Sie sind auf Seite 1von 70

VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |1

VIP-PLANOPT 18
USER’S MANUAL

❖❖❖

1386 Pritchett Industrial Drive, Austell, GA 30168, USA


www.planopt.com

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |2

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 7
1.1 MOTIVATION ............................................................................................................... 7
1.2 FILLING THE GAP ........................................................................................................ 8
1.3 UNMATCHED FUNCTIONALITY .................................................................................... 8
OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM ................................................................................................... 9
2 TERMINOLOGY .............................................................................................................. 11
2.1 MODULE (DEPARTMENT) .......................................................................................... 11
2.2 MODULE ASPECT RATIO ........................................................................................... 12
2.3 MODULE AREA ......................................................................................................... 12
2.4 MODULE TYPE .......................................................................................................... 12
2.5 HARD (RIGID) MODULE ............................................................................................ 12
2.6 SOFT (FLEXIBLE) MODULE........................................................................................ 12
2.7 MODULE MOBILITY .................................................................................................. 12
2.8 FORBIDDEN AREA MODULE (FAM) .......................................................................... 13
2.9 MODULE ORIENTATION............................................................................................. 13
2.10 MODULE PADDING .............................................................................................. 13
2.11 PICK-UP & DROP-OFF POINTS ............................................................................. 14
2.12 BOUNDARY SHAPE .............................................................................................. 14
2.13 ENCLOSURE ........................................................................................................ 15
2.14 FLOW MATRIX .................................................................................................... 15
2.15 UNIT COST MATRIX ............................................................................................ 16
2.16 COST MATRIX ..................................................................................................... 16
3 DISTANCE NORMS......................................................................................................... 17
3.1 RECTILINEAR NORM ................................................................................................. 17
3.2 EUCLIDEAN NORM .................................................................................................... 17
3.3 SQUARED EUCLIDEAN NORM .................................................................................... 17
4 COST FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................... 18
4.1 COST FUNCTION F1 ................................................................................................... 18
4.2 COST FUNCTION F2 ................................................................................................... 18
4.3 COST FUNCTION F3 ................................................................................................... 19
4.4 COST FUNCTION F4 ................................................................................................... 19
5 PRIMARY INPUT ............................................................................................................ 20
5.1 MAIN MENU .............................................................................................................. 21
5.1.1 Menu Icon: New .......................................................................................... 21
5.1.2 Menu Icon: Open ........................................................................................ 21
5.1.3 Menu Icon: Save.......................................................................................... 21
5.1.4 Menu Icon: Save As..................................................................................... 22
5.1.5 Menu Icon: Import Module Data ................................................................ 22
5.2 MODULE MENU......................................................................................................... 23
5.2.1 Module Preferences .................................................................................... 24
5.2.2 Generate Aspect Ratios ............................................................................... 25
5.3 CONSTRAINTS MENU ................................................................................................ 26
5.4 OPTIMIZATION MENU ............................................................................................... 27

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |3

5.5 IMPORT/EXPORT MENU............................................................................................. 28


5.5.1 Import.......................................................................................................... 28
5.5.2 Export.......................................................................................................... 30
5.6 LICENSE MENU .......................................................................................................... 32
5.7 BENCHMARKS MENU ................................................................................................ 33
5.8 MODULE DISPLAY CONTROLS................................................................................... 34
5.8.1 Resizing Graphically ................................................................................... 34
5.8.2 Zoom ........................................................................................................... 35
5.8.3 Delete Module ............................................................................................. 35
5.8.4 Create Module............................................................................................. 35
5.8.5 Grid/Snap Size............................................................................................. 35
5.9 MODULE DATA TABLE .............................................................................................. 36
5.10 COST AND FLOW MATRICES INPUT........................................................................... 38
5.11 OPTIMIZATION CONTROL ......................................................................................... 39
5.11.1 Cost Function ....................................................................................... 39
5.11.2 Distance Norm ..................................................................................... 39
5.11.3 Optimization Seed ................................................................................ 40
5.11.4 Optimize ............................................................................................... 40
5.11.5 Analyze ................................................................................................. 40
5.12 OPTIMIZATION CONSTRAINTS .................................................................................. 41
5.12.1 Boundary Constraint ............................................................................ 41
5.12.2 Enclosure Aspect Ratio Constraint ...................................................... 42
5.12.3 Distance Bounds .................................................................................. 42
5.12.4 Module Anchor .................................................................................... 42
5.12.5 Module PD Points ................................................................................ 42
5.12.6 Module Padding ................................................................................... 42
6 OTHER INPUT ................................................................................................................. 43
6.1 “NEW MODULE PROPERTIES” WINDOW (MODULE PREFERENCES) ............................ 44
6.1.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 44
6.1.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 44
6.2 “DISCRETE ASPECT RATIO INPUT” WINDOW ............................................................ 45
6.2.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 45
6.2.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 45
6.3 “ANCHOR” WINDOW ................................................................................................. 46
6.3.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 46
6.3.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 46
6.4 “PICK-UP & DROP-OFF POINTS” WINDOW ................................................................. 48
6.4.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 48
6.4.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 48
6.5 MODULE PADDING WINDOW .................................................................................... 50
6.5.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 50
6.5.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 50
6.6 MATRIX INPUT WINDOW........................................................................................... 52
6.6.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 52
6.6.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 52
6.7 BOUNDARY SHAPE WINDOW .................................................................................... 55
6.7.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 55
6.7.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 55
6.8 “ENCLOSURE ASPECT RATIO” WINDOW .................................................................... 58
6.8.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 58
6.8.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 58
6.9 “DISTANCE BOUNDS” WINDOW ................................................................................. 59
6.9.1 How to Open ............................................................................................... 59
6.9.2 Notes ........................................................................................................... 59
6.10 OPTIMAL LAYOUT ANALYSIS WINDOW ................................................................... 60

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |4

6.10.1 How to Open ........................................................................................ 60


6.10.2 Notes .................................................................................................... 61
7 BENCHMARK PROBLEMS ........................................................................................... 64
7.1 BENCHMARK DATA FILES ......................................................................................... 65
7.2 BENCHMARK PROBLEMS CHARACTERISTICS............................................................. 66
7.2.1 PLANOPT Benchmark L3 ........................................................................... 66
7.2.2 PLANOPT Benchmark L4B......................................................................... 66
7.2.3 PLANOPT Benchmark L8 ........................................................................... 66
7.2.4 PLANOPT Benchmark L8FX ...................................................................... 67
7.2.5 PLANOPT Benchmark L11 ......................................................................... 67
7.2.6 PLANOPT Benchmark L12PD .................................................................... 67
7.2.7 PLANOPT Benchmark L20 ......................................................................... 67
7.2.8 PLANOPT Benchmark L28 ......................................................................... 68
7.2.9 PLANOPT Benchmark L50 ......................................................................... 68
7.2.10 PLANOPT Benchmark L75 ........................................................................ 68
7.2.11 PLANOPT Benchmark L100 ...................................................................... 68
7.2.12 PLANOPT Benchmark L125A ..................................................................... 69
7.2.13 PLANOPT Benchmark L125B ..................................................................... 69
7.3 MINIMUM COST & RUN TIME ................................................................................... 70

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |5

COPYRIGHT
 Copyright, 1996-2018, by Engineering Optimization Software.

Worldwide rights of ownership and distribution of the computer


programs PLANOPT™, VIP-PLANOPT™, VIP-PLANOPT™ 2006,
VIP-PLANOPT 10 and VIP-PLANOPT 18 rest with Engineering
Optimization Software, 1386 Pritchett Industrial Drive, Austell, GA
30168, USA.

