

The set 𝑆 is isolated if every point in 𝑆 is an isolated point.

singularity at 𝑤 ∇ 𝐶 if 𝑓 is analytic in a punctured disc {𝑧 ∶ 0 < |𝑧 − 𝑤| < 𝑠}. If

𝑤 = ∞ we replace this by {𝑧 ∶ 𝑠 < |𝑧| < +∞}. The singularity is then removable/ a

pole/essential according to whether 𝑓 has a finite/infinite/nonexistent limit as 𝑧 → 𝑤.

We also say that a function 𝑓 is analytic apart from isolated singularities in a domain

𝐷 ⊆ 𝐶 if for every 𝑎 ∇ 𝐷 either 𝑓 is analytic at 𝑎 or 𝑎 is an isolated singularity.

ISOMETRY: A one-one mapping Φ from the metric space (𝑋, 𝜌) onto the metric space

(𝑋, 𝜌′) is called an isometry if, for any 𝑓, 𝑔 𝜖 𝑋.

𝜌 𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝜌′ Φ 𝑓 , Φ 𝑔 .

As an example of isometry, take both the metric spaces to be the real number system

with the usual metric (i.e. R with 𝜌 𝑓, 𝑔 = 𝑓 − 𝑔 , 𝑓, 𝑔 𝜖 𝑅), under the mapping

𝑓 → 𝑓 + 𝑎, where 𝑎 is a fixed real number.

Another mapping which is also an isometry in this context is the one that takes any real

number 𝑓 𝑡𝑜 − 𝑓. A one-one linear transformation 𝑇 of 𝑁 into 𝑁 ∗∗ is called an isometry if

𝑇𝑓 = 𝑓 , for all 𝑓 ∇ 𝑁, when 𝑁 ∗ is conjugate space of N.

isometric isomorphism exists we say that 𝑁 is isometrically isomorphic to 𝑁 ∗∗ .

ISOMORPHIC SPACE: Two normed linear spaces are said to be isomorphic if there exists

a one-one correspondence between them which preserves linearity and the norm.

extension field 𝐸 of 𝐹 and an isomorphism 𝜑 mapping 𝐹 onto a field 𝐹 ′ then 𝜑 can be

extended to an isomorphism 𝜏 mapping 𝐸 onto an algebraic

extension 𝐸 ′ of 𝐹 ′ (a subfield of the algebraic closure of 𝐹 ′ ).

a bijective function 𝜙: 𝑉 → 𝑉0 with the following property:

For any two distinct vertices 𝑎 and 𝑏 belonging to 𝑉 , {𝑎, 𝑏} ∇ 𝐸 if and only if

{𝜙(𝑎), 𝜙(𝑏)} ∇ 𝐸0 . If there exists such an isomorphism 𝜙: 𝑉 → 𝑉0 between two graphs

(𝑉, 𝐸) and (𝑉0 , 𝐸0 ) then these graphs are said to be isomorphic.

ISOPERIMETRIC PROBLEMS: It is necessary to make a given integral

𝑥

𝐼 = ∫𝑥 2 𝐼 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑦′ 𝑑𝑥 = constant. Such problem involves one or more constraint

1

J

JACKSON THEOREM: Let 𝑈𝑛 be a Chebyshev subspace of 𝐶[𝑎, 𝑏]. Then each 𝑓 ∇

𝐶[𝑎, 𝑏] possesses a unique polynomial of best approximation in𝐿1 -norm.

JACOBIAN: If 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦), 𝑔(𝑥, 𝑦) are two functions of two variables, then the Jacobian

matrix is the matrix of partial derivatives:

𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

The equivalent definition also applies to cases with more than two dimensions. For

three functions 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑔 𝑥, 𝑦 , (𝑥, 𝑦), the Jacobian matrix becomes

𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓 𝜕𝑓

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔 𝜕𝑔

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

And so on. The determinant of this matrix is known as the Jacobian determinant.

JACOBIAN OF TRANSORMATION (COMPLEX ANALYSIS): In general, the transformation

𝑢 = 𝑢 𝑥, 𝑦 , 𝑣 = 𝑣(𝑥, 𝑦)

Maps a closed region 𝑅 of z-plane upon a closed region 𝑅′ of 𝜔 − 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒. Let 𝛿𝐴𝑧 and

𝛿𝐴𝜔 denote respectively areas of these regions. Then it is easy to show that

𝛿𝐴𝜔

lim =𝐽

𝛿𝐴 𝑧 →0 𝛿𝐴𝑧

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑢

𝜕(𝑢, 𝑣) 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

𝒥= =

𝜕(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

JACOBI’S ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS: The elliptic function with two simple poles and two

simple zeros in a cell are called Jacobi’s elliptic functions.

Bourbaki theorem states that there is a natural 1: 1 correspondence between:

vector space over 𝐾).

Unital 𝐾-algebras of finite dimension 𝑛 (as 𝐾-vector spaces) contained in the

ring of endomorphisms of the additive group of 𝐾.

The sub division ring and the corresponding subalgebra are each other's commutants.

JENSEN'S COVERING THEOREM: Jensen's covering theorem states that if 0 does not

exist then every uncountable set of ordinals is contained in a constructible set of the

same cardinality. Informally this conclusion says that the constructible universe is close

to the universe of all sets.

does not vanish at the origin. Also let 𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , 𝑟3, … … 𝑟𝑛 be the moduli of zeros 𝑧1 , 𝑧2 , … . 𝑧𝑛

of 𝑓 𝑧 , arranged as non-decreasing sequence, multiple zero being repeated. Then

JENSEN’S FORMULA COMPLEX ANALYSIS): If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic within and on the circle 𝛾

such that 𝑧 = 𝑅, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑓 (𝑧) has zeros at the points 𝑎𝑗 ≠ 0, (𝑗 = 1,2, … . , 𝑚) and poles at

𝑏𝑗 ≠ 0, (𝑗 = 1,2, … … , 𝑛) inside 𝛾, multiple zeros and poles being repeated, then

2𝜋 𝑚 𝑛

1 𝑅 𝑅

log 𝑓 𝑅𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃 = log 𝑓(0) + log − log

2𝜋 0 𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑠

𝑟=1 𝑠=1

JENSEN’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Let 𝑓(𝑧) be analytic for 𝑓(𝑧) ≤ 𝑅. Let

𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , … 𝑟𝑛 , be moduli of the zeros of 𝑓(𝑧) in 𝑧 < 𝑅 arranged as a non-decreasing

sequence. Then, 𝑖𝑓 𝑟𝑛 ≤ 𝑟 < 𝑟𝑛+1 , prove that

2𝜋

𝑟 𝑛 𝑓(0) 1

log = log 𝑓 𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝜃 𝑑𝜃

𝑟1 , 𝑟2 , … 𝑟𝑛 2𝜋 0

JOCHIMSTHAL’S THEOREM DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY): If the curve of intersection of

two surface is a line of curvature on both the surfaces, then the surface cut a constant

angle. Conversely, if two surfaces cut a constant angle and the curve of intersection is a

line of curvature on one of them, then it is also a line curvature on the other.

