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Submitted by:

Ventura, NurShaira
Jahari, Fatima Khyra
Usman, Yousra
Silva, Jamie Luvelle

-Process in which cells make proteins.

-Consist of 2 processes; Transcription and Translation.
-Transcription- Occurs in Nucleus, uses DNA as a template
strand to make RNA.
-Translation- Occurs in Cytoplasm, reads genetic code in
mRNA and makes a protein.


• Deoxyribonucleic acid - a molecule composed of two
chains that coil around each other to form a double helix
carrying genetic instructions for the development,
functioning, growth and reproduction of all known
organisms and many viruses.

• Ribonucleic Acid - a nucleic acid present in all living cells.

Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying
instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of
proteins. It is a single helix strand.
Unlocking of Terms
Genes- is a segment of a DNA strand that contains the base

Genomes- is all of the genetic material (the total DNA)

contained in the chromosomes of an organism.

Nucleotides- basic structural unit of nucleic acids. Bases in RNA

are Uracil, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine.

hnRNA- heterogeneous nuclear RNA

snRNA- smaller nuclear RNA

mRNA- messenger RNA.

• Transcription is the process by which DNA directs the
synthesis of mRNA molecules that carry the coded
information needed for protein synthesis.
1.Initiation is the beginning of transcription. It occurs when
the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a region of a gene
called the promoter. This signals the DNA to unwind so the
enzyme can ‘‘read’’ the bases in one of the DNA strands.
The enzyme is now ready to make a strand of mRNA with a
complementary sequence of bases.
• Elongation is the addition of nucleotides to the mRNA
strand. RNA polymerase reads the DNA template strand
and builds the mRNA molecule, using complementary
base pairs. During this process, an adenine (A) in the DNA
binds to an uracil (U) in the RNA.
• Termination is the ending of transcription, and occurs when
RNA polymerase crosses a stop (termination) sequence in
the gene. The hnRNA strand is complete, and it detaches
from DNA.

• After Termination, a pre-RNA (hnRNA) was formed. That will

undergo Splicing.
Post-Transcription (Splicing)

(pre-RNA) hnRNA mRNA

• The process of removing introns and reconnecting exons in

pre-RNA in order to form messenger RNA (mRNA).

• The splicing of pre-RNAs is conducted by complexes of

proteins and RNA molecules called Spliceosomes.

Exons and Introns

• Exons- is a sequence of nucleic acids that are represented
in the mRNA molecule. It is a part of a gene that will
encode a part of the final mature RNA.

• Introns- is a sequence of nucleotides within the gene but

are removed from the sequence before a final mRNA
molecule is made. It is a non codingsections of a gene.
• The mRNA will now exit the Nucleus via Nuclear pore and
will be transferred to Cytoplasm wherein translation process
Steps in