Computer programs PLANOPT™, VIP-PLANOPT™, VIP-


PLANOPT™ 2006, VIP-PLANOPT 10 and VIP-PLANOPT 18 all the
associated documentation are proprietary products. Unlicensed use of
the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form or by
any means, without prior written permission from Engineering
Optimization Software is explicitly prohibited.
Note: All trademarks used in the manual are the property of their respective owners.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |6

DISCLAIMER
Considerable expenses, time and effort have gone into the development
of PLANOPT™ and VIP-PLANOPT™ computer programs. In using the
program, however, the user accepts and understands that no warranty
is expressed or implied by the developers or the distributors on the
accuracy or the reliability of the program. The authors and the
distributors hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss or
damage resulting from the installation or use of VIP-PLANOPT™ 18.

Engineering Optimization Software makes no representations or


warranties with respect to the content hereof and specifically disclaim
any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular
purpose. The user must independently verify the results obtained by this
program.

Engineering Optimization Software also reserves the right to revise this


publication and make changes from time to time in the content hereof
without any obligation of Engineering Optimization Software to notify
any person or organization of such revision or change.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |7

1 INTRODUCTION
PLANOPT (floor-PLAN layout OPTimization) represents a general-
purpose layout optimization algorithm. VIP-PLANOPT (Visually
Interfaced Package of PLANOPT) is the name of a powerful software
package based on PLANOPT algorithm. It has been developed to
produce high-quality near-optimal or optimal layouts for small,
medium and large-sized problems involving “modules” (departments)
of UNEQUAL-AREA. The term module used in this manual implies a
functional unit like departments, machines, rooms, cells or spaces.

The objective in Layout Optimization is to determine the placement of


a given number of modules (departments) at their optimal locations in
the Euclidean plane without any overlaps such that a given cost
function involving the flow between modules is minimized. It is a
challenging area of research in various fields of engineering. In the field
of industrial engineering the problem is usually referred to as “Facility
Layout” problem. Several other terms like “Plant Layout”, “Machine
Layout”, “Floor-plan Layout”, etc. refer basically to the same
optimization problem.

1.1 Motivation
Facility layout has profound effects on the organizational productivity
and profitability. It is estimated that about 20-50% of operating costs in
manufacturing relates to materials handling, a factor highly correlated
to the quality of facility layout design. Superior facility layouts reduce
materials handling costs, help streamline all operations, and reduce
energy bills. It is estimated that billions of dollars are spent annually on
material handling. Consequently, layout design remains an important
issue for industrial facility planners with significant potential for
research and automation.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |8

1.2 Filling the Gap


With the majority of the available layout design software packages
merely being CAD-based documentation or drawing tools, VIP-
PLANOPT filled the gap as a robust hybrid proprietary optimization
algorithm. The advent of this pioneering package, fifteen years ago,
accompanied with a candid and uncontested claim: No other layout
optimization software produces better-cost optimal layouts for any
known set of benchmark problems.

Since its first release, VIP-PLANOPT has a record of UNBEATEN


PERFORMANCE with a money back guarantee. Advancing on its
superiority for more expansive applications in industrial environment,
PLANOPT has emerged as an excellent and affordable Teaching &
Research aid.

With the release of VIP-PLANOPT 2006, its guaranteed superiority on


other algorithms for low-cost layouts was reinforced. It yielded better
layouts for most problems as compared to earlier versions. An
improved optimization algorithm with double precision arithmetic
made the software more stable and almost crash-proof. Moreover, the
dependence of layout on a starting seed had been reduced. A host of
new capabilities, introduced in VIP-PLANOPT 2006, increased its
productivity for industrial applications.

VIP-PLANOPT 18 is a more refined version developed for Windows


.Net platform addressing both the 64-bit and 32-bit PC’s. It has a more
user-friendly and responsive interface and provides spread-sheet like
data input with enhanced graphics with better data import and export
options. Its layout analysis capability is now much improved.

1.3 Unmatched Functionality


VIP-PLANOPT has the capability of optimizing the layouts
considering the user-specified pick-up and drop-off points. It also
allows the user to specify any number of modules (departments) to be
“anchored” at fixed locations. VIP-PLANOPT produces optimal
layouts keeping these anchored modules strictly at the user-specified
locations. User can also specify the shape and size of the boundary that
must enclose the modules in the optimized layout. This makes the

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual Page |9

program especially useful for consultants and layout designers


interested in optimizing the layout designs for their projects.

Some of its functionality is based on new concepts like “Module


Padding”, “Forbidden Area Module”, “No-flow Modules”, etc. which
will be explained in this manual.

Optimization Algorithm
PLANOPT optimization algorithm is a research product. It is a robust
hybrid proprietary optimization algorithm. It came into existence in
1995 when two University Professors working together in the areas of
VLSI Layout design and Multi-disciplinary Facility Layout
optimization developed a marvelous technique that could solve the
Unequal Area QAP better than all published algorithms. They realized
that the results were amazing. No researcher in the field could imagine
(at that time) that it is at all possible to solve such a hard optimization
problem better than all GA’s, SA's and the conventional analytical or
heuristic techniques. They decided not to publish the algorithm but to
present the algorithm anonymously in the form of a software package
as a challenge to other researchers. This is how PLANOPT software
package came into existence. Since then, PLANOPT optimization
algorithm has been a challenge to the researchers in the field. It
becomes obvious from the review of published literature that
researchers mostly shied away from comparing their techniques with
PLANOPT using randomly generated benchmarks. In fact, published
optimization algorithms don't even come close to PLANOPT
algorithm.

The optimization algorithm of VIP-PLANOPT 18 is now improved and


advanced. It is based on a hybrid smart growth technique. It generates
high quality solutions for large scale problems with minimal
computational cost. This is due to the algorithm's embedded
optimization philosophy of natural constructive growth while
identifying, for each module (department), the feasible design space
with the highest probability of local optima. The design space is then
mapped onto a straight line. A pseudo-exhaustive search is then carried
out for the optimum solution at each stage of a multi-stage optimization
process. Double precision arithmetic controls the stability of the
algorithm. Ensuring optimality of layouts at the early stages of

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 10

optimization reduce the dependence on the user-specified starting seed


and penalty functions are used for obtaining optimal or near-optimal
layouts within user-specified boundary of simple rectangular shape or
complex composite shapes.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 11

2 TERMINOLOGY
Since the terminology used for layout optimization differs in various
applications, an effort has been made to adopt a generalized
terminology that could be applicable to most layout optimization
problems. It is briefly described in the following.

2.1 Module (Department)


PLANOPT uses the term “Module” instead of “department” for the
rectangular building block representing a functional unit like
departments, machines, rooms, cells or spaces. Fig.1 shows a module
and the notations used.

The dimension of a module along x-axis is referred to as “Length” and


is denoted by Li. Its dimension along y-axis is referred to as “Width”
and is denoted by Wi. The subscript “i” refers to module identification
number (module ID).

Fig. 2.1: Parameters of a module (department)


Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018
VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 12

2.2 Module Aspect Ratio


The aspect ratio of a module is defined as the ratio of its dimension
along y-axis to its dimension along x-axis. For a module i the aspect
ratio Ri is given by:

Ri = Wi  Li (1)

2.3 Module Area


For a module i its area Ai is given by:

Ai = Wi * Li (2)

2.4 Module Type


PLANOPT has two basic types of modules. The user may specify a
module type as “Hard” “Soft”.