JOCKEYING: If there are number of queues, then one may leave one queue to join

another.

JOHNSON’S METHDO For n-jobs 2- machines): Let suppose 𝑛 𝑗𝑜𝑏𝑠 1,2, … 𝑛 are to be

processed on two machines say 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 , 𝑖 = 1,2, … 𝑛 are the respective

processing times of 𝑖 𝑡 job on 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵 machines respectively.

Assumptions

(ii) 𝐴𝑖 = Processing time of 𝑖 𝑡 job on machine 𝐴 𝑖 = 1,2 … 𝑛

(iii) 𝐵𝑖 = Processing time of 𝑖 𝑡 job on machine 𝐵 𝑖 = 1,2 … 𝑛

We want to find the sequence of jobs to be performed on two machines so that the total

time 𝑇 elapsed from the start of the first job to the completion of the last job to be

minimized.

Step1. Select the smallest processing time in the list 𝐴1 , 𝐴2 , … 𝐴𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , … 𝐵𝑛 . If there

is a tie then either of these smallest processing time may be selected or in this case

consider the following cases:

(i) Minimum of all the processing times is 𝐴𝑟 which is also equal to 𝐵𝑠 . Then min

𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐴𝑟 = 𝐵𝑠 . . Then do the 𝑟 𝑡 job first and 𝑠 𝑡 job in the end.

(ii) If min 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐴𝑟 but also 𝐴𝑟 = 𝐴𝑘 𝑠𝑎𝑦 then do anyone of these jobs for

which there is a tie, first.

(iii) If there is a tie for minimum among 𝐵𝑖′ 𝑠𝑖. 𝑒. , 𝑀𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖 , 𝐵𝑖 = 𝐵𝑠 = 𝐵𝑟 𝑠𝑎𝑦 then

do anyone of these jobs in the last.

job first. On the other hand if it is 𝐵𝑠 𝑖. 𝑒. , 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , … , 𝐵𝑛 . Then do the 𝑠 𝑡 job

last.

Step 3. Delete the already assigned job from both the list. If 𝑦 𝑡 job is assigned

previously, then delete 𝐴𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵𝑟 both and if 𝑠 𝑡 job is assigned previously hen delete

𝐴𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵𝑠 both.

Step5. Continuing the same process until all the jobs have been ordered and get optimal

sequence of jobs.

JOINT VARIATION: If 𝑧 = 𝑘𝑥𝑦, where k is a constant, then 𝑧 is said to vary jointly with x

and y.

JORDAN ARC: Suppose 𝑥 t and 𝑦 t are continuous real valued functions in the range

𝛼 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 𝛽, then the set of points 𝑧 in the Argand plane determined by the equation

𝑧 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is called a continuous arc. A point z1 is called multiple point of the arc if

the equation 𝑧 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is called a continuous arc. A point z1 is called multiple

point of the arc if the equation 𝑧1 = 𝑥 t + i𝑦 t is satisfied by more than one value of t

in the given range. A multiple point z1 of the arc is called a double point if the equation

(1) is satisfied by two values of t in the given range. A continuous arc without multiple

points is called a Jordan arc.

If the end points t = α and t = β of the continuous arc are coincident and if the arc has

only one multiple point (which is the double point corresponding to the two terminal

values of t), then the arc is called simple closed Jordan closed curve.

connected manifold in 𝑅 𝑛 . The complement of 𝑀 in 𝑅 𝑛 consists of precisely two

components, of which one, called the outside is unbounded, and the other, called the

inside is bounded. Each of the two components is a domain with smooth boundary 𝑀.

JORDAN CURVE THEOREM: It states that a simple closed Jordan curve divides the

Argand plane into two open domains which have the curve as the common boundary.

One of these domain is bounded and is called interior domain while the other is

unbounded and is called exterior domain.

JORDAN DECOMPOSITION THEOREM: Let ν be an additive set function on an algebra 𝐴

of subsets of 𝑋, and suppose that 𝜈 has finite total variation. Then, for all 𝐴 ∇ 𝐴, 𝜈(𝐴) =

𝑉 (𝜈, 𝐴) + 𝑉 (𝜈, 𝐴) .

JORDAN–HÖLDER THEOREM: Any two composition series of a given group are

equivalent. That is, they have the same composition length and the same composition

factors, up to permutation and isomorphism.

2 𝜋

𝑥 ≤ 𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝑥 ≤ 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∇ 0,

𝜋 2

JORDAN’S LEMMA: If 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic except at finite number of singularities and if

𝑓 𝑧 ⟶ 0 unformaly as 𝑧 ⟶ ∞, then

𝑅→∞

Here 𝑅 is taken so large that all the singularities of 𝑓(𝑧) lie within the semi circle Γ. (No

singularity lies on the boundary of the semi circle).

JORDAN NORMAL FORM: Let 𝑉 be a finite dimensional vector space over a complete

field 𝐹 and α an endomorphism of 𝑉 . Then there is basis for 𝑉 such that 𝛼 has matrix 𝐴

(relative to this basis) which consists of zeros except for Jordan matrices 𝐽(𝜆𝑖 , 𝑛𝑖 ) [1 ≤

𝑖 ≤ 𝑠] down the diagonal.

then we can find an invertible 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrix 𝑃 such that 𝐽𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴𝑃 −1 consists of zeros

except for Jordan matrices 𝐽(𝜆𝑖 , 𝑛𝑖 ) [1 ≤ 𝑖 ≤ 𝑠] down the diagonal. The matrix 𝐽𝐴 so

associated with 𝐴 is unique up to reordering the diagonal blocks.

c2

JOUKOWSKI TRANSFORMATION: The transformation ζ = z + is called the Joukowski

z

JULIA SET: The set of points for a function of the form 𝑧 2 + 𝑐 (where 𝑐 is a complex

parameter), such that a small perturbation can cause drastic changes in the sequence of

iterated function values and iterations will either approach zero, approach infinity or

get trapped in loop.

K

KELVIN’S CIRCULATION THEOREM: Kelvin’s theorem states that the circulation round

any closed material curve is invariant in an inviscid fluid provided that the body force

are conservative and the pressure is single-valued function of density only.

simply connected region has less kinetic energy than any other motion consistent with

the same normal velocity of the boundary.

𝑛 −1

0, set 𝜑𝑖𝑗 = 1; otherwise, 𝜑𝑖𝑗 = −1. This statistic 𝑟𝑘 = 2

𝜑𝑖𝑗 is called Kendall’s

correlation, where runs over all possible pairs chosen from 𝑅1 , 𝑆1 , … , 𝑅𝑛 , 𝑆𝑛 .

𝑉 𝑟𝑘 = 2 2𝑛 + 5 9𝑛 𝑛 − 1 .

KEPLER, JOHANNES: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German astronomer who used

observational data to express the motion of the planets according to three mathematical

laws:

Planets move along orbits shaped like ellipses, with the sun at one focus;

A radius vector connecting the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal

times (this means that a planet travels fastest when closest to the sun);

The square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance

from the planet to the sun.

KERNEL OF LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: The kernel of linear functional 𝛼, write 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼, is the

set all vectors 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋 such that 𝛼(𝑥) = 0.

Note that

2. 𝛼 𝑥 ≤ 𝛼 · 𝑥 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, 𝛼 ∇ 𝑋 ∗.

4. 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼 is a subspace of 𝑋.

6. If 𝛼 is continuous then 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝛼 is closed.

1

KINETIC ENERGY: We define the kinetic energy 𝑇 as 𝑇 = 𝑚 𝑟 . 𝑟 , where 𝑟 is the

2

r1 , θ1 , r2 , θ2 , … … are the polar coordinates of number of rectilinear vortices of

strengths k1 , k 2 , …. then 𝑛 k i , k i = A1 , k i yi = A2 , k i ri2 = A3 , k i ri2 θi = A4 , where

A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 are constants.

KNOT THEORY: An area of topology that studies mathematical knots (a knot is a closed

curve in space formed by interlacing a piece of “string” and joining the ends .

best approximation to 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶(𝐾) if and only if max 𝑥 ∇ 𝑍 [𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑝∗ (𝑥)] 𝑞(𝑥) ≥

0 ∀𝑞 ∇ 𝑈 , where 𝑍 is the set of all points for which |𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑝∗ (𝑥)| = 𝑘𝑓 − 𝑝∗ 𝑘.

matching equals the number of vertices in a minimum vertex cover.

with coefficients in 𝐾. Then there exists an extension field 𝐿 of 𝐾 and an element 𝛼 of 𝐿

for which 𝑓(𝛼) = 0.

ideal in a Noetherian ring. Formally, if 𝑅 is a Noetherian ring and 𝐼 is a principal, proper

ideal of 𝑅, then 𝐼 has height at most one.

This theorem can be generalized to ideals that are not principal, and the result is often

called Krull's height theorem. This says that if 𝑅 is a Noetherian ring and 𝐼 is a proper

ideal generated by 𝑛 elements of 𝑅, then 𝐼 has height at most 𝑛.

an 𝑚- dimensional vector function defined on X 0 . Let

𝑋 = x: x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0

𝑔 is said to satisfy the Kuhn- Tucker constraint qualification at x ∇ X if 𝑔 is differentiable

at x and if there exist an n – dimensional vector function e defined on the interval [0,1]

such that

e 0 = x, e τ ∇ X for 0 ≤ τ ≤ I

𝑑𝑒 (0)

and e is differentiable at 𝜏 = 0 and = 𝜆𝛾 for some 𝜆 > 0 where 𝛾 ∇ 𝑅 𝑛 ,

𝑑𝜏

∆g 𝑙 (x)𝛾 ≤ 0 and I = i g i x = 0

KUHN- TUCKER STATIONARY- POINT PROBLEM (KTP): The Kuhn- Tucker stationary-

point problem means to find x ∇ X 0 , u ∇ Rm if they exist, such that ∆x Ψ x, u = 0,

∆u Ψ x, u ≤ 0, u∆u Ψ x, u = 0, u ≥ 0 and Ψ x, u = θ x) + ug(x or equivalently,

∆θ x) + u ∆g(x = 0, g(x) ≤ 0, u g x = 0 and u ≥ 0

KURT GÖDEL: Kurt Gödel was born in the Czech Republic and grew up in Austria (which

was the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Gödel's early childhood). His primary language

was German. Although he is most famous for his contribution to mathematical logic, he

also did much work in set theory . He was a friend of Albert Einstein during the time

they were both at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University

of speed 𝑈 with circulation 𝑘 around the aerofoil, if experience a lift of magnitude 𝑝𝑘𝑈

per span perpendicular to the wind. The direction of the lift is obtained by rotating the

wind velocity through a right angle in the sense opposite to that of the circulation.

L

LAGRANGE, JOSEPH-LOUIS: Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) was an Italian-French

mathematician who developed ideas in celestial mechanics, calculus of variations, and

number theory.

as Bachet's conjecture, states that any natural number can be represented as the sum of

four integer squares.

where the four numbers are integers. For illustration, 3, 31 and 310 can

be represented as the sum of four squares as follows:

by n generalized coordinates 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 at time t. The Lagrangian function L=T-V

where T and V are kinetic and potential energies respectively of the system is a function

of 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … . . 𝑞𝑛 at time t.

𝑡

By Hamiltonian’s principal ∫𝑡 1 𝐿 𝑑𝑡 is stationary.

0

i.e.,

𝜕𝐿 𝑑 𝜕𝐿

− = 0, 𝑖 = 1,2 … , 𝑛.

𝜕𝑞𝑖 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑞𝑖

These are called Lagrange’s equation which determine the motion of the system.

Proper field: A family of curves 𝑦 = 𝑦 𝑥, 𝑐 is said to form a proper field for a domain D

of the 𝑥𝑦- plane if through any point of D, there passes one and only one curve of the

family.

Consider the circle 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = 1 . Inside the circle 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ≤ 1, the family of curve

𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐 is a proper field, because there passes one and only one curve of the family

through any point of the given circle.