2.5 Hard (Rigid) Module


A module, with fixed dimensions i.e. fixed aspect ratio, is called “Hard”
or “rigid” module. The dimensions (length and width) of such modules
are user-specified. The dimensions of Hard modules are not modified
during optimization.

2.6 Soft (Flexible) Module


A module with variable aspect ratio but of constant area is called “Soft”
or “flexible” module. The user specifies the area of a soft module with
the upper and bounds on its aspect ratio. The user may also specify a
set of permissible values of aspect ratios. The aspect ratios of all such
modules are varied during optimization.

2.7 Module Mobility


A module may movable or anchored. Optimal location of movable
modules will be determined by PLANOPT. Anchored modules are not
moved during optimization and are kept at their user-specified positions
in the optimal layout.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 13

2.8 Forbidden Area Module (FAM)


PLANOPT has introduced a new concept of “Forbidden Area Module”
or FAM. It is used to model obstructions or areas that are not functional
units of a facility. An example is a lake or hill inside the boundary of a
facility that does not contribute to any processing.

2.9 Module Orientation


The orientation of module may be fixed or may be allowed to vary so it
may flip by rotating 90 degrees during optimization. PLANOPT finds
the optimal orientation of all variable orientation modules to minimize
the cost.

Fig. 2.2: Variable orientation module

2.10 Module Padding


Many applications of layout optimization require the modules to be
separated from each other with empty space around them for reasons
related to environment, safety, logistics etc. PLANOPT has introduced
this concept allowing the user to specify padding of empty space around
any number of modules. Module padding implies additional constraints
for optimization. Optimal layouts are always produced with empty
spaces around the modules exactly as specified by the user. The
padding may be same or different on all four sides of a module. Only
hard modules may be padded.

Fig. 2.3: Module padding

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 14

2.11 Pick-up & Drop-off Points


PLANOPT allows the user to specify pick-up and drop-off points
anywhere inside or on the boundary of the modules (departments).
Relative coordinates with respect to the lower left corner of the module
are used to specify the pick-up and drop-off points.

For example, if the pick-up and drop-off points for a module


(department) have to be as shown in Fig. 2, the user will specify the
pick-up point coordinates as xP = 3, yP = 1 or (3,1) measured from the
lower left corner of the module. Similarly the coordinates of the drop-
off point will be specified as xD = 0 , yD = 2 or (0,2).

Fig. 2.4: Coordinates of pick-up & drop-off points

2.12 Boundary Shape


Restricting the layout to be within a boundary of given shape is required
in some applications. PLANOPT allows the user to impose this
constraint. The user may specify any boundary shape. The only
restriction is that the boundary shape is made of orthogonal line
segments. All the user has to do is to point-and-click to specify the line
segments.

Optimizing inside a given boundary shape, however, is one of the most


difficult issues in layout optimization and makes the hard problem even
harder. It the toughest constraint to be imposed and results in degrading
the quality of optimal layouts. The user must understand that trying to
get an optimal layout in a tight space with little room for alternative
Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018
VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 15

placement of modules will mostly fail or will turn into a bin-packing


problem rather than layout optimization. Therefore, it is advised that
this option be used only when really needed and the boundary area be
specified as big as possible.

2.13 Enclosure
The bounding rectangle enclosing all the modules in the optimized
layout is termed as “enclosure”. Its dimensions along x and y axes are
denoted by LB and WB respectively. Its aspect ratio, given by WB  LB,
is denoted by RB and its area, given by WB  LB, is denoted by AB.

Fig. 2.5: Bounding rectangle enclosing the modules in a layout

2.14 Flow Matrix


The flow matrix gives the “flow” of material, equipment or personnel
between all pairs of modules (departments). An element of this matrix,
denoted by fij, is the flow between any two modules i and j. It is
expressed in number of unit loads moved per unit time between the two
modules. A unit load is defined as the unit to be moved or handled at
one time. In some cases, the unit load is one item of production; in other
situations, the unit load is several cartons, each containing numerous
items of production. The unit load includes the container, carrier, or

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 16

support that will be used to move materials. PLANOPT allows the flow
matrix to be either symmetric or non-symmetric.

In some applications, this matrix is also referred to as the “connectivity


matrix”.

2.15 Unit Cost Matrix


The matrix representing the cost of transporting a “unit load” (as
defined above) per unit distance between all pairs of modules
(departments) is called “unit cost matrix”. An element of this matrix,
denoted by uij, is defined as the cost of transporting a unit load of
material per unit distance from module i to module j.

In some applications, this matrix is referred to as the “wire-weight”


matrix. Its individual elements are then referred to as “wire-weights” or
simply “weights”.

2.16 Cost Matrix


An element of this matrix, denoted by ij, represents the total cost of
flow per unit distance between any two modules i and j. In other words,
ij = fij * uij. PLANOPT allows the cost matrix to be either symmetric
or non-symmetric. PLANOPT gives the user the option of specifying
either directly the values of ij or instead the values of fij and uij
separately.

In effect, the cost matrix implies the same as the “activity relationship
matrix” based on the closeness ratings as given in the activity
relationship charts.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 17

3 DISTANCE
NORMS
PLANOPT has the option of the following three norms for the distance
dij between the centroids of any two modules (departments) i and j:

3.1 Rectilinear Norm


It is also called Manhattan distance norm. The distance dij between two
points using this norm is the sum of rectilinear distances along x and y
axes.
dij = | x − x | + | y − y | (3)
i j i j

3.2 Euclidean Norm


The distance dij between two points, using this norm, is the shortest
distance made by a straight line drawn between the two points.

dij = (( xi − x j )2 + ( yi − y j )2 )1/ 2 (4)

3.3 Squared Euclidean Norm


The distance dij between two points, using this norm, is the square of
the Euclidean norm distance.

dij = ( xi − x j )2 + ( yi − y j )2 (5)

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 18

4 COST
FUNCTIONS
Layout optimization requires minimization of an objective function
usually referred to as “cost” or “cost function”. Its definition may vary
from one application to another. Since PLANOPT is a general-purpose
layout optimization program, a cost function definition has been
adopted that suits most of the applications. Options for symmetric as
well as non-symmetric flow matrices and composite cost functions
have been provided. The cost function definition for a problem of n
modules has four different forms as given below.

4.1 Cost Function F1


The cost function F1 has the following form:

n−1 n
F1 =   f ij uij dij (6-a)
i =1 j =i +1
or,
n−1 n
F1 =   d (6-b)
i =1 j =i +1 ij ij
The function F1 is applicable only when the cost (relationship) matrix
is symmetric.

4.2 Cost Function F2


The cost function F2 has the following form:
n n
F2 =  f u d (7-a)
i =1 j =1 ij ij ij
or,

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 19

n n
F2 =   ij dij (7-b)
i =1 j =1

The function F2 may be used for both cases: symmetric as well as non-
symmetric cost (relationship) matrix. Non-symmetric cost matrix is
common in facilities/plant layout design.
Note: For symmetric cost matrix F2 = 2*F1

4.3 Cost Function F3


The composite cost function F3 has the following form:

n −1 n
F3 =   f ij uij dij +  AB (8-a)
i =1 j = i + 1

or,
n −1 n
F3 =    ij dij +  AB (8-b)
i =1 j = i + 1

Here AB denotes the area of the bounding rectangle and  is the user-
specified weight on this area.

Note: The function F3 can be used only for symmetric cost


(relationship) matrix. For non-symmetric cost (relationship) matrix use
the function F4 as defined below.