LAGRANGE’S MEAN VALUE THEOREM: If a real valued function 𝑓(𝑥) is such that

𝑓(𝑥) is continuous in the closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]

𝑓(𝑥) is differentiable in the open interval (𝑎, 𝑏)

𝑓 𝑏 −𝑓(𝑎)

then there exist at least one value of 𝑥 = 𝑐 ∇ (𝑎, 𝑏) such that 𝑓 ′ (𝑐) = .

𝑏−𝑎

or minimum values in the presence of constraints. For example, suppose we need to

choose x and y to maximize the function

𝑧 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦

subject to this constraint:

𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 = 0

Create the Lagrangian function 𝐿 as follows:

𝐿 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 + 𝜇(𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 )

Notice that the first part of the Lagrangian is the function we are trying to maximize.

The second part consists of a new variable 𝜇 (called the Lagrange multiplier), multiplied

by the left-hand side of the constraint equation. (To do this, arrange the equation so that

the right-hand side is zero.) The method also works with more than one constraint; just

add a new Lagrange multiplier for each one. Now find the partial derivatives of 𝐿 with

respect to 𝑥, 𝑦 and 𝜇 , and set them all equal to zero:

𝜕𝐿

= 𝑎 − 2𝜇𝑝𝑥 = 0

𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝐿

= 𝑏 − 2𝜇𝑞𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝐿

= 𝑅 − 𝑝𝑥 2 − 𝑞𝑦 2 = 0

𝜕𝜇

Now solve this three-equation system.

LAGRANGIAN OF A SYSTEM: Let 𝑇 be the kinetic energy and 𝑉 be the potential energy of

a system then, the expression 𝐿 = 𝑇 − 𝑉 is known as Lagrangian of a system.

LAGRANGIAN SUFFICIENCY THEOREM: Suppose we are given a general optimization

problem, P:

constraints).

The Lagrangian is 𝐿(𝑥, 𝜆) = 𝑓(𝑥) − 𝜆 ⊤ (𝑔(𝑥) − 𝑏), with 𝜆 ∇ 𝑅 𝑚 (one component for

each constraint).

Each component of 𝜆 is called a Lagrange multiplier. The following theorem is simple to

prove, and extremely useful in practice. If 𝑥 ∗ and 𝜆∗ exist such that 𝑥 ∗ is feasible for

𝑃 and 𝐿(𝑥 ∗ , 𝜆∗ ) ≤ 𝐿(𝑥, 𝜆∗ ) ∀𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, then 𝑥 ∗ is optimal for 𝑃.

d2 y dy

𝑥 2 + 1−𝑥 + λy = 0,

dx dx

d2 y dy

𝑥 2 + 1−𝑥 + ny = 0

dx dx

As that for which a0 = 1 and call it the Laguerre polynomial of order 𝑛, denote it by

𝑛

𝑛!

𝐿𝑛 𝑥 , = (−1)𝑟 𝑥′

𝑛 − 𝑟 ! (𝑟!)2

𝑟=0

∞ 𝑧𝑛

𝑛=1 𝑎𝑛 1−𝑧 𝑛 , 𝑧 ≠ 1, (1)

and moreover, it converges uniformly on any compact ser contained in 𝑧 < 1 or 𝑧 >

1. If 𝑎𝑛 is divergent, (1) and the power series 𝑎𝑛 𝑧 𝑛 converge or diverge

simultaneously for 𝑧 ≠ 1.

three coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear forces, which keeps an object in static

equilibrium, with the angles directly opposite to the corresponding forces. According to

the theorem,

where 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 are the magnitudes of three coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear

forces, which keep the object in static equilibrium, and 𝛼, 𝛽 and 𝛾 are the angles

directly opposite to the forces 𝐴, 𝐵 and 𝐶 respectively.

LANDAU’S THEOREM: Let 𝐸 = {𝑧 ∶ |𝑧| ≤ 1}. Suppose that 𝑓 is analytic on 𝐸, and that

𝑓 ′ (0) = 1. Then 𝑓(∆) contains a disc of radius 1/24.

LANGUAGE: Let 𝐴 be a finite set. A language over 𝐴 is a subset of 𝐴∗ . A language 𝐿 over 𝐴

is said to be a formal language if there is some finite set of rules or algorithm that will

generate all the words that belong to 𝐿 and no others.

LAPLACE, PIERRE-SIMON: Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749- 1827) was a French astronomer

and mathematician who investigated the motion of the planets of the solar system.

LAPLACE’S FIRST INTEGRAL FOR 𝐏𝐧 (𝐱): If n is a positive integer, then

1 π n

Pn x =π ∫0 x ± x 2 − 1 cos∅ d∅.

1 π d∅

Pn x =π ∫0 n +1 .

x± x 2 −1 cos∅

LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION:

Laplace

Entry Function

Tranformation

unit impulse unit impulse

unit step

slope

parabola

tn

(n is integer)

exponential

time

multiplied

exponential

Asymptotic

exponential

double

exponential

asymptotic

double

exponential

asymptotic

critically

damped

differentiated

critically

damped

sine

cosine

decaying

sine

decaying

cosine

generic

decaying

oscillatory

generic

decaying

oscillatory

(alternate)

Prototype

2nd order

lowpass

step

response

Prototype

2nd order

lowpass

impulse

response

Prototype

2nd order

bandpass

impulse

response

LAPLACIAN: The Laplacian of a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) is:

2

∂2 f ∂2 f ∂2 f

∆ = 2+ 2+ 2

∂x ∂y ∂z

It is the divergence of the gradient of 𝑓 .

LATERAL AREA: The lateral area of a solid is the area of its faces other than its bases.

For example, the lateral area of a pyramid is the total area of the triangles forming the

sides of the pyramid.

LATUS RECTUM: The latus rectum of a parabola is the chord through the focus

perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. The latus rectum of an ellipse is one of the

chords through a focus that is perpendicular to the major axis.

LAURENT’S THEOREM COMPLEX ANALYSIS): Suppose a function 𝑓(𝑧) is analytic in the

closed ring bounded by two concentric 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶′ of centre 𝑎 and radii 𝑅 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑅 ′ , 𝑅 ′ <

𝑅 . If 𝑧 is any point of the annulus, then

∞ ∞

𝑓 𝑧 = 𝑎𝑛 (𝑧 − 𝑎)𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛 (𝑧 − 𝑎)−𝑛

𝑛=0 𝑛=1

Where

1 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡 1 𝑓 𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑎𝑛 = ∫𝐶 , 𝑏𝑛 = ∫ ′

2𝜋𝑖 (𝑡 − 𝑎)𝑛+1 2𝜋𝑖 𝐶 (𝑡 − 𝑎)−𝑛+1

LAW OF AVERAGES: The law of averages is an erroneous generalization of the law of

large numbers, which states that the frequencies of events with the same likelihood of

occurrence even out, given enough trials or instances. The law of averages is usually

mentioned in reference to situations without enough outcomes to bring the law of large

numbers into effect.