4.4 Cost Function F4


The composite cost function F4 has the following form:

n n
F4 =   f ij uij dij +  AB (9-a)
i =1 j = 1

or,
n n
F4 =   ij dij +  AB (9-b)
i =1 j = 1

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 20

5 PRIMARY INPUT
VIP-PLANOPT has a powerful visual interface with tips guiding the
user as the mouse pointer is moved. Most users learn to use the
program without any manual just by trying VIP-PLANOPT on simple
benchmark problems. Despite the efforts to make VIP-PLANOPT a
self-learning tool supported by this manual, users may have questions
while modeling a real-world problem. Technical support is available
to all users of VIP-PLANOPT. They are encouraged to ask for
assistance whenever they have any such questions.

This chapter describes the primary input required to model a problem


using the main input window of VIP-PLANOPT. The main input
window of VIP-PLANOPT appears as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1: Main input window of VIP-PLANOPT 18

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 21

5.1 Main Menu


The symbolic/icon menu bar of VIP-PLANOPT is shown in Fig. 5.2.
Table 5.1 gives a summary of commands that can be accessed through
this menu.

Fig. 5.2: Menu Icons of VIP-PLANOPT 18

Table 5.1: Menu Icons


S/N Menu icon Function
1 New Start a new project
2 Open Open a project file
3 Save Save project file
4 Save As Save project data with a different
file name
5 Import Module Import data for modules from user’s
data file
6 Start Optimization Starts the optimization process

7 Analyze the optimized Modifies the optimal layout for


layout comparing the cost

5.1.1 Menu Icon: New


When New is clicked, all the data presently in the memory will be
erased and initialized for a new problem.

5.1.2 Menu Icon: Open


When Open is clicked, a window will open to browse to a VIP-
PLANOPT data file *.VIP.

5.1.3 Menu Icon: Save


When Save is clicked, data for the project is saved to a file *.VIP. If the
data is saved first time, a browser window will appear for the user to
specify the name and the location of the file. If it is not the first time
save then the data is saved without any prompt.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 22

5.1.4 Menu Icon: Save As


When Save As is clicked, a browser window will appear for the user to
specify the name and the location of the file.

5.1.5 Menu Icon: Import Module Data


Clicking “Import Module Data” opens the window as shown in Fig.
5.3. It imports data for modules from user’s data files.

Fig. 5.3: Import Module Data window

The shortcut menu items; ‘Import modules, Start Optimization and


Analyze Optimized Output’, are discussed in detail in the coming
sections.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 23

5.2 Module Menu


Module menu has six items as shown in Fig. 5.4. The functionality of
the commands is given in Table 5.2

Fig. 5.4: Module menu items

Table 5.2: Module menu items


S/N Menu item Function
1 Preferences Opens a window to reset module
preferences to be used as default
when a new module is created
2 Generate AR (Aspect Opens a window to generate discrete
Ratios) aspect ratio sets for soft modules
3 Anchor Opens a window to place “Anchored”
modules at user-specified positions
4 PD Points Opens a window to specify pick-up
and drop-off points for modules
5 Padding Opens a window to specify the
padding (empty space) around
modules
6 Matrices Opens a window to input and
calculate the cost of flow in the cost
and flow matrix input table
Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018
VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 24

5.2.1 Module Preferences


VIP-PLANOPT has preset “module preferences” as defaults for
module properties input. The user may reset them to suit a given
problem using the command “Preferences” in the module menu. When
this command is clicked the “Module Preferences” window opens as
shown in Fig. 5.5.

Fig. 5.5: Module Preferences window

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 25

5.2.2 Generate Aspect Ratios


For problems with “soft” modules, the user may choose to specify one
or more sets of discrete aspect ratios. “Generate ARs” command opens
the input window for this purpose as shown in Fig. 5.6. Using this input
window, the user may generate any number of sets of aspect ratios.

Fig. 5.6: Discrete Aspect Ratio Input window

The other four module menu items (Anchor, PD Points, Padding,


Matrices) listed above are discussed in detail in the next chapter.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 26

5.3 Constraints Menu

This menu is shown in Fig. 5.7. The user may access the same
commands using the command buttons in the Optimization Constraints
frame on the right side of the main window.

Fig. 5.7: Constraints menu

The windows that open when these items are clicked are described in
the next chapter. The functions of these commands are listed in Table
5.3.

Table 5.3: Constraints menu commands


S/N Commands Function
1 Boundary Constraints Specify a boundary to enclose the
optimal layout
2 Enclosure Aspect Specify enclosing area aspect ratio
Ratios constraint
3 Distance Bounds Specify upper bounds on inter-
module distances

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 27

5.4 Optimization Menu


This menu has commands related to optimization as shown in Fig. 5.8.
This menu duplicates the functionality of some of the controls available
on the top left of the main input window.

Fig. 5.8: Optimization menu

There are four optimization parameters namely the Cost Type, Area
weight, Distance and Optimization Seed, required for optimization,
which are described in the coming sections.

The fifth menu item is “Optimize”. Clicking it will start the


optimization process.

The sixth menu item on this menu is “Analyze”. It opens a window that
displays the optimal layout and lets the user to modify the layout for
comparing the cost with the optimized layout.

The windows that open when these commands are clicked are described
in the next chapter.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 28

5.5 Import/Export Menu


Import/Export menu has five items as shown in Fig. 5.9. The
functionality of the commands is given in Table 5.4.

Fig. 5.9: Import/Export Menu Items

Table 5.4: Import/Export Menu Commands


S/N Commands Function
1 Import Imports data for modules from user’s
data file
2 Export Export project data to text files and
AutoCAD script file
3 Print Module Data Print project data
4 Display Layout Data Displays the Layout data with details in
notepad.
5 Print Layout Data Print layout data

5.5.1 Import
Import, when clicked, opens a window called “VIP-PLANOPT Import
Modules” as shown in Fig. 5.10. and lets the user import any data in a
text file with or without serial number.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 29

Fig. 5.10: Import Module Data window

The data must be in CSV format i.e. the items on each line of input data
are separated by commas, tabs or spaces. VIP-PLANOPT detects if the
module data on a given line is for a hard module or soft module. For
example, if the data lines are numbered with the Module IDs, the input
data file will have data as follows:

1, 8, 8
2, 4, 12
3, 12, 4

VIP-PLANOPT will detect the modules as Hard. If the option of


Modules not numbered is used, the following data will be required for
the same problem:

8, 8
4, 12
12, 4

In case of soft modules, the data with numbered lines will be as follows:

1, 64, 0.5, 2
2, 48, 0.4, 3
3, 48, 0.2, 2
Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018
VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 30

VIP-PLANOPT will detect from the above that the modules are soft
and the first term on each line is the module area, and the second and
third terms are the lower and upper bounds on the aspect ratios. In case,
the user chooses the option of Modules not numbered, the data will be
as follows:

64, 0.5, 2
48, 0.4, 3
48, 0.2, 2

The user may mix the hard and soft modules. An example with module
1 and 3 Hard mixed with Module 2 which is Soft is as follows for the
option of Modules numbered on each data line.

1, 8, 8
2, 48, 0.4, 3
3, 12, 4

5.5.2 Export
Export, when clicked, opens a window called “VIP-PLANOPT Data
Export” and lets the user select data for export. The user may export the
module dimensions or the matrices in CSV format. This menu item also
lets the user export the optimal layout to AutoCAD.