A common example of how the law of averages can mislead involves the tossing of a fair

coin (a coin equally likely to come up heads or tails on any given toss). If someone

tosses a fair coin and gets several heads in a row, that person might think that the next

toss is more likely to come up tails than heads in order to "even things out." But the true

probabilities of the two outcomes are still equal for the next coin toss and any coin toss

that might follow. Past results have no effect whatsoever: Each toss is an independent

event. The law of large numbers is often confused with the law of averages, and many

texts use the two terms interchangeably. However, the law of averages, strictly defined,

LAW OF EXCLUDED MIDDLE: One of the two: either a statement is true or it is false.

There's nothing in-between. An axiom of 2-valued logic.

LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS: The law of large numbers states that if a random variable is

observed many times, the average of these observations will tend toward the expected

value (mean) of that random variable. For example, if you roll a die many times and

calculate the average value for all of the rolls, you will find that the average value will

tend to approach 3.5.

LEADER OF A COSET (CODING THEORY): The leader of a coset is defined to be the word

with the smallest hamming weight in the coset.

LEBESGUE'S DOMINATED CONVERGENCE THEOREM: Let {𝑓𝑛 } be a sequence of real-

valued measurable functions on a measure space (𝑆, 𝛴, 𝜇). Suppose that the sequence

converges pointwise to a function 𝑓 and is dominated by some integrable function 𝑔 in

the sense that

for all numbers 𝑛 in the index set of the sequence and all points 𝑥 ∇ 𝑆. Then 𝑓 is

integrable and

projection. Then, for every 𝑓 ∇ 𝑋, the approximation 𝑀(𝑓) has the property

integral

𝑛

𝐿1 (𝑋).

respect to 𝑅. We define 𝑆 to be measurable if, for any 𝐴 ⊆ 𝑅,

𝑚∗ (𝐴) = 𝑚∗ (𝐴 ∩ 𝑆) + 𝑚∗ (𝐴 ∩ 𝑆 ′ )

where 𝑚∗ (𝑆) is the Lebesgue outer measure of 𝑆. If 𝑆 is measurable, then we define the

Lebesgue measure of 𝑆 to be 𝑚(𝑆) = 𝑚∗ (𝑆).

LEBESGUE ON DOMINATED CONVERGENCE: Let (𝑓𝑛 ) be a sequence of µ-summable

functions on 𝑋, and there is 𝜑 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋). such that | 𝑓𝑛 (𝑥) | ≤ 𝜑(𝑥) for all 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋, 𝑛 ∇ ℕ. If

𝑎. 𝑒

𝑓𝑛 𝑓, then 𝑓 ∇ 𝐿1 (𝑋) and for any measurable A: limn→∞ ∫ 𝑓𝑛 𝑑𝜇 = ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇

→

If 𝑔 is measurable and bounded then 𝑓 = 𝜑 𝑔 is µ-summable and for any µ-measurable

set A we have ∫ 𝑓𝑑𝜇 = 𝜑 ∫ 𝑔𝑑𝜇.

vector. Then the matrix product 𝑋𝐴 is defined. The subspaces 𝑆 or 𝑉𝑚 generated by the

row vector 𝑋 belonging to 𝑉𝑚 such that 𝑋𝐴 = 0 is called the row null space of the matrix

𝐴. The dimension 𝑠 of 𝑆 is called the left nullity or row nullity of the matrix 𝐴.

𝜋

𝑇(2𝑚), where 𝑚 is an integer.

22𝑚 −1

d2 y dy

(1 − x 2 ) 2

− 2x + n n + 1 y = 0

dx dx

constant. This equation can also be written as

𝑑 dy

1 − x2 + n n + 1 y = 0.

𝑑𝜇 dx

coordinates is

∂ 𝜕𝑉 1 𝜕 ∂V 1 ∂2 V

𝑟 2 𝜕𝑟 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 ∂θ + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 ∂∅2 = 0 ……….. i

∂r

∂V ∂V ∂U n ∂ 2 V ∂2 U n

So that ∂r = nr n−1 Un , ∂θ = r n , ∂∅2 = r n .

∂θ ∂∅2

∂ 1 𝜕 ∂U n 1 ∂2 U n

𝑛𝑟 𝑛+1 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 r 2 sin 𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 . 𝑟 𝑛 =0

∂r ∂θ ∂∅2

𝑟𝑛 𝜕 ∂U n 𝑟𝑛 ∂2 U n

Or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑟 𝑛 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜃 . 𝑟 𝑛 =0

∂θ ∂∅2

1 𝜕 ∂U n

Or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑈𝑛 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 sin 𝜃 = 0. ………….. ii

∂θ

Supposing 𝑈𝑛 to be independent of ∅.

∂U n ∂y ∂ y ∂μ ∂y

So that = ∂θ = . = − sin θ ∂μ .

∂θ ∂μ ∂θ

1 𝜕 ∂y

n 𝑛 + 1 𝑦 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜃 −sin2 𝜃 ∂μ = 0

1 𝜕 ∂y ∂μ

or n 𝑛 + 1 𝑦 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝜕𝜇 − 1 − μ2 . ∂θ = 0

∂μ

𝜕 ∂y

or − 1 − μ2 + n n + 1 y = 0.

𝜕𝜇 ∂μ

Solution Pn (μ) of Legendre’s equation is the surface spheric harmonic of degree 𝑛, which

is free from ∅.

LEGENDRE FUNCTION OF THE SECOND KIND: We define the Legendre’s function of the

second kind, Qn , such that

n! n + 1 (n + 2) −n−3

Qn x = x −n−1 + ∙x

1 ∙ 3 … (2n + 1) 2 ∙ (2n + 3)

n + 1 n + 2 n + 3 (n + 4) −n−5

+ x

2 ∙ 4 2n + 3 (2n + 5)

or Qn x = (2n+1)! r=0 r! 2n+3 2n+5 … 2n+2r+1 .