Export window, as it appears when the user selects the matrix export
option, is shown in Fig. 5.11. The user may choose the matrix for
export. If the user chooses the AutoCAD Script File option, the user
may get a script file for plotting the layout without the module ID or
with the module ID. A proper text height parameter for AutoCAD is
required.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 31

Fig. 5.11: Data Export window of VIP-PLANOPT

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 32

5.6 License menu


The “License” menu is shown in Fig. 5.12. The menu helps the user in
license authorization.

Fig. 5.12: License menu

The first item on this menu is “Copyright”. It displays the copyright


information and a disclaimer.

The next item is “License”. When clicked, it gives the license


information, showing the licensee’s name, license type, license ID, date
of issue and date of expiry.

The third item on this menu is “Authorize”. It lets you install the license
on your system so that optimization is enabled for all problems.

The last item on this menu is “PC Identification”. This will generate a
data file for the profile of your PC which is required for obtaining a
single PC license.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 33

5.7 Benchmarks Menu


This menu gives the option of “Select Benchmark” which upon
clicking, displays a list of built-in benchmark problems as shown in
Fig. 5.13. Clicking a menu item on this menu opens the project file for
the particular benchmark problem. Data will be displayed.
Optimization results may be viewed by clicking the ‘Analyze the
Optimized Layout’ icon on the top left corner of the screen.

Fig. 5.13: Benchmarks menu

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 34

5.8 Module Display Controls


The “Module Display Controls” are shown in Fig. 5.14.

Fig. 5.14: Module Display Controls

The Module Display Controls allows the user to select a module to


display and edit by using the up ( ) and down ( ) arrows. A
module may also be selected by clicking the module ID in the Module
Data Table. The module on display is called “current module”.

The user may adjust grid/snap size and may zoom in and out. The user
can modify the properties of a Module by typing in the modified data
in the Module Data Table located under the Display Control.

5.8.1 Resizing Graphically


A hard module on display can be resized graphically. Move the mouse
pointer to boundary of module. Sizing icon with up and down arrows
or right and left arrows will appear. Click and drag to make it to the
required size.

Fig. 5.15. Resizing a module graphically

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 35

5.8.2 Zoom
“Zoom In” command-button ( ) shows the module magnified. In
cases when a module appears very small, the user might require to
zoom in to edit it graphically.

“Zoom Out” command-button ( ) zooms out the module. It is


needed when the user resizes the module to make it bigger and as a
result the module is only partly visible in the graphics area.

“Zoom All” command-button ( ) refreshes the graphic display and


fits the module inside the graphic area. It is needed when the user
resizes the module by dragging the mouse in the graphic area.

5.8.3 Delete Module


The user may delete the current module on display by clicking the
“Delete Module” command-button ( )

5.8.4 Create Module

The “Create Module” command-button ( ) when clicked will


create a new module. The new module will be appended to the list. By
default, each new module is created as a hard-movable module of fixed
orientation.

5.8.5 Grid/Snap Size

The user may enter a value in the text box ( ) for a


proper grid size. The snap size will be set the same as the grid size. The
value entered here determines the accuracy of the graphical input while
dragging the mouse to resize the module. This does not affect the
optimization accuracy. Optimization always takes place in continuous
design space.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 36

5.9 Module Data Table

Fig. 5.16: Module Data Table

The “Module Data Table” displays the data related to all modules and
enables the user to modify the properties of any module. The user will
click a cell to select and modify it. Note the following:

1. “Type”, “Mobility” and “Orientation” properties of a module may be


modified by clicking the cells in the respective columns.

2. “Area” is automatically calculated for Hard modules from the user-


specified Length and Width. User can modify the area for “Soft”
modules.

3. “Length” (along x-axis) and “Width” (dimension along y-axis) can


be modified by the user for Hard modules. For Soft modules, the user
specifies the Area and the optimization algorithm determines the
dimensions.

4. X-LLC and Y-LLC are the x and y co-ordinates for the Lower Left
Corner of the module in the layout. User will specify them only for
“Anchored” modules using the Anchor input window that opens when
the user clicks the “Anchor” button. For all “Movable” modules, the X-
LLC and Y-LLC are determined by the optimization algorithm of VIP-
PLANOPT.

5. AR-LB is the lower bound on the aspect ratio of a module and AR-
UB is the upper bound. For Hard modules, AR-LB = AR-UB and
cannot be modified by the user. For Soft modules, user may modify the
bounds specified by VIP-PLANOPT.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 37

6. AR-Set is a set ID that the user may specify for Soft modules. The
set will contain discrete values of the aspect ratios as required by the
user. The input window for specifying sets of discrete aspect ratios can
be opened by clicking the “Generate AR” icon in the Module Menu.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 38

5.10 Cost and Flow Matrices Input


VIP-PLANOPT gives the user two ways to input the Flow and Cost
matrices. Flow and Cost matrices may be input element by element on
this main input window using the Cost/Flow Matrix Input Table shown
in Fig 5.17. Alternatively, the user may click “Show Full Matrix”
button on the main Input Window or click the ‘Matrices’ tab in the
Module frame. A window for complete matrix input will appear with
options to import from a pre-edited text file.

Fig. 5.17: Cost/Flow Matrix Input Table

Using the above table on the main window of VIP-PLANOPT 18, you
may input the flow from a module to other modules. Move the mouse
pointer to the cell in the above table that you want to modify, double-
click it and then modify the value. You may enter the values for “Flow”
and “Unit Cost”. “Cost of Flow” is calculated by multiplying the Flow
with the Unit Cost.

To view the complete matrix and to use other options like non-
symmetric matrix and import of the matrices from your own data file,
click “To display full matrix, click here…”.

In the context of flow and cost matrices, the current module (the module
on display) will be called the “Source” module. Initially the
“Destination” module ID will be set to be the same as the “Source”
module. In this situation, the user may not enter any values for flow and
the Flow and Cost both are set to zero.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 39

5.11 Optimization Control


The “Optimization Control” frame has four optimization parameters
namely the Cost Type, Area weight, Distance and Optimization Seed,
and two commands namely Optimize and Analyze, all of which are
described below.

5.11.1 Cost Function

Fig. 5.18: Cost function types

The user may choose between a “Simple” and “Composite” cost


function. A simple cost function does not include the area of the
enclosure. It is only a function of cost of flow and the inter-module
distances. A composite function has an additional term for the
enclosure area with a user-specified weight on the area. When the user
chooses a composite cost function, the “Area Weight” data entry box is
enabled for the user to enter the required weight.

5.11.2 Distance Norm

Fig. 5.19: Distance norm options

The Distance Norm control gives the user the option to choose any of
the three distance norms; Rectilinear, Euclidean, and Squared
Euclidean.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 40

5.11.3 Optimization Seed

Fig. 5.20: Optimization seed input

VIP-PLANOPT requires a seed to start the optimization process.


However, the algorithm has built in features that reduce the dependency
of the optimized layouts on the seed. The user may specify a seed value
starting from 0 to 2*N, where N is the number of modules in the
problem.

5.11.4 Optimize
“Optimize” control, when clicked, starts optimization. The data file
must have been saved before starting optimization. Also, all modules
must have flow assigned to them. No user interaction is required during
the optimization and in this sense the optimization is fully automated.
A plot of the optimized layout with important data will be displayed as
soon as the optimization process comes to an end.

A shortcut for this command also exists in the main menu icon bar.

5.11.5 Analyze
“Analyze” control, when clicked, displays the optimal layout in a
separate window and lets the user move around any module by
dragging the mouse pointer to see how the cost varies when a module
is moved from its optimal location.

A shortcut for this command also exists in the main menu icon bar.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 41

5.12 Optimization Constraints


There are three types of optimization constraints that can be applied
from the “Optimization Constraints” frame shown in Fig. 5.21. Some
Module Attributes such as Anchor, PD Points and Padding as shown in
Fig. 5.22, also act as other constraints. They all are described here
briefly.

Fig. 5.21: Optimization Constraints Input

Fig. 5.22: Other constraints

5.12.1 Boundary Constraint


“Boundary” constraint forces the optimal layout to remain within a
user-specified boundary. This control when clicked opens a window
where the user can click to specify the points that make the enclosing
boundary. The boundary can be a simple rectangle or a composite
shape made of orthogonal line segments.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 42

5.12.2 Enclosure Aspect Ratio Constraint


Enclosure constraint is used to specify a preferred aspect ratio for the
rectangle enclosing the optimized layout.

5.12.3 Distance Bounds


This constraint allows the user to specify upper bounds on distances
between various pairs of modules in the optimized layout.

5.12.4 Module Anchor


“Anchored” modules represent a constraint on optimization. The user
may tag any number of modules as “Anchored” by clicking the
“mobility” column in the Module Data table.

5.12.5 Module PD Points


“PD Points” imposes another constraint by specifying the pick-up and
drop-off points for a module other than the centroids.

5.12.6 Module Padding


“Module Padding” imposes empty area around a module so two
modules may not come closer than a specified distance. This control
when clicked opens a window. The user may apply the padding to any
module simply by click and drag operations of the mouse pointer.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 43

6 OTHER INPUT
The Main Input Window of VIP-PLANOPT is supported by several
other input windows. The basic and primary input with no special
properties or constraints may be completed on the Main Input window.
Whenever the user wants to associate special properties to the modules
like anchoring, pick-up and drop-off points, discrete aspect ratio sets,
module padding, boundary shape and other constraints, the input will
be done through of one of these supporting windows. These supporting
data input windows are described in this chapter.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 44

6.1 “New Module Properties” window (Module


Preferences)

Fig. 6.1: “Module Preferences” window

6.1.1 How to Open


Click the “ ” button in the “Module” frame on
the main window.

6.1.2 Notes
1) Select type of module that you want as default and then input
the dimensions or area and aspect ratios.
2) You may set the default as “Same as” an existing module.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 45

6.2 “Discrete Aspect Ratio Input” Window

Fig. 6.2: “Discrete Aspect Ratio” Input window

6.2.1 How to Open


From “Module” frame select “ ”.

6.2.2 Notes
3) If you have discrete aspect ratio values at regular intervals,
enter the Minimum Value, Maximum Value and Increment in
the data entry boxes on the right side of the window. Click
“Generate Set x” button.
4) If the aspect ratio set you want to input has values that have no
regular increment, type in the values in the column for the
particular set.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 46

6.3 “Anchor” window

Fig. 6.3a: “Anchor” window

6.3.1 How to Open


Click “ ” button in the “Module” frame. This
window can open only when at least one of the modules is
anchored.

Fig. 6.3b: Anchored Module

6.3.2 Notes
1) On the right side of this window, a list is displayed. This list
shows all modules that have been tagged as “Anchored”. The

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 47

status of the module whether it is placed or unplaced is also


indicated. The coordinates of the LLC are displayed in the list
if the module has been placed by the user.
2) To place an unplaced module, select it from the list shown on
the top right and then click at the desired location in the
graphics area or type in the x and y coordinates of the lower
left corner of the module.
3) Once a module is placed, it can be moved. Click inside a
module and drag to any desired location.
4) The “Forbidden Area Module” (FAM) status is shown as “No”
in the last column of the list. Click it to change it to “Yes”. All
flow from a FAM is suppressed and the module is considered
just an obstruction in the layout. It does not contribute directly
to the cost but occupies a fixed position in the layout blocking
other modules from occupying the area.
5) If the user chooses to modify the dimensions, enter data in the
list shown on the right side. The module will automatically take
the modified dimensions.
6) On the bottom right, this window has buttons to zoom in, zoom
out and zoom all. The “Zoom in” button ( ) when clicked,
zooms in around the selected module after bringing it in the
center of the display. The “Zoom out” button ( ) zooms out
such that the selected module is in the center of the display.
The “Zoom all” button ( ) when clicked shows the placed
modules with wide area around to let the user place other
modules.
7) The user may specify any grid size. When a placed module is
dragged and placed with “Snap to grid” checked, its lower left
corner will snap to a grid point.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 48

6.4 “Pick-up & Drop-off Points” window

Fig. 6.4: “Pick-up & Drop-off Points” window

6.4.1 How to Open

Click “ ” button in the “Module” frame on


the Main window.

6.4.2 Notes
1) The pick-up point symbol is green color triangle pointing
upward and the drop-off symbol is red color triangle pointing
downward.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 49

2) Pick-up and drop-off points for a module may be selected from


the data entry panel (on the right).
3) Pick-up and drop-off points may also be input graphically
using the mouse pointer.
4) Move the mouse pointer to green or red triangle. Click inside
the triangle and then drag it to any desired location.
5) Set a proper snap size. The pick-up and drop-off points always
snap to the nearest grid point.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 50

6.5 Module Padding Window

Fig. 6.5a: Module Padding Window

6.5.1 How to Open


Click button in the “Module” frame on the Main
window.

6.5.2 Notes
1. Padding of empty space can be applied only to hard
modules.
2. Padding size may be different on all 4 sides of a module.
3. To apply padding to a given module, select it from the drop-
down list in the “Module Selection Control” frame on the
left side of the window. The selected module will be
displayed. Move the mouse pointer towards the boundary
of the module until the mouse pointer changes to a sizing
icon. Click and drag to pad the module.
4. Alternatively, enter the values for padding for one or more
sides in the data entry panel on the right and then click the
button labeled “Apply”.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 51

Fig. 6.5b: Applying same padding to all modules

5. Click the check box “Pad all modules the same way” if the
same padding has to be applied to all modules.
6. Set a grid size to suit the problem. During graphic click and
drag input, the padding snaps to the nearest grid point.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 52

6.6 Matrix Input Window

Fig. 6.6: Matrix Cost and Flow Input Window

6.6.1 How to Open


Click “To Display Full Matrix Click Here” button on the main
input window (HOME) or from ‘Module’ frame, select “
”.

6.6.2 Notes
1) The matrix is displayed is a data grid. Click any cell to modify
the value.
2) By default, “Auto Cell Increment” option is on. With this
option turned on, cell value is incremented each time the user
clicks (left-click) inside a cell. Right-click causes the cell value
to decrement.
3) User may set the increment for “Auto Cell Increment” option.
4) If the data entry involves numbers that cannot be generated by
incrementing, turn the option off. With this option turned off,
click inside a cell to select the cell. Cursor will appear inside
the cell. Select the existing value inside the cell by dragging
the mouse pointer over it and then type in any desired value.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 53

5) Choose matrix type and symmetry or non-symmetry before


starting the input.
6) All elements of the unit cost matrix are pre-set to 1 and all
elements of flow and cost matrices are pre-set to 0. If you have
entered any values for cost or flow on the main input window,
these non-zero values will appear here.
7) Any change made to Flow matrix automatically updates the
Cost matrix and similarly the Flow matrix is updated
automatically when the Cost matrix is modified. Any
modification to Unit-cost matrix automatically updates the
Cost matrix. All the updating is based on: ij = fij * uij

8) The user may choose to import the matrices in various different


forms from a text data file. Input data file must be a text file
and must have an extension VPM. The following options are
available:

a) Full Matrix Option: Using this option the user may


import complete matrix from an existing data file. Data
input is row by row. The diagonal element (which is
always zero) is required. The numbers in the input file
may be separated by commas or by blank spaces. A row
of matrix may be split in more than one line.

b) Upper Triangle Option: Using this option the user


may import the upper triangle of the matrix from an
existing data file. This option is used only for symmetric
matrices. Data input is row by row without the diagonal
element. Last row of the upper triangle containing only
one zero element must not be included. The numbers in
the input file may be separated by commas or by blank
spaces

c) Lower Triangle Option: Using this option the user


may import the lower triangle of the matrix from an
existing data file. This option is used only for symmetric
matrices. First row of the lower triangle containing only
one zero element must not be included. Data is input
row by row starting from the element in the first

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 54

column. The numbers may be separated by commas or


by blank spaces

d) Element by Element Option: Using this option the


user may import the non-zero elements of the matrix in
any order from an existing data file. Each data element
must be on a separate line. The data required for each
element are: Row Number, Column Number, and Value
(of the element of the matrix).