Legendre lets 𝑎 and 𝐴 represent positive primes congruent to 1 (mod 4)

and 𝑏 and 𝐵 positive primes congruent to 3 (mod 4), and sets out a table of eight

theorems that together are equivalent to quadratic reciprocity:

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

(where 𝑁 and 𝑐 are relatively prime) will come up so often he will abbreviate them as:

This is now known as the Legendre symbol, and an equivalent definition is used today:

philosopher and political advisor, who was one of the developers of calculus.

LEMMA: A lemma is a theorem that is proved mainly as an aid in proving another

theorem. There is no technical distinction between a lemma and a theorem. A lemma is

a proven statement, typically named a lemma to distinguish it as a truth used as a

stepping stone to a larger result rather than an important statement in and of itself. Of

course, some of the most powerful statements in mathematics are known as lemmas,

including Zorn’s lemma, Bezout’s lemma, Gauss’ lemma, Fatou’s lemma, etc., so one

clearly can’t get too much simply by reading into a proposition’s name.

LEMNISCATES: A lemniscate is a plane curve with a characteristic shape, consisting of

two loops that meet at a central point as shown below. The curve is also known as the

lemniscate of Bernoulli.

In the (x, y) plane, the lemniscate can be described in terms of the following general

equation:

(𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ) 2 = 2𝑎2 (𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 )

where 𝑎 represents the greatest distance between the curve and the origin. There are

two points on the curve that meet this criterion; both of them lie on the x axis. In the

above graph, if each division represents one unit, then 𝑎 = 5.

the symbol for infinity, or for a value that increases without limit.

LIE ALGEBRA: A Lie algebra is a vector space g over R, equipped with a map

[·,·]: 𝑔 × 𝑔 → 𝑔 satisfying the properties

[𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌, 𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑍] + 𝑏[𝑌, 𝑍], [𝑋, 𝑎𝑌 + 𝑏𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑏[𝑋, 𝑍],

[𝑋, 𝑌 ] = −[𝑌, 𝑋],

[[𝑋, 𝑌 ], 𝑍] + [[𝑌, 𝑍], 𝑋] + [[𝑍, 𝑋], 𝑌 ] = 0,

for all 𝑋, 𝑌, 𝑍 ∇ 𝑔 and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑅.

LIE BRACKET: Let 𝑋, 𝑌 ∇ 𝑋(𝑀) be smooth vector fields on 𝑀. The Lie bracket [𝑋, 𝑌 ] is

the linear operator 𝐶 ∞ (Ω) → 𝐶 ∞ (Ω) defined by the equation

[𝑋, 𝑌 ]𝑓 = 𝑋𝑌 𝑓 − 𝑌 𝑋𝑓 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑓 ∇ 𝐶 ∞ (Ω).

The Lie bracket satisfies

[𝑎𝑋 + 𝑏𝑌, 𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑍] + 𝑏[𝑌, 𝑍], [𝑋, 𝑎𝑌 + 𝑏𝑍] = 𝑎[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑏[𝑋, 𝑍],

[𝑋, 𝑌 ] = −[𝑌, 𝑋],

[[𝑋, 𝑌 ], 𝑍] + [[𝑌, 𝑍], 𝑋] + [[𝑍, 𝑋], 𝑌 ] = 0,

[𝑓𝑋, 𝑔𝑌 ] = 𝑓𝑔[𝑋, 𝑌 ] + 𝑓(𝑋𝑔)𝑌 − 𝑔(𝑌 𝑓)𝑋.

for all 𝑋, 𝑌, 𝑍 ∇ 𝑋(𝑀), and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ 𝑅.

LIE GROUPS: Lie groups, named after Sophus Lie, are differentiable manifolds that carry

also the structure of a group which is such that the group operations are defined by

smooth maps. A Euclidean vector space with the group operation of vector addition is

an example of a non-compact Lie group. A simple example of a compact Lie group is the

circle: the group operation is simply rotation. This group, known as 𝑈(1), can be also

characterised as the group of complex numbers of modulus 1 with multiplication as the

group operation. Other examples of Lie groups include special groups of matrices, which

are all subgroups of the general linear group, the group of 𝑛 × 𝑛 matrices with non-zero

determinant. If the matrix entries are real numbers, this will be an 𝑛2 -dimensional

disconnected manifold. The orthogonal groups, the symmetry groups of

the sphere and hyperspheres, are 𝑛(𝑛 − 1)/2 dimensional manifolds, where 𝑛 − 1 is

the dimension of the sphere.

L’HOSPITAL’S RULE: L’ Hospital’s rule tells how to find the limit of the ratio of two

functions in cases where that ratio approaches 0/0 or 𝜘/𝜘. Let

𝑓 𝑥

𝑦=

𝑔 𝑥

𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑓′ 𝑥

lim 𝑦 =

𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑔′ 𝑥

LIKE AND UNLIKE VECTORS: Vectors having the same direction are called like vectors

and those having opposite directions are called unlike vectors.

LIKE TERMS: Two terms said to be like terms if all parts of both terms except for the

numerical coefficients are the same. For example. The terms 23𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 and 5𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 are

like terms. If two like terms are added , they can be combined into one tem. For example

, the sum of two terms above is 28𝑎2 𝑏 3 𝑐 4 .

LIMIT: The limit of a function is the value that the dependent variable approaches as the

independent variable approaches some fixed value. The expression “The limit of 𝑓 𝑥 as

𝑥 approaches 𝑎" is written as

𝑙𝑖𝑚 𝑥→𝑎 𝑓 𝑥

For example:

𝑥−1 𝑥+3

𝑓 𝑥 =

𝑥−1

4.The formal definition of limit is : The limit of 𝑓 𝑥 𝑎𝑠 𝑥 approaches 𝑎 exists and is

equal to 1, if , for any positive number 𝜀 how even small, there exists a positive number

𝛿 such that, if 0 < 𝑥 − 𝑎 < 𝛿. Then 𝑓 𝑥 − 1 < 𝜀.

LIMIT POINT OF A FILTER: Let (𝐸, 𝑇) be a topological space and 𝐹 a filter on 𝐸. We say

that a point 𝑥 ∇ 𝐸 is a limit or limit point of 𝐹 if 𝐹 is finer than the filter 𝐵(𝑥) (the basis

of open neighborhoods), i.e. if every 𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥) contains an 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹. We then say that 𝐹

converges to 𝑥 or has 𝑥 as a limit or that 𝐹 converges or is convergent.