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 55

6.7 Boundary Shape Window

Fig. 6.7: Boundary Shape window

6.7.1 How to Open


Click “ ” button in “Constraints” frame of the
Main Input window.

6.7.2 Notes
1) The first thing to do on this window is to select type of shape
from the combo box on the bottom right side of the window.
There are two options: “Rectangular Boundary” and
“Composite Boundary”.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 56

Fig. 6.7b: Specifying Rectangular Boundary

2) When “Rectangular Boundary” is selected, enter the required


values for the coordinates of LLC and the dimensions of the
rectangle and the rectangle will be shown drawn in the graphics
area.
3) When “Composite Boundary” is selected, the data entry cells
for rectangle are disabled. Click at the desired points in the
graphics area to create the required shape. Points snap to the
grid so the grid spacing must be set to a proper value to suit the
problem. As the points are drawn, orthogonal lines join each
point to the previous point. Once all the required points to
define the boundary are drawn, click the first point to close the
boundary.
4) Only non-intersecting orthogonal line segments may be used
to define a boundary.
5) Click “Delete Last Point” button “ ” on the tool
strip under the boundary dimensions. It will erase the previous
point. If the boundary was closed the deletion of the point
erases two previous line segments.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 57

6) Total module area and the area enclosed by the boundary are
displayed in the tool strip at the bottom of the graphics area.

7) If there are Anchored modules that have already been placed


by the user, the anchored modules are shown highlighted on
the screen to help user create a boundary that keeps the
Anchored modules inside it.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 58

6.8 “Enclosure Aspect Ratio” window

Fig. 6.8: “Enclosure Aspect Ratio” window

6.8.1 How to Open


Click “ ” button in the “Constraints”
frame of the Main input window.

6.8.2 Notes
1) Type in the desired value for the enclosure aspect ratio. Like
all other constraints, VIP-PLANOPT attempts to satisfy the
constraints while minimizing the cost. This constraint is not
necessarily exactly satisfied in all cases.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 59

6.9 “Distance Bounds” window

Fig. 6.9: “Distance Bounds” window

6.9.1 How to Open


Click “ ” button in “Constraints” frame of the
Main input window.

6.9.2 Notes
1) Upper bounds on distances may be imposed on any pair of
modules. Select Module I from the list of modules that appears
when the down arrow is clicked. Select Module J in a similar
way. Enter the desired value of the upper bound on the distance
between the two modules in the data entry cell under the label
“Upper Bound”. Click “Add/Replace” button.
2) The upper bounds may be modified for any of the constraints
added to the list. To modify a given constraint, select it from
the list. It will appear in blue color and the data will be copied
to the data entry cells above. Modify the values as required and
then click “Add/Replace” button. The constraint will be
updated.
3) To delete a constraint select it from the list then click the
“Delete selected” button.
Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018
VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 60

6.10 Optimal Layout Analysis Window

Fig. 6.10: Optimal Layout Analysis window

6.10.1 How to Open


There are three ways to open this window:

a) Click “ ” shortcut icon on


the icon bar at the top left of the Main Input window.

b) Click the “Optimization” frame on the menu bar then select “


” from the drop-down menu.
c) Click anywhere on the graphic display of the optimal layout on
the Main input window that shows immediately after
optimization is completed.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 61

6.10.2 Notes
1) This window can only open when the optimized layout file
exists from a previous optimization of the same problem. If
the problem has not been optimized or if the plot data file has
been deleted or modified then this window will not open.
2) The main purpose of this window is to analyze the optimal
layout and compare it with user-modified layouts or other
imported layouts.
3) The user may move any module by clicking inside it and then
by dragging the mouse pointer to any desired location. This
operation results in a modified layout with a modified value of
the cost and other parameters. The user may compare the two
and evaluate the optimality of the layout generated by VIP-
PLANOPT. Any anchored modules may not be moved.
4) After a module is moved by the user from its optimized
location, the button will appear. This button when
clicked will restore the optimized layout.
5) Any user-modified layout must be free from any overlaps
between modules. If the user moves a module and relocates it
at a position that causes overlap then it is returned to its
previous position.
6) The cursor strip above the graphics area displays the
coordinates of the mouse pointer as the user moves it in the
graphics area.

Fig. 6.10a: Cursor strip above the graphics area

7) A tool bar at the right side of the graphics area has several
other options for the user to control the display.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 62

Fig. 6.10b: Tool Bar next to the graphics area

8) User has option to snap to grid. When this option is chosen, the
module moved by the user will snap according to snap option
selected in the combo box on the left of the tool strip.

Fig. 6.10c: Snap to grid options on the tool bar.

8) Since it is difficult and time consuming to move around a large


number of modules to obtain a desired layout, an option to
import a layout for the problem is available on this window.
The user must have a text file in CSV format (Comma
Separated Values) created for this purpose. When the “
” button is clicked another window will appear that
will have the options for import as show in the Fig 6.10d.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 63

Fig. 6.10d: Layout import options

9) User may move around the modules on this window and


construct a layout to evaluate it. The user may save the layout
data for the user-constructed layout by clicking the button “
”. The layout data i.e. the coordinates of the lower left
corners will be saved in a text file in CSV format.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 64

7 BENCHMARK
PROBLEMS
Benchmark problems with the number of modules (departments)
ranging from small to large and cost matrices of varying sparseness
and randomness are required for a realistic evaluation of a layout
optimization program. Such a set of completely documented
benchmark problems involving unequal-area modules (departments)
does not exist in the published literature. There are several problems
that have been used as test problems in the published literature but
complete data for their layout is not given so the claimed cost for the
layout cannot be verified. There are some other problems whose
layouts have been shown in the published work but when the cost of
the layout is calculated from the layout shown in the paper, it does not
match the claimed cost obtained for that layout.

For this reason, a set of 13 benchmark problems, used for evaluating


the performance of the PLANOPT program, has been integrated with
the software package. These problems may be used for comparison
with other layout optimization programs.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 65

7.1 Benchmark Data Files


The data files for the benchmark problems are integrated with the
software and become available to the user on installation of VIP-
PLANOPT. Table 7.1 gives a list of benchmark data files.

Table 7.1: Benchmark Data Files


S/N Benchmark Modules / Input File
Name Departments
1 L3 3 L003.VIP
2 L4B 5 L004B.VIP
3 L8 8 L008.VIP
4 L8FX 8 L008FX.VIP
5 L011 11 L011-KEA91-11.VIP
6 L12PD 12 L012PD.VIP
7 L20 20 L020.VIP
8 L28 28 L028.VIP
9 L50 50 L050.VIP
10 L75 75 L075.VIP
11 L100 100 L100.VIP
12 L125A 125 L125A.VIP
13 L125B 125 L125B.VIP

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 66

7.2 Benchmark Problems Characteristics


The characteristics of the benchmark problems are briefly described in
the following:

7.2.1 PLANOPT Benchmark L3


This problem of only three modules (departments) has been
selected as a benchmark problem because its global optimum
solution is known. It also serves as a good test problem for the
accuracy of the program. The cost matrix is symmetric and fully
populated with each module having a functional relationship with
the other two modules.

7.2.2 PLANOPT Benchmark L4B


This problem of only 4 modules (departments) has been selected
as a benchmark problem. It has been taken from the famous book
on Facilities Planning [Tompkins et al, Facilities Planning, 3rd
Ed., John Wiley Inc., NY, 2002. (Problem 6.7)] Since there are
only four modules to be placed in a specified rectangular boundary
of the same area as the total area of the modules, the number of
feasible solutions is very small. Its global optimum solution can
be found by exhaustive enumeration. It also serves as a good test
problem for the accuracy of the program. The cost matrix is non-
symmetric. All modules are functionally connected to each other.
There is only one-way flow between modules 2 and 3.

7.2.3 PLANOPT Benchmark L8


This problem has been taken from the Ref. [Imam, M. H. & Mir,
M., “Nonlinear programming approach to automated topology
optimization”, Computer-Aided Design, 21(2), 107-115, 1989].
At the time, research on PLANOPT software development was
started, this was one of the very few published problems used for
layout optimization with complete data given in the paper. This
problem of 8 Hard modules (departments) of unequal areas has all
dimensions and cost matrix elements as integer valued numbers
ranging between 1 and 6. The cost matrix is symmetric and
moderately sparse indicating that there are several pairs of
modules with no flow between them.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 67

7.2.4 PLANOPT Benchmark L8FX


All data for this benchmark is the same as for PLANOPT
Benchmark 3 (L8) except that 3 of the modules (departments)
have been anchored.

7.2.5 PLANOPT Benchmark L11


This eleven-module (department) problem was first introduced by
Imam and Mir in 1989 [“Nonlinear programming approach to
automated topology optimization”. CAD Computer Aided Design
21, no. 2 (1989): 107-115.]. All the data concerning module
dimensions and the flow matrix were given and the optimal layout
that has a cost of 2813. VIP-PLANOPT 10 obtains a layout with a
cost of 2731.4.

7.2.6 PLANOPT Benchmark L12PD


This problem of 12 modules (departments) has been taken from
the Ref. [Welgama & Gibson, “A construction algorithm for the
machine layout problem with fixed pick-up and drop-off points”,
Int. J Prod Res., 31(11), 2575-2590, 1993]. All the 12 modules are
hard modules with specified pick-up and drop-off points. All the
modules in this problem are allowed to flip.

7.2.7 PLANOPT Benchmark L20


This problem has been taken from the Ref. [Imam, M. H., Mir, M.,
“Automated layout of facilities of unequal area”, Computers Ind.
Engg, 24(3), 355-366 (1993)]. The paper reports complete data
and optimal layouts for this problem. The data for this problem of
20 unequal area modules (departments) consist of only integer
values between 1 and 3 for the dimensions of the modules. The
cost matrix is symmetric and sparse. There are a number of pairs
of modules with no flow between them. The non-zero elements of
the cost matrix are integers between 1 and 5. This problem has
been used as a test problem in some other publications.

The best published result for this problem has a cost of 1264
whereas VIP-PLANOPT produces the optimal layout with a cost
of 1157 only.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 68

7.2.8 PLANOPT Benchmark L28


This problem has been taken from the Ref. [Mir, M. & Imam, M.
H., “Topology optimization of arbitrary sized blocks using a
bivariate formulation”, Computer-Aided Design, 24(10), 556-564,
1992]. At the time PLANOPT development work started. This
was another of the very few published problems in the area of
facility layout optimization of unequal area departments. For this
problem complete data were given in the paper. This was a
randomly generated problem as reported by the authors. It is a
medium size unequal area layout optimization problem. The
dimensions of the modules (departments) are all real numbers
between 2.0 and 4.0. The cost matrix has quite a large number of
zeroes with non-zero values ranging between 1 and 4.

7.2.9 PLANOPT Benchmark L50


This is a problem of 50 modules randomly generated as a
PLANOPT benchmark problem. A problem of 50 or more
modules (departments) was not presented in the literature on
layout optimization until the first release of PLANOPT. The
dimensions of the modules are decimal numbers between 1.0000
and 6.0000 with five significant digits. The elements of the cost
matrix are all integers between 1 and 10. There are no zeroes in
the cost matrix indicating that each module is functionally
connected to all other modules.

7.2.10 PLANOPT Benchmark L75


This is a randomly generated problem of 75 modules
(departments). The problem has modules with both fixed and
variable aspect ratios. The elements of the cost matrix are all
integers between 1 and 5. As compared to L50 the cost matrix of
this problem is quite sparse.

7.2.11 PLANOPT Benchmark L100


This is a randomly generated large size problem of 100 modules
(departments). The dimensions of the module are decimal
numbers between 1.0000 and 6.0000 with five significant digits.
The cost matrix is symmetric and its elements are integers between

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 69

1 and 10 such that each module is functionally connected to all


other modules.

7.2.12 PLANOPT Benchmark L125A


The cost matrix for this problem is non-symmetric. Its elements
are randomly generated integers between 1 and 5. The cost matrix
is sparse. The problem has both hard and soft modules. The
dimension of the hard modules and the areas of the soft modules
and bounds on their aspect ratios are randomly generated real
numbers.

7.2.13 PLANOPT Benchmark L125B


This problem of 125 modules (departments) is different from
L125A in three respects: a) the cost matrix is symmetric, b) the
cost matrix is not sparse and c) it consists of hard modules only.
Elements of the cost matrix are randomly generated integers
between 1 and 10.

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018


VIP-PLANOPT 18 User’s Manual P a g e | 70

7.3 Minimum Cost & Run Time


Table 7.2, as shown below, gives a summary of the results for the
benchmark problems. The run-times are given for comparison with
other algorithms. These run-times are for Surface Pro 4 i7. The actual
run-times depend upon the system configuration and the available
resources at the time the program is executing and therefore two
consecutive runs of the same problem on the same PC may require
different CPU time.

Table 7.2: Benchmark Problems Computer Run Times


Problem Cost Distance Seed Minimum Computer Run
Function Norm Cost Time
Achieved (Seconds)

L3 F1 Rectilinear 1 270.0 0.02

L4B F2 Rectilinear 0 105100 0.04

L8 F1 Square Euc. 6 692.5 0.05

L8FX F1 Square Euc. 7 763.5 0.05

L11 F1 Rectilinear 1 1268 0.06

L12PD F2 Rectilinear 20 5384.4 0.13

L20 F1 Rectilinear 7 1157.0 0.15

L28 F1 Square Euc. 9 6447.2 0.31


L50 F1 Euclidean 12 78224.7 1.81

L75 F1 Rectilinear 26 34396.4 5.51

L100 F1 Rectilinear 96 538193.1 7.11

L125A F2 Rectilinear 36 288774.6 34

L125B F1 Rectilinear 183 184450.7 18

Engineering Optimization Software ❖❖❖ Sept 28, 2018