A filter does not necessary converge. For example the natural filter on 𝑁 with the

discrete topology.

A filter may have more than one limit point.

If 𝑥 is a limit point of 𝐹, 𝑥 may belong to some 𝐴 ∇ 𝐹 or may not belong to any

𝐴 ∇ 𝐹.

For example the filter 𝐵(𝑥) consisting of the open neighborhoods of 𝑥 converges

to 𝑥, and 𝑥 belongs to every 𝑋 ∇ 𝐵(𝑥). On the other hand, the set of open

intervals of 𝑅 all having the same left-hand end point 𝑥 is a filter which

converges to 𝑥, but 𝑥 does not belong to any member of the filter.

LINDELÖF'S THEOREM: Let Ω be a half-strip in the complex plane:

constants 𝑀, 𝐴 and 𝐵 such that

and

LINEAR CODE: A linear code with length 𝑛 over 𝐹𝑞 is a vector subspace of 𝐹𝑞𝑛 .

The repetition code 𝐶 = {(𝑥, . . . , 𝑥) | 𝑥 ∇ 𝐹𝑞 } is a linear code.

LINEAR COMBINATION: A vector , r, is said to be a linear combination of the vectors a, b,

c, ……etc. if there exist scalars x, y, z…etc ,such that r= xa+ yb+ zc+……. Vectors of the

form 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 + ⋯ ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑣𝑛 for 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 𝜖 𝐾 are called linear combination of

𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 .

Then 𝛼1 𝑣1 + 𝛼2 𝑣2 = 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 , 3𝛼1 + 5𝛼2 = (0,0) iff 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 = 0 and 3𝛼1 + 5𝛼2 = 0.

Thus we have a pair of simultaneous equations in 𝛼1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛼2 and the only solution is

𝛼1 = 𝛼2 = 0, so 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 are linearly independent. Let V=ℚ2

, 𝑣1 = 1,3 , 𝑣2 = 2,6 here the equations are 𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 = 0

And 3𝛼1 + 6𝛼2 = 0 , and there are non-zero solutions such as 𝛼1 = −2 , 𝛼2 = 1 and

some r , 𝑣𝑟 is a linear combination of 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑟−1 .

LINEAR DEPENDENCE AND INDEPENDENCE: Let V be a vector space over the field K.

The vectors 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝑣𝑛 are said to be linearly dependent if there exist scalars

𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , ⋯ ⋯ , 𝛼𝑛 𝜖 𝐾 not all zero, such that

to x ∇ X 0 , g(x) ≤ 0. Where X 0 is an open set in Rn , and 𝜃: X 0 → R, g: X 0 → Rm are

differentiable at x.

Let

V = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x ,

and let

W = i g i x = 0, and g i is concave at x ,

∆θ x) + z < 0, 𝛻g 𝑤 (x z < 0,

∆g 𝑣 (x)z ≤ 0

has no solution in Rn .

LINE OF BEST FIT: The line of best fit minimizes the sum of the squares of the deviations

between each point and the line.

LINE SEGMENT: A line segment is like a piece of a line. It consists of two endpoints and

all of the points on the straight line between those two points.

written in the form 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 = 0.For example 3𝑥 − 40 = 2 can be written as 3𝑥 − 38 = 0.

38

so this is a linear equation with the solution 𝑥 = .

3

LINEAR FACTOR: A linear factor is a factor that includes only the first power of an

unknown. For example, in the expression 𝑦 = 𝑥 − 3 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 + 4 , 𝑡𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑥 −

3 is a linear factor, but the factor 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 + 4 is a quadratic factor.

LINEAR FUNCTIONAL: A linear functional on a vector space 𝑉 is a linear mapping

𝛼: 𝑉 → ℂ (or 𝛼: 𝑉 → ℝ in the real case), i.e. 𝛼 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏𝑦 = 𝑎𝛼 𝑥 + 𝑏𝛼 𝑦 for all

𝑥, 𝑦 ∇ 𝑉 and 𝑎, 𝑏 ∇ ℂ. In simple words, A functional Φ is said to be linear if

(ii) Φ 𝑎𝑓 + 𝑏𝑔 = 𝑎Φ 𝑓 + 𝑏Φ 𝑔 , for all 𝑓, 𝑔, ∇ 𝐷Φ

Examples:

𝑐1 𝑥1 + ⋯ + 𝑐𝑛 𝑥𝑛 is a linear functional.

1

On 𝐶[0,1] a functional is given by 𝛼(𝑓) = ∫0 𝑓(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡.

On a Hilbert space 𝐻 for any 𝑥 ∇ 𝐻 a functional 𝛼𝑥 is given by 𝛼𝑥 (𝑦) = ⟨ 𝑦, 𝑥 ⟩.

need to choose the optimal sat of values for some variables subject to some constraints.

The goal is to maximize or minimize a function called the objective function. In a linear

programming problem, the objective function and the constraints must all be linear

functions: that is, they cannot involve variables raised to any power (other than 1), and

they cannot involve two variables being multiplied together.

finding the least –cost method for producing a given product , or finding the revenue-

maximizing product mix for a production facility with several capacity limitations.

Maximize 6𝑥 + 8𝑦 subject:

𝑦 ≤ 10

𝑥 + 𝑦 ≤ 15

2𝑥 + 𝑦 ≤ 25

𝑥≥0

𝑦≥0

This problem has two choice variables: 𝑥 and 𝑦 . The objective function is 6𝑥 + 8𝑦, and

there are three constraints (not counting the two no negativity constraints 𝑥 ≥ 0 and

𝑦 ≥ 0. It is customary to rewrite the

constraints so that thy contain equals sign instead of inequality signs. In order to do this

some new variables called slack variables are added. One slack variable is added for

each constraint. Here is how the problem given above looks when three slack variables

𝑠1 , 𝑠2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠3 are included.

𝑦 + 𝑠1 = 10

𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑠2 = 15

2𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑠3 = 25

𝑥 ≥ 0, 𝑦 ≥ 0, 𝑠1 ≥ 0, 𝑠2 ≥ 0, 𝑠3 ≥ 0

Each slack variable represents the excess capacity associated with the corresponding

constraint.

The feasible region consists of all points that satisfy the constraints . A theorem of linear

programming stated that the optimal solution will lie at one of the corner points of the

feasible region. In this case the optimal solution is at the point 𝑥 = 5, 𝑦 = 10.

A linear programming problem with two choice variables can be solved by drawing a

graph of the feasible region, as was done above. I there are more than two variables,

however it is not possible to draw a graph, and he problem must then be solved by an

algebraic procedure, such as the simplex method.

𝑎1 , 𝑎2,……… 𝑎𝑛 is said to be linearly dependent if there exists a system of sealers 𝑥1 , 𝑥2

,…….𝑥𝑛 not all zero such that

𝑥1 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 𝑎𝑛 = 0 .

This 𝜶 set of vectors 𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 is said to be linearly independent if every relation of

the type 𝑥1 𝑎1 + 𝑥2 𝑎2 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑛 𝑎𝑛 = 0 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑎𝑡 𝑥1 = 0, 𝑥2 = 0, … . . 𝑥𝑛 = 0.

LINEARLY INDEPENDENT VECTORS: A set of vectors a, b and c is linearly independent if

it is impossible to find three scalars 𝑚, 𝑛, and 𝑝 (not all zero) such that 𝑚𝑎 + 𝑛𝑏 + 𝑝𝑐 =

0. Two vectors clearly are not linearly independent if they are multiples of each other.

LINEARLY ORDERED: An ordering ≤ (or <) of 𝐴 is called linear or total if any two

elements of 𝐴 are comparable. The pair (𝐴, ≤) is then called a linearly ordered set.

LINEAR MANIFOLD (OR SUBSPACE): A subset of 𝑀 of a linear space is called a linear

manifold (or subspace) if

It contains all the sums of all the vectors contained in it, i.e. if 𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 are in 𝑀

then so is 𝑓 + 𝑔, and

It contains all the scalar multiples of all its vector, i.e. if 𝑓 is in 𝑀 then so is of for

any scalar 𝑎.

Both (i) and (ii) can be combined into a single condition by saying that if

𝑓 and 𝑔 are in 𝑀, then so is 𝑎𝑓 + 𝑏𝑔, for any scalars 𝑎, 𝑏.

mapping 𝑇: 𝑋 → 𝑌 such that 𝑇(𝜆 𝑣 + µ 𝑢) = 𝜆 𝑇(𝑣) + µ 𝑇(𝑢). The kernel of linear

operator 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑇 and image are defined by 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑇 = 𝑥 ∇ 𝑋: 𝑇𝑥 = 0 , Im T = {y ∇ Y: y =

widely used for the optimization (maximization or minimization ) of a function to

obtain the maximum or minimum value according to certain conditions.

(maximum/minimize) a given linear function of variables called the objective function

which is subjected to a certain set of linear equations /inequations called the constraints

or restrictions.

Fourier sine transforms and 𝐹𝑐 𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 are Fourier cosine transforms of

𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 respectively,

Then

𝐹𝑠 𝑎 𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝑎 𝐹𝑠 𝑠 + 𝑏 𝐺𝑠 𝑠

and

𝐹𝑐 𝑎 𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏 𝑔 𝑡 = 𝑎 𝐹𝑐 𝑠 + 𝑏 𝐺𝑐 𝑠

of 𝑓 𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑔 𝑡 respectively,

Then

𝐹 𝑎𝑓 𝑡 + 𝑏𝑔 𝑡 =𝑎𝐹 𝑠 +𝑏𝐺 𝑠

two vectors f, g of 𝑆, a vecot f+g of 𝑆, called the sum of 𝑓 and g, satisfying the following

properties : for any vector 𝑓, 𝑔, of 𝑆,

𝑓 + 𝑔 = 𝑔 + 𝑓, (commutativity)

2. A certain scalar system having been prescribed which is either the complex number

system, or the real number system (the elements of the scalar defined, i.e. to every

scalar a and every vector 𝑓, a vector of called the scalar multiple of 𝑓 by a (occasionally

also denoted 𝑓𝑎) is assigned, satisfying the properties: for any scalars 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐 and any

vector 𝑓, 𝑔, ,

The linear space is called a complex linear space or a real linear space according as the

prescribed scalar system is the complex number system or the real number system.

LINEAR SPAN: Let 𝐴 be a subset (finite or infinite) of a normed space 𝑉. The linear span

of 𝐴, write 𝐿(𝐴), is the intersection of all linear subspaces of 𝑉 containing 𝐴, i.e. the

smallest subspace containing 𝐴, equivalently the set of all finite linear combination of

elements of 𝐴. The closed linear span of 𝐴 write 𝐶𝐿(𝐴) is the intersection of all closed

linear subspaces of 𝑉 containing 𝐴, i.e. the smallest closed subspace containing 𝐴.

For an infinite A spaces L(A) and CL(A) could be different.

If H is an inner product space and sequences 𝑥𝑛 and 𝑦𝑛 have limits x and y

correspondingly. Then ⟨ 𝑥𝑛 , 𝑦𝑛 ⟩ → ⟨ 𝑥, 𝑦 ⟩.

to study special classes of objects. Often these are functions special classes of certain

properties or structures. For example, continuous functions preserves which points are

close to which other points. In linear algebra, the functions, which preserve the vector

space structures, are called linear transformations.

Let U and V be two vector spaces over the field K. A linear transformation or linear map

T from U to V is a function T: U→ 𝑉 𝑠𝑢𝑐 𝑡𝑎𝑡

(ii) T(𝛼𝑢) = 𝛼𝑇 𝑢 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝛼 𝜖 𝐾, 𝑢 𝜖 𝑈

The above two conditions for linearity are equivalent to a single condition

(i) 𝑇(0𝑣) = 0𝑣

(ii) 𝑇(−𝑢) = −𝑇(𝑢) for all u 𝜖 𝑈

Examples: Many familiar geometrical transformations, such as projections, rotations,

reflections and magnifications are linear maps. Note, however, that a nontrivial

translation is not a linear map, because it does not satisfy 𝑇(0𝑣) = 0𝑣.

map. This type of mapping is known as projection.

the vector obtained by rotating 𝑣 through an angle 𝜃 anticlockwise about the origin.It is

easy to see that 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑢2 = 𝑇 𝑢1 + 𝑇 𝑢2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 T(𝛼𝑢) = 𝛼𝑇 𝑢 and so T is a linear

map.By considering the unit vectors, we have 𝑇(1,0) = (𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃, 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇(0,1) =

(−𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃, 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃) and hence

3. Let us take U = V = ℝ2 . Let 𝑇(𝑣) be the vector obtained by resulting from reflecting

𝜃

𝑣 through a line through the origin that